PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

( Show the entire data in a single page )

© 2014-2015 University of Helsinki

"Durch zweier Zeugen Mund wird alle Wahrheit kund" — August Fick
(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
Contact PIE Lexicon Project

Problems with the Greek alphabet, possible errors emerged in the final update and other minor issues to be corrected.


Welcome to PIE Lexicon Pilot 1.1: The generative etymological dictionary of Anatolian languages


Proto-Indo-European Lexicon is the generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages.

The current version, PIE Lexicon Pilot 1.1, presents digitally generated data of hundred most ancient Indo-European languages with three hundred new etymologies for Old Anatolian languages, Hitttite, Palaic, Cuneiform Luwian and Hieroglyphic Luwian, arranged under two hundred Indo-European roots.

The correspondences contain data of all fourteen sub-branches of the Indo-European languages, Albanian, Anatolian, Armenian, Baltic, Celtic, Germanic, Greek, Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Italic, Old Balkan (Satem), Old Balkan (Centum), Slavic and Tocharian.

The Anatolian etymologies have been chosen due to their particularly problematic nature, and in the absence of other criteria the selection is random. However, as all the oldest forms of the languages are represented in the data, the ancient languages still absent in PIE Lexicon are supplemented in the near future.

 

We use a set of sound laws of the Neogrammarians, the laryngeal theory and monolaryngealism critically revised and selected to form a consistent system in Pyysalo (2013), which allows a computer-generated derivation of the most important (ancient) Indo-European languages.

The derivation has been digitized by means of Foma, a programming language developed by Mans Hulden (2009). In Foma the Indo-European sound laws are equipped with their digital counterparts, which are then arranged in chronological order. After this a PIE reconstruction results in a respective Indo-European form, when the Foma script of that language is applied.

All Indo-European forms of PIE Lexicon are automatically generated from the proto-language, and if marked with black the generation is successful. Any errors in the derivation are marked with red, and the derivation of a form through successive sound laws is generated by clicking its PIE reconstruction (in blue).




An example of a root (matrix) in PIE Lexicon for the meaning 'Homeland'


Click on the PIE *reconstruction to see how the respective IE form is generated with the Foma (sound law) script.


PIE √ns- √nes- √nos- (sb.) ‘URU neša- = Heimat’ (vb.) ‘heimkehren, gerettet werden, genesen, usw.’
(IEW 766-7)
(+Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√nes-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ga·neš-
(URU.) ‘= URU neša- .i. Heimat : Homeland’
(OGH. 169-70)
(Hitt. ka-ni-eš, ka-ni-iš [Stf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦo·nes-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦo·nes-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦo·nes-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *gɦa·nes-
(XX:XX)
3. gɦa·nes-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *ga·nes-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ga·nes-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. ga·neš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. νέο-
(prM.) ‘(glücklich) gelangen, zurück-, heimkehren’
(GEW 2:304f.)
(Gr. νέο-)
1. PIE *néso-
*s → h
Change *s into h
RChanges2h → *ného-
2. ného-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
RLossofh → *néo-
3. néo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. νέο-
Hitt. neša-
(URU.) ‘=URU Ka-ni-eš, OGHErg. 62-3’
(HEG 2:315-9)
(Hitt. ne-ša-)
1. PIE *neso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *nesa-
(XX:XX)
2. nesa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. neša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Goth. ga·nisa-
(vb.) ‘gerettet werden, genesen’
(GoEtD. 146)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·neso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦo·neso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦo·neso-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → *go·neso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. go·neso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *ga·nesa-
(XX:XX)
4. ga·nesa-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
RChangee2i → Goth. ga·nisa-
Hitt. nešili
(URUadv.) ‘hethitisch’
(HEG 2:318)
(Hitt. ni-ši-li)
1. PIE *nesili-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. nešili-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Goth. ga·nist-
(f.) ‘Genesung, Heil’ (: σωτηρία)
(GoEtD. 146)
(Goth. ganists)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·nesti-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦo·nesti-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦo·nesti-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → *go·nesti-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. go·nesti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *ga·nesti-
(XX:XX)
4. ga·nesti-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
RChangee2i → Goth. ga·nisti-
Gr. νέστωρ-
(Im.) “der (glücklich wohin) gelangt”
(GEW 2:305)
1. PIE *néstōr
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. νέστωρ
√nos-
(Pyysalo)
Goth. ga·nasja-
(vb.) ‘ἰᾶσθαι, σῶσαι, διασώσειν’
(GoEtD. 263)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·nosi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦo·nosi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦo·nosi̯o-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → *go·nosi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. go·nosi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *ga·nasi̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. ga·nasi̯a-
*i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
ROrthogrY2j → Goth. ga·nasja-
Hitt. našili
(adv.) ‘hethitisch’
(HEG 2:318)
(Hitt. na-a-ši-li
1. PIE *nosili
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *nasili
(XX:XX)
2. nasili
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. našili
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. νόστο-
(m.) ‘Rück-, Heimkehr, Fahrt, Ertrag’
(GEW 2:305)
1. PIE *nósto-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. νόστο-
√ns-
Gr. νί̄σο-
(pr.) ‘fahren, gehen, kommen’
(GEW 1:304-5)
(Gr. νίσομαι, νίσσομαι, Gr. ī)
1. PIE *nínsso-
*ínss → ī́ss
Loss of nasal with lengthening
RChangeinss2Iss → *nī́sso-
2. nī́sso-
*ss → s
Degemination of *ss
RDegeminss2s → *nī́so-
3. nī́so-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. νί̄σο-
Gr. νί̄σα-
(ao.) ‘fahren, gehen, kommen’
(GEW 1:304-5)
(Gr. νίσασθαι, νίσσασθαι)
1. PIE *nínsseɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *nínssaɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. nínssaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *nínssah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. nínssah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *nínssa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. nínssa-
*ínss → ī́ss
Loss of nasal with lengthening
RChangeinss2Iss → *nī́ssa-
5. nī́ssa-
*ss → s
Degemination of *ss
RDegeminss2s → *nī́sa-
6. nī́sa-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. νί̄σα-

Creative Commons License The PIE Lexicon Project licenses its data, linguistic results and finite-state encoded rules under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike (CC BY-SA) license.

Versions: 1.1. (current) | 1.0.