PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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© 2014-2018 University of Helsinki

"Durch zweier Zeugen Mund wird alle Wahrheit kund" — August Fick
(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
Contact PIE Lexicon Project

PIE

Oss. ā·rāzu-
(vb.) ‘errichten’
(KEWA 2:425)
(Oss. ārāzun [inf.])
1. PIE *o·reɦɑgi̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·reɦgi̯u-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·reɦgi̯u-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *o·reɦj́u-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. o·reɦj́u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·reɦj́u-
4. a·reɦj́u-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *a·rej́u-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. a·rej́u-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *a·rezu-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
6. a·rezu-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *a·razu-
7. a·razu-
*u → w
Orthographic change of *u into w
Ru›w → *a·razw-
8. a·razw-
*a → '
Orthographic change of *a into '
Ra›' → Oss. '·r'zw-
Latv. ã·lava-
(f.) ‘nicht trächtige/milchende Kuh’
(LiEtWb. 516)
1. PIE *hɑē·Σ
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *hɑā·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑā·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hā·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hā·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Latv. ā·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
TochB. ayā·ṣa-
(a.gen.) ‘prtng to bone’
(DTochB. 45-6)
(TochB. ayāṣṣe)
1. PIE *hɑoi̯ēɑh·si̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *hɑoi̯āɑh·si̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑoi̯āɑh·si̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hoi̯āh·si̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hoi̯āh·si̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hai̯āh·si̯a-
4. hai̯āh·si̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ai̯ā·si̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ai̯ā·si̯a-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
Rsi̯›ṣ → *ai̯ā·ṣa-
6. ai̯ā·ṣa-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. ayā·ṣa-
SCr. iz
(prep.G) ‘aus, von’
(REW 1:473)
(ALiEtWb. I:19)
1. PIE *ɦɑ́igi
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *ɦíigi
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. ɦíigi
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦíij́
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦíij́
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *íij́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. íij́
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́j́
5. ī́j́
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *ī́z
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
6. ī́z
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → SCr. íz
SCr. iza
(prep.G) ‘hinter, nach’
(REW 1:473)
(ALiEtWb. I:19)
1. PIE *ɦɑ́igiōɑɦd
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *ɦíigiōɑɦd
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. ɦíigiōɑɦd
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦíigiōɦd
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦíigiōɦd
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦíij́ōɦd
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. ɦíij́ōɦd
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ɦíij́āɦd
5. ɦíij́āɦd
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *íij́ād
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. íij́ād
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́j́ād
7. ī́j́ād
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *ī́zād
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
8. ī́zād
*-d → Ø
Loss of root-final -d
R=d›=0 → *ī́zā
9. ī́zā
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *ī́za
10. ī́za
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → SCr. íza
CLu. ḫini·[...
(?.) ‘‹here if ‘Wasser[-x?; uncertain›’
(DLL. 45)
(CLu. ḫe-en-ni-x)
1. PIE *hɑini-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hini-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hini-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫini-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Cymr. llys-
(m.f.) ‘cour, palais, forum’
1. PIE *hɑlisso
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hlisso
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hlisso
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lisso
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. lisso
*-o → -Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R=o›=0 → *liss
4. liss
R=ss›=s → *lis
5. lis
*l- → ll-
Gemination of root-initial *l-
Rl=›ll= → Cymr. llis
OIr. līach-
(a.) ‘elend, unglücklich’
(DIL. 433)
1. PIE *hɑleiku̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hleiku̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hleiku̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *leiku̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. leiku̯o-
* ku/u̯ → q
Emergence of labiovelar q
RkU›q → *leiqo-
4. leiqo-
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → *lēqo-
5. lēqo-
*q → k
Delabialization of labiovelar *q
Rq›k → *lēko-
6. lēko-
VkV → VkhV
Lenition of voiceless stop *k
Rk›kh → *lēkho-
7. lēkho-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OIr. lēcho-
Latv. at·ãl-
(m.) ‘(junges) Gras, Öhmd, Grummet’
(LiEtWb. 22)
1. PIE *Π·hɑehɑelo
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *Π·hɑahɑalo
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. Π·hɑahɑalo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·hahalo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·hahalo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·aalo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·aalo
*aa → ā
Contraction of aa into ā
Raa›ā → *Π·ālo
5. Π·ālo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·āla
6. Π·āla
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Latv. Π·āl
Lyd. afari-
(sb.) ‘Verkaufserklärung’
(LydWb. 52)
1. PIE *hɑepori-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑapori-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapori-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hapori-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hapori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hapari-
4. hapari-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *apari-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. apari-
PIE *p → b
Orthographic change of *p into b
Rp›b → Lyd. abari-
LAv. āfǝnt-
(a.) ‘wasserreich’
(AIWb. 330)
(LAv. āfǝntō, āfǝntǝm)
1. PIE *hɑēpɑhont-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *hɑāpɑhont-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑāpɑhont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hāphont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hāphont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hāphant-
4. hāphant-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *āphant-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. āphant-
*ph → f
Affricativization of *ph
Rph›f → LAv. āfant-
RV. urv·árā-
(f.) ‘Fruchtfeld, Saatland’
(WbRV. 265)
(KEWA 1:110, RV. urvárā [sgN])
1. PIE *uru̯·hɑérēɑh-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *uru̯·hɑárēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. uru̯·hɑárēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *uru̯·hɑárāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. uru̯·hɑárāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uru̯·hárāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. uru̯·hárāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *uru̯·árā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. uru̯·árā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *urv·árā-
6. urv·árā-
urv → ūrv
Lengthening of *u before rv
Rurv›ūrv → RV. ūrv·árā-
OIr. airm-
(f.) ‘place’
(DIL. 29)
OIr. airm [sgN], armand [plN]
1. PIE *hɑerìmo
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑarìmo
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑarìmo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *harìmo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. harìmo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *arìmo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. arìmo
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → OIr. arìm
Serb. ori-
(vb.refl.) ‘widerhallen’
(IEW 781)
(Serb. oriti se)
1. PIE *hɑeriɑ́h
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑariɑ́h
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑariɑ́h
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *hɑariíh
(SPIE §3.2.6)
3. hɑariíh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hariíh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. hariíh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *arií
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. arií
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *arī́
6. arī́
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *orī́
7. orī́
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → Serb. orí
HLu. ḫarza-
(69vb.) ‘in Besitz nehmen?: get into one's possession?’
(CHLu. 11.2.6)
(HLu. (“*69”)ha+ra/i-za [ipv2sg] 11.2.6, 11.6.39, 11.6.46)
1. PIE *hɑerki̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑarki̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑarki̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *harki̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. harki̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *harćo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. harćo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *harća-
5. harća-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *harsa-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
6. harsa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *harša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. harša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. ḫarša-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
TochB. āsträ-
(sb.) ‘bolt, arrow (Māra’s weapon)’
(DTochB. 59)
(‹ TochB. -ä → a loanword?›)
1. PIE *hɑēstro-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *hɑāstro-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑāstro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hāstro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hāstro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hāstra-
4. hāstra-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. āstra-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
LAv. fy·aŋhvatī-
(pt.f.) ‘hagelnd, wenn es hagelt’
(AIWb. 973)
(LAv. fyaŋhvaityå)
1. PIE *pi̯·hɑesu̯etiɑ́h-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *pi̯·hɑasu̯etiɑ́h-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. pi̯·hɑasu̯etiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *pi̯·hɑasu̯etiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
3. pi̯·hɑasu̯etiíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pi̯·hasu̯etiíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. pi̯·hasu̯etiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pi̯·asu̯etií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. pi̯·asu̯etií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *pi̯·asu̯etī́-
6. pi̯·asu̯etī́-
su̯ -> ŋuh
Change of su̯ into ŋuh
Rsu̯›ŋuh → *pi̯·aŋuhetī́-
7. pi̯·aŋuhetī́-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *pi̯·aŋuhatī́-
8. pi̯·aŋuhatī́-
*pR → fR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
RpR›fR → *fi̯·aŋuhatī́-
9. fi̯·aŋuhatī́-
*ati → aiti
Anaptyxis of *i
RatI›aitI → *fi̯·aŋuhaitī́-
10. fi̯·aŋuhaitī́-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *fy·aŋuhaitī́-
11. fy·aŋuhaitī́-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → LAv. fy·aŋuhaitī-
OEng. atol-
(a.) ‘schrecklich, hässlich, abstoßend: dīrus, ātrox’
(ASaxD. 59)
(OEng. atol, GoEtD. A216)
1. PIE *ɦɑedulo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑadulo-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑadulo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦadulo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦadulo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *adulo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. adulo-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *atulo-
5. atulo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *atula-
6. atula-
*a → ea
Change of *a into ea
Ra=›ea= → OEng. eatula-
OIcl. for·osta·n-
(f.) ‘Aufsicht; Führerschaft’
(ANEtWb. 139a)
1. PIE *Π·hɑusto·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·husto·n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·husto·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·usto·n-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·usto·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. Π·usta·n-
Gr. ὀι·ωνό-
(m.) ‘Raubvogel, der vom Vogelschauer beobachtet wurde’
(GEW 2:372)
(Gr. ὀιωνό-, Lindeman 1997:69 ‹the suffix requires confirmation›)
1. PIE *hɑou̯i·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hou̯i·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hou̯i·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ou̯i·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. ou̯i·Σ
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *oi·Σ
4. oi·Σ
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. οἰ·Σ
CLu. ḫu̯i·ḫu̯ei̯an[…
(?.) ‘-(?)-’
(HIL. 426-7)
(CLu. ḫu-i-ḫu-ia-a[n...])
1. PIE *hɑu̯i·hɑu̯ei̯on
… → *hu̯i·hu̯ei̯on
2. hu̯i·hu̯ei̯on
… → *hu̯i·hu̯ei̯an
3. hu̯i·hu̯ei̯an
… → CLu. ḫu̯i·ḫu̯ei̯an
Latv. aũdrum-
(m.) ‘ein wildes, unbändiges Kind’
(ALiEtWb. A:62)
1. PIE *ɦɑeúdrumo
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑaúdrumo
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑaúdrumo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦaúdrumo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦaúdrumo
ú -› ù
Latvian tone rule ú -› ù
RAccLatv11 → *ɦaùdrumo
4. ɦaùdrumo
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *aùdrumo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. aùdrumo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aùdruma
6. aùdruma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Latv. aùdrum
CLu. ḫu̯auna-
(sb.) ‘‹cf. below›’
(HHand. 58)
(CLu. dšivata [V] ḫu̯ai̯unati [sgI] aaš- ‹Mund?›)
1. PIE *hɑu̯oi̯uno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hu̯oi̯uno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hu̯oi̯uno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hu̯ai̯una-
3. hu̯ai̯una-
* ai̯u → au
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *u
Rai̯u›au → *hu̯auna-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. hu̯auna-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫu̯auna-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
MidHG. br·ūne·n-
(f.) ‘Unterleib, weibliche Scham’
(IEW 169)
1. PIE *bɑɦr·hɑ́unēɑh·n
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *bɑɦr·hɑ́unāɑh·n
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. bɑɦr·hɑ́unāɑh·n
PIE *ɑ́u → úu
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́u›úu → *bɑɦr·húunāɑh·n
(SPIE §3.2.3)
3. bɑɦr·húunāɑh·n
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦr·húunāh·n
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. bɦr·húunāh·n
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *bɦr·úunā·n
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. bɦr·úunā·n
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *bɦr·ū́nā·n
6. bɦr·ū́nā·n
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *br·ū́nā·n
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. br·ū́nā·n
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → MidHG. br·ū́nō·n
(XX:XX)
MidHG. bri·une·n-
(f.) ‘Unterleib, weibliche Scham’
(IEW 169)
1. PIE *bɑɦre·hɑunēɑh·n
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *bɑɦre·hɑunāɑh·n
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. bɑɦre·hɑunāɑh·n
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦre·hunāh·n
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. bɦre·hunāh·n
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *bɦre·unā·n
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. bɦre·unā·n
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *bre·unā·n
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. bre·unā·n
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *bre·unō·n
(XX:XX)
6. bre·unō·n
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → MidHG. bri·unō·n
OIr. ūaim-
(f.) ‘cave, den, boar’s lair’
(EtDiPC. 302)
(OIr. úaim)
1. PIE *hɑoumi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *houmi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. houmi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oumi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. oumi-
*ou → ō
Monophthongization of *ou into ō
Rou›ō → *ōmi-
4. ōmi-
*ō → ūa
Brechung of *ō into ūa
Rō›ūa → OIr. ūami-
Latv. li-
(m.) ‘unruhiger, ausgelassener Mensch’
(LiEtWb. 7)
(Latv. aũlis)
1. PIE *óhɑuli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *óhuli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. óhuli-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *óuli-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. óuli-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → Latv. áuli-
Latv. liem
(adv.) ‘im Galopp’
(LiEtWb. 7)
1. PIE *óhɑuleim
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *óhuleim
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. óhuleim
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *óuleim
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. óuleim
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *áuleim
4. áuleim
*ei -> ie
Change of *ei into ie
Rei›ie → Latv. áuliem
OCS. ulica-
(f.) ‘Straße, Gasse’
(ArmGr. 1:484)
1. PIE *hɑuleiku̯ɑhi̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *hɑuleiku̯ɑhi̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑuleiku̯ɑhi̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *huleiku̯hi̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. huleiku̯hi̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *uleiku̯i̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. uleiku̯i̯ā-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *uleiki̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. uleiki̯ā-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *ulīki̯ā-
6. ulīki̯ā-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *ulīkjā-
7. ulīkjā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *ulīkja-
8. ulīkja-
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. ulikja-
RV. ūrṇa·vā́bhi-
(c.) ‘Spinne’
(WbRV. 274)
1. PIE *hɑulno·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hulno·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hulno·Σ
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *hurno·Σ
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. hurno·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hurna·Σ
4. hurna·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *urna·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. urna·Σ
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. urṇa·Σ
OIcl. yl-
(m.) ‘Wärmedunst’
(ANEtWb. 678)
(OIcl. ylr [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑuli
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *huli
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. huli
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OIcl. uli
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OIcl. ylja-
(vb.) ‘wärmen’
(ANEtWb. 677)
1. PIE *hɑulei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hulei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hulei̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ulei̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. ulei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ulei̯a-
4. ulei̯a-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *ulii̯a-
5. ulii̯a-
*ii̯a → ja
Loss of *i before i̯a
Rii̯a›i̯a → *uli̯a-
6. uli̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → OIcl. ulja-
Latv. ũma·kãm
(adv.) ‘mit Gewalt, ungestüm’
(ALiEtWb. U:6)
1. PIE *hɑ́umo·Σ
PIE *ɑ́u → úu
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́u›úu → *húumo·Σ
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. húumo·Σ
ú -› ù
Latvian tone rule ú -› ù
RAccLatv11 → *hùumo·Σ
3. hùumo·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ùumo·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ùumo·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Latv. ùuma·Σ
OEng. ofnet-
(sb.) ‘a closed vessel’
(ASaxD. 741)
(OEng. ofnet : vasculo clauso vel operto)
1. PIE *hɑupneɑɦdi
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *hɑupnaɑɦdi
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. hɑupnaɑɦdi
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hupnaɦdi
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hupnaɦdi
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *hupnadi
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. hupnadi
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *upnadi
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. upnadi
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *ufnadi
6. ufnadi
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *ufnati
7. ufnati
*-i → -e
Change of root-final -i into -e
R=i›=e → OEng. ufnate
Car. ὑσσωλο-
(PN.) ‘Speermann?’
(GEW 2:975)
(Car. ὑσσωλος)
1. PIE *ɦɑussōlu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦussōlu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦussōlu-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *ussōlu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. ussōlu-
u- → hu
Crescence of h before u-
Ru=›hu= → *hussōlu-
4. hussōlu-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Car. ὑσσωλυ-
SCr. udi-
(vb.) ‘harm’
(IEW 773)
(SCr. uditi)
1. PIE *ɦɑoudiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *ɦɑoudiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. ɦɑoudiíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦoudiíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦoudiíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦaudiíh-
4. ɦaudiíh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *audiíh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. audiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *audií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. audií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *audī́-
7. audī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *oudī́-
8. oudī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *ūdī́-
9. ūdī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *ūdí-
10. ūdí-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → SCr. udí-
Latv. iva-
(f.) ‘Faul-baum: bird-cherry’
(HIL. 278)
1. PIE *eihɑu̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *eihɑu̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. eihɑu̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eihu̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. eihu̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *eiu̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. eiu̯ā
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *eivā
5. eivā
*ei -> ie
Change of *ei into ie
Rei›ie → *ievā
6. ievā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → Latv. ieva
Latv. jg-
(vb.) ‘begreifen, verstehen’
(LiEtWb. 192)
(Latv. jẽgt [inf.])
1. PIE *i̯ḗɦɑgu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *i̯ḗɦgu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. i̯ḗɦgu-
*ḗH → êH
Latvian tone rule for ḗH
RAccLatv6 → *i̯êɦgu-
3. i̯êɦgu-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *i̯êgu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. i̯êgu-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *i̯êg-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. i̯êg-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Latv. jêg-
Latv. jga-
(f.) ‘Verstand’
(IEW 503)
1. PIE *i̯ḗɦɑgu̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *i̯ḗɦɑgu̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. i̯ḗɦɑgu̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *i̯ḗɦgu̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. i̯ḗɦgu̯āh
*ḗH → êH
Latvian tone rule for ḗH
RAccLatv6 → *i̯êɦgu̯āh
4. i̯êɦgu̯āh
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *i̯êgu̯āh
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. i̯êgu̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *i̯êgu̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. i̯êgu̯ā
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *i̯êgā
(SPIE §4.8.3)
7. i̯êgā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → *i̯êga
8. i̯êga
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Latv. jêga
Lith. eikvó-
(vb.) ‘ausgeben, verschwenden’
(LiEtWb. 3)
1. PIE *eikuu̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *eikuu̯ā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. eikuu̯ā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eikuu̯ā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. eikuu̯ā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *eikuu̯ā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. eikuu̯ā́-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *eiku̯ā́-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. eiku̯ā́-
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *eiku̯ṓ-
(XX:XX)
6. eiku̯ṓ-
*ei -> ie
Change of *ei into ie
Rei›ie → *ieku̯ṓ-
7. ieku̯ṓ-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → *ieku̯ó-
8. ieku̯ó-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. iekvó-
TochA. ype-
(sb.) ‘terra, regio, imperium’
(Poucha 250)
(TochA. ype, ypeyā)
1. PIE *ibɑɦoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ibɦoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ibɦoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ibɦai-
3. ibɦai-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *ibai-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. ibai-
*b → p
Loss of voice of media *b
Rb›p → *ipai-
5. ipai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *ipē-
6. ipē-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochA. ipe-
OInd. īrma-
(m.n.) ‘Wunde’
(EWA 3:28-29)
(OInd. īrma-)
1. PIE *írmo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. írma-
TochB. yau·yekä-
(sb.) ‘verbal orders, documents?’
(DTochB. 514)
(TochB. yauyekänta; for √yek- cf. TochB. wek- (m.sg) ‘vox’, DTochB. 607)
1. PIE *i̯ōu·u̯eiku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *i̯ōu·u̯eiku̯a-
2. i̯ōu·u̯eiku̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *i̯āu·u̯eiku̯a-
3. i̯āu·u̯eiku̯a-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯āu·u̯i̯aiku̯a-
4. i̯āu·u̯i̯aiku̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *i̯āu·u̯i̯aika-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. i̯āu·u̯i̯aika-
*u̯I → I
Loss of *u̯ before palatal *i̯/i
Ru̯I›I → *i̯āu·i̯aika-
6. i̯āu·i̯aika-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *i̯āu·i̯ēka-
7. i̯āu·i̯ēka-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → *i̯au·i̯ēka-
8. i̯au·i̯ēka-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *i̯au·i̯eka-
9. i̯au·i̯eka-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. yau·yeka-
Dor. κιχήλᾱ-
(f.) ‘Drossel’
(Syrac. κιχήλα-)
1. PIE *gɑɦígɑɦḗlēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gɑɦígɑɦḗlāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gɑɦígɑɦḗlāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦígɦḗlāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦígɦḗlāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦígɦḗlā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. gɦígɦḗlā-
*gɦ → kh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›kh → *khíkhḗlā-
5. khíkhḗlā-
khíkh -› kíkh
Grassmann's Law
Rkhíkh›kíkh → *kíkhḗlā-
6. kíkhḗlā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. κίχήλᾱ-
OIcl. gll-
(f.ō) ‘N. der Felsplatte an der Fenrir gefesselt wurde’
(ANEtWb. 171a)
(OIcl. gjǫll [sgN])
1. PIE *gɑɦēlnēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gɑɦēlnāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gɑɦēlnāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦēlnāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦēlnāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦēlnā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. gɦēlnā
*ēRC → eRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ēRC
RēRC›eRC → *gɦelnā
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. gɦelnā
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gelnā
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. gelnā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *gelnō
(XX:XX)
7. gelnō
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *gilnō
8. gilnō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *gilna
9. gilna
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *gilla
10. gilla
*-a -u
Change of root final -a into -u
R=a›=u → *gillu
11. gillu
*-u → Ø
Loss of -u in root-final position
R=u›=0 → OIcl. gill
CLu. galla-
(NA4.) ‘(ein Stein)’
(HHand. 69)
(in Hitt. kallanzi [plN])
1. PIE *gɑɦolno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦolno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦolno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦalna-
3. gɦalna-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. galna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. ní (...) gr̥hnā-
(pr.9.) ‘hineingreifen’
(WbRV. 417)
(RV. ní (...) gr̥hnātu [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦrgi̯ɑɦnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·gɑɦrgi̯ɑɦnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑɦrgi̯ɑɦnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·gɦrgi̯ɦnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦrgi̯ɦnāh-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *Π·gɦrj́ɦnāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. Π·gɦrj́ɦnāh-
CrC → Cr̥C
Syllabification of *r in CrC
Rr›r̥ → *Π·gɦr̥j́ɦnāh-
5. Π·gɦr̥j́ɦnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·gɦr̥j́ɦnā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. Π·gɦr̥j́ɦnā-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmann → *Π·gr̥j́ɦnā-
(SPIE §4.6.4)
7. Π·gr̥j́ɦnā-
*j́ɦ → ɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to ɦ
Rj́ɦ›ɦ → *Π·gr̥ɦnā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
8. Π·gr̥ɦnā-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → *Π·gr̥ɦṇā-
9. Π·gr̥ɦṇā-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. Π·gr̥hā-
TochB. kät-
(vb.M.) ‘lower, set down’
(DTochB. 159)
(TochB. käccītär [opt], LeTokh. 1:159)
1. PIE *gɑɦot-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦot-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦot-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦat-
3. gɦat-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gat-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. gat-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → TochB. kat-
TochB. käccīya-
(impf.A.) ‘± lower, set down’
(DTochB. 159)
(TochB. käccīyem)
1. PIE *gɑɦotiɑ́hi̯o-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *gɑɦotiíhi̯o-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. gɑɦotiíhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦotiíhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦotiíhi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦatiíhi̯a-
4. gɦatiíhi̯a-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *gɦaciíhi̯a-
5. gɦaciíhi̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦaciíi̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. gɦaciíi̯a-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gaciíi̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. gaciíi̯a-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *kaciíi̯a-
8. kaciíi̯a-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *kacī́i̯a-
9. kacī́i̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *kacī́ya-
10. kacī́ya-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → TochB. kacīya-
TochB. käccilya
(ger.) ‘lower, set down’
(DTochB. 159)
(TochB. käccilya)
1. PIE *gɑɦotili̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦotili̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦotili̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦatili̯a-
3. gɦatili̯a-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *gɦacili̯a-
4. gɦacili̯a-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gacili̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. gacili̯a-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *kacili̯a-
6. kacili̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. kacilya-
Lith. gudrù-
(a.) ‘wise’
(LiEtWb. 141)
1. PIE *gɑɦúdɑɦrú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦúdɦrú-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦúdɦrú-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis PLith. ù
RLiAcc3 → *gɦùdɦrù-
3. gɦùdɦrù-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *gɦùdrù-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. gɦùdrù-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → Lith. gùdrù-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
MidIr. cuad-
(vb.) ‘schlachten, kämpfen’
(WH. 1:301)
(but see Fick 1870-71:88 apud WH)
1. PIE *koɑhuɦɑdo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohuɦdo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohuɦdo
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *kohudo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. kohudo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *koudo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. koudo
*ou → ō
Monophthongization of *ou into ō
Rou›ō → *kōdo
5. kōdo
*ō → ūa
Brechung of *ō into ūa
Rō›ūa → *kūado
6. kūado
*-o → -Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R=o›=0 → *kūad
7. kūad
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → MidIr. cūad
Latv. kũja-
(f.) ‘Stab, Stock, Keule’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Latv. kũja [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hui̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kɑ́hui̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kɑ́hui̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *kúhui̯āɑh
(SPIE §3.2.3)
3. kúhui̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kúhui̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. kúhui̯āh
*úHu → uHû
Latvian tone rule for *úHu
RAccLatv5 → *kuhûi̯āh
5. kuhûi̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kuûi̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. kuûi̯ā
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *kûi̯ā
(SPIE §4.8.3)
7. kûi̯ā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → *kûi̯a
8. kûi̯a
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Latv. kûja
Latv. kul̃-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, dreschen, prügeln’
(LiEtWb. 211-2)
(Latv. kul̃t [inf.])
1. PIE *kɑ́hul-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *kúhul-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. kúhul-
*úHu → uHû
Latvian tone rule for *úHu
RAccLatv5 → *kuhûl-
3. kuhûl-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kuûl-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kuûl-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → Latv. kûl-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
Latv. kūl-
(m.) ‘zu dreschendes Gertreide’
(LiEtWb. 211)
(Latv. kūls [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hulo
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *kúhulo
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. kúhulo
*úHu → uHû
Latvian tone rule for *úHu
RAccLatv5 → *kuhûlo
3. kuhûlo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kuûlo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kuûlo
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *kûlo
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. kûlo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kûla
6. kûla
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Latv. kûl
Lith. kū̃lė-
(f.) ‘Dreschen, Drusch’
(LiEtWb. 211)
(Lith. kū̃lė [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hulē-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *kúhulē-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. kúhulē-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kúulē-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. kúulē-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *kū́lē-
4. kū́lē-
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → Lith. kū́lė-
TochA. koṣänt-
(sb.m.) ‘carnifex: hangman, executer’
(Poucha 85 & 88)
(TochA. koṣänt)
1. PIE *kēɑhusi̯ont-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhusi̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusi̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhusi̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhusi̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kāhusi̯ant-
4. kāhusi̯ant-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāusi̯ant-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāusi̯ant-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
Rsi̯›ṣ → *kāuṣant-
6. kāuṣant-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
RāuC›auC → *kauṣant-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
7. kauṣant-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kōṣant-
8. kōṣant-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. koṣant-
Lith. káusty-
(vb.) ‘beschlagen, mit Eisen beschlagen’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. káustyti [inf.])
1. PIE *kḗɑhustɑ́hi-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *kā́ɑhustɑ́hi-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhustɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *kā́ɑhustíhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
3. kā́ɑhustíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kā́hustíhi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. kā́hustíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kā́ustíi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kā́ustíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *kā́ustī́-
6. kā́ustī́-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
Rā́RC›áRC → *káustī́-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
7. káustī́-
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
Rī́›ý → Lith. káustý-
TochB. kowä-
(pr.) ‘kill’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kowän [3sg+encl.])
1. PIE *keɑhuu̯eɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑhuu̯aɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑhuu̯aɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kahuu̯ah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kahuu̯ah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kauu̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kauu̯a-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kōu̯a-
5. kōu̯a-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *kou̯a-
6. kou̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. kowa-
RV. khudá-
(vb.) ‘hineinstossen: thrust into’
(WbRV. 374)
(RV. khudáta [3sg] kapr̥thám [sgA], KEWA 1:310)
1. PIE *kɑhúɦɑdó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khúɦdó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khúɦdó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *khúɦdá-
3. khúɦdá-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → RV. khúdá-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Latv. kulinâ-
(vb.) ‘wiederholt schlagen, schütteln, rüttern’
(LiEtWb. 211-2)
(Latv. kulinâ-)
1. PIE *kɑhúlinḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *kɑhúlinā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kɑhúlinā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khúlinā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. khúlinā́h-
*ā́H → âH
Latvian tone rule for *ā́h
RAccLatv3 → *khúlinâh-
4. khúlinâh-
ú -› ù
Latvian tone rule ú -› ù
RAccLatv11 → *khùlinâh-
5. khùlinâh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *khùlinâ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. khùlinâ-
*kh → k
Loss of *h in tenues aspirata *kh
Rkh›k → Latv. kùlinâ-
SCr. gùbi-
(vb.) ‘verderben’
(REW 1:317)
(SCr. gùbiti [inf.]
1. PIE *gḗɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *gā́ɑɦubɑ́hi-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gā́ɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *gā́ɑɦubíhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
3. gā́ɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gā́ɦubíhi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. gā́ɦubíhi-
ā́hu → āhȕ
Serbo-Croatian double gravis rule
Rā́ɦu›āHȕ → *gāɦȕbíhi-
5. gāɦȕbíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *gāȕbíhi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. gāȕbíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gāȕbíi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. gāȕbíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *gāȕbī́-
8. gāȕbī́-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *gaȕbī́-
9. gaȕbī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → SCr. gbí-
Czech. hubi-
(vb.) ‘verderben, vertilgen’
(REW 1:317)
(Czech. hubiti [inf.])
1. PIE *gēɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *gāɑɦubíhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
3. gāɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gāɦubíhi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. gāɦubíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *gāubíhi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gāubíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gāubíi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. gāubíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *gāubī́-
7. gāubī́-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *gaubī́-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
8. gaubī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *goubī́-
9. goubī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *gūbī́-
10. gūbī́-
*g → ɦ
Change of *g into ɦ
Rg›ɦ → *ɦūbī́-
11. ɦūbī́-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *hūbī́-
12. hūbī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *hūbí-
13. hūbí-
ū -› ou
Change of ū into ou
Rū›ou → Czech. houbí-
Lith. pa·gynà-
(f.) ‘Beendigung, Ende’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. pagynà)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ɑ́hinḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *Π·gɑɦu̯ɑ́hinā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯ɑ́hinā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *Π·gɑɦu̯íhinā́ɑh
(SPIE §3.2.6)
3. Π·gɑɦu̯íhinā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·gɦu̯íhinā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. Π·gɦu̯íhinā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·gɦu̯íinā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·gɦu̯íinā́
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *Π·gɦíinā́
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. Π·gɦíinā́
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *Π·gɦī́nā́
7. Π·gɦī́nā́
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *Π·gī́nā́
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
8. Π·gī́nā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *Π·gī́nṓ
(XX:XX)
9. Π·gī́nṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → *Π·gī́nà
10. Π·gī́nà
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
Rī́›ý → Lith. Π·gý
Lith. pa·gynė́-
(vb.) ‘ein wenig treiben, beendigen, vollenden’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. pagynė́ti [inf.])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ɑ́hinḗhɑ-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *Π·gɑɦu̯íhinḗhɑ-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯íhinḗhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·gɦu̯íhinḗh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯íhinḗh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·gɦu̯íinḗ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·gɦu̯íinḗ-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *Π·gɦíinḗ-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. Π·gɦíinḗ-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *Π·gɦī́nḗ-
6. Π·gɦī́nḗ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *Π·gī́nḗ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. Π·gī́nḗ-
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
Rī́›ý → *Π·gýnḗ-
8. Π·gýnḗ-
*ḗ -> ė́
Change of *ḗ -> ė́
Rḗ›ė́ → Lith. Π·gýnė́-
Latv. gaĩņâ-
(vb.) ‘wiederholt treiben, abwehren’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Latv. gaĩņât [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯éɑhini̯ḗɑh-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *gɑɦu̯áɑhini̯ḗɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. gɑɦu̯áɑhini̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *gɑɦu̯áɑhini̯ā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. gɑɦu̯áɑhini̯ā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦu̯áhini̯ā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. gɦu̯áhini̯ā́h-
*áHi → aHî
Latvian tone rule for *áHi
RAccLatv1 → *gɦu̯ahîni̯ā́h-
5. gɦu̯ahîni̯ā́h-
*ā́H → âH
Latvian tone rule for *ā́h
RAccLatv3 → *gɦu̯ahîni̯âh-
6. gɦu̯ahîni̯âh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦu̯aîni̯â-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. gɦu̯aîni̯â-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *gɦaîni̯â-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
8. gɦaîni̯â-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gaîni̯â-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
9. gaîni̯â-
*ni̯ → ņ
Change of ni̯ into ņ (palatalization)
Rni̯›ņ → Latv. gaîņâ-
Lith. guinió-
(vb.) ‘verscheuchen’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. guinióti [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦúini̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *gɑɦúini̯ā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gɑɦúini̯ā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦúini̯ā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦúini̯ā́h-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis PLith. ù
RLiAcc3 → *gɦùini̯ā́h-
4. gɦùini̯ā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦùini̯ā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gɦùini̯ā́-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gùini̯ā́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. gùini̯ā́-
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *gùini̯ṓ-
(XX:XX)
7. gùini̯ṓ-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›iRestr → *gùiniṓ-
8. gùiniṓ-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → Lith. gùinió-
Lith. pa·guinìki-
(m.) ‘Treiber’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. guinìkis [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦúiníku̯ɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·gɦúiníku̯hi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦúiníku̯hi-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *Π·gɦúinìku̯hi-
3. Π·gɦúinìku̯hi-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis PLith. ù
RLiAcc3 → *Π·gɦùinìku̯hi-
4. Π·gɦùinìku̯hi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·gɦùinìku̯i-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·gɦùinìku̯i-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *Π·gɦùinìki-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. Π·gɦùinìki-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → Lith. Π·gùinìki-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
Lith. ginty-
(vb.) ‘streiten, kämpfen, widersprechen’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. gintyti [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯intɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *gɑɦu̯intíhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. gɑɦu̯intíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦu̯intíhi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯intíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦu̯intíi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. gɦu̯intíi-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *gɦintíi-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. gɦintíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *gɦintī́-
6. gɦintī́-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gintī́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. gintī́-
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
Rī́›ý → Lith. gintý-
Lith. giñčy-
(vb.) ‘streiten, kämpfen, widersprechen’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. giñčyti [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ínti̯ɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *gɑɦu̯ínti̯íhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. gɑɦu̯ínti̯íhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦu̯ínti̯íhi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯ínti̯íhi-
PIE *ti̯ → č
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›č → *gɦu̯ínčíhi-
(SPIE §XX)
4. gɦu̯ínčíhi-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *gɦu̯ìnčíhi-
5. gɦu̯ìnčíhi-
ìn → iñ
RLiAcc6 → *gɦu̯iñčíhi-
Change of ìnC into iñC
6. gɦu̯iñčíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦu̯iñčíi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. gɦu̯iñčíi-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *gɦiñčíi-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
8. gɦiñčíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *gɦiñčī́-
9. gɦiñčī́-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *giñčī́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
10. giñčī́-
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
Rī́›ý → Lith. giñčý-
Lith. guldý-
(pr.) ‘verschneiden, kastrieren’
(LiEtWb. 175)
(Lith. guldýti [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦúldɑɦɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *gɑɦúldɑɦíhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. gɑɦúldɑɦíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦúldɦíhi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦúldɦíhi-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis PLith. ù
RLiAcc3 → *gɦùldɦíhi-
4. gɦùldɦíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦùldɦíi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gɦùldɦíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *gɦùldɦī́-
6. gɦùldɦī́-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *gɦùldī́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. gɦùldī́-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gùldī́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
8. gùldī́-
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
Rī́›ý → Lith. gùldý-
gAv. ǰǝ̄n-
(pr.) ‘schlagend treffen’
(AIWb. 492)
(gAv. aǰǝ̄n [2sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯en-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦu̯en-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯en-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
Rgɦu̯›ǰɦu̯ → *ǰɦu̯en-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. ǰɦu̯en-
*ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RČU›Č → *ǰɦen-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. ǰɦen-
*ǰɦ → ǰ
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *ǰɦ
Rǰɦ›ǰ → *ǰen-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. ǰen-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → gAv. ǰan-
Sloven. gonó·ba-
(f.) ‘Schaden, Verderben’
(IEW 491-3)
(Sloven. gonóba [sgN])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯onó·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦu̯onó·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯onó·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦu̯anó·Σ
3. gɦu̯anó·Σ
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *gɦu̯aná·Σ
4. gɦu̯aná·Σ
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *gɦaná·Σ
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. gɦaná·Σ
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *ganá·Σ
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. ganá·Σ
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *goná·Σ
7. goná·Σ
*á → ó
Change of *á into ó
Rá›ó → *gonó·Σ
8. gonó·Σ
ó → ò
Slovenian gravis rule
RAccSlov1 → Sloven. gonò·Σ
Sloven. u·gonó·ba-
(f.) ‘Vernichtung, Untergang’
(IEW 491-3)
(Sloven. ugonóba [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯onó·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·gɦu̯onó·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯onó·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·gɦu̯anó·Σ
3. Π·gɦu̯anó·Σ
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·gɦu̯aná·Σ
4. Π·gɦu̯aná·Σ
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *Π·gɦaná·Σ
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. Π·gɦaná·Σ
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *Π·ganá·Σ
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. Π·ganá·Σ
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *Π·goná·Σ
7. Π·goná·Σ
*á → ó
Change of *á into ó
Rá›ó → *Π·gonó·Σ
8. Π·gonó·Σ
ó → ò
Slovenian gravis rule
RAccSlov1 → Sloven. Π·gonò·Σ
gAv. ǰǝ̄n·ǝrā-
(f.) ‘Töten, Mord’
(AIWb. 607)
(gAv. ǰǝ̄nǝrā-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯en·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦu̯en·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯en·Σ
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
Rgɦu̯›ǰɦu̯ → *ǰɦu̯en·Σ
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. ǰɦu̯en·Σ
*ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RČU›Č → *ǰɦen·Σ
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. ǰɦen·Σ
*ǰɦ → ǰ
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *ǰɦ
Rǰɦ›ǰ → *ǰen·Σ
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. ǰen·Σ
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → gAv. ǰan·Σ
LAv. γǝnā-
(vb.) ‘töten’
(AIWb. 490)
(LAv. γǝnąm [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯onēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gɑɦu̯onāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯onāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦu̯onāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯onāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦu̯anāh-
4. gɦu̯anāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦu̯anā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gɦu̯anā-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *gɦanā-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. gɦanā-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *ganā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. ganā-
g → γ
Change of *g into γ
Rg›γ → LAv. γanā-
LAv. γǝnąna-
(n.) ‘Schlag’
(AIWb. 526)
(LAv. γǝnąna-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯onēɑhno-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gɑɦu̯onāɑhno-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯onāɑhno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦu̯onāhno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯onāhno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦu̯anāhna-
4. gɦu̯anāhna-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦu̯anāna-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gɦu̯anāna-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *gɦanāna-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. gɦanāna-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *ganāna-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. ganāna-
g → γ
Change of *g into γ
Rg›γ → LAv. γanāna-
Lith. gunió-
(vb.) ‘verscheuchen’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. gunióti [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦúni̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *gɑɦúni̯ā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gɑɦúni̯ā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦúni̯ā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦúni̯ā́h-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis PLith. ù
RLiAcc3 → *gɦùni̯ā́h-
4. gɦùni̯ā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦùni̯ā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gɦùni̯ā́-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gùni̯ā́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. gùni̯ā́-
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *gùni̯ṓ-
(XX:XX)
7. gùni̯ṓ-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›iRestr → *gùniṓ-
8. gùniṓ-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → Lith. gùnió-
Lith. gùny-
(vb.) ‘verscheuchen’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. gùnyti [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦúniɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *gɑɦúniíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. gɑɦúniíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦúniíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦúniíh-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis PLith. ù
RLiAcc3 → *gɦùniíh-
4. gɦùniíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦùnií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gɦùnií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *gɦùnī́-
6. gɦùnī́-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gùnī́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. gùnī́-
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
Rī́›ý → Lith. gùný-
OInd. ghusr̥ṇa-
(n.) ‘Safran: saffron’
(KEWA 1:360)
(OInd. ghusr̥ṇa-)
1. PIE *gɑɦúsr̥no-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦúsr̥no-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦúsr̥no-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦúsr̥na-
3. gɦúsr̥na-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → *gɦúsr̥ṇa-
4. gɦúsr̥ṇa-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → OInd. ghúsr̥ṇa-
OInd. ghuṣṭa-
(n.) ‘gerieben: rubbed’
(KEWA 1:360)
(OInd. ghuṣṭa-)
1. PIE *gɑɦústo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦústo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦústo-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *gɦúšto-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. gɦúšto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦúšta-
4. gɦúšta-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *gɦúṣta-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
5. gɦúṣta-
*ṣt → ṣṭ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rṣt›ṣṭ → *gɦúṣṭa-
6. gɦúṣṭa-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → OInd. ghúṣṭa-
MAv. gǝrǝδa-
(m.) ‘Höhle als Behausung’
(AIWb. 522-3)
(MAv. gǝrǝδa-)
1. PIE *gɑɦurdɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦurdɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦurdɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦurdɦa-
3. gɦurdɦa-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *gɦrdɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. gɦrdɦa-
CrC → Cr̥C
Syllabification of *r in CrC
Rr›r̥ → *gɦr̥dɦa-
5. gɦr̥dɦa-
*r̥ → ǝr
Change of *r̥ into ǝr
Rr̥›ǝr → *gɦǝrdɦa-
6. gɦǝrdɦa-
*r → rǝ
Anaptyxis of ǝ (Schwa)
Rr›rǝ → *gɦǝrǝdɦa-
7. gɦǝrǝdɦa-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *gɦǝrǝda-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
8. gɦǝrǝda-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → MAv. gǝrǝda-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
Alb. gardh-
(m.) ‘fence’
(AlbEtD. 110)
(Alb. gardh [sgN], gardhe [plN])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ordɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦu̯ordɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯ordɦo-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *gɦordɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
3. gɦordɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦardɦa-
4. gɦardɦa-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *gɦarda-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. gɦarda-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → Alb. garda-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
OSax. hūria-
(f.) ‘Heuer, Miete’
(ASächsWb. 38)
(OSax. hūria)
1. PIE *kɑ́husi̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kɑ́husi̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kɑ́husi̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *kúhusi̯āɑh
(SPIE §3.2.3)
3. kúhusi̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kúhusi̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. kúhusi̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kúusi̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kúusi̯ā
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *kū́si̯ā
6. kū́si̯ā
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xū́si̯ā
7. xū́si̯ā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *xū́si̯ō
(XX:XX)
8. xū́si̯ō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *xū́si̯a
9. xū́si̯a
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *hū́si̯a
10. hū́si̯a
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OSax. hū́sia
Lith. gaũs·iai
(adv.) ‘reichlich: abundantly’
(Senn 2:198)
(Lith. gaũsiai)
1. PIE *gɑɦoús·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦoús·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦoús·Σ
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis PLith. ù
RLiAcc3 → *gɦoùs·Σ
3. gɦoùs·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦaùs·Σ
4. gɦaùs·Σ
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → Lith. gaùs·Σ
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
OIcl. goð-
(n.) ‘heidnischer Gott’
(ANEtWb. 181)
1. PIE *gɑɦuto
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦuto
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦuto
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *gɦuþo
3. gɦuþo
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *guþo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. guþo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *guþa
5. guþa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *guþ
6. guþ
*þ → ð
Change of þ into ð
R=þ›=ð → OIcl. guð
OSax. god-
(m.) ‘Gott’
(ASaxD. 482)
1. PIE *gɑɦudɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦudɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦudɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *gɦudo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. gɦudo
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gudo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. gudo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *guda
5. guda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OSax. gud
OEng. god-
(m.) ‘god, deity’
(ASaxD. 482)
(OEng. god, godes)
1. PIE *gɑɦudɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦudɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦudɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *gɦudo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. gɦudo
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gudo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. gudo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *guda
5. guda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OEng. gud
OFr. god-
(m.) ‘Gott’
(ASaxD. 482)
1. PIE *gɑɦudɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦudɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦudɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *gɦudo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. gɦudo
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gudo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. gudo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *guda
5. guda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OFr. gud
OHG. got-
(m.) ‘Gott’
(ASaxD. 482)
1. PIE *gɑɦudɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦudɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦudɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *gɦudo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. gɦudo
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gudo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. gudo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *guda
5. guda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *gud
6. gud
*d → t
OHG sound shift of *d
Rd›tHG → OHG. gut
OIcl. goði·n-
(m.) ‘Priester’
(ANEtWb. 181)
1. PIE *gɑɦudɑɦi·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦudɦi·n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦudɦi·n-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *gɦudi·n-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. gɦudi·n-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gudi·n-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. gudi·n-
*d -› ð
Change of d into ð
Rd›ð → OIcl. guði·n-
Dor. κορζίᾱ
(f.) ‘Herz’
(LSJ 866, Grundr2 1:663)
(Cypr. κορζία)
1. PIE *ki̯oɑɦrdíēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ki̯oɑɦrdíāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ki̯oɑɦrdíāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ki̯oɦrdíāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ki̯oɦrdíāh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱoɦrdíāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. ḱoɦrdíāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *ḱordíāh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ḱordíāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ḱordíā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. ḱordíā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *kordíā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. kordíā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. κορδίᾱ-
Lith. šarmuon-
(m.) ‘Wiesel’
(LiEtWb. 965)
1. PIE *ki̯ohɑrmōnihɑ́
PIE *iḫɑ́ → iḫí
Distant assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
RiHɑ́›iHí → *ki̯ohɑrmōnihí
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. ki̯ohɑrmōnihí
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ki̯ohrmōnihí
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ki̯ohrmōnihí
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *ćohrmōnihí
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. ćohrmōnihí
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ćormōnií
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ćormōnií
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *ćormōnī́
6. ćormōnī́
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ćarmōnī́
7. ćarmōnī́
*ć → š
From Satem *ć to š
R曚 → *šarmōnī́
(SPIE §4.8.4)
8. šarmōnī́
*ō → uo
Change of ō into uo
Rō›uo → *šarmuonī́
9. šarmuonī́
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
Rī́›ý → Lith. šarmuoný
HLu. āzu-
(EQUUS.ANIMALsb.) ‘Pferd’
(CHLu. 1.1.8)
(EQUUS.ANIMAL-zú)
1. PIE *ōki̯u-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *ōću-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ōću-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *āću-
3. āću-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *āsu-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
4. āsu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. āšu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. āzu·šatala-
(ANIMAL.EQUUSvb.) ‘ride’
(CHLu. 10.17.10)
(HLu. “ANIMAL.EQUUS‹”›-zú-sa-ta-la-u-na [inf.])
1. PIE *ōki̯u·Σ
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *ōću·Σ
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ōću·Σ
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *āću·Σ
3. āću·Σ
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *āsu·Σ
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
4. āsu·Σ
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. āšu·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. azu̯a-
(EQUUS.ANIMALc.) ‘Pferd: horse’
(CHLu. 1.1.8)
(HLu. á-zú-wa/i, EQUUS.ANIMALá-zú-wa/i)
1. PIE *okiu̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *oću̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. oću̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aću̯a-
3. aću̯a-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *asu̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
4. asu̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. ašu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. zu̯ani-
(CANISc.) ‘dog’
(CHLu. 11.1.b8)
(HLu. (“CANIS”)zú-wa/i-ni-zi-ha-wa/i; zú-wa/i-ní-i-sa, zú-wa/i-ni-i-sá)
1. PIE *kiu̯oni-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *ću̯oni-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ću̯oni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ću̯ani-
3. ću̯ani-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *su̯ani-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
4. su̯ani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. šu̯ani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. zurni-
(CORNUn.) ‘Horn’
(CHLu. 11.6.36)
((“CORNU”)zú-ra/i-ni [plN/A] Hluwlex. 90)
1. PIE *ki̯urni-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *ćurni-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ćurni-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *surni-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
3. surni-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. šurni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lith. kpa-
(vb.) ‘braten, backen’
(LiEtWb. 241)
(Lith. kepù [1sg], kẽpa [3sg])
1. PIE *képo-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → *kèpo-
2. kèpo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lith. kèpa-
TochB. śärselle
(ger.) ‘‹scheren?›’
(DTochB. 629)
(TochB. mäśśakene aṣiye śärselle se laiko ārkwi yamaṣäṃ = M of the goat is to be ś.; this bath makes white)
1. PIE *kersoilnoi
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kersailnai
2. kersailnai
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *ki̯arsailnai
3. ki̯arsailnai
*ki̯ → ś
2nd palatalization for velar k
Rki̯›ś → *śarsailnai
4. śarsailnai
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *śarsaillai
5. śarsaillai
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *śarsēllē
6. śarsēllē
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. śarselle
Dor. κορρί·μαχο-
(PN.) ‘N. eines Mannes’
(GEW 1:923)
(Thess. κορρίμαχο-)
1. PIE *korsí·Σ
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. κορσί·Σ
Lith. kãsa-
(vb.) ‘scharren, graben’
(LiEtWb. 226)
(Lith. kãsa [3sg], kasù [1sg])
1. PIE *kóso-
ó → ò
Emergence of gravis PLith. ò
RLiAcc5 → *kòso-
2. kòso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kòsa-
3. kòsa-
PIE *ò → à
Change of *ò into à
Rò›à → Lith. kàsa-
TochA. kātäk-
(pret.A.) ‘surgere, oriri’
(Poucha 56-7)
(TochA. kātäk)
1. PIE *kōtoku-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kōtaku-
2. kōtaku-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *kātaku-
3. kātaku-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → TochA. kātak-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
TochA. kākätku
(pret.pt.) ‘surgere, oriri’
(Poucha 56-7)
(TochA. kākätku)
1. PIE *kōkōtku̯u-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *kākātku̯u-
2. kākātku̯u-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → TochA. kākātku-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
TochA. kākätkur-
(absol.) ‘surgere, oriri’
(Poucha 56-7)
(TochA. kākätkuräṣ)
1. PIE *kōkōtku̯ur-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *kākātku̯ur-
2. kākātku̯ur-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → TochA. kākātkur-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
TochA. kātäṅkā-
(pr.A.) ‘surgere, oriri’
(Poucha 56-7)
(TochA. kātäṅkāṣ)
1. PIE *kōtonku̯ō-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kōtanku̯ō-
2. kōtanku̯ō-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *kātanku̯ā-
3. kātanku̯ā-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → TochA. kātankā-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
TochA. kātäṅkāl-
(vb.a.) ‘surgere, oriri’
(Poucha 56-7)
(TochA. kātäṅkāl)
1. PIE *kōtonku̯ōlo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kōtanku̯ōla
2. kōtanku̯ōla
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *kātanku̯āla
3. kātanku̯āla
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *kātankāla
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. kātankāla
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → TochA. kātankāl
TochA. kātäñśā-
(impf.A.) ‘surgere, oriri’
(Poucha 56-7)
(TochA. kātäñśā)
1. PIE *kōtonku̯ē-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kōtanku̯ē-
2. kōtanku̯ē-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *kātanku̯ē-
3. kātanku̯ē-
PIE *ē → i̯ ā
Change of *ē into i̯ā
Rē›i̯ā → *kātanku̯i̯ā-
4. kātanku̯i̯ā-
PIE *ku̯ → śu̯
2nd palatalization for labiovelars
Rku̯i›śu̯i → *kātanśu̯i̯ā-
5. kātanśu̯i̯ā-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *kātanśu̯yā-
6. kātanśu̯yā-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. kātanśwyā-
CLu. ku̯ai̯·arala-
(adv.) ‘furchterregend’
(HHand2 97)
1. PIE *ku̯oii̯·orolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ku̯aii̯·arala-
2. ku̯aii̯·arala-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *ku̯aia·rala-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. ku̯aia·rala-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → CLu. ku̯ai̯a·rala-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
OIcl. hol-
(a.) ‘hohl’
(ANEtWb. 248)
(OIcl. holr sgN])
1. PIE *kulo
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xulo
2. xulo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *xula
3. xula
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *xul
4. xul
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → OIcl. hul
OEng. a·holia-
(vb.) ‘dig’
(ASaxD. 31)
(OEng. aholian [inf.])
1. PIE *Π·kuli̯o-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *Π·xuli̯o-
2. Π·xuli̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·xuli̯a-
3. Π·xuli̯a-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *Π·huli̯a-
4. Π·huli̯a-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OEng. Π·hulia-
Lith. klõni-
(m.) ‘Niederung, niedrig gelegene Gegend’
(LiEtWb. 264)
(Lith. klõnis [sgN])
1. PIE *kuleɑhéni-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kulaɑhéni-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kulaɑhéni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kulahéni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kulahéni-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → *kulahèni-
4. kulahèni-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kulaèni-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kulaèni-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → Lith. klni-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
Lith. ež-
(m.) ‘Igel’
(IEW 44, 292)
(LiEtWb. –)
1. PIE *egɑɦi̯ihɑ́-
PIE *iḫɑ́ → iḫí
Distant assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
RiHɑ́›iHí → *egɑɦi̯ihí-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. egɑɦi̯ihí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *egɦi̯ihí-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. egɦi̯ihí-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *ej́ɦihí-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. ej́ɦihí-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *ej́ɦihì-
5. ej́ɦihì-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ej́ɦiì-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. ej́ɦiì-
iì → ĩ
Contraction of iì into ĩ
Riì›ĩ → *ej́ɦĩ-
7. ej́ɦĩ-
*j́ɦ → žɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to žɦ
Rj́ɦ›žɦ → *ežɦĩ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
8. ežɦĩ-
*žɦ → ž
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *žɦ
Ržɦ›ž → Lith. ežĩ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
OInd. ji·ghatsā-
(f.) ‘desire of eating or consuming’
(MonWil. 420)
(Br. jighatsā-)
1. PIE *gɑɦí·gɑɦodsēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gɑɦí·gɑɦodsāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gɑɦí·gɑɦodsāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦí·gɦodsāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦí·gɦodsāh-
PIE *gɦ → ǰɦ
2nd palatalization of *gɦ
Rgɦ›ǰɦ → *ǰɦí·gɦodsāh-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. ǰɦí·gɦodsāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ǰɦí·gɦadsāh-
5. ǰɦí·gɦadsāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ǰɦí·gɦadsā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. ǰɦí·gɦadsā-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmann → *ǰí·gɦadsā-
(SPIE §4.6.4)
7. ǰí·gɦadsā-
*ǰ → j
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to j
Rǰ›j → *jí·gɦadsā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
8. jí·gɦadsā-
*ds → ts
Devoicing of d before s
Rds›ts → *jí·gɦatsā-
9. jí·gɦatsā-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → OInd. jí·ghatsā-
AV. ji·ghatsú-
(des.a.) ‘hungry, desirous of consuming’
(MonWil. 420)
(AV. jíghatsú-)
1. PIE *gɑɦí·gɑɦodsú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦí·gɦodsú-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦí·gɦodsú-
PIE *gɦ → ǰɦ
2nd palatalization of *gɦ
Rgɦ›ǰɦ → *ǰɦí·gɦodsú-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. ǰɦí·gɦodsú-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ǰɦí·gɦadsú-
4. ǰɦí·gɦadsú-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmann → *ǰí·gɦadsú-
(SPIE §4.6.4)
5. ǰí·gɦadsú-
*ǰ → j
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to j
Rǰ›j → *jí·gɦadsú-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. jí·gɦadsú-
*ds → ts
Devoicing of d before s
Rds›ts → *jí·gɦatsú-
7. jí·gɦatsú-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → AV. jí·ghatsú-
Lith. gùdin-
(vb.) ‘gewöhnen, üben, einem etwas beibringen’
(LiEtWb. 141)
(Lith. gùdinti [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦúdɑɦɑhin-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦúdɦhin-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦúdɦhin-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis PLith. ù
RLiAcc3 → *gɦùdɦhin-
3. gɦùdɦhin-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦùdɦin-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. gɦùdɦin-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *gɦùdin-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. gɦùdin-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gùdin-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. gùdin-
ùdi -› ũdi
Circumflex intonation ù -› ũ
Rùdi›ũdi → Lith. gũdin-
OIr. gāu-
(f.) ‘Unrichtiges, Lüge: falsehood’
(DIL. 357)
(in OIr. gāu, gāo, gō)
1. PIE *gɦɑēu̯ēɑh
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *gɦɑāu̯ēɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gɦɑāu̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gɦɑāu̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. gɦɑāu̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦāu̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. gɦāu̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦāu̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gɦāu̯ā
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gāu̯ā
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. gāu̯ā
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *gau̯a
7. gau̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OIr. gau̯
OLith. puoda·žied-
(m.) ‘Töpfer’
(LiEtWb. 668)
(OLith. puodažiedỹs)
1. PIE *Π·gi̯ɑɦeidɑɦihɑ́-
PIE *iḫɑ́ → iḫí
Distant assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
RiHɑ́›iHí → *Π·gi̯ɑɦeidɑɦihí-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·gi̯ɑɦeidɑɦihí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·gi̯ɦeidɦihí-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·gi̯ɦeidɦihí-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *Π·j́ɦeidɦihí-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. Π·j́ɦeidɦihí-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *Π·j́ɦeidɦihì-
5. Π·j́ɦeidɦihì-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·j́ɦeidɦiì-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. Π·j́ɦeidɦiì-
*j́ɦ → žɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to žɦ
Rj́ɦ›žɦ → *Π·žɦeidɦiì-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. Π·žɦeidɦiì-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·žɦeidiì-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
8. Π·žɦeidiì-
*žɦ → ž
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *žɦ
Ržɦ›ž → OLith. Π·žeid-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
Lith. žalt-
(c.) ‘Schlange, Natter’
(LiEtWb. 1288-9)
1. PIE *gi̯oɦɑltihɑ́-
PIE *iḫɑ́ → iḫí
Distant assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
RiHɑ́›iHí → *gi̯oɦɑltihí-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. gi̯oɦɑltihí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gi̯oɦltihí-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gi̯oɦltihí-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *j́oɦltihí-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. j́oɦltihí-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *j́oɦltihì-
5. j́oɦltihì-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *j́oltihì-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. j́oltihì-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *j́oltiì-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. j́oltiì-
iì → ĩ
Contraction of iì into ĩ
Riì›ĩ → *j́oltĩ-
8. j́oltĩ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *j́altĩ-
9. j́altĩ-
*j́ → ž
From Satem *j́ to ž
Rj́›ž → Lith. žaltĩ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
OPr. kogona·santle-
(ONf.) ‘Grenzmal des/der Kogona’
(LiEtWb. 1300-1)
(OPr. kogonassantle)
1. PIE *Π·gi̯oɦɑntlēhɑ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·gi̯oɦntlēh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·gi̯oɦntlēh
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *Π·j́oɦntlēh
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·j́oɦntlēh
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·j́ontlēh
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·j́ontlēh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·j́ontlē
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·j́ontlē
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·j́antlē
6. Π·j́antlē
*j́ → ž
From Satem *j́ to ž
Rj́›ž → *Π·žantlē
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. Π·žantlē
*z → s
Devoicing of assibilant z
Rž›s → *Π·santlē
8. Π·santlē
*ē → ī
Change of *ē into ī
Rē›ī → OPr. Π·santlī
gAv. hu·zǝ̄ntu-
(a.) ‘der gute Kunde hat von, wohlvertraut ist mit’
(AIWb. 1839)
1. PIE *su·gi̯oɦɑntu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *su·gi̯oɦntu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. su·gi̯oɦntu-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *su·j́oɦntu-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. su·j́oɦntu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su·j́aɦntu-
4. su·j́aɦntu-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *su·j́antu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. su·j́antu-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hu·j́antu-
6. hu·j́antu-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → gAv. hu·zantu-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
gAv. hao·ząϑwa-
(n.) ‘Wohlvertrautheit, Wissendheit’
(AIWb. 1738)
1. PIE *seu·gi̯oɦɑntu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seu·gi̯oɦntu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. seu·gi̯oɦntu̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *seu·j́oɦntu̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. seu·j́oɦntu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *seu·j́aɦntu̯a-
4. seu·j́aɦntu̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *seu·j́antu̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. seu·j́antu̯a-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *heu·j́antu̯a-
6. heu·j́antu̯a-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *heu·zantu̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
7. heu·zantu̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *hau·zantu̯a-
8. hau·zantu̯a-
*au → ao
Opening of *au
Rau›ao → *hao·zantu̯a-
9. hao·zantu̯a-
*tR → ϑR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
RtR›ϑR → *hao·zanϑu̯a-
10. hao·zanϑu̯a-
*ϑu̯ -› ϑβ
Softening of ϑu̯ into ϑβ
Ru̯›β → gAv. hao·zanϑβa-
OIcl. æla-
(vb.) ‘schnell strömen’
(ANEtWb. 681)
1. PIE *ēlɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēlhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēlhi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ēli̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. ēli̯o-
*ēRC → eRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ēRC
RēRC›eRC → *eli̯o-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
4. eli̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eli̯a-
5. eli̯a-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *ili̯a-
6. ili̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → OIcl. ilja-
LinB. ἐ·λεφαντ-
(m.) ‘elephant’
(GEW 1:493-4)
(LinB. e-re-pa [sgN], e-re-pa-to [sgG])
1. PIE *e·leɦɑbɑɦeɑhnt-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *e·leɦɑbɑɦaɑhnt-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. e·leɦɑbɑɦaɑhnt-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *e·leɦbɦahnt-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. e·leɦbɦahnt-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *e·lebɦahnt-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. e·lebɦahnt-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *e·lebɦant-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. e·lebɦant-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *e·lephant-
6. e·lephant-
*ph → p
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *ph
Rph›p → *e·lepant-
7. e·lepant-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. ἐ·λεπαντ-
LinB. ἐ·λεφαντεjο-
(a.) ‘made of ivory’
(DMycGr. 393)
(LinB. e-re-pa-te-jo)
1. PIE *e·leɦɑbɑɦeɑhntei̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *e·leɦɑbɑɦaɑhntei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. e·leɦɑbɑɦaɑhntei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *e·leɦbɦahntei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. e·leɦbɦahntei̯o-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *e·lebɦahntei̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. e·lebɦahntei̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *e·lebɦantei̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. e·lebɦantei̯o-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *e·lephantei̯o-
6. e·lephantei̯o-
*ph → p
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *ph
Rph›p → *e·lepantei̯o-
7. e·lepantei̯o-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *e·lepantejo-
8. e·lepantejo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. ἐ·λεπαντεjο-
Gr. λιάζο-
(vbM.) ‘hinsinken, ausweichen, weggehen’
(GEW 2: 119)
(Gr. λιάζομαι [1sg])
1. PIE *liséɑɦsdo-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *lisáɑɦsdo-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. lisáɑɦsdo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lisáɦsdo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lisáɦsdo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *lisásdo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lisásdo-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *lihásdo-
5. lihásdo-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *liásdo-
6. liásdo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. λιάσδο-
TochA. lyäm-
(pret.) ‘sitzen’
(LIV2:411)
(TochA. lyäm)
1. PIE *lem-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *li̯am-
2. li̯am-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochA. lyam-
OIr. lām-
(f.) ‘Hand’
(DIL. 419)
(Grundr2 1:479; also Corn. lof, Cymr. llaw)
1. PIE *lōmēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lōmāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lōmāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lōmāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lōmāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lōmā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lōmā
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *lāmā
5. lāmā
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *lama
6. lama
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OIr. lam
Lyd. lef-
(dc.) ‘Zeus’
(AHPh. 334)
(Lyd. lefś [sgN])
1. PIE *lep-
PIE *p → b
Orthographic change of *p into b
Rp›b → Lyd. leb-
TochB. lare·ṣa-
(a.) ‘dear, beloved’
(DTochB. 548)
(TochB. lareṣṣe)
1. PIE *loroi·si̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *larai·si̯a-
2. larai·si̯a-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
Rsi̯›ṣ → *larai·ṣa-
3. larai·ṣa-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *larē·ṣa-
4. larē·ṣa-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. lare·ṣa-
Russ. ládi-
(vb.) ‘passen, stimmen usw.’
(LiEtWb. 328)
(Russ. ládit’ [inf.])
1. PIE *lṓdɑɦiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *lṓdɑɦiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. lṓdɑɦiíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lṓdɦiíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lṓdɦiíh-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *lā́dɦiíh-
4. lā́dɦiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lā́dɦií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. lā́dɦií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *lā́dɦī́-
6. lā́dɦī́-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *lā́dī́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. lā́dī́-
*ā́ → a
Change of *ā́ into á
Rā́›á → *ládī́-
8. ládī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → Russ. ládí-
OCS. ladijica-
(f.) ‘Schifflein’
(REW 2:52)
1. PIE *oldɑɦeii̯eikuɑhi̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *oldɑɦeii̯eikuɑhi̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. oldɑɦeii̯eikuɑhi̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oldɦeii̯eikuhi̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. oldɦeii̯eikuhi̯āh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aldɦeii̯eikuhi̯āh-
4. aldɦeii̯eikuhi̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aldɦeii̯eikui̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. aldɦeii̯eikui̯ā-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *aldɦeii̯eiki̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. aldɦeii̯eiki̯ā-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *aldeii̯eiki̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. aldeii̯eiki̯ā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *oldeii̯eiki̯ā-
8. oldeii̯eiki̯ā-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *oldīi̯īki̯ā-
9. oldīi̯īki̯ā-
*old → lād
Slavic metathesis of old to lād
Rold›lād → *lādīi̯īki̯ā-
10. lādīi̯īki̯ā-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *lādījīkjā-
11. lādījīkjā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *ladījīkja-
12. ladījīkja-
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. ladijikja-
Lith. meisa-
(f.) ‘Fleisch: meat’
(LiEtWb. 427)
1. PIE *meisēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *meisāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. meisāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *meisāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. meisāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *meisā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. meisā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *meisō
(XX:XX)
5. meisō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *meisa
6. meisa
*ei -> ie
Change of *ei into ie
Rei›ie → Lith. miesa
Gr. μει·αγωγό-
(m.) ‘der das Kleinvieh auf die Waage bringt’
(GEW 2:195)
(Gr. μειαγωγός)
1. PIE *meis·ɦɑegi̯oɦɑegi̯ó-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *meis·ɦɑagi̯oɦɑagi̯ó-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. meis·ɦɑagi̯oɦɑagi̯ó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *meis·ɦagi̯oɦagi̯ó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. meis·ɦagi̯oɦagi̯ó-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *meis·ɦaǵoɦaǵó-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. meis·ɦaǵoɦaǵó-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *meis·aǵoaǵó-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. meis·aǵoaǵó-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *meis·agoagó-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. meis·agoagó-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *meih·agoagó-
7. meih·agoagó-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *mei·agoagó-
8. mei·agoagó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μει·αγοαγό-
Gr. μει·αγωγέο-
(cs.A.) ‘das Kleinvieh auf die Waage bringen’
(GEW 2:195)
(Gr. μειαγωγέω)
1. PIE *meis·ɦɑegi̯oɦɑegi̯éi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *meis·ɦɑagi̯oɦɑagi̯éi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. meis·ɦɑagi̯oɦɑagi̯éi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *meis·ɦagi̯oɦagi̯éi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. meis·ɦagi̯oɦagi̯éi̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *meis·ɦaǵoɦaǵéi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. meis·ɦaǵoɦaǵéi̯o-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *meis·aǵoaǵéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. meis·aǵoaǵéi̯o-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *meis·agoagéi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. meis·agoagéi̯o-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *meih·agoagéi̯o-
7. meih·agoagéi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *meih·agoagéo-
8. meih·agoagéo-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *mei·agoagéo-
9. mei·agoagéo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μει·αγοαγέο-
CLu. malli-
(fc.) ‘(auteur de rituel, arzawienne)’
(NOMS. 726)
(in Hitt. ma-al-li-i)
1. PIE *molni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. malni-
CLu. malli-
(n.) ‘Honig’ (HEG M:208)
(DLL. 66)
(CLu. ma-al-li [sgN])
1. PIE *molni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. malni-
Russ. moloví-
(vb.) ‘scheinen, vorkommen’
(REW 2:150)
(Rus. molovít’ [inf.])
1. PIE *molu̯iɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *molu̯iíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. molu̯iíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malu̯iíh-
3. malu̯iíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *malu̯ií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. malu̯ií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *malu̯ī́-
5. malu̯ī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *molu̯ī́-
6. molu̯ī́-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *molvī́-
7. molvī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → Russ. molví-
Lith. mel̃d-
(pr.) ‘bitten, beten’
(LiEtWb. 431)
(Lith. mel̃sti [inf.])
1. PIE *meldɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *meldɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. meldɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → Lith. meld-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
OEng. meld-
(f.) ‘declaration, proclamation’
(ASaxD. 677)
1. PIE *meldɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *meldɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. meldɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *meld-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. meld-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → OEng. mild-
OSax. meldō-
(vb.) ‘declare, betray, proclaim’
(ASaxD. 677)
1. PIE *meldɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *meldɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. meldɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *meldɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. meldɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *meldɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. meldɦā-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *meldā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. meldā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *meldō-
(XX:XX)
6. meldō-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → OSax. mildō-
OEng. melda-
(vb.) ‘announce, declare’
(ASaxD. 677)
1. PIE *meldɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *meldɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. meldɦo-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *meldo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. meldo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *melda-
4. melda-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → OEng. milda-
OEng. meldia-
(vb.) ‘declare, announce, tell: verkünden’
(ASaxD. 677)
1. PIE *meldɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *meldɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. meldɦi̯o-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *meldi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. meldi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *meldi̯a-
4. meldi̯a-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *mildi̯a-
5. mildi̯a-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OEng. mildia-
gAv. mǝ̄n-
(ao.M.) ‘denken, meinen sich vorstellen’
(AIWb. 1121)
1. PIE *men-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → gAv. man-
OIr. muini-
(pr.) ‘vient’
(LEIA M-35)
(OIr. muinithir [3sg])
1. PIE *mone-
one -> oine
Anaptyxis *one to oine
Rone›oine → *moine-
2. moine-
R=e-›=i- → OIr. moini-
Umbr. ku·mnāh·clo-
(sb.) ‘in conventu’
(WbOU. 414-5)
(Umbr. kumnahkle)
1. PIE *Π·mnēɑh·klo-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·mnāɑh·klo-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·mnāɑh·klo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·mnāh·klo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·mnāh·klo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·mnā·klo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·mnā·klo-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Umbr. Π·mnā·clo-
Lith. mãž·mena-
(f.) ‘kleine Menge’
(LiEtWb. 422)
1. PIE *mɦɑégi·meno-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *mɦɑági·meno-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. mɦɑági·meno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mɦági·meno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mɦági·meno-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *mɦáj́·meno-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. mɦáj́·meno-
á → à
Emergence of gravis PLith. à
RLiAcc1 → *mɦàj́·meno-
5. mɦàj́·meno-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *màj́·meno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. màj́·meno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *màj́·mena-
7. màj́·mena-
*j́ → ž
From Satem *j́ to ž
Rj́›ž → Lith. màž·mena-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
CLu. matu-
(n.) ‘Traubensaft, Honigwein’
(DLL. 70)
(CLu. ma-ad-du [sgN], HHand. 103; CLu. -dd-)
1. PIE *modɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *modɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. modɦu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *madɦu-
3. madɦu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. madu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. matu-
(a.) ‘süß’
(HEG M:165)
(CLu. ma-ad-du; CLu. -dd-)
1. PIE *modɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *modɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. modɦu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *madɦu-
3. madɦu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. madu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OIcl. moð-
(n.) ‘Same, Frucht; Heuabfall’
(ANEtWb. 391)
1. PIE *muto
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *muþo
2. muþo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *muþa
3. muþa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *muþ
4. muþ
*þ → ð
Change of þ into ð
R=þ›=ð → OIcl. muð
OIr. nāire-
(f.) ‘shame, nobility, modesty’
(DIL. 474)
1. PIE *nḗɑhsri̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *nḗɑhsri̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. nḗɑhsri̯āɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *nā́ɑhsri̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. nā́ɑhsri̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nā́hsri̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. nā́hsri̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nā́sri̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. nā́sri̯ā
*sr → r
Loss of *s before r
Rsr›r → *nā́ri̯ā
6. nā́ri̯ā
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *nā́ri̯a
7. nā́ri̯a
*i̯o/i̯a -›ē
Monophthongization of final -i̯o/i̯a into -ē
R=i̯V›=ē → *nā́rē
8. nā́rē
*-ē → -e
Shortening of ē in root-final position
R=ē›=e → *nā́re
9. nā́re
Rā́›ā → OIr. nāre
OIr. ā·ine
(f.) ‘wit’
(DIL. 18, 141-2)
1. PIE *ō·ni̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ō·ni̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ō·ni̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ō·ni̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ō·ni̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ō·ni̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ō·ni̯ā
*ōRC → oRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ōRC
RōRC›oRC → *o·ni̯ā
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. o·ni̯ā
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *o·ni̯a
6. o·ni̯a
*i̯o/i̯a -›ē
Monophthongization of final -i̯o/i̯a into -ē
R=i̯V›=ē → *o·nē
7. o·nē
*-ē → -e
Shortening of ē in root-final position
R=ē›=e → OIr. o·ne
TochB. nrai·ṣa-
(a.) ‘hellish’ (n.) ‘denizen of hell’
(DTochB. 351)
(TochB. nraiṣṣe)
1. PIE *nrōi·si̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nrōi·si̯a-
2. nrōi·si̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *nrāi·si̯a-
3. nrāi·si̯a-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
Rsi̯›ṣ → *nrāi·ṣa-
4. nrāi·ṣa-
āi → ai
Orthographic change of āi into ai
Rāi›ai → TochB. nrai·ṣa-
Lat. dom·ino-
(m.) ‘Hausherr’
(WH. 1:367)
(Lat. dominus)
MidIr. nīam-
(f.) ‘Glanz, Schönheit’
(DIL. 478f.)
(LEIA N-16; MidIr. niam [N], nēime [G], nēim [D])
1. PIE *nēimēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *nēimāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. nēimāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nēimāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nēimāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nēimā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. nēimā
*ēRC → eRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ēRC
RēRC›eRC → *neimā
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. neimā
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → *nēmā
6. nēmā
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *nēma
7. nēma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → MidIr. nēm
OIr. nīama-
(vb.) ‘faire briller’
(LEIA N-16)
(OIr. nīamaid [3sg])
1. PIE *nēimēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *nēimāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. nēimāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nēimāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nēimāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nēimā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. nēimā-
*ēRC → eRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ēRC
RēRC›eRC → *neimā-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. neimā-
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → *nēmā-
6. nēmā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OIr. nēma-
OCS. ǫ·dolь
(f.) ‘Tal’
(Sadnik √625+157)
1. PIE *on·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *an·Σ
2. an·Σ
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → OCS. on·Σ
OCS. ǫ·troba
(f.) ‘Mutter-, Unterleib, das Innere; κοιλία’
(Sadnik √625)
1. PIE *on·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *an·Σ
2. an·Σ
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → OCS. on·Σ
OCS. ǫ·trь
(adv.) ‘εἴσω: innen, herein, innerlich’
(Sadnik √625)
1. PIE *on·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *an·Σ
2. an·Σ
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → OCS. on·Σ
Gr. νενώπη-
(pf.) ‘= τεταπείνωται’
(GEW 2:600)
1. PIE *nenṓɑhku̯ē-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nenṓhku̯ē-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. nenṓhku̯ē-
*ku/u̯ → t
Palatalization of labiovelar *ku/u̯
RkU›tFr → *nenṓhtē-
3. nenṓhtē-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nenṓtē-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. nenṓtē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. νενώτη-
Gr. προνωπήσ-
(a.) ‘vorwärts gebeugt, geneigt’
(GEW 2:600)
(DELG 941)
1. PIE *pronōɑhku̯ḗs-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pronōhku̯ḗs-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pronōhku̯ḗs-
*ku/u̯ → t
Palatalization of labiovelar *ku/u̯
RkU›tFr → *pronōhtḗs-
3. pronōhtḗs-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pronōtḗs-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pronōtḗs-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. προνωτήσ-
Latv. nikâ-
(vb.) ‘Grütze in einer Mulde schwingen’
(GEW 2:123)
(‹Latv. iẽ → PIE *eihɑ›)
1. PIE *neihɑkḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *neihɑkā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. neihɑkā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *neihkā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. neihkā́h-
*ā́H → âH
Latvian tone rule for *ā́h
RAccLatv3 → *neihkâh-
4. neihkâh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *neikâ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. neikâ-
*ei -> ie
Change of *ei into ie
Rei›ie → Latv. niekâ-
TochB. ñäkta-
(m.) ‘Skt. deva-’
(DTochB. 263)
(TochB. ñäktetsä = Skt. devānām)
1. PIE *nekito-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *neḱto-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. neḱto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *neḱta-
3. neḱta-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *ni̯aḱta-
4. ni̯aḱta-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *ni̯akta-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. ni̯akta-
*ni̯ → ñ
Palatalization of *n before i̯
Rni̯›ñ → TochB. ñakta-
gAv. vi·nǝnās-
(pf.) ‘dem Untergang verfallen sein’
(AIWb. 1055-6)
(gAv. vi.nǝnāsā [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·nenēki-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *Π·nenēć-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. Π·nenēć-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *Π·nenēs-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
3. Π·nenēs-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *Π·nanēs-
4. Π·nanēs-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → gAv. Π·nanās-
Lat. noct-
(f.) ‘Nacht’ (GEW 2:327f., 3:157f.)
(WH. 2:181-3)
(Lat. nox, noctis)
1. PIE *nokut-
* ku/u̯ → q
Emergence of labiovelar q
RkU›q → *noqt-
2. noqt-
q → qu
Orthographic change of q to qu
Rq›qu → Lat. noqut-
OHG. niot-
(a.) ‘angenehm: pleasant, agreeable’
(WH. 1065)
1. PIE *neudɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *neudɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. neudɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *neudo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. neudo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *neuda
4. neuda
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *niuda
5. niuda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *niud
6. niud
*d → t
OHG sound shift of *d
Rd›tHG → OHG. niut
OHG. niot-
(m.) ‘Verlangen, Begierde, Sehnsucht’
(N. + Gl.)
(Lat. amor N, aviditas N, cupiditas N, cupido N, desiderium Gl)
1. PIE *neudɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *neudɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. neudɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *neudo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. neudo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *neuda
4. neuda
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *niuda
5. niuda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *niud
6. niud
*d → t
OHG sound shift of *d
Rd›tHG → OHG. niut
TochA. pai-
(PN.?) ‘-(?)-’
(Poucha 188)
(from *pāyi-?, cf. OInd. pāyika- ‘footman, footsoldier’)
1. PIE *pōi
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *pāi
2. pāi
*āiC → aiC
Osthoff’s Law for āiC
RāiC›aiC → *pai
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
3. pai
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *pē
4. pē
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochA. pe
OIcl. for-
(a.) ‘hastig, eilig’
(ANEtWb. 139)
(OIcl. forr: but cf. *furha- in Beitr. 2:960)
1. PIE *puro-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›fRestr → *furo-
2. furo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. fura-
Gr. ὀπίσσω
(adv.) ‘nach hinten, hernach’
(GEW 2:404)
(Gr. ὀπίσσω)
1. PIE *opídɑɦi̯ō-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *opídɦi̯ō-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. opídɦi̯ō-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *opíjɦō-
3. opíjɦō-
*jɦ → ch
Loss of voice of media aspirata *jɦ
Rjɦ›ch → *opíchō-
4. opíchō-
*c → s
Change of *c into s
Rc›s → *opíshō-
5. opíshō-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὀπίσhω-
OIcl. aptan-
(m.) ‘Abend’
(ANEtWb. 11)
(OIcl. aptann [sgN])
1. PIE *opton-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *opþon-
2. opþon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *apþan-
3. apþan-
*þ → ð
Change of þ into ð
R=þ›=ð → OIcl. apðan-
OIcl. aptr
(adv.) ‘zurück, wiederum’
(ANEtWb. 11)
1. PIE *optro
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *opþro
2. opþro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *apþra
3. apþra
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *apþr
4. apþr
*þ → ð
Change of þ into ð
R=þ›=ð → OIcl. apðr
OLFrank. avond-
(adv.) ‘Abend’
(MNPs)
(OLFrank. avont [sgD]: vespere 54, 18 Berlin; Son.)
1. PIE *opundɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *opundɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. opundɦ-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *ofundɦ-
3. ofundɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ofund-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. ofund-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *afund-
5. afund-
*afu → -avu
Change of f into v between vowels
Rafu›avu → OLFrank. avund-
TochA. päsnā-
(pr.M.) ‘devouring’ (DTochB. 400)
(Poucha 179)
(TochA. ///mäl ṣeṣ camyo talke ypamāṃ kosmāṃ päsnāmāṃ [pt.sgN] tämyo.)
1. PIE *bɑɦosnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *bɑɦosnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. bɑɦosnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦosnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. bɦosnāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦasnāh-
4. bɦasnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *bɦasnā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. bɦasnā-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *basnā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. basnā-
*b → p
Loss of voice of media *b
Rb›p → TochA. pasnā-
Arm. la-
(ao.) ‘einfallen: collapse’
(ArmGr. 1:501)
(Arm. pʼlay)
1. PIE *pɑhlēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pɑhlāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pɑhlāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *phlāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. phlāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *phlā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. phlā-
*ph → pʼ
Glottalization of *ph
Rph›p' → *p'lā-
5. p'lā-
*p- → h-
Change of *p- into h-
Rp=›h= → *h'lā-
6. h'lā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Arm. h'la-
Arm. la·ni-
(pr.) ‘einfallen: collapse’
(ArmGr. 1:501)
(Arm. pʼlanim [1sg])
1. PIE *pɑhlēɑh·Σ
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pɑhlāɑh·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pɑhlāɑh·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *phlāh·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. phlāh·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *phlā·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. phlā·Σ
*ph → pʼ
Glottalization of *ph
Rph›p' → *p'lā·Σ
5. p'lā·Σ
*p- → h-
Change of *p- into h-
Rp=›h= → *h'lā·Σ
6. h'lā·Σ
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Arm. h'la·Σ
OEng. fealla-
(vb.) ‘fall (down), fail’
(ASaxD. 271)
1. PIE *poɑhlno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pohlno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pohlno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *polno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. polno-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *folno-
4. folno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *falna-
5. falna-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → OEng. falla-
Gr. πρ-
(n.) ‘Feuer’
(Gr. πῦρ [sgNA])
1. PIE *pɑ́hur
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *púhur
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. púhur
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *púur
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. púur
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *pū́r
4. pū́r
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πύ̄ρ
Lith. pìlė-
(f.2.) ‘Burg, Schloß, Stadt’
(LiEtWb. 591)
(Lith. pìlė)
1. PIE *pílēhɑ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pílēh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pílēh
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *pìlēh
3. pìlēh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pìlē
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pìlē
ìlē -› ĩlē
Circumflex intonation ì -› ĩ
Rìlē›ĩlē → *pĩlē
5. pĩlē
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → Lith. pĩ
TochA. palyäṣ-
(pret.A.) ‘extingui’
(Poucha 175)
(TochA. palyäṣt)
1. PIE *polɑhi̯osi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *polhi̯osi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. polhi̯osi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palhi̯asi-
3. palhi̯asi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pali̯asi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pali̯asi-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
Rsi›ṣ → *pali̯aṣ-
5. pali̯aṣ-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochA. palyaṣ-
TochA. papärs-
(pret.A.) ‘adspergere, spargere’
(Poucha 174)
(TochA. papärss [3sg], papärsār [3pl])
1. PIE *popors-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. papars-
TochA. pam·pärs-
(pret.A.) ‘adspergere, spargere’
(Poucha 174)
(TochA. paṃpärs [3sg])
1. PIE *pompors-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. pampars-
Pal. pari·parai-
(vb.) ‘blasen’ (CHD P:133f.)
(HHand. 122)
(Pal. pa-ri-pa-ra-a-i [3sg] ‹but note -p- instead of -pp- against Sturtevant’s law›)
1. PIE *poriporoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. pariparai-
Hitt. pari·parai-
(vb.) ‘blasen’
(HIL. 730)
(Hitt. pa-ri-pa-ra-a-i, pa-ri-pa-ra-an-zi ‹but note -p- instead of -pp- against Sturtevant’s law›)
1. PIE *poriporoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pariparai-
Lith. priẽ
(prep.) ‘bei, an, zu’
(LiEtWb. 652f.)
(Lith. priẽ)
TochA. päs-
(pr.pt.M.) ‘fundere, spargere’
(Poucha 179)
(TochA. päsmāṃ)
1. PIE *pos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. pas-
TochA. päs-
(pr.A.) ‘fundere, spargere: ausgießen, besprengen’
(Poucha 179)
(TochA. (w)rä päṣ SSS 6)
1. PIE *pos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. pas-
TochA. psäl-
(sb.) ‘das Ausgießen, das Besprengen ‹or ‘husk, chaff’, see →›’
(DTochB. 389)
(TochA. psäl, SSS 6)
1. PIE *psolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. psala-
OLith. at·petãvima-
(m.) ‘Vergeltung, Rache’
(ALiEtWb. A:61)
(OLith. atpetãvimas [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·petóu̯imo-
ó → ò
Emergence of gravis PLith. ò
RLiAcc5 → *Π·petòu̯imo-
2. Π·petòu̯imo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·petòu̯ima-
3. Π·petòu̯ima-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OLith. Π·petòvima-
OLith. at·pėtãvima-
(m.) ‘Vergeltung, Rache’
(ALiEtWb. A:61)
(OLith. atpėtãvimas [sgNA])
1. PIE *Π·pētóu̯imo-
ó → ò
Emergence of gravis PLith. ò
RLiAcc5 → *Π·pētòu̯imo-
2. Π·pētòu̯imo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·pētòu̯ima-
3. Π·pētòu̯ima-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *Π·pētòvima-
4. Π·pētòvima-
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → OLith. Π·pėtòvima-
Lat. polleo-
(vb.) ‘stark sein, vermögen’
(WH. 2:341)
(Lat. polleō, pollēre)
1. PIE *potlei̯o-
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
Rei̯o›eo → Lat. potleo-
Lith. pãda-
(m.) ‘Fuß-, Stiefelsohle, Schienenfuß’
(LiEtWb. 521)
(Lith. pãdas [sgN])
1. PIE *pódo-
ó → ò
Emergence of gravis PLith. ò
RLiAcc5 → *pòdo-
2. pòdo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pòda-
3. pòda-
PIE *ò → à
Change of *ò into à
Rò›à → Lith. pàda-
Lat. acu·pedio-
(a.) ‘schnellfüßig’
(WH. 1:11)
1. PIE *hɑeki̯u·pedi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaki̯u·pedi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaki̯u·pedi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haki̯u·pedi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haki̯u·pedi̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *haḱu·pedi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. haḱu·pedi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aḱu·pedi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. aḱu·pedi̯o-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *aku·pedi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. aku·pedi̯o-
* ku/u̯ → q
Emergence of labiovelar q
RkU›q → *aq·pedi̯o-
7. aq·pedi̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → *aq·pedio-
8. aq·pedio-
q → qu
Orthographic change of q to qu
Rq›qu → Lat. aqu·pedio-
Lith. pãda-
(m.) ‘Dreschboden, Dreschtenne’
(LiEtWb. 521)
(Lith. pãdas [sgN])
1. PIE *pódo-
ó → ò
Emergence of gravis PLith. ò
RLiAcc5 → *pòdo-
2. pòdo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pòda-
3. pòda-
PIE *ò → à
Change of *ò into à
Rò›à → Lith. pàda-
OCS. prŭtŭ-
(m.) ‘Docht’
(Sadnik √726 [diff.])
(PSlav. *pŭrto-)
1. PIE *purto
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *purta
2. purta
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *purto
3. purto
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *purtu
4. purtu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. pŭr
OCS. prŭt·ištĭ-
(m.) ‘Lappen, Fetzen’
(Sadnik √726 [diff.])
1. PIE *purt·Σ
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. pŭrt·Σ
Hitt. purutei̯šar-
(n.) ‘Bauwerk’
(HHand. 136)
(Hitt. [p]u-ru-ut-te-e[š-šar?])
1. PIE *puruteisor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *puruteisar-
2. puruteisar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. puruteišar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯aš·banta·ši-
(a.gen.) ‘Garderobe’
(HHand. 198)
1. PIE *u̯os·bɑɦnto·si-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯os·bɦnto·si-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯os·bɦnto·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯as·bɦnta·si-
3. u̯as·bɦnta·si-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *u̯as·bnta·si-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. u̯as·bnta·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯aš·bnta·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lyd. b-
(pers.pron.) ‘he, she’
(LydWb. 78)
(Lyd. b-λ ‘to him’, AHPh. 264)
1. PIE *bɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦa
3. bɦa
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ba
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ba
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *b
5. b
PIE *b → f
Orthographic change of *b into f
Rb›f → Lyd. f
Lyd. bi-
(pers.pron.) ‘er/sie: (s)he’
(LydWb. 78)
(Lyd. bis [sgN], AHPh. 356)
1. PIE *bɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *bi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. bi-
PIE *b → f
Orthographic change of *b into f
Rb›f → Lyd. fi-
Lyd. bil-
(a.) ‘eius’
(LydWb. 78)
1. PIE *bɑɦilo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦilo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦilo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦila-
3. bɦila-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *bila-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. bila-
PIE *b → f
Orthographic change of *b into f
Rb›f → Lyd. fila-
Lyd. bu-
(pers.pron.) ‘er/sie: (s)he’
(LydWb. 78)
(Lyd. buλ ‘him’)
1. PIE *bɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *bu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. bu-
PIE *b → f
Orthographic change of *b into f
Rb›f → Lyd. fu-
Arm. boyl-
(sb.pl) ‘Pleiades’
(EtDiArm. 185)
(MidArm. boyl)
1. PIE *bɑɦoilò
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦoilò
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦoilò
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *boilò
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. boilò
*o → Ø
Loss of *ò
Rò›0 → Arm. boil
Latv. buog-
(m.) ‘dichte Menge, Schar, Baumgruppe’
(LiEtWb. 34)
1. PIE *bɑɦongu̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦongu̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦongu̯o
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *bɦongo
(SPIE §4.8.3)
3. bɦongo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦanga
4. bɦanga
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *banga
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. banga
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Latv. bang
Latv. buoga-
(f.) ‘dichte Menge, Schar, Baumgruppe’
(LiEtWb. 34)
1. PIE *bɑɦongu̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *bɑɦongu̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. bɑɦongu̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦongu̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. bɦongu̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *bɦongu̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. bɦongu̯ā
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *bɦongā
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. bɦongā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦangā
6. bɦangā
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *bangā
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. bangā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → Latv. banga
Goth. barizein-
(a.) ‘gersten: of barley: κρίθινος: hordeaceus’
(GoEtD. B26)
(Goth. barizeinam [plD] Joh 6,13 CA, barizeinans [plA] Joh 6,9 CA, HbGo. 154,2)
1. PIE *bɦɑeriseino
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *bɦɑariseino
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. bɦɑariseino
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦariseino
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. bɦariseino
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *bariseino
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. bariseino
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bariseina
5. bariseina
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *barisīna
6. barisīna
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *barisīn
7. barisīn
*ī → ei
Orthographic change of *ī into ei
Rī›ei → Goth. barisein
TochB. era-
(m.sg) ‘appearance, colour’
(DTochB. 93)
(TochB. ere ‹for the semantics cf. Skt. rūpa›)
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochB. ara-
TochB. ere·patent-
(m.sg) ‘Form’
(DTochB. 93-4)
(TochB. erepatenta [plA], LeTokh. 1:149)
1. PIE *oroi·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arai·Σ
2. arai·Σ
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *arē·Σ
3. arē·Σ
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. are·Σ
TochA. arän-
(m.) ‘vultus, frons: aspect, apparence’
(Poucha 9)
(TochA. aräṃ [sgN])
1. PIE *orono
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arana
2. arana
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → TochA. aran
TochA. arän·pāt-
(sb.) ‘statura, figura: Skt. rūpa-’
(Poucha 9)
(TochA. arämpāt [sgObl], arämpātäntu [plA])
1. PIE *oron·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. aran·Σ
TochA. arän·pātṣi-
(a.) ‘staturae, figurae’
(Poucha 9)
(TochA. arämpāt ṣi, LeTokh. 1:149)
1. PIE *oron·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. aran·Σ
TochA. sne·arän·pātum-
(a.) ‘staturae, figurae’
(Poucha 9-10)
1. PIE *Π·oron·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. Π·aran·Σ
TochB. ersna-
(f.pl.tant.) ‘form’
(DTochB. 96)
(TochB. ersna [plNA])
1. PIE *orsneɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *orsnaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. orsnaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orsnah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. orsnah-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsnah-
4. arsnah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. arsna-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
TochB. ersnā·ssa-
(a.) ‘well-formed, pleasing, handsome, beautiful’
(DTochB. 96)
(TochB. ersnāsse-)
1. PIE *orsnēɑh·sso-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *orsnāɑh·sso-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. orsnāɑh·sso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orsnāh·sso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. orsnāh·sso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsnāh·ssa-
4. arsnāh·ssa-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. arsnā·ssa-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
TochB. ersnā·ṣa-
(a.) ‘prtng to form’
(DTochB. 96)
(TochB. ersnāṣṣe)
1. PIE *orsnēɑh·si̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *orsnāɑh·si̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. orsnāɑh·si̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orsnāh·si̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. orsnāh·si̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsnāh·si̯a-
4. arsnāh·si̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *arsnā·si̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. arsnā·si̯a-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
Rsi̯›ṣ → TochB. arsnā·ṣa-
OSax. av·aru·n-
(m.) ‘Nachkomme, Kind: offspring, child’
(Hel. 491M)
(OSax. auarun [plD] H 491 M)
1. PIE *Π·oru·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·aru·n-
2. Π·aru·n-
R=un-›=on- → OSax. Π·aro·n-
TochB. sw·arauñña-
(sb.) ‘sweetness’
(DTochB. 726)
(TochB. swarauññe)
1. PIE *su̯·orōuni̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su̯·arōuni̯a-
2. su̯·arōuni̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *su̯·arāuni̯a-
3. su̯·arāuni̯a-
*ni̯ → ñ
Palatalization of *n before i̯
Rni̯›ñ → *su̯·arāuña-
4. su̯·arāuña-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → *su̯·arauña-
5. su̯·arauña-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. sw·arauña-
Oss. ā·rāzu-
(vb.) ‘errichten’
(EWA 2:425)
(Oss. ārāzun [inf.], (Iron) аразын, (Digor) аразун)
1. PIE *o·reɦɑgi̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·reɦgi̯u-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·reɦgi̯u-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *o·reɦj́u-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. o·reɦj́u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·reɦj́u-
4. a·reɦj́u-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *a·rej́u-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. a·rej́u-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *a·rezu-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
6. a·rezu-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *a·razu-
7. a·razu-
*u → w
Orthographic change of *u into w
Ru›w → *a·razw-
8. a·razw-
*a → '
Orthographic change of *a into '
Ra›' → Oss. '·r'zw-
TochA. arä-
(pr.A.) ‘producere, procreare’
(Poucha 8)
(TochA. aräṣ, arässi [inf.])
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. ara-
OIcl. err-
(n.) ‘Narbe’
(IEW 338)
1. PIE *orsi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. arsi-
OIcl. erra·n-
(f.) ‘Kampflust’
(ANEtWb. 105)
1. PIE *orsio·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. arsia·n-
LAv. arǝšyant-
(a.) ‘neidisch, misgünstig’
(AIWb. 206)
(Benveniste 1932b:139)
1. PIE *orsi̯ont-
PIE *rs → rš
Ruki-rule for *rs
RRukiIr → *orši̯ont-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. orši̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arši̯ant-
3. arši̯ant-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. aršyant-
gAv. ǝrǝši-
(f.) ‘Neid’
(AIWb. 356)
(gAv. ǝrǝšiš [sgN])
1. PIE *r̥si-
PIE *rs → rš
Ruki-rule for *rs
RRukiIr → *r̥ši-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. r̥ši-
*r̥ → ǝr
Change of *r̥ into ǝr
Rr̥›ǝr → gAv. ǝrši-
OEng. arod-
(a.) ‘flink, schnell: swift, fleet’
(ASaxD. 51)
(‹IEW 331, is OHG. arod a ghost form?›)
1. PIE *orudɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orudɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orudɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *orudo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. orudo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aruda
4. aruda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *arud
5. arud
*a → ea
Change of *a into ea
Ra=›ea= → OEng. earud
Lat. ōminā-
(pr.1.M.) ‘wünschen an, weissagen’
(WH. 2:208)
1. PIE *ōsmènēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ōsmènāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ōsmènāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ōsmènāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ōsmènāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. ōsmènā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. ab·ōminā-
(pr.1.M.) ‘verwünschen, verabscheuen’
(WH. 2:208)
(Lat. abōminor [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·ōsmènēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·ōsmènāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·ōsmènāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ōsmènāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·ōsmènāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. Π·ōsmènā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Latv. sèja-
(vb.) ‘binden, knüpfen’
(LiEtWb. 783)
(Latv. sèju [1sg])
1. PIE *sɑhéi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shéi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *séi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. séi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *séi̯a-
4. séi̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Latv. séja-
LAv. u·ša-
(a.) ‘der Vieh in seinen Besitz bringt, Viehbesitzer’
(AIWb. 1030)
(LAv. fšušō, fšušasča, fšušǝmča [sgA])
1. PIE *pki̯u·seɑh
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *pki̯u·saɑh
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. pki̯u·saɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pki̯u·sah
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pki̯u·sah
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiIr → *pki̯u·šah
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. pki̯u·šah
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *pću·šah
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. pću·šah
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pću·ša
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. pću·ša
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → LAv. psu·ša
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
LAv. hvō.išta-
(a.sup.) ‘der höchste, erste, vertvolleste, beste’
(AIWb. 1856)
(LAv. hvōišta-)
1. PIE *sɑhu̯o.istɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shu̯o.istho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shu̯o.istho-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *shu̯o.ištho-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. shu̯o.ištho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *shu̯a.ištha-
4. shu̯a.ištha-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *su̯a.ištha-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. su̯a.ištha-
*sth/šth → st/št
Loss of *h after st/št
RSth›St → *su̯a.išta-
6. su̯a.išta-
*su̯ → xu̯
Change of *su̯ into xu̯
Rsu̯›xu̯ → *xu̯a.išta-
7. xu̯a.išta-
a. → ō.
Change of a. into ō. in morpheme border
Ra›ō → *xu̯ō.išta-
8. xu̯ō.išta-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. xvō.išta-
Latv. šũ-
(vb.) ‘nähen, (eine Wand) bekleiden’
(LiEtWb. 789f.)
(Latv. šũt [inf.])
1. PIE *si̯ɑ́hu-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *si̯úhu-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. si̯úhu-
*úHu → uHû
Latvian tone rule for *úHu
RAccLatv5 → *si̯uhû-
3. si̯uhû-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *si̯uû-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. si̯uû-
*uû → û
Contraction of u and û
Ruû›û → *si̯û-
5. si̯û-
* si̯ → š
Change of si̯ into š
Rsi̯›š → Latv. šû-
Russ. šut·ëm-
(m.) ‘Brachfeld’ (dial.)
(REW 3:440)
1. PIE *si̯out·ímo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *si̯aut·íma
2. si̯aut·íma
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *si̯out·ímo
3. si̯out·ímo
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *si̯out·ímu
4. si̯out·ímu
* si̯ → š
Change of si̯ into š
Rsi̯›š → *šout·ímu
5. šout·ímu
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *šūt·ímu
6. šūt·ímu
*-u → Ø
Loss of -u in root-final position
R=u›=0 → *šūt·ím
7. šūt·ím
*í → é
Change of *i into e
Rí›é → *šūt·ém
8. šūt·ém
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → Russ. šut·ém
TochA. sākä-
(vb.) ‘hold oneself back’
(DTochB. 680)
(TochA. sākässi [inf.])
1. PIE *sōgɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sōgɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sōgɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sōgɦu̯a-
3. sōgɦu̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *sāgɦu̯a-
4. sāgɦu̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sāgɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. sāgɦa-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sāga-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. sāga-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → TochA. sāka-
TochB. sākäsk-
(vb.) ‘leave behind, restrain’
(DTochB. 679)
(TochB. sākäske)
1. PIE *sōgɑɦu̯oski-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sōgɦu̯oski-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sōgɦu̯oski-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sōgɦu̯osḱ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. sōgɦu̯osḱ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sōgɦu̯asḱ-
4. sōgɦu̯asḱ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *sāgɦu̯asḱ-
5. sāgɦu̯asḱ-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sāgɦasḱ-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. sāgɦasḱ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sāgɦask-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. sāgɦask-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sāgask-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
8. sāgask-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → TochB. sākask-
Gr. χο-
(pr.) ‘besitzen, halten, haben’
(GEW 1:602f.)
(Gr. ἔχω)
1. PIE *ségi̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ségi̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ségi̯ɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *séǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. séǵɦo-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *séḱho-
4. séḱho-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sékho-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sékho-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hékho-
6. hékho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. χο-
Gr. χό-
(a.) ‘fest, sicher’
(GEW 1:603)
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦó-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦó-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦó-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *soḱhó-
4. soḱhó-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sokhó-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sokhó-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hokhó-
6. hokhó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. χό-
Gr. χυρό-
(a.) ‘haltbar, fest, sicher’
(GEW 1:602)
(Gr. ἐχυρός)
1. PIE *segiɑɦuró-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *segiɦuró-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. segiɦuró-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *seǵɦuró-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. seǵɦuró-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *seḱhuró-
4. seḱhuró-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sekhuró-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sekhuró-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hekhuró-
6. hekhuró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. χυρό-
Gr. χυρό-
(a.) ‘haltbar, fest, sicher’
(GEW 1:602)
(Gr. ὀχυρός)
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦuró-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦuró-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦuró-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦuró-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦuró-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *soḱhuró-
4. soḱhuró-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sokhuró-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sokhuró-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hokhuró-
6. hokhuró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. χυρό-
OIcl. skoða-
(vb.) schauen, untersuchen’
(ANEtWb. 497a)
(OIcl. skoða)
1. PIE *skuto-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *skuþo-
2. skuþo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *skuþa-
3. skuþa-
*þ → ð
Change of þ into ð
R=þ›=ð → OIcl. skuða-
TochA. säl-
(pr.) ‘fliegen’
(DTochB. 686)
(in TochA. sälmāṃ [pt.])
1. PIE *sol-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. sal-
OEng. sǣl-
(m.) ‘happiness, good fortune, prosperity’
(ASaxD. 810)
(OEng. sǣl [sgN])
1. PIE *sēli-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → OEng. sāli-
Czech. snoubi-
(vb.) ‘freien, verloben’
(REW 2:683)
1. PIE *snoubɑɦiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *snoubɑɦiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. snoubɑɦiíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *snoubɦiíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. snoubɦiíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *snaubɦiíh-
4. snaubɦiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *snaubɦií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. snaubɦií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *snaubɦī́-
6. snaubɦī́-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *snaubī́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. snaubī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *snoubī́-
8. snoubī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *snūbī́-
9. snūbī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *snūbí-
10. snūbí-
ū -› ou
Change of ū into ou
Rū›ou → Czech. snoubí-
OEng. snoru-
(f.) ‘Schwiegertochter, Schnur’
(ASaxD. 892)
(OEng. snoru [sgN], WP. 2:701f.)
1. PIE *snusḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *snusā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. snusā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *snusā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. snusā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *snusā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. snusā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *snusṓ
(XX:XX)
5. snusṓ
*usṓ -> urṓ
Verner's Law
Rusṓ›urṓ → *snurṓ
6. snurṓ
*-ṓ → -ú
Change of root-final -ṓ into -ú
R=ó›=ú → *snurú
7. snurú
*ú → u
Orthographic change of *ú into u
Rú›u → OEng. snuru
OIcl. snor-
(f.) ‘Schwiegertochter, Schnur’
(ANEtWb. 528)
1. PIE *snusḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *snusā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. snusā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *snusā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. snusā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *snusā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. snusā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *snusṓ
(XX:XX)
5. snusṓ
*usṓ -> urṓ
Verner's Law
Rusṓ›urṓ → *snurṓ
6. snurṓ
*-ṓ → -á
Change final -ṓ to -á
R=ṓ›=á → *snurá
7. snurá
*á → a
Loss/absence of accent
Rá›a → OIcl. snura
Alb. shof-
(pr.) ‘see’
(AlbEtD. 425)
1. PIE *sēspo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sēspa
2. sēspa
*s → sh
Change of *s into sh
Rs›sh → *shēshpa
3. shēshpa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *shēshp
4. shēshp
*ē → o
Change of *ē into o
Rē›o → Alb. shoshp
gAv. spāda-
(m.) ‘Heer, Heerschaft’
(AIWb. 1617)
1. PIE *spɑhōdɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sphōdɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sphōdɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sphōdɦa-
3. sphōdɦa-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *sphādɦa-
4. sphādɦa-
*ph → f
Affricativization of *ph
Rph›f → *sfādɦa-
5. sfādɦa-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hfādɦa-
6. hfādɦa-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → gAv. hfāda-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
OPers. taxma·spāda-
(Im.) ‘with brave army’
(OldP. 185)
1. PIE *Π·spɑhōdɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·sphōdɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·sphōdɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·sphōdɦa-
3. Π·sphōdɦa-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·sphādɦa-
4. Π·sphādɦa-
*ph → f
Affricativization of *ph
Rph›f → *Π·sfādɦa-
5. Π·sfādɦa-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → OPers. Π·sfāda-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
Gr. οφέο-
(vb.) ‘schlürfen’
(GEW 2:663)
(Gr. ῥοφέω [1sg])
1. PIE *srobɑɦéi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *srobɦéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. srobɦéi̯o-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *srophéi̯o-
3. srophéi̯o-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hrophéi̯o-
4. hrophéi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *hrophéo-
5. hrophéo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. οφέο-
Lith. srbia-
(pr.) ‘mit dem Löffel essen’
(LiEtWb. 889)
(Lith. srẽbia [3sg], srebiù [1sg])
1. PIE *srébɑɦio-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *srébɦio-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. srébɦio-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → *srèbɦio-
3. srèbɦio-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *srèbɦia-
4. srèbɦia-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → Lith. srèbia-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
Goth. standa-
(pr.) ‘stehen: (ἐφ-, παρ-)ἱστάναι, στήκειν’
(GoEtD. S135)
(Goth. standiþ Rom 14,4 A2, standan Mrk 3,24 CA, standand Luk 8,20 CA)
1. PIE *stɑhondɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sthondɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sthondɦo-
*t h → þ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›þ → *sþondɦo-
3. sþondɦo-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *sþondo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. sþondo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. sþanda-
OSax. and·standa-
(vb.6.) ‘aushalten, ertragen: tolerate, bear’
(Hel.)
(Hel. antstandan [inf.] 3153 C, 4854 C, antstanden 3153 M, 4854 M)
1. PIE *Π·stɑhondɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·sthondɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·sthondɦo-
*t h → þ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›þ → *Π·sþondɦo-
3. Π·sþondɦo-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·sþondo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. Π·sþondo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OSax. Π·sþanda-
Goth. stad-
(m.sg) ‘Stätte, Ort, Gegend, Platz, Raum’
(GoEtD. S137)
(Goth. stads Luk 14,22 CA, stad Joh 10,40 CA, stadis Mrk 4,35 CA, stada Joh 6,10 CA)
1. PIE *stɑhodɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sthodɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sthodɦo-
*t h → þ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›þ → *sþodɦo-
3. sþodɦo-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *sþodo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. sþodo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. sþada-
Goth. hunsla·stad-
(m.sg) ‘Opferstätte, Altar: θυσιαστήριον: altarium’
(GoEtD. H109)
(Goth. hunslastadis [sgG] Mat 5,24 CA, hunslastada [sgD] Mat 5,23 CA)
1. PIE *Π·stɑhodɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·sthodɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·sthodɦo-
*t h → þ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›þ → *Π·sþodɦo-
3. Π·sþodɦo-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·sþodo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. Π·sþodo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. Π·sþada-
OSax. and·stadō-
(vb.2.) ‘widerstehen: resist: resistere (GlTr)’
(Gl. 11th cent.)
(GlTr. antstadon resisto SAGA 381(, 13, 106) = Ka 171(, 13, 106) = Gl. 4, 208, 24)
1. PIE *Π·stɑhodɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·stɑhodɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·stɑhodɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·sthodɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·sthodɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·sthodɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·sthodɦā-
*t h → þ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›þ → *Π·sþodɦā-
5. Π·sþodɦā-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·sþodā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. Π·sþodā-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·sþadā-
7. Π·sþadā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → OSax. Π·sþadō-
(XX:XX)
OHG. stammē-
(vb.) ‘stammeln: stammer: balbutire’
(Gl. 12th cent.)
(OHG. stammēn [inf.])
1. PIE *stommoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *stammai-
2. stammai-
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
Rai›ei → OHG. stammei-
Gr. ηὔ-
(a.) ‘gut’ (adv.) ‘wohl’
(Gr. ἠΰς, ἠΰ)
1. PIE *ēsú-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *ēhú-
2. ēhú-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *ēú-
3. ēú-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἠύ-
Lith. svajõnė-
(f.2.) ‘dreaming’
(LiEtWb. 948)
1. PIE *su̯oi̯eɑhénēhɑ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *su̯oi̯aɑhénēhɑ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. su̯oi̯aɑhénēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *su̯oi̯ahénēh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. su̯oi̯ahénēh-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → *su̯oi̯ahènēh-
4. su̯oi̯ahènēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *su̯oi̯aènē-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. su̯oi̯aènē-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su̯ai̯aènē-
6. su̯ai̯aènē-
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → *su̯ai̯aènė-
7. su̯ai̯aènė-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *svai̯aènė-
8. svai̯aènė-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Lith. svajnė-
Lith. svaity-
(vb.) ‘phantasieren, irre reden’
(LiEtWb. 947-8)
1. PIE *su̯oiɑhtiɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *su̯oihtih-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. su̯oihtih-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *su̯oiti-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. su̯oiti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su̯aiti-
4. su̯aiti-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. svaiti-
Lith. sváičio-
(vb.) ‘phantasieren, irre reden, fasseln’
(LiEtWb. 947-8)
1. PIE *su̯oiɑhti̯iēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *su̯oiɑhti̯iāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. su̯oiɑhti̯iāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *su̯oihti̯iāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. su̯oihti̯iāh-
PIE *ti̯ → č
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›č → *su̯oihčiāh-
(SPIE §XX)
4. su̯oihčiāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *su̯oičiā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. su̯oičiā-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su̯aičiā-
6. su̯aičiā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *su̯aičiō-
(XX:XX)
7. su̯aičiō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *su̯aičio-
8. su̯aičio-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. svaičio-
OHG. swārē-
(vb.) ‘schwer sein/werden: gravare, gravari’
(N, OT, T)
(OHG. swārēn)
1. PIE *su̯ēroi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su̯ērai-
2. su̯ērai-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *su̯ārai-
3. su̯ārai-
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
Rai›ei → *su̯ārei-
4. su̯ārei-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. swārei-
Sloven. po·túhni-
(vb.) ‘stille werden’
(APrS. 452)
(Sloven. potúhniti [inf.])
1. PIE *po·teɑhúsniɑ́h-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *po·taɑhúsniɑ́h-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. po·taɑhúsniɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *po·taɑhúsniíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
3. po·taɑhúsniíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po·tahúsniíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. po·tahúsniíh-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiSlav → *po·tahúšniíh-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
5. po·tahúšniíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pa·tahúšniíh-
6. pa·tahúšniíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pa·taúšnií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. pa·taúšnií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *pa·taúšnī́-
8. pa·taúšnī́-
*š → x
Slavonic change of *š to x
Rš›x → *pa·taúxnī́-
9. pa·taúxnī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *po·toúxnī́-
10. po·toúxnī́-
*oú → ū́
Monophthongization of *oú into ū́
Roú›ū́ → *po·tū́xnī́-
11. po·tū́xnī́-
*x → ch
Orthographic change of *x into ch
Rx›ch → *po·tū́chnī́-
12. po·tū́chnī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *po·tū́chní-
13. po·tū́chní-
*ū́ → ú
Orthographic change of *ū́ into ú
Rū́›ú → *po·túchní-
14. po·túchní-
ch → h
Change of *ch into h
Rch›h → Sloven. po·túhní-
LAv. pairi·āδ-
(pf.) ‘aufsagen, hersagen’
(AIWb. 55)
(LAv. pairi.āδa [3sg])
1. PIE *Π.ō·dɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π.ō·dɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π.ō·dɦ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π.ā·dɦ-
3. Π.ā·dɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π.ā·d-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. Π.ā·d-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → LAv. Π.ā·δ-
Lyd. ẽ·tam-
(c.) ‘Bestimmung, Verordnung’
(LydWb. 108)
(Lyd. ẽtamś [N] ẽtamν [A])
1. PIE *en·dɑɦomo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *en·dɦomo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. en·dɦomo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *en·dɦama
3. en·dɦama
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *en·dama
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. en·dama
*am/n → ãm/n
Emergence of nasal vowel ã
RaN›ãN → *en·dãma
5. en·dãma
*en → ẽn
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
ReN›ẽN → *ẽn·dãma
6. ẽn·dãma
PIE *Nd → Nt
Devoicing of PIE *d after N
RNd›Nt → *ẽn·tãma
7. ẽn·tãma
*nt → ñt
Change of *n into ñ before t
Rnt›ñt → *ẽñ·tãma
8. ẽñ·tãma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Lyd. ẽñ·tãm
Latv. dãvâ-
(vb.iter.) ‘anbieten, schenken’
(LiEtWb. 112)
(Latv. dãvât [inf.])
1. PIE *doɑɦu̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *doɑɦu̯ā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. doɑɦu̯ā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *doɦu̯ā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. doɦu̯ā́h-
*ā́H → âH
Latvian tone rule for *ā́h
RAccLatv3 → *doɦu̯âh-
4. doɦu̯âh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dou̯âh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dou̯âh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dou̯â-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. dou̯â-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dau̯â-
7. dau̯â-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Latv. davâ-
Lyd. taśẽν-
(sb.) ‘votive object’
(AHPh. 331)
(Lyd. taśẽν, Melchert AHPh. 362 = HLu. ta-sa-za)
1. PIE *dɑɦoseni
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦoseni
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦoseni
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦaseni
3. dɦaseni
PIE * s → ś
Orthographic change of *s into ś
Rs›ś → *dɦaśeni
4. dɦaśeni
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *daśeni
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. daśeni
*en → ẽn
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
ReN›ẽN → *daśẽni
6. daśẽni
PIE *Nd → Nt
Devoicing of PIE *d after N
RNd›Nt → Lyd. taśẽni
OIr. ar·tā-
(vb.) ‘remain over: übrig bleiben’
(GOI. 480)
(OIr. arathā [rel.] ‘who remains over’)
1. PIE *Π·tēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·tāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·tāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·tāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·tāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·tā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·tā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OIr. Π·ta-
OIr. nī·dī·tā-
(vb.) ‘non differunt’
(GOI. 480)
(OIr. nídíthāt)
1. PIE *Π·Π·tēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·Π·tāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·Π·tāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·Π·tāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·Π·tāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·Π·tā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·Π·tā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OIr. Π·Π·ta-
OIcl. dauð.dagi-
(sb.) ‘Todesart’
(ANEtWb. 71b)
(OIcl. dauðdagi)
1. PIE *dɦɑeudɑɦ.dɑɦogi̯ɑɦi-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *dɦɑaudɑɦ.dɑɦogi̯ɑɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. dɦɑaudɑɦ.dɑɦogi̯ɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦaudɦ.dɦogi̯ɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dɦaudɦ.dɦogi̯ɦi-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *dɦaudɦ.dɦoǵɦi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. dɦaudɦ.dɦoǵɦi-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *dɦaudɦ.dɦogɦi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. dɦaudɦ.dɦogɦi-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *daud.dogɦi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. daud.dogɦi-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *daud.dogi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. daud.dogi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *daud.dagi-
8. daud.dagi-
*d -› ð
Change of d into ð
Rd›ð → OIcl. dauð.ðagi-
TochB. ken-
(f.) ‘earth, ground’
(DTochB. 192)
(TochB. keṃ, kentsa)
1. PIE *dɑɦgon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan-
3. dɦgan-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dgan-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dgan-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dkan-
5. dkan-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → TochB. tkan-
TochB. ken·tarśke-
(PN.) ‘(in monastic records)’
(DTochB. 193)
1. PIE *dɑɦgon·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan·Σ
3. dɦgan·Σ
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dgan·Σ
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dgan·Σ
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dkan·Σ
5. dkan·Σ
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → TochB. tkan·Σ
TochB. kena·ṣṣe-
(a.) ‘prtng to earth’
(DTochB. 192)
(TochB. kenaṣṣe)
1. PIE *dɑɦgono·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgono·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgono·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgana·Σ
3. dɦgana·Σ
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dgana·Σ
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dgana·Σ
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dkana·Σ
5. dkana·Σ
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → TochB. tkana·Σ
TochB. kenä·ttse
(a.) ‘earthly, terrestial’
(DTochB. 192)
(TochB. kenättse)
1. PIE *dɑɦgono·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgono·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgono·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgana·Σ
3. dɦgana·Σ
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dgana·Σ
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dgana·Σ
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dkana·Σ
5. dkana·Σ
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → TochB. tkana·Σ
OHG. dilo.n-
(m.) ‘Brett, Boden, Diele, Planke, Bohle, Schindel, Bretterwand’
(Gl. 11th cent.)
(Gl. compages, laterculus, paries, planca, pluteus, tabula)
1. PIE *tɑhelu.n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thelu.n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thelu.n-
*t h → þ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›þ → *þelu.n-
3. þelu.n-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *þilu.n-
4. þilu.n-
*þ → d
OHG sound shift of *þ
Rþ›d → OHG. dilu.n-
Lith. tpa-
(pr.) ‘schmieren, salben, besudeln, anstreichen’
(LiEtWb. 1081)
(Lith. tẽpa [pr.])
1. PIE *tɑhépo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thépo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thépo-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → *thèpo-
3. thèpo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thèpa-
4. thèpa-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → Lith. tèpa-
Lith. tpala-
(m.) ‘Salbe, Schmiere’
(LiEtWb. 1081)
1. PIE *tɑhépolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thépolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thépolo-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → *thèpolo-
3. thèpolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thèpala-
4. thèpala-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → Lith. tèpala-
Russ. tëpa-
(pr.) ‘schmieren’
(REW 3:94)
1. PIE *tɑhépēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tɑhépāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tɑhépāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thépāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. thépāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thépā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. thépā-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tépā-
5. tépā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Russ. tépa-
Russ. tëpa-
(f.) ‘Schmierfink’
(REW 3:94)
1. PIE *tɑhépēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tɑhépāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tɑhépāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thépāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. thépāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thépā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. thépā-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tépā-
5. tépā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Russ. tépa-
Lith. tpė-
(pret.) ‘schmieren, salben, besudeln, anstreichen’
(LiEtWb. 1081)
(Lith. tẽpė)
1. PIE *tɑhépēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thépēh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thépēh-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → *thèpēh-
3. thèpēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thèpē-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. thèpē-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tèpē-
5. tèpē-
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → Lith. tèpė-
Lith. dãpa-
(m.) ‘Überschwemmung’
(LiEtWb. 82)
1. PIE *dɑɦópo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦópo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦópo-
ó → ò
Emergence of gravis PLith. ò
RLiAcc5 → *dɦòpo-
3. dɦòpo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦòpa-
4. dɦòpa-
PIE *ò → à
Change of *ò into à
Rò›à → *dɦàpa-
5. dɦàpa-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → Lith. dàpa-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
OIcl. leir·depil-
(m.) ‘Lehmpfütze’
(ANEtWb. 75)
(OIcl. leirdepill [sgN], depli [D], cf. ModNorw. depel)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦobilo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦobilo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦobilo
*b → p
Loss of voice of media *b
Rb›p → *Π·dɦopilo
3. Π·dɦopilo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·dopilo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. Π·dopilo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·dapila
5. Π·dapila
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *Π·dapil
6. Π·dapil
*d -› ð
Change of d into ð
Rd›ð → OIcl. Π·ðapil
OIcl. þjōr-
(m.) ‘Stier’
(ANEtWb. 614a)
(OIcl. þjōrr [sgN]; IEW 1080-85; PGerm. *þeuraz)
1. PIE *tɑheuro
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *theuro
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. theuro
*t h → þ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›þ → *þeuro
3. þeuro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þeura
4. þeura
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *þiura
5. þiura
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *þiur
6. þiur
*eu → iō
Change of *iu into iō
Riu›iō → OIcl. þiōr
OSax. thior-
(a.) ‘kräftig, hart?’
(EH)
(thiores [n.sgG] Wa 21, 4 = SAAT 15, 4)
1. PIE *tɑheuro
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *theuro
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. theuro
*t h → þ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›þ → *þeuro
3. þeuro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þeura
4. þeura
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *þiura
5. þiura
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OSax. þiur
OHG. dewe-
(vb.) ‘brennen: tepere’
(EWAhd. 2:619)
1. PIE *teɑhu̯io-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhu̯io-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhu̯io-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahu̯io-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahu̯io-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tau̯io-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tau̯io-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þau̯io-
5. þau̯io-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þau̯ia-
6. þau̯ia-
*awi → ewi
Umlaut of *au̯i to eu̯i
Rau̯i›eu̯i → *þeu̯ia-
7. þeu̯ia-
*þ → d
OHG sound shift of *þ
Rþ›d → *deu̯ia-
8. deu̯ia-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. dewia-
OHG. dewo·n-
(m.) ‘Brenneisen, Brandeisen: brand-iron: cauter’
(Gl. 11th cent.)
1. PIE *teɑhu̯io·n-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhu̯io·n-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhu̯io·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahu̯io·n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahu̯io·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tau̯io·n-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tau̯io·n-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þau̯io·n-
5. þau̯io·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þau̯ia·n-
6. þau̯ia·n-
*awi → ewi
Umlaut of *au̯i to eu̯i
Rau̯i›eu̯i → *þeu̯ia·n-
7. þeu̯ia·n-
*þ → d
OHG sound shift of *þ
Rþ›d → *deu̯ia·n-
8. deu̯ia·n-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. dewia·n-
OHG. douwe-
(vb.) ‘brennen: tepere’
(EWAhd. 2:619)
1. PIE *teɑhuu̯io-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhuu̯io-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhuu̯io-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahuu̯io-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahuu̯io-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tauu̯io-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tauu̯io-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þauu̯io-
5. þauu̯io-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þauu̯ia-
6. þauu̯ia-
*au → ou
Change of au into ou
Rau›ou → *þouu̯ia-
7. þouu̯ia-
*þ → d
OHG sound shift of *þ
Rþ›d → *douu̯ia-
8. douu̯ia-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. douwia-
TochB. twāsäsk-
(pr.A.) ‘kindle’
(DTochB. 298)
TochB. twāsäṣṣim [opt1sg])
1. PIE *tɑhu̯ɑhōsoski-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thu̯hōsoski-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thu̯hōsoski-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *thu̯hōsosḱ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. thu̯hōsosḱ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thu̯hōsasḱ-
4. thu̯hōsasḱ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *thu̯hāsasḱ-
5. thu̯hāsasḱ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thu̯āsasḱ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. thu̯āsasḱ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *thu̯āsask-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. thu̯āsask-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tu̯āsask-
8. tu̯āsask-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. twāsask-
HLu. aza·tiu̯ado-
(I.) (I.(LITUUS.)c.) ‘loved by Tiuata: Phoen. ’ztwd’
(CHLu. 1.1.1., 1.1.22)
(HLu. I(LITUUS)á-za-ti-i-wa/i-tà-sá, (LITUUS)á-za-ti-wa/i-tà-sá [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·tiu̯odɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·tiu̯odɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·tiu̯odɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·tiu̯adɦa-
3. Π·tiu̯adɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. Π·tiu̯ada-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Osc. dei-
(m.) ‘Zeus’
(WbOU. 183)
(Osc. dei [sgV])
1. PIE *deiɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *deiɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. deiɦi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *deii-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. deii-
*ii → ī
Contraction of i and i
Rii›ī → Osc. deī-
RV. di.áu-
(m.) ‘Himmel’
(WbRV. 604)
(RV. diáuṣ [N])
1. PIE *diɑHḗu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *diHḗu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. diHḗu-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → *di.ḗu-
3. di.ḗu-
*ḗ → ā́
Change of *ḗ into ā́
Rḗ›ā́ → RV. di.ā́u-
RV. dyáu-
(m.) ‘Himmel’
(WbRV. 603)
(RV. dyā́us [sgN], dyā́us [Abl])
1. PIE *di̯ɑɦḗu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *di̯ɦḗu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. di̯ɦḗu-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *di̯ḗu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. di̯ḗu-
*ḗ → ā́
Change of *ḗ into ā́
Rḗ›ā́ → *di̯ā́u-
4. di̯ā́u-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. dyā́u-
OHG. dēh-
(pret.) ‘thrive’
(EWAhd 2, 634)
(OHG. dēh [3sg])
1. PIE *toik-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *toix-
2. toix-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þoix-
3. þoix-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þaix-
4. þaix-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *þaih-
5. þaih-
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
Rai›ei → *þeih-
6. þeih-
*þ → d
OHG sound shift of *þ
Rþ›d → OHG. deih-
OCS. tica-
(vb.iter.) ‘laufen, eilen’
(Grundr2 1:292)
1. PIE *teikēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *teikāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. teikāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teikāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. teikāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *teikā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. teikā-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *tīkā-
5. tīkā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *tīka-
6. tīka-
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. tika-
TochB. ckācka·ṣa-
(a.) ‘prtng to the leg’
(DTochB. 258)
1. PIE *tikēɑhtikeɑh·si̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *tikēɑhtikaɑh·si̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. tikēɑhtikaɑh·si̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tikāɑhtikaɑh·si̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. tikāɑhtikaɑh·si̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tikāhtikah·si̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. tikāhtikah·si̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tikāhtikah·si̯a-
5. tikāhtikah·si̯a-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *cikāhcikah·si̯a-
6. cikāhcikah·si̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *cikācika·si̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. cikācika·si̯a-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
Rsi̯›ṣ → TochB. cikācika·ṣa-
Arm. tʼoł-
(ao.) ‘lassen, dulden, ertragen’
(HEG T:53-5)
(Arm. tʼołi, HIL. 943f.)
1. PIE *toli̯-
*li̯ → ł
Change of *li̯ into ł
Rli̯›ł → Arm. toł-
Arm. tʼołu-
(pr.) ‘lassen, dulden, ertragen’
(IEW 1060)
(Arm. tʼołum [1sg])
1. PIE *toli̯u-
*li̯ → ł
Change of *li̯ into ł
Rli̯›ł → Arm. tołu-
TochA. tamä-
(pret.M.) ‘generare’ (intr.) ‘nasci’
(Poucha 121)
(TochA. tamät)
1. PIE *tomo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. tama-
Arm. ten-
(sb.) ‘vulva of female animals (cow etc.)’
(EtDiArm. 285)
(Arm. dial., see EtDiArm. for more forms)
TochB. tänmas-
(pr.M.) ‘be born’
(DTochB. 292)
(TochB. tänma[strä])
1. PIE *tonmos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochB. tanmas-
TochB. tanmäs-
(cs.pr.M.) ‘janayati: produce’
(DTochB. 292)
(TochB. tanmästä[r] [3sg], tanmästsi-śco [inf.])
1. PIE *tonmos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochB. tanmas-
Russ. tórok-
(m.) ‘Sattelriemen’
(REW 3:125)
1. PIE *tórku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tórku̯a-
2. tórku̯a-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *tárku̯a-
3. tárku̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *tárka-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. tárka-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *tárko-
5. tárko-
*á → ó
Change of *á into ó
Rá›ó → Russ. tórko-
OCS. trakŭ-
(m.) ‘Band, Gürt’
(IEW 1077)
1. PIE *torku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tarku̯a-
2. tarku̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *tarka-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
3. tarka-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → OCS. torko-
OEng. þearm-
(m.) ‘a gut, an intestine; the string of an instrument’
(ASaxD. 1042)
1. PIE *tormo
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þormo
2. þormo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þarma
3. þarma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OEng. þarm
Lat. tell·ūs
(f.) ‘Erde’
(WH. 2:655)
(Lat. tellūs, tellūris)
1. PIE *terl·ous-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → Lat. terl·ūs-
Lat. tell·umō·n-
(m.) ‘Erde’
(WH. 2:655)
Lat. terrā-
(f.) ‘Erde’
(WH. 2:673-4)
(Lat. terra [sgN])
1. PIE *tersēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tersāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tersāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tersāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tersāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. tersā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. ex·torri-
(a.) ‘landflüchtig, verbannt: exiled’
(WH. 2:673)
TochA. cärk-
(pret.A.) ‘sinere, dimittere’
(Poucha 123)
(TochA. cärk [3sg])
1. PIE *terk-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *ti̯ark-
2. ti̯ark-
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›c → TochA. cark-
TochA. cärk
(sb.) ‘intermissio: Unterlass’
(Poucha 103)
(TochA. sne cärk ‘ohne Unterlass’)
1. PIE *terk
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *ti̯ark
2. ti̯ark
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›c → TochA. cark
TochB. cärkā-
(pret.A.) ‘lassen’
(DTochB. 294)
(TochB. cärkāwa [1sg], cärkāsta)
1. PIE *tērkēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tērkāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tērkāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tērkāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tērkāh-
PIE *ē → i̯ ā
Change of *ē into i̯ā
Rē›i̯ā → *ti̯ārkāh-
4. ti̯ārkāh-
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›c → *cārkāh-
5. cārkāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. cārkā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Arm. torne-
(vb.) ‘lassen, zulassen’
(HEG T-195)
1. PIE *torne-
rn → ṙn
Change of *r into ṙ before *n
Rrn›ṙn → Arm. tone-
TochA. tärnā-
(pr.) ‘sinere, dimittere’
(Poucha 123)
(TochA. tärnāṣ [3sg])
1. PIE *tornēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tornāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tornāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tornāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tornāh
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tarnāh
4. tarnāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochA. tarnā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
TochA. tärnāl-
(vb.a.) ‘= Skt. utsr̥ṣṭavyam’
(Poucha 123)
(TochA. tärnāl [sgN])
1. PIE *tornēɑhlo
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tornāɑhlo
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tornāɑhlo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tornāhlo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tornāhlo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tarnāhla
4. tarnāhla
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tarnāla
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. tarnāla
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → TochA. tarnāl
TochA. tärne-
(pr.) ‘sinere, dimittere’
(Poucha 123)
(TochA. tärneñcä [3pl])
1. PIE *tornoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tarnai-
2. tarnai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *tarnē-
3. tarnē-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochA. tarne-
Russ. tórop-
(m.) ‘Hast, Eile’
(LiEtWb. 1062)
1. PIE *tórpo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tórpa
2. tórpa
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *tárpa
3. tárpa
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *tárpo
4. tárpo
*á → ó
Change of *á into ó
Rá›ó → *tórpo
5. tórpo
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *tórpu
6. tórpu
*-u → Ø
Loss of -u in root-final position
R=u›=0 → Russ. tórp
OLat. torro-
(a.) ‘torridus’
(WH. 2:694)
(PFest. torrus [sgN])
Lat. torrent-
(pt.) ‘brennend, sengend, erhitzt, heftig, brausend’
(WH. 2:694)
OInd. tucha·dru-
(m.) ‘Ricinus communis’
(KEWA 1:508)
(OInd. tucchadruṣ [sgN])
1. PIE *tuski̯e/o·drɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tuski̯e/o·drɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tuski̯e/o·drɦu-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *tuški̯e/o·drɦu-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. tuški̯e/o·drɦu-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *tušće/o·drɦu-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. tušće/o·drɦu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tušće/a·drɦu-
5. tušće/a·drɦu-
CrC → Cr̥C
Syllabification of *r in CrC
Rr›r̥ → *tušće/a·dr̥ɦu-
6. tušće/a·dr̥ɦu-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *tušće/a·dr̥u-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. tušće/a·dr̥u-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *tušśe/a·dr̥u-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
8. tušśe/a·dr̥u-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *tušśa/a·dr̥u-
9. tušśa/a·dr̥u-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → OInd. tuṣśa/a·dr̥u-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
Umbr. tuder-
(n.) ‘Grenze’
(WbOU. 771-2)
(Umbr. tuder [sgA], tuderor [plN])
1. PIE *tuɑɦder-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tuɦder-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tuɦder-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *tuder-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. tuder-
*d → ř
Change of *d into ř
Rd›ř → Umbr. tuřer-
Umbr. tuderā-
(vb.) ‘begrenzen, abgrenzen’
(WbOU. 773)
(Umbr. tuderato est)
1. PIE *tuɑɦderēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tuɑɦderāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tuɑɦderāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tuɦderāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tuɦderāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *tuderāh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tuderāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tuderā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. tuderā-
*d → ř
Change of *d into ř
Rd›ř → Umbr. tuřerā-
Att. σανίδ-
(f.) ‘Pfahl, Block, Brett’
(WH. 2:641)
(Gr. σανίς; IEW 1080-85)
1. PIE *tu̯hɑeníɦɑd-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *tu̯hɑaníɦɑd-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. tu̯hɑaníɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tu̯haníɦd-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tu̯haníɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *tu̯haníd-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tu̯haníd-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tu̯aníd-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. tu̯aníd-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *taníd-
6. taníd-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Att. τανίδ-
Att. σαίνο-
(vb.) ‘schwänzeln, schmeicheln’
(GEW 2:671)
(Gr. σαίνω [1sg], thus not from *tu̯n̥- against IEW)
1. PIE *tu̯hɑéni̯o-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *tu̯hɑáni̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. tu̯hɑáni̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tu̯háni̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tu̯háni̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tu̯áni̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tu̯áni̯o-
*áni̯ → aín
Epenthesis of *i
Ráni̯›aín → *tu̯aíno-
5. tu̯aíno-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *taíno-
6. taíno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Att. ταίνο-
Att. σαίνα-
(f.) ‘αἰδοι̃ον (Hes.)’
(GEW 2:671)
(Gr. σαι̃να)
1. PIE *tu̯hɑéni̯eɑh
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *tu̯hɑáni̯eɑh
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. tu̯hɑáni̯eɑh
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *tu̯hɑáni̯aɑh
(SPIE §2.2.7)
3. tu̯hɑáni̯aɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tu̯háni̯ah
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. tu̯háni̯ah
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tu̯áni̯a
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. tu̯áni̯a
*áni̯ → aín
Epenthesis of *i
Ráni̯›aín → *tu̯aína
6. tu̯aína
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *taína
7. taína
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Att. ταίνα
Att. σάννιο-
(n.) ‘αἰδοι̃ον’
(GEW 2:671)
(Gr. σάννιον)
1. PIE *tu̯hɑénnii̯o-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *tu̯hɑánnii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. tu̯hɑánnii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tu̯hánnii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tu̯hánnii̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tu̯ánnii̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tu̯ánnii̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *tu̯ánnio-
5. tu̯ánnio-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *tánnio-
6. tánnio-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Att. τάννιο-
OInd. tok·āra-
(m.pl) ‘die Tocharer; Chin. Tu-huo-lo’
(KEWA 1:508)
(OInd. tokṣārās [plN]; or *toukɑh?)
1. PIE *teukɑhs·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teukhs·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. teukhs·Σ
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *taukhs·Σ
3. taukhs·Σ
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *tōkhs·Σ
4. tōkhs·Σ
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → OInd. tokhs·Σ
ModPers. tulf-
(sb.) Übersättigung
(IEW 1077)
(ModPers. tulf; from an *l-dialect?)
1. PIE *turpɑho
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *turpho
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. turpho
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *turpha
3. turpha
*ph → f
Affricativization of *ph
Rph›f → *turfa
4. turfa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → ModPers. turf
ModIcl. þvest-
(n.) ‘die festen Teile des Fleisches’
(IEW 1080-85)
(ModIcl. þvest; IEW 1080-85 also ModIcl. þvesti)
1. PIE *tu̯osti-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þu̯osti-
2. þu̯osti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þu̯asti-
3. þu̯asti-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → ModIcl. þvasti-
MidCymr. tudd-
(vb.) ‘bedecken’
(IEW 1079-80)
1. PIE *toudɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *toudɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. toudɦo-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *toudo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. toudo-
*ou → ō
Monophthongization of *ou into ō
Rou›ō → MidCymr. tōdo-
MidCymr. tudded
(sb.) ‘Hülle, Kleid’
(IEW 1079-80)
(also in Bret. tuec ‘Kissenbezug’ ← OBret. *tuðoc, IEW 1079-80)
1. PIE *toudɑɦeto
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *toudɦeto
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. toudɦeto
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *toudeto
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. toudeto
*ou → ō
Monophthongization of *ou into ō
Rou›ō → *tōdeto
4. tōdeto
*-o → -Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R=o›=0 → MidCymr. tōdet
Alb. dhe-
(m.f.n.) ‘earth, land’
(AlbEtD. 80)
(‹note the difficult dh- as in Alb. √dh- ‘geben’›)
1. PIE *dɑɦoi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦoi̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦoi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦai̯a
3. dɦai̯a
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dai̯a
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dai̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *dai̯
5. dai̯
*ai/i̯ → e
Monophthongization of *ai/i̯ into e
RaI›e → Alb. de
(XX:XX)
TochA. tsälp-
(vb.A.) ‘ire, transire, liberari: gehen, hinübergehen, erlöst werden’
(Poucha 393)
(TochA. tsälpiñcä [opt3pl])
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯olpo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦi̯olpo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦi̯olpo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦi̯alpa-
3. dɦi̯alpa-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *jɦalpa-
4. jɦalpa-
*jɦ → j
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *jɦ
Rjɦ›j → *jalpa-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. jalpa-
*j → t s
Loss of voice of media *j
Rj›ts → TochA. tsalpa-
Dor. σειν·αρμόστρια-
(f.) ‘mistress of the banquet’
(LSJ. 1588, 803)
(Lac. σειναρμόστρια, IG 5(1):229)
1. PIE *dɑɦein·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦein·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦein·Σ
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *thein·Σ
3. thein·Σ
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. θειν·Σ
CLu. zapu-
(vb.) ‘(eine schädigende Tätigkeit)’ (HHand. 206)
(DLL. 113)
(HIL. 931, CLu. za-ap-pu-un-ta [3pl] ‹with Čop’s law?›)
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯obɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦi̯obɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦi̯obɦu-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *jɦobɦu-
3. jɦobɦu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *jɦabɦu-
4. jɦabɦu-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *zɦabɦu-
5. zɦabɦu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *zɦabu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. zɦabu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. zabu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OIcl. dǫkk-
(a.) ‘finster, dunkelfarbig: sordes’
(ANEtWb. 92)
(OIcl. dǫkkr)
1. PIE *dɑɦongu̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦongu̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦongu̯o
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dɦonku̯o
3. dɦonku̯o
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *donku̯o
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. donku̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *danku̯a
5. danku̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *danku̯
6. danku̯
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *dankv
7. dankv
-v → Ø
Loss of -v in root-final position
R=v›=0 → OIcl. dank
OCS. sŭ·dra
(a.) ‘gesund’
(Sadnik √159)
(OCS. sŭdravŭ)
1. PIE *su·dɑɦoru̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *su·dɦoru̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. su·dɦoru̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su·dɦaru̯a
3. su·dɦaru̯a
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *su·daru̯a
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. su·daru̯a
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *su·doru̯o
5. su·doru̯o
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *su·doru̯u
6. su·doru̯u
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *su·dorvu
7. su·dorvu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. sŭ·dorvŭ
OCS. ne·sŭ·dra
(a.) ‘ungesund, krank’
(Sadnik √159)
1. PIE *ne·su·dɑɦoru̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ne·su·dɦoru̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ne·su·dɦoru̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ne·su·dɦaru̯a
3. ne·su·dɦaru̯a
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ne·su·daru̯a
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. ne·su·daru̯a
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *ne·su·doru̯o
5. ne·su·doru̯o
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *ne·su·doru̯u
6. ne·su·doru̯u
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *ne·su·dorvu
7. ne·su·dorvu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. ne·sŭ·dorvŭ
OCS. sŭ·dravije-
(n.) ‘Gesundheit, Gesundung’
(Sadnik √159)
1. PIE *su·dɑɦoru̯eii̯os
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *su·dɦoru̯eii̯os
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. su·dɦoru̯eii̯os
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su·dɦaru̯eii̯as
3. su·dɦaru̯eii̯as
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *su·daru̯eii̯as
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. su·daru̯eii̯as
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *su·doru̯eii̯os
5. su·doru̯eii̯os
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root-final)
Ros=›o= → *su·doru̯eii̯o
6. su·doru̯eii̯o
*-i̯o → -i̯e
Change of root-final -i̯o to -i̯e
Ri̯o=›i̯e= → *su·doru̯eii̯e
7. su·doru̯eii̯e
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *su·doru̯īi̯e
8. su·doru̯īi̯e
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *su·dorvīi̯e
9. su·dorvīi̯e
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *su·dorvīje
10. su·dorvīje
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → *su·dorvije
11. su·dorvije
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. sŭ·dorvije
OEng. a·desa·n-
(m.) ‘addice, adze, ascia’
(ASaxD. 7)
1. PIE *o·dɑɦeso·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·dɦeso·n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·dɦeso·n-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *o·deso·n-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. o·deso·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·desa·n-
4. a·desa·n-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *a·disa·n-
5. a·disa·n-
*a → ea
Change of *a into ea
Ra=›ea= → OEng. ea·disa·n-
OHG. tō-
(vb.) ‘tun’
(IEW 235-39)
(OHG. tōn)
1. PIE *dɑɦōu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦōu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦōu-
*ōRC → oRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ōRC
RōRC›oRC → *dɦou-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
3. dɦou-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dou-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dau-
5. dau-
*au → ou
Change of au into ou
Rau›ou → *dou-
6. dou-
*d → t
OHG sound shift of *d
Rd›tHG → OHG. tou-
OEng. dybbia-
(vb.) ‘incumbere: lay upon, fall upon, lean on’
(AeEtWb. 81)
1. PIE *dɑɦubɑɦbɑɦeio-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦubɦbɦeio-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦubɦbɦeio-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *dɦubbeio-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. dɦubbeio-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dubbeio-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dubbeio-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dubbeia-
5. dubbeia-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → OEng. dubbīa-
OEng. dwimor-
(n.) ‘Geist, Gespenst’
(Hh 81)
1. PIE *dɑɦu̯ɑhimuro
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦu̯himuro
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦu̯himuro
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dɦu̯imuro
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. dɦu̯imuro
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *du̯imuro
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. du̯imuro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *du̯imura
5. du̯imura
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *du̯imur
6. du̯imur
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OEng. dwimur
Cymr. dwfr-
(sb.) ‘Wasser’
(IEW 261-67)
(also Corn. dour, Bret. dour, IEW 261-67)
1. PIE *dɑɦubro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦubro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦubro-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → Cymr. dubro-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
Norw. darre
(sb.) ‘Türangel, kleiner Ständer in der Ecke eines Schlitten’
(Falk-Torp 178)
1. PIE *dɦɑorsēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dɦɑorsāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dɦɑorsāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦorsāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dɦorsāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dɦorsā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dɦorsā-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dorsā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. dorsā-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *darsā-
6. darsā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → Norw. dar-
(XX:XX)
MidIr. da
(prep.) ‘to’
(DIL. 221)
(LEIA T-81f.)
1. PIE *dɦɑe
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *dɦɑa
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. dɦɑa
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦa
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dɦa
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *da
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. da
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → MidIr. d
Gr. ν·θα
(adv.) ‘da, dort, hier, wo; dahin, hierher; wohin’
(GEW 1:516)
1. PIE *en·dɦɑe
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *en·dɦɑa
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. en·dɦɑa
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *en·dɦa
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. en·dɦa
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *en·tha
4. en·tha
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ν·θα
RV. dīrghá-
(a.) ‘lang, weitreichend, lange dauernd’
(WbRV. 610)
(IEW 196-197)
1. PIE *dɦɑilgɑɦó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦilgɦó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦilgɦó-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *dɦirgɦó-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. dɦirgɦó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *dɦirgɦá-
4. dɦirgɦá-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmann → *dirgɦá-
(SPIE §4.6.4)
5. dirgɦá-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. dirghá-
gAv. ha·dǝm-
(n.) ‘das selbe Haus, die nämliche Wohnung’
(AIWb. 1757)
(gAv. hadǝmōi [sgL])
1. PIE *seɑh·deɦɑm-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑh·deɦɑm-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑh·deɦɑm-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sah·deɦm-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sah·deɦm-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *sah·dem-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sah·dem-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sa·dem-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sa·dem-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *ha·dem-
6. ha·dem-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → gAv. ha·dam-
Lat. dom·ino-
(m.) ‘Hausherr, Herr’
(WH. 1:367)
1. PIE *doɦɑm·èno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *doɦm·èno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. doɦm·èno-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Lat. dom·èno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. dom·inā-
(pr.) ‘(be)herrschen’
(WH. 1:367)
(Lat. dominor)
1. PIE *doɦɑm·ènēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *doɦɑm·ènāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. doɦɑm·ènāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *doɦm·ènāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. doɦm·ènāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dom·ènāh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dom·ènāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. dom·ènā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Dac. κοα·δάμᾱ-
(sb.) ‘Wassersiedler (Pflanzenname)’
(IEW 23)
(in Hes. κοαδάμα · ποταμογείτων)
1. PIE *Π·dóɦɑmēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·dóɦɑmāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·dóɦɑmāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dóɦmāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·dóɦmāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·dómāh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·dómāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·dómā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·dómā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dac. Π·δόμᾱ-
Lyd. tam-
(vb.) ‘build’
(AHPh. 331)
1. PIE *dɦɑem-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *dɦɑam-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. dɦɑam-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦam-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dɦam-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *dam-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. dam-
*am/n → ãm/n
Emergence of nasal vowel ã
RaN›ãN → *dãm-
5. dãm-
PIE *Nd → Nt
Devoicing of PIE *d after N
RNd›Nt → Lyd. tãm-
LycA. tama-
(sb.) ‘building, house’
(DLycLg. 60)
1. PIE *dɦɑemo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *dɦɑamo-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. dɦɑamo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦamo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dɦamo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦama-
4. dɦama-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *dama-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. dama-
*am/n → ãm/n
Emergence of nasal vowel ã
RaN›ãN → *dãma-
6. dãma-
PIE *Nd → Nt
Devoicing of PIE *d after N
RNd›Nt → LycA. tãma-
Lat. familiā-
(f.) ‘Gesinde; Vermögen’
(WH. 1:452-3)
1. PIE *dɦɑemèliēɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *dɦɑamèliēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. dɦɑamèliēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dɦɑamèliāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. dɦɑamèliāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦamèliāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. dɦamèliāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dɦamèliā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dɦamèliā-
*dɦ → f
Affricativization of dental *dɦ
Rdɦ›f → Lat. famèliā-
OCS. dǫbŭ-
(m.) ‘Baum, Holz, Eiche’
(REW 1:376)
1. PIE *dɦɑonbɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦonbɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦonbɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦanbɦa
3. dɦanbɦa
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *dɦanba
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dɦanba
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *danba
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. danba
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *donbo
6. donbo
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *donbu
7. donbu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. don
OCS. dǫbije-
(n.) ‘die Bäume’
(Sadnik √160)
1. PIE *dɦɑonbɑɦeii̯os
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦonbɦeii̯os
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦonbɦeii̯os
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦanbɦeii̯as
3. dɦanbɦeii̯as
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *dɦanbeii̯as
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dɦanbeii̯as
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *danbeii̯as
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. danbeii̯as
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *donbeii̯os
6. donbeii̯os
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root-final)
Ros=›o= → *donbeii̯o
7. donbeii̯o
*-i̯o → -i̯e
Change of root-final -i̯o to -i̯e
Ri̯o=›i̯e= → *donbeii̯e
8. donbeii̯e
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *donbīi̯e
9. donbīi̯e
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *donbīje
10. donbīje
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. donbije
OCS. dǫbrova-
(f.) ‘Wald’
(Sadnik √160)
1. PIE *dɦɑonbɑɦrou̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dɦɑonbɑɦrou̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dɦɑonbɑɦrou̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦonbɦrou̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dɦonbɦrou̯āh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦanbɦrau̯āh-
4. dɦanbɦrau̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dɦanbɦrau̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dɦanbɦrau̯ā-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *dɦanbrau̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. dɦanbrau̯ā-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *danbrau̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. danbrau̯ā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *donbrou̯ā-
8. donbrou̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *donbrovā-
9. donbrovā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OCS. donbrova-
OCS. dǫbrava-
(f.) ‘Wald’
(Sadnik √160)
1. PIE *dɦɑonbɑɦrōu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dɦɑonbɑɦrōu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dɦɑonbɑɦrōu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦonbɦrōu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dɦonbɦrōu̯āh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦanbɦrōu̯āh-
4. dɦanbɦrōu̯āh-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *dɦanbɦrāu̯āh-
5. dɦanbɦrāu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dɦanbɦrāu̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. dɦanbɦrāu̯ā-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *dɦanbrāu̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. dɦanbrāu̯ā-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *danbrāu̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
8. danbrāu̯ā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *donbrāu̯ā-
9. donbrāu̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *donbrāvā-
10. donbrāvā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OCS. donbrava-
OPhryg. ε[.]ι·θνιου-
(vb.) ‘die’
(PHRYG. 104)
(OPhryg. ε[.]ι·θνιουμενος)
1. PIE *Π·dɦɑnɑhi̯ou-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦnhi̯ou-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦnhi̯ou-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·dɦni̯ou-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·dɦni̯ou-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·dni̯ou-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. Π·dni̯ou-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → *Π·dniou-
5. Π·dniou-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → OPhryg. Π·δνιου-
Latv. duõna-
(f.) ‘Brot: bread’
(LiEtWb. 111)
1. PIE *dṓɦɑnēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dṓɦɑnāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dṓɦɑnāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dṓɦnāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dṓɦnāh
*ṓH → ôH
Latvian tone rule for ṓH
RAccLatv7 → *dôɦnāh
4. dôɦnāh
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dônāh
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dônāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dônā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. dônā
*ô → uô
Change of ô into uô
Rô›uô → *duônā
7. duônā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → Latv. duôna
Khot. dāna-
(f.) ‘Getreide, Korn: grain’
(KEWA 2:98)
1. PIE *dɦɑēnēɑh-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *dɦɑānēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dɦɑānēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dɦɑānāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. dɦɑānāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦānāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. dɦānāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dɦānā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dɦānā-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → Khot. dānā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
OIcl. darr-
(n.) ‘Wurfspeer’
(ANEtWb. 74a)
(OIcl. darr)
1. PIE *dɦɑerso
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *dɦɑarso
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. dɦɑarso
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦarso
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dɦarso
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *darso
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. darso
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *darsa
5. darsa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OIcl. dars
Lith. daũž-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, stoßen’
(LiEtWb. 84)
(Lith. daũžti [inf.])
1. PIE *doɦɑúgi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *doɦúgi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. doɦúgi-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *doɦúj́-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. doɦúj́-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis PLith. ù
RLiAcc3 → *doɦùj́-
4. doɦùj́-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *doùj́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. doùj́-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *daùj́-
6. daùj́-
*j́ → ž
From Satem *j́ to ž
Rj́›ž → Lith. daùž-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
Sloven. dúza-
(vb.) ‘stoßen, drängen’
(LiEtWb. 84)
(Sloven. dúzati)
1. PIE *dóɦɑgi̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dóɦɑgi̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dóɦɑgi̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dóɦgi̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dóɦgi̯āh-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *dóɦj́āh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. dóɦj́āh-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *dáɦj́āh-
5. dáɦj́āh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dáj́āh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. dáj́āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dáj́ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. dáj́ā-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *dázā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
8. dázā-
*á → ó
Change of *á into ó
Rá›ó → *dózā-
9. dózā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *dóza-
10. dóza-
ó → ò
Slovenian gravis rule
RAccSlov1 → Sloven. dòza-
Latv. dzî-
(vb.) ‘wiederholt schlagen’
(LiEtWb. 84)
(Latv. daũzît)
1. PIE *dóɦɑugi̯iɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *dóɦɑugi̯iíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. dóɦɑugi̯iíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dóɦugi̯iíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dóɦugi̯iíh-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *dóɦuj́iíh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. dóɦuj́iíh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dóuj́iíh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dóuj́iíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dóuj́ií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. dóuj́ií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *dóuj́ī́-
7. dóuj́ī́-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *dáuj́ī́-
8. dáuj́ī́-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *dáuzī́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
9. dáuzī́-
*ī́ → î
Change of ī́ into î
Rī́›î → Latv. dáuzî-
Sloven. dúzni-
(vb.) ‘einen Stoß geben’
(LiEtWb. 84)
(Sloven. dúzniti)
1. PIE *dóɦɑuginiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *dóɦɑuginiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. dóɦɑuginiíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dóɦuginiíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dóɦuginiíh-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *dóɦuj́niíh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. dóɦuj́niíh-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *dáɦuj́niíh-
5. dáɦuj́niíh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dáuj́niíh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. dáuj́niíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dáuj́nií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. dáuj́nií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *dáuj́nī́-
8. dáuj́nī́-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *dáuznī́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
9. dáuznī́-
*á → ó
Change of *á into ó
Rá›ó → *dóuznī́-
10. dóuznī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *dóuzní-
11. dóuzní-
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → *dóŭzní-
12. dóŭzní-
ó → ò
Slovenian gravis rule
RAccSlov1 → Sloven. dòŭzní-
Latv. dūzene-
(f.) ‘Knüttel’
(LiEtWb. 84)
(Latv. dūzene)
1. PIE *dɦɑ́ugi̯enēhɑ
PIE *ɑ́u → úu
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́u›úu → *dɦúugi̯enēhɑ
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. dɦúugi̯enēhɑ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦúugi̯enēh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dɦúugi̯enēh
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *dɦúuj́enēh
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. dɦúuj́enēh
ú -› ù
Latvian tone rule ú -› ù
RAccLatv11 → *dɦùuj́enēh
5. dɦùuj́enēh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dɦùuj́enē
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. dɦùuj́enē
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *dɦùuzenē
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
7. dɦùuzenē
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dùuzenē
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
8. dùuzenē
*-ē → -e
Shortening of ē in root-final position
R=ē›=e → Latv. dùuzene
Latv. dūzenê-
(vb.) ‘rollen (vom Donner)’
(LiEtWb. 84)
(Latv. dūzenêt)
1. PIE *dɦɑ́ugi̯enḗhɑ-
PIE *ɑ́u → úu
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́u›úu → *dɦúugi̯enḗhɑ-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. dɦúugi̯enḗhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦúugi̯enḗh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dɦúugi̯enḗh-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *dɦúuj́enḗh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. dɦúuj́enḗh-
*ḗH → êH
Latvian tone rule for ḗH
RAccLatv6 → *dɦúuj́enêh-
5. dɦúuj́enêh-
ú -› ù
Latvian tone rule ú -› ù
RAccLatv11 → *dɦùuj́enêh-
6. dɦùuj́enêh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dɦùuj́enê-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. dɦùuj́enê-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *dɦùuzenê-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
8. dɦùuzenê-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → Latv. dùuzenê-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
Latv. dūzenê-
(vb.) ‘Oberhand über einen gewinnen’
(LiEtWb. 84)
(Latv. dūzenêt)
1. PIE *dɦɑ́ugi̯enḗhɑ-
PIE *ɑ́u → úu
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́u›úu → *dɦúugi̯enḗhɑ-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. dɦúugi̯enḗhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦúugi̯enḗh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dɦúugi̯enḗh-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *dɦúuj́enḗh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. dɦúuj́enḗh-
*ḗH → êH
Latvian tone rule for ḗH
RAccLatv6 → *dɦúuj́enêh-
5. dɦúuj́enêh-
ú -› ù
Latvian tone rule ú -› ù
RAccLatv11 → *dɦùuj́enêh-
6. dɦùuj́enêh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dɦùuj́enê-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. dɦùuj́enê-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *dɦùuzenê-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
8. dɦùuzenê-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → Latv. dùuzenê-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
Latv. dūzenê-
(vb.) ‘stoßen, mit der Faust schlagen'
(LiEtWb. 84)
(Latv. dūzenêt)
1. PIE *dɦɑ́ugi̯enḗhɑ-
PIE *ɑ́u → úu
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́u›úu → *dɦúugi̯enḗhɑ-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. dɦúugi̯enḗhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦúugi̯enḗh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dɦúugi̯enḗh-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *dɦúuj́enḗh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. dɦúuj́enḗh-
*ḗH → êH
Latvian tone rule for ḗH
RAccLatv6 → *dɦúuj́enêh-
5. dɦúuj́enêh-
ú -› ù
Latvian tone rule ú -› ù
RAccLatv11 → *dɦùuj́enêh-
6. dɦùuj́enêh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dɦùuj́enê-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. dɦùuj́enê-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *dɦùuzenê-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
8. dɦùuzenê-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → Latv. dùuzenê-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
OSwed. dōg-
(pret.) ‘sterben’
(Söderwall 1884-1918 s.v. döia)
OSwed. doghe [conj])
1. PIE *dɦɑougi̯ɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦougi̯ɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦougi̯ɦ-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *dɦouǵɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. dɦouǵɦ-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *dɦougɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. dɦougɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dougɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. dougɦ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *doug-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. doug-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OSwed. daug-
OEng. dīega-
(pr.) ‘sterben’
(AeEtWb. 73)
(OEng. dīegan)
1. PIE *dɦɑougi̯ɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦougi̯ɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦougi̯ɦi̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *dɦouǵɦi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. dɦouǵɦi̯o-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *dɦougɦi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. dɦougɦi̯o-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dougɦi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. dougɦi̯o-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *dougi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. dougi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *daugi̯a-
7. daugi̯a-
*au → eā
Change of *au into eā
Rau›eā → *deāgi̯a-
8. deāgi̯a-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OEng. deāgia-
OHG. gi·tōti-
(a.) ‘tödlich: deadly’
(Gl. 13th cent.)
1. PIE *Π·dɦɑoudɑɦio-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦoudɦio-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦoudɦio-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·doudio-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. Π·doudio-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·daudia-
4. Π·daudia-
*au → ou
Change of au into ou
Rau›ou → *Π·doudia-
5. Π·doudia-
*d → t
OHG sound shift of *d
Rd›tHG → OHG. Π·toutia-
Lith. daũkanta-
(PNm.) ‘Daũkantas’
(LiEtWb. 84)
(Lith. daũkantas [sgN])
1. PIE *doɦɑúkonto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *doɦúkonto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. doɦúkonto-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis PLith. ù
RLiAcc3 → *doɦùkonto-
3. doɦùkonto-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *doùkonto-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. doùkonto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lith. daùkanta-
RV. ápa () ve-
(pr.) ‘sich abwenden’
(WbRV. 1312-4)
ápa (…) veti [3sg])
1. PIE *hɑépo (...) u̯ehɑi-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *hɑápo (...) u̯ehɑi-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑápo (...) u̯ehɑi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hápo (...) u̯ehi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hápo (...) u̯ehi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hápa (...) u̯ehi-
4. hápa (...) u̯ehi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ápa (...) u̯ei-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ápa (...) u̯ei-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *ápa (...) u̯ai-
6. ápa (...) u̯ai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *ápa (...) u̯ē-
7. ápa (...) u̯ē-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *ápa (...) vē-
8. ápa (...) vē-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → RV. ápa (...) ve-
Gr. ανο-
(vb.) ‘winnow: worfeln’
(GEW 1:41)
1. PIE *uhɑéni̯o-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *uhɑáni̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. uhɑáni̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uháni̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. uháni̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *uáni̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. uáni̯o-
*áni̯ → aín
Epenthesis of *i
Ráni̯›aín → *uaíno-
5. uaíno-
*uA → u̯A
Desyllabification of uA into u̯A
RuA›u̯A → *u̯aíno-
6. u̯aíno-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *aíno-
7. aíno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ανο-
Lith. vs-
(vb.) ‘durch Fortpflanzung sich vermehren, (er)zeugen’
(LiEtWb. 1214)
(Lith. veĩsti, veisiù)
1. PIE *u̯eís-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *u̯eìs-
2. u̯eìs-
eì → eĩ
Circumflex intonation for eì
RLiAcc14 → *u̯eĩs-
3. u̯eĩs-
eí -› iẽ
Change of eí to iẽ
Reĩ›iẽ → *u̯iẽs-
4. u̯iẽs-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. viẽs-
OEng. weaxa-
(vb.) ‘schmausen: feast’
(GoEtD. W75)
(Beowulf 2115 ms. weaxan, not †wesan)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦso-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *u̯ogso-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. u̯ogso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯agsa-
4. u̯agsa-
gs -› ks
Devoicing of gs to ks
Rgs›ks → *u̯aksa-
5. u̯aksa-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → *waksa-
6. waksa-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *wacsa-
7. wacsa-
*cs → x
Change of *cs into x
Rcs›x → OEng. waxa-
TochB. yokä-
(vb.) ‘trinken’
(DTochB. 509-10)
(TochB. yokäṃ [3sg])
1. PIE *eugɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eugɦa-
3. eugɦa-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦa-
4. i̯augɦa-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯auga-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. i̯auga-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯auka-
6. i̯auka-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōka-
7. i̯ōka-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯oka-
8. i̯oka-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. yoka-
TochB. yokänta
(sb.) ‘drinker’
(DTochB. 510)
1. PIE *eugɑɦonto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦonto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦonto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eugɦanta-
3. eugɦanta-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦanta-
4. i̯augɦanta-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯auganta-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. i̯auganta-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯aukanta-
6. i̯aukanta-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōkanta-
7. i̯ōkanta-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯okanta-
8. i̯okanta-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. yokanta-
OEng. eāgor·streām-
(m.) ‘Flut, Meer: dodrans (Gl)’
(ASaxD. 226)
(IEW 23, AeEtWb. 83)
1. PIE *ougɑɦur·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ougɦur·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ougɦur·Σ
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *ougur·Σ
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. ougur·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *augur·Σ
4. augur·Σ
*au → eā
Change of *au into eā
Rau›eā → OEng. eāgur·Σ
HLu. u̯aza-
(69sb.) ‘request’
(CHLu. 11.1.fg18)
(HLu. (“*69)wa/i-za-na)
1. PIE *u̯oki̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *u̯oćo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯oćo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aća-
3. u̯aća-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *u̯asa-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
4. u̯asa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. u̯aša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. u̯azi-
(69vb.) ‘request, demand’
(CHLu. 10.9.7)
(HLu. wa/i-zi-ti-i [3sg], (“*69”)wa/i-zi-ha-na [1pl])
1. PIE *u̯oki̯i-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *u̯oći-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯oći-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aći-
3. u̯aći-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *u̯asi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
4. u̯asi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. u̯aši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OCS. veliča-
(vb.) ‘groß machen, rühmen, preisen’
(Sadnik √1055)
(OCS. veličati)
1. PIE *u̯eleikui̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯eleikui̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯eleikui̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eleikui̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯eleikui̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯eleikui̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯eleikui̯ā-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *u̯eleiki̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. u̯eleiki̯ā-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *u̯elīki̯ā-
6. u̯elīki̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *velīki̯ā-
7. velīki̯ā-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *velīkjā-
8. velīkjā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *velīkja-
9. velīkja-
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. velikja-
OCS. u·vęda-
(vb.) ‘verwelken’
(Sadnik 1075A)
1. PIE *Π· u̯endɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π· u̯endɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π· u̯endɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π· u̯endɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π· u̯endɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π· u̯endɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π· u̯endɦā-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π· u̯endā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. Π· u̯endā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *Π· vendā-
6. Π· vendā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OCS. Π· venda-
OEng. one-
(vb.) ‘sehen’
(AeEtWb. 241)
(OEng. one ‘siehe!’)
1. PIE *uni
*-i → -e
Change of root-final -i into -e
R=i›=e → OEng. une
OEng. ono-
(vb.) ‘sehen’
(AeEtWb. 241)
TochB. wän-
(vb.) ‘cover’
(DTochB. 592)
(TochB. wänträ [3sg])
1. PIE *u̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯an-
2. u̯an-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. wan-
TochB. on·mi·ṣa-
(a.) ‘prtng to remorse’
(DTochB. 115)
(TochB. onmiṣṣe-)
1. PIE *oun·mi·si̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aun·mi·si̯a-
2. aun·mi·si̯a-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
Rsi̯›ṣ → *aun·mi·ṣa-
3. aun·mi·ṣa-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōn·mi·ṣa-
4. ōn·mi·ṣa-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. on·mi·ṣa-
Lith. ũbi-
(vb.) ‘jmdn. zur Eile treiben’
(LiEtWb. 1156)
(Lith. ũbiti [inf.], ũbju [pr.], ũbjau [pret.])
1. PIE *úbɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *úbɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. úbɦi-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis PLith. ù
RLiAcc3 → *ùbɦi-
3. ùbɦi-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → Lith. ùbi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
OEng. wearm-
(a.) ‘warm’
(ASaxD. 1177)
1. PIE *u̯ormo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arma
2. u̯arma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯arm
3. u̯arm
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OEng. warm
OIcl. orna-
(vb.) ‘warm werden, wärmen’
(IEW 1166)
(AnEtWb. 420)
1. PIE *urno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. urna-
RV. ūrdhvá-
(a.) ‘aufrechtstehend, hoch emporgehoben’
(WbRV. 274)
1. PIE *urdɑɦu̯ó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *urdɦu̯ó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. urdɦu̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *urdɦu̯á-
3. urdɦu̯á-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *urdɦvá-
4. urdɦvá-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. urdhvá-
TochA. wärsä-
(pr.A.) ‘spirare, respirare’
(Poucha 297)
(TochA. wärsäṣ [3sg])
1. PIE *u̯orso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arsa-
2. u̯arsa-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. warsa-
OIr. fraiss-
(f.) ‘shower (of rain, snow), fig. a gush, stream of sth.; quantity, swarm’
(DIL. 339)
1. PIE *u̯reɑhssi
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯raɑhssi
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯raɑhssi
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯rahssi
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯rahssi
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯rassi
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯rassi
*u̯- → f-
Change of *u̯- into f-
Ru̯=›f= → *frassi
5. frassi
*-i → Ø
Loss of root-final -i
R=i›=0 → OIr. frass
RV. urv·árā-
(f.) ‘Fruchtfeld, Saatland’ (WbRV. 265)
(KEWA 1:110)
(RV. urvárā [sgN])
1. PIE *uru̯·hɑérēɑh-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *uru̯·hɑárēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. uru̯·hɑárēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *uru̯·hɑárāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. uru̯·hɑárāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uru̯·hárāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. uru̯·hárāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *uru̯·árā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. uru̯·árā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *urv·árā-
6. urv·árā-
urv → ūrv
Lengthening of *u before rv
Rurv›ūrv → RV. ūrv·árā-
TochA. wärkänt-
(sb.) ‘wheel’
(DTochB. 506)
(MA. 640)
1. PIE *u̯orgi̯ɑɦont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯orgi̯ɦont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯orgi̯ɦont-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *u̯orǵɦont-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯orǵɦont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arǵɦant-
4. u̯arǵɦant-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *u̯argɦant-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯argɦant-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *u̯argant-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. u̯argant-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *u̯arkant-
7. u̯arkant-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. warkant-
OPers. fra·varti-
(m.) ‘Φραόρτης, a Median rebel’
(OldP. 198)
(OPers. fravartaiš [sgG])
1. PIE *pro·u̯orti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pra·u̯arti-
2. pra·u̯arti-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OPers. pra·varti-
OCS. vratŭkŭ-
(a.) ‘leicht zu verändern’
(Sadnik √1106)
1. PIE *u̯ortuko
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯artuka
2. u̯artuka
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *u̯ortuko
3. u̯ortuko
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *u̯ortuku
4. u̯ortuku
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vortuku
5. vortuku
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. vortŭkŭ
TochA. wāsä·ṅkā-
(pr.M.) ‘se mouvoir’
(Poucha 292)
(TochA. wāsäṅkātär ‹suffix unclear›)
1. PIE *u̯ōso·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ōsa·Σ
2. u̯ōsa·Σ
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *u̯āsa·Σ
3. u̯āsa·Σ
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. wāsa·Σ
TochA. wäs-
(sb.) ‘venenum: poison’
(Poucha 301)
(TochA. wäs)
1. PIE *u̯oso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯asa-
2. u̯asa-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. wasa-
TochA. wäsri-
(sb.) ‘grassy field, lawn’
(DTochB. 585)
(‹suffix unclear›)
1. PIE *u̯osri-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯asri-
2. u̯asri-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. wasri-
Hitt. u̯ez·pant-
(a.) ‘alt’
(HEG W:569)
(Hitt. u̯ezpant-)
1. PIE *u̯ets·pont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ets·pant-
2. u̯ets·pant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯e·pant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
MidCymr. di·wedy-
(vb.) ‘say’
(EtGlOW. 67)
(MidCymr. diwedyd [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·u̯etɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯ethi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·u̯ethi-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *Π·u̯eti-
3. Π·u̯eti-
*eti → edi
Voicing of t between vowels
Reti›edi → *Π·u̯edi-
4. Π·u̯edi-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → MidCymr. Π·wedi-
TochA. utäk-
(vb.) ‘iubere, imperare’
(Poucha 294)
(TochA. putäk [ipv])
1. PIE *udɑɦok-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *udɦok-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. udɦok-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *udɦak-
3. udɦak-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *udak-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. udak-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → TochA. utak-
TochA. wotäk-
(pret.A.) ‘iubere, imperare’
(Poucha 293)
(TochA. wotäk [3sg])
1. PIE *u̯oudɑɦok-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯oudɦok-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯oudɦok-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯audɦak-
3. u̯audɦak-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯audak-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. u̯audak-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *u̯autak-
5. u̯autak-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *u̯ōtak-
6. u̯ōtak-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *u̯otak-
7. u̯otak-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. wotak-
Lith. vãda-
(m.4.) ‘Führer’
(LiEtWb. 1177)
(Lith. vãdas [sgN])
1. PIE *u̯ódɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ódɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ódɦo-
ó → ò
Emergence of gravis PLith. ò
RLiAcc5 → *u̯òdɦo-
3. u̯òdɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯òdɦa-
4. u̯òdɦa-
PIE *ò → à
Change of *ò into à
Rò›à → *u̯àdɦa-
5. u̯àdɦa-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯àda-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. u̯àda-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. vàda-

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