PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon Pilot 1.0.

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory:

  • *o
  • *e
  • *i
  • *u
  • *l
  • *r
  • *m
  • *n
  • *k
  • *p
  • *t
  • *h
  • *s
  • *ɑ̄?
  • *i̯
  • *u̯
  • *l̥
  • *r̥
  • *m̥
  • *n̥
  • *g
  • *b
  • *d
  • *z

© 2014 University of Helsinki

"Durch zweier Zeugen Mund wird alle Wahrheit kund" — August Fick
(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)

Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
Contact PIE Lexicon Project


PIE √kɑhu-, √gɑɦu- ‘schlagen, hauen, töten, kämpfen, stechen, töten, treiben, jagen, schmieden, verfertigen, usw.’
√kɑhu-
(IEW. 535 *kǝu-)
(WP. 1:330f.)
Lith. káu-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, hauen, umbringen, vernichten’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. káuti [inf.])
1. PIE *kḗɑhu-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *kā́ɑhu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kā́hu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kā́hu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *kā́u-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kā́u-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
R14a2 → Lith. káu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
Lith. káu-
(vb.refl.) ‘sich schlagen, kämpfen, ausgelassen sein, tollen’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. káutis [inf.])
1. PIE *kḗɑhu-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *kā́ɑhu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kā́hu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kā́hu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *kā́u-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kā́u-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
R14a2 → Lith. káu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
Latv. kaû-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, hauen, stechen, schlachten, treten’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Latv. kaût, kavu [pret], kâvu [pret])
1. PIE *kḗɑhu-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *kā́ɑhu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kā́hu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kā́hu-
*ā́hu → āhû
Latvian tone rule for *ā́hu
RAcc2 → *kāhû-
4. kāhû-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R14b → *kāû-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāû-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R16a1 → Latv. kaû-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
Lith. nu·káu-
(vb.) ‘erschlagen : kill’
(Senn 2:227)
(Lith. nu·káuti [inf.])
1. PIE *Π·kḗɑhu-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *Π·kā́ɑhu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·kā́ɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·kā́hu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·kā́hu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *Π·kā́u-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·kā́u-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
R14a2 → Lith. Π·káu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
Latv. nùo·kaû-
(vb.) ‘erschlagen, töten’
(IEW. 535)
(Latv. nùokaût [inf.])
1. PIE *Π·kḗɑhu-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *Π·kā́ɑhu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·kā́ɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·kā́hu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·kā́hu-
*ā́hu → āhû
Latvian tone rule for *ā́hu
RAcc2 → *Π·kāhû-
4. Π·kāhû-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R14b → *Π·kāû-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·kāû-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R16a1 → Latv. Π·kaû-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
Pol. ku-
(pr.) ‘schmieden’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Pol. kuć [inf.], kuję [1sg])
1. PIE *kēɑhu-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāu-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R17a1 → *kau-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
5. kau-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *kou-
6. kou-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *kū-
7. kū-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R34k → Pol. ku-
TochB. kau-
(vb.) ‘= Skt. vadhāya- : töten’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kautsi-ś [inf.])
1. PIE *kēɑhu-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhu-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāu-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → TochB. kau-
TochA. kāw-
(vb.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 85)
(TochA. kāw-e(ñc) [3pl])
1. PIE *kēɑhu̯-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhu̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhu̯-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāu̯-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
R27d → TochA. kāw-
TochA. ko-
(vb.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 85)
(if in TochA. pko [ipv.], HuIdg. 253-)
1. PIE *kēɑhu-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhu-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāu-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kau-
5. kau-
*auC → ōC
Osthoff’s Law for auC
R22b → *kō-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
6. kō-
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27b → TochA. ko-
√kɑhuo-
OCS. kovo-
(pr.) ‘schmieden, verfertigen’
(Sadnik √374)
(OCS. kovǫ [1sg], PIE *e for presens)
1. PIE *keɑhu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *kaɑhu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kahu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kahu̯a-
4. kahu̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kau̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kau̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *kou̯o-
6. kou̯o-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
R31 → OCS. kovo-
TochB. kawa-
(pret.A.) ‘kill’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kawam [1pl], *e for preterite)
1. PIE *keɑhu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *kaɑhu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kahu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kahu̯a-
4. kahu̯a-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kau̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kau̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
R22d → TochB. kawa-
OSax. hawa-
(pr.) ‘hew, cut, strike, smite’
(ASaxD. 534)
(OSax. hawan [inf.], *e for presens)
1. PIE *keɑhu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *kaɑhu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kahu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R9b → *kau̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kau̯o-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
R13a → *xau̯o-
5. xau̯o-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
R16a → *xau̯a-
6. xau̯a-
*x → h
Change of *x into h
R19a → *hau̯a-
7. hau̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into j
R21 → OSax. hawa-
√kɑhuɑh-
Lith. kovà-
(f.) ‘Kampf, Schlacht’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kovà [sgN])
1. PIE *kēɑhu̯ḗɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhu̯ḗɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhu̯ḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *kāɑhu̯ā́ɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. kāɑhu̯ā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhu̯ā́h
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kāhu̯ā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *kāu̯ā́
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāu̯ā́
*ā → ō
Change of ā into ō
R20a → *kōu̯ā́
6. kōu̯ā́
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
R20b → *kōu̯ṓ
7. kōu̯ṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R21b → *kōu̯à
8. kōu̯à
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization *u̯ of into v
R22 → *kōvà
9. kōvà
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R26a → Lith. kovà
Lith. kovó-
(vb.) ‘kämpfen, ringen’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kovóti [inf.])
1. PIE *kēɑhu̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhu̯ḗɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhu̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *kāɑhu̯ā́ɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. kāɑhu̯ā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhu̯ā́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kāhu̯ā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *kāu̯ā́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāu̯ā́-
*ā → ō
Change of ā into ō
R20a → *kōu̯ā́-
6. kōu̯ā́-
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
R20b → *kōu̯ṓ-
7. kōu̯ṓ-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization *u̯ of into v
R22 → *kōvṓ-
8. kōvṓ-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R26a → *kovṓ-
9. kovṓ-
ṓ → ó
Orthographic change of ō into o
R26b → Lith. kovó-
Latv. kava-
(f.) ‘Stich, Schlag, Art, Schicht’
(WH 2:301)
Latv. kava [sgN]
1. PIE *koɑhu̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *koɑhu̯āɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. koɑhu̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohu̯āh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kohu̯āh
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kahu̯āh
4. kahu̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R14b → *kau̯ā
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kau̯ā
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization *u̯ of into v
R22 → *kavā
6. kavā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final
R27 → Latv. kava
Serb. kòva-
(vb.) ‘schmieden, prägen’
(IEW. 535)
(Serb. kòvati [inf.], *e for presens)
1. PIE *kéɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
R1d → *káɑhu̯ēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. káɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *káɑhu̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. káɑhu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *káhu̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. káhu̯āh-
áḫ → àḫ
Serbo-Croatian gravis rule
RAcc1 → *kàhu̯āh-
5. kàhu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kàu̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kàu̯ā-
*à → ò
Change of *à into ò
R22c → *kòu̯ā-
7. kòu̯ā-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
R31 → *kòvā-
8. kòvā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
R34c → Serb. kòva-
OCS. kova-
(vb.) ‘schmieden, verfertigen’
(Sadnik √374)
(OCS. kovati [1sg])
1. PIE *keɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kaɑhu̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. kaɑhu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kahu̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kahu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kau̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kau̯ā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *kou̯ā-
6. kou̯ā-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
R31 → *kovā-
7. kovā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
R32c → OCS. kova-
Russ. kova-
(vb.) ‘schmieden’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Russ. kovat’, kuju [1sg])
1. PIE *keɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kaɑhu̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. kaɑhu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kahu̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kahu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kau̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kau̯ā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *kou̯ā-
6. kou̯ā-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
R31 → *kovā-
7. kovā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
R35c → Russ. kova-
Pol. kowa-
(vb.) ‘schmieden’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Pol. kować [inf.], kowam [1sg])
1. PIE *keɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kaɑhu̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. kaɑhu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kahu̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kahu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kau̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kau̯ā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *kou̯ā-
6. kou̯ā-
*u̯ → w
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
R31 → *kowā-
7. kowā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
R34c → Pol. kowa-
OCS. po·kova-
(vb.) ‘beschlagen’
(Sadnik √374)
(OCS. pokovati [inf.])
1. PIE *Π·keɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *Π·kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. Π·kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *Π·kaɑhu̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. Π·kaɑhu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·kahu̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. Π·kahu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *Π·kau̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·kau̯ā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *Π·kou̯ā-
6. Π·kou̯ā-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
R31 → *Π·kovā-
7. Π·kovā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
R32c → OCS. Π·kova-
√kɑhuēhɑ-
Lith. kóvė-
(pret.) ‘schlagen, hauen, umbringen, vernichten’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kóviau, kóvė)
1. PIE *kḗɑhu̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *kā́ɑhu̯ēhɑ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhu̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kā́hu̯ēh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kā́hu̯ēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *kā́u̯ē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kā́u̯ē-
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
R20b → *kṓu̯ē-
5. kṓu̯ē-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization *u̯ of into v
R22 → *kṓvē-
6. kṓvē-
ṓ → ó
Orthographic change of ō into o
R26b → *kóvē-
7. kóvē-
* ē -> ė
Orthographic change of *ē into ė
R27a → Lith. kóvė-
Serb. kòvē-
(vb.) ‘schmieden, prägen’
(IEW. 535)
(Serb. kòvēm [1sg])
1. PIE *kéɑhu̯ēhɑ-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
R1d → *káɑhu̯ēhɑ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. káɑhu̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *káhu̯ēh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. káhu̯ēh-
áḫ → àḫ
Serbo-Croatian gravis rule
RAcc1 → *kàhu̯ēh-
4. kàhu̯ēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kàu̯ē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kàu̯ē-
*à → ò
Change of *à into ò
R22c → *kòu̯ē-
6. kòu̯ē-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
R31 → Serb. kòvē-
√kɑhuhɑl-
(Pyysalo)
OCS. na·kovalo-
(n.) ‘Amboss’
(Sadnik √374)
(OCS. nakovalo)
1. PIE *Π·koɑhu̯ōhɑlos
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·kohu̯ōhlos
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·kohu̯ōhlos
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *Π·kahu̯ōhlas
3. Π·kahu̯ōhlas
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
R8c → *Π·kahu̯āhlas
4. Π·kahu̯āhlas
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *Π·kau̯ālas
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·kau̯ālas
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *Π·kou̯ālos
6. Π·kou̯ālos
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root final)
R25 → *Π·kou̯ālo
7. Π·kou̯ālo
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
R31 → *Π·kovālo
8. Π·kovālo
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
R32c → OCS. Π·kovalo
OCS. na·kovalĭno-
(n.) ‘Amboss’
(Sadnik √374)
(OCS. nakovalĭno)
1. PIE *Π·koɑhu̯ōhɑlinos
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·kohu̯ōhlinos
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·kohu̯ōhlinos
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *Π·kahu̯ōhlinas
3. Π·kahu̯ōhlinas
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
R8c → *Π·kahu̯āhlinas
4. Π·kahu̯āhlinas
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *Π·kau̯ālinas
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·kau̯ālinas
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *Π·kou̯ālinos
6. Π·kou̯ālinos
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root final)
R25 → *Π·kou̯ālino
7. Π·kou̯ālino
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
R31 → *Π·kovālino
8. Π·kovālino
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
R32c → *Π·kovalino
9. Π·kovalino
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
R32e → OCS. Π·kovalĭno
RV. kū́ṭa-
(n.) ‘Hammer, Schlegel’
(KEWA I:250)
(RV. kū́ṭa-)
1. PIE *kɑ́huhɑlto-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *kúhuhɑlto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. kúhuhɑlto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kúhuhlto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kúhuhlto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *kúhuhlta-
4. kúhuhlta-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
R10a → *kúhuhrta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
5. kúhuhrta-
PIE *hRt → ṭ
Fortunatov’s Law for *hRt
R12b → *kúhuṭa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.2)
6. kúhuṭa-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *kúuṭa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. kúuṭa-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
R22d → RV. kū́ṭa-
√kɑhuɦɑd-
Lat. cūd-
(pf.) ‘schlagen, klopfen, stampfen, prägen’
(WH 1:300)
(Lat. cūdī [1sg])
1. PIE *koɑhuɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohuɦd-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohuɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R10a → *kohud-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kohud-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R10b → *koud-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. koud-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R16 → *kūd-
5. kūd-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
R20 → Lat. cūd-
TochA. kot-
(pret.A.) ‘spalten : dissecare, diffindere’
(Poucha. 86)
(TochA. kot)
1. PIE *koɑhuɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohuɦd-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohuɦd-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kahuɦd-
3. kahuɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *kahud-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kahud-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kaud-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kaud-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
R18c → *kaut-
6. kaut-
*au → ō
Monophtongization of *au
R21c → *kōt-
7. kōt-
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27b → TochA. kot-
Lat. in·cūd-
(f.) ‘Amboß’
(WH 1:300)
(Lat. incūs [sgN], incūdis [sgG])
1. PIE *Π·koɑhuɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·kohuɦd-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·kohuɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R10a → *Π·kohud-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. Π·kohud-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R10b → *Π·koud-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·koud-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R16 → *Π·kūd-
5. Π·kūd-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
R20 → Lat. Π·cūd-
Lat. sub·cūd-
(f.) ‘Verklammerung, Haue’
(WH 1:300)
(Lat. subcūs [sgN], subcūdis [sgG])
1. PIE *Π·koɑhuɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·kohuɦd-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·kohuɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R10a → *Π·kohud-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. Π·kohud-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R10b → *Π·koud-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·koud-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R16 → *Π·kūd-
5. Π·kūd-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
R20 → Lat. Π·cūd-
TochB. kauta-
(vb.) ‘crush, chop, split’
(DTochB. 210)
(TochB. kautaṃ, kautatsiśco [inf.])
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdeɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *kēɑhuɦɑdaɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kēɑhuɦɑdaɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhuɦɑdaɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. kāɑhuɦɑdaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhuɦdah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kāhuɦdah-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *kāhudah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāhudah-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāuda-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kāuda-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
R18c → *kāuta-
7. kāuta-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → TochB. kauta-
TochB. kauta·no-
(impf.A.) ‘chop up, obj. bones’
(DTochB. 210)
(TochB. kautanoñ-c [3pl-2sgencl])
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdo·nou-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhuɦɑdo·nou-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑdo·nou-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhuɦdo·nou-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦdo·nou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kāhuɦda·nau-
4. kāhuɦda·nau-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *kāhuda·nau-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāhuda·nau-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāuda·nau-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kāuda·nau-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
R18c → *kāuta·nau-
7. kāuta·nau-
*au → ō
Monophtongization of *au
R21c → *kāuta·nō-
8. kāuta·nō-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kauta·nō-
9. kauta·nō-
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R22b → TochB. kauta·no-
TochB. kauta·lñe-
(a.) ‘Skt. bhedana- = breaking’
(DTochB. 210)
(TochB. kautalñe-)
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdo·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhuɦɑdo·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑdo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhuɦdo·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦdo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kāhuɦda·Σ-
4. kāhuɦda·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *kāhuda·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāhuda·Σ-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāuda·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kāuda·Σ-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
R18c → *kāuta·Σ-
7. kāuta·Σ-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → TochB. kauta·Σ-
TochB. a·kauta·cce-
(a.) ‘unsplittable’
(DTochB. 3)
(TochB. akautacce [sgA], thunderbolt)
1. PIE *Π·kēɑhuɦɑdo·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *Π·kāɑhuɦɑdo·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·kāɑhuɦɑdo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·kāhuɦdo·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·kāhuɦdo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *Π·kāhuɦda·Σ-
4. Π·kāhuɦda·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *Π·kāhuda·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·kāhuda·Σ-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *Π·kāuda·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·kāuda·Σ-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
R18c → *Π·kāuta·Σ-
7. Π·kāuta·Σ-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → TochB. Π·kauta·Σ-
Lat. cūdo-
(pr3.) ‘schlagen, klopfen, stampfen, prägen’
(WH 1:300)
(Lat. cūdō [1sg], cūdĕre [inf.])
1. PIE *koɑhuɦɑdo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohuɦdo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohuɦdo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R10a → *kohudo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kohudo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R10b → *koudo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. koudo-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R16 → *kūdo-
5. kūdo-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
R20 → Lat. cūdo-
MidIr. cuad-
(vb.) ‘schlachten, kämpfen’
(WH 1:301)
(but see Fick II4:88 apud WH)
1. PIE *koɑhuɦɑdo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohuɦdo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohuɦdo
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R10a → *kohudo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kohudo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R10b → *koudo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. koudo
*ou → ō
Monophthongization of ou
R21 → *kōdo
5. kōdo
*ō → ua
Brechung of *ō into ua
R23 → *kuado
6. kuado
*o- → Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R27b → *kuad
7. kuad
*k → c
Orthographic change of k into c
R28a → MidIr. cuad
TochB. kautā-
(pret.) ‘break’
(DTochB. 210)
(TochB. kautā-)
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhuɦɑdāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑdāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhuɦdāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦdāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *kāhudāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāhudāh-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāudā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāudā-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
R18c → *kāutā-
6. kāutā-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → TochB. kautā-
TochB. kautā·tstsai-
(a.f.) ‘breakable, having a crack’
(DTochB. 210)
(TochB. kautātstsai-)
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdēɑh·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhuɦɑdāɑh·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑdāɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhuɦdāh·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦdāh·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *kāhudāh·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāhudāh·Σ-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāudā·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāudā·Σ-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
R18c → *kāutā·Σ-
6. kāutā·Σ-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → TochB. kautā·Σ-
OCS. iz·kyda-
(vb.) ‘herauswerfen, abwerfen’
(Sadnik √434)
(OCS. izkyda-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑ́huɦɑdēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *Π·kɑ́huɦɑdāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·kɑ́huɦɑdāɑh-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *Π·kúhuɦɑdāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
3. Π·kúhuɦɑdāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·kúhuɦdāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. Π·kúhuɦdāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *Π·kúhudāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·kúhudāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *Π·kúudā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·kúudā-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
R16d → *Π·kū́dā-
7. Π·kū́dā-
*ū́, ū → y
Change of ū́ into y
R26 → *Π·kydā-
8. Π·kydā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
R32c → OCS. Π·kyda-
OCS. sŭ·kyda-
(vb.refl.) ‘leer werden’
(Sadnik √434)
(OCS. sŭkyda-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑ́huɦɑdēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *Π·kɑ́huɦɑdāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·kɑ́huɦɑdāɑh-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *Π·kúhuɦɑdāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
3. Π·kúhuɦɑdāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·kúhuɦdāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. Π·kúhuɦdāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *Π·kúhudāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·kúhudāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *Π·kúudā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·kúudā-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
R16d → *Π·kū́dā-
7. Π·kū́dā-
*ū́, ū → y
Change of ū́ into y
R26 → *Π·kydā-
8. Π·kydā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
R32c → OCS. Π·kyda-
Lat. caud·ec-
(m.) ‘Baumstamm, Klotz, gespaltenes Holz…’
(WH 1:136)
(Lat. caudex, caudicis)
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑd·Σ
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhuɦɑd·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑd·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhuɦd·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦd·Σ
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R10a → *kāhud·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāhud·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R10b → *kāud·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāud·Σ
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R12a1 → *kaud·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. kaud·Σ
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
R20 → Lat. caud·Σ
Lat. cōd·ec-
(m.) ‘idem, … Züchtigungsblock, Notizbuch’
(WH 1:136)
(Lat. cōdex [sgN])
1. PIE *kōɑhuɦɑd·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kōhuɦd·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kōhuɦd·Σ-
*ōhu → ōh
Loss of labial in *ōhu
R8a → *kōhɦd·Σ-
3. kōhɦd·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R10a → *kōhd·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kōhd·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R10b → *kōd·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kōd·Σ-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
R20 → Lat. cōd·Σ-
Lat. caud·icā-
(f.) ‘aus einem Baumstamm gemachter Kahn’
(WH 1:136)
(Lat. caudica [sgN])
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑd·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhuɦɑd·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑd·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhuɦd·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦd·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R10a → *kāhud·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāhud·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R10b → *kāud·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāud·Σ-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R12a1 → *kaud·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. kaud·Σ-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
R20 → Lat. caud·Σ-
Lat. cōd·icillo-
(n.) ‘kleiner Stamm, Scheitholz’
(WH 1:136)
Lat. cōdicillum [sgNA])
1. PIE *kōɑhuɦɑd·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kōhuɦd·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kōhuɦd·Σ-
*ōhu → ōh
Loss of labial in *ōhu
R8a → *kōhɦd·Σ-
3. kōhɦd·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R10a → *kōhd·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kōhd·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R10b → *kōd·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kōd·Σ-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
R20 → Lat. cōd·Σ-
Latv. pa·kûdî-
(vb.) ‘antreiben’
(Sadnik √434)
(Latv. pakûdî-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑ́huɦɑdɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
R5a → *Π·kɑ́huɦɑdíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. Π·kɑ́huɦɑdíhi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *Π·kúhuɦɑdíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
3. Π·kúhuɦɑdíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·kúhuɦdíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. Π·kúhuɦdíhi-
*íhi → ihî
Latvian tone rule for *íhi
RAcc4 → *Π·kúhuɦdihî-
5. Π·kúhuɦdihî-
*úhu → uhû
Latvian tone rule for *úhu
RAcc5 → *Π·kuhûɦdihî-
6. Π·kuhûɦdihî-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R14a → *Π·kuhûdihî-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. Π·kuhûdihî-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R14b → *Π·kuûdiî-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
8. Π·kuûdiî-
*iî → î
Contraction of i and î
R15g → *Π·kuûdî-
9. Π·kuûdî-
*uû → û
Contraction of u and û
R15h → Latv. Π·kûdî-
TochA. kotlune-
(vb.sb.) ‘dissecare, diffindere : spalten’
(Poucha. 86)
(TochA. kotlune)
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdlunoi̯o
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhuɦɑdlunoi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑdlunoi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhuɦdlunoi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦdlunoi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kāhuɦdlunai̯a
4. kāhuɦdlunai̯a
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *kāhudlunai̯a
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāhudlunai̯a
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāudlunai̯a
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kāudlunai̯a
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
R18c → *kāutlunai̯a
7. kāutlunai̯a
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kautlunai̯a
8. kautlunai̯a
*auC → ōC
Osthoff’s Law for auC
R22b → *kōtlunai̯a
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
9. kōtlunai̯a
*a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R25 → *kōtlunai̯
10. kōtlunai̯
*a y → ē
Change of ay into ē in root-final
R26 → *kōtlunē
11. kōtlunē
*ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
R27a → *kōtlune
12. kōtlune
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27b → TochA. kotlune
TochA. kotna-
(pret.A.) ‘dissecare, diffindere : spalten’
(Poucha. 86)
(TochA. kotnaṣ, kotnatsi [inf.])
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdno-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhuɦɑdno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑdno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhuɦdno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦdno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kāhuɦdna-
4. kāhuɦdna-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *kāhudna-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāhudna-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāudna-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kāudna-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
R18c → *kāutna-
7. kāutna-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kautna-
8. kautna-
*auC → ōC
Osthoff’s Law for auC
R22b → *kōtna-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
9. kōtna-
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27b → TochA. kotna-
TochA. kotne-
(pret.A.) ‘spalten : dissecare, diffindere’
(Poucha. 86)
(TochA. kotnecä [3pl])
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdnoi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhuɦɑdnoi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑdnoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhuɦdnoi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦdnoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kāhuɦdnai-
4. kāhuɦdnai-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *kāhudnai-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāhudnai-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāudnai-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kāudnai-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
R18c → *kāutnai-
7. kāutnai-
*ai → ē
Monophtongization of *ai
R21a → *kāutnē-
8. kāutnē-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kautnē-
9. kautnē-
*auC → ōC
Osthoff’s Law for auC
R22b → *kōtnē-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
10. kōtnē-
*ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
R27a → *kōtne-
11. kōtne-
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27b → TochA. kotne-
Lat. cūsso-
(pf.) ‘schlagen, klopfen, stampfen, prägen’
(WH 1:300)
(Lat. cūssum [sgNA])
1. PIE *koɑhuɦɑdso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohuɦdso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohuɦdso-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R10a → *kohudso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kohudso-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R10b → *koudso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. koudso-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R16 → *kūdso-
5. kūdso-
*ds → ss
Assimilation of *ds
R17 → *kūsso-
6. kūsso-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
R20 → Lat. cūsso-
TochA. kākotur-
(absol.) ‘spalten : dissecare, diffindere’
(Poucha. 86)
(TochA. kākoturäṣ [sgAbl])
1. PIE *kēɑhkēɑhuɦɑdur-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhkāɑhuɦɑdur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhkāɑhuɦɑdur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhkāhuɦdur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhkāhuɦdur-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *kāhkāhudur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāhkāhudur-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kākāudur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kākāudur-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
R18c → *kākāutur-
6. kākāutur-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kākautur-
7. kākautur-
*auC → ōC
Osthoff’s Law for auC
R22b → *kākōtur-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
8. kākōtur-
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27b → TochA. kākotur-
√kɑhui-
Lith. káuja-
(pr.) ‘schlagen, hauen, umbringen, vernichten’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. káuju [1sg], *ē for presens)
1. PIE *kḗɑhui̯o-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *kā́ɑhui̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhui̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kā́hui̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kā́hui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kā́hui̯a-
4. kā́hui̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *kā́ui̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kā́ui̯a-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
R14a2 → *káui̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. káui̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j *
R25 → Lith. káuja-
Latv. kaûja-
(pr.) ‘schlagen, hauen, stechen, schlachten, treten’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Latv. kaûju [1sg])
1. PIE *kḗɑhui̯o-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *kā́ɑhui̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhui̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kā́hui̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kā́hui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kā́hui̯a-
4. kā́hui̯a-
*ā́hu → āhû
Latvian tone rule for *ā́hu
RAcc2 → *kāhûi̯a-
5. kāhûi̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R14b → *kāûi̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kāûi̯a-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R16a1 → *kaûi̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
7. kaûi̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j *
R25 → Latv. kaûja-
OCS. kujo-
(vb.) ‘schmieden, prägen’
(Sadnik √374)
(OCS. kujǫ [1sg])
1. PIE *kēɑhui̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhui̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhui̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhui̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kāhui̯a-
4. kāhui̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāui̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāui̯a-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R17a1 → *kaui̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. kaui̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *koui̯o-
7. koui̯o-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *kūi̯o-
8. kūi̯o-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R32a → *kūjo-
9. kūjo-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R32k → OCS. kujo-
Goth. hawi-
(n.) ‘χόρτος : Heu’
(GoEtD. 181)
(Goth. hawi, IEW.: “zu hauendes”, *o for noun)
1. PIE *koɑhui̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohui̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohui̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R9b → *koui̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. koui̯o
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
R13a → *xoui̯o
4. xoui̯o
*o → a
Change of *o into a
R16a → *xaui̯a
5. xaui̯a
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R18 → *xaui̯
6. xaui̯
*i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
R19a → *haui̯
7. haui̯
*i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
R19b → *hauj
8. hauj
*uj → wi
Change of root-final uj into wi
R22 → Goth. hawi
OHG. hewi-
(n.) ‘Heu’
(ANEtWb. 226)
(OHG. hewi)
1. PIE *koɑhui̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohui̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohui̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R9b → *koui̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. koui̯o
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
R13a → *xoui̯o
4. xoui̯o
*o → a
Change of *o into a
R16a → *xaui̯a
5. xaui̯a
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R18 → *xaui̯
6. xaui̯
*x → h
Change of *x into h
R19a → *haui̯
7. haui̯
*i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
R19b → *hauj
8. hauj
*uj → wi
Change of root-final uj into wi
R23 → *hawi
9. hawi
*awi → ewi
Umlaut of *awi into ewi
R25 → OHG. hewi
OSax. hōi-
(n.) ‘Heu : grass’
(ASächsWb. 35)
(OSax. hōi)
1. PIE *koɑhui̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohui̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohui̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R9b → *koui̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. koui̯o
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
R13a → *xoui̯o
4. xoui̯o
*o → a
Change of *o into a
R16a → *xaui̯a
5. xaui̯a
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R18 → *xaui̯
6. xaui̯
*x → h
Change of *x into h
R19a → *haui̯
7. haui̯
*i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
R19b → *hauj
8. hauj
*au → ō
Monophthongization of *au into ō
R22 → *hōj
9. hōj
*-j → -i
Change of root-final j into i
R23 → OSax. hōi
Far. hoy-
(n.) ‘Heu : grass’
(ANEtWb. 226)
(Far. hoy)
1. PIE *koɑhui̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohui̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohui̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R9b → *koui̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. koui̯o
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
R13a → *xoui̯o
4. xoui̯o
*o → a
Change of *o into a
R16a → *xaui̯a
5. xaui̯a
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R18 → *xaui̯
6. xaui̯
*x → h
Change of *x into h
R19a → *haui̯
7. haui̯
*i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
R19b → *hauj
8. hauj
*auj → oy
Umlaut for auj
R21 → Far. hoy
OIcl. hey-
(n.) ‘Heu : grass’
(ANEtWb. 226)
(OIcl. Hey, Vries: ‘das abgehauene’ ?)
1. PIE *koɑhui̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohui̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohui̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R9b → *koui̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. koui̯o
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
R13a → *xoui̯o
4. xoui̯o
*o → a
Change of *o into a
R16a → *xaui̯a
5. xaui̯a
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R18 → *xaui̯
6. xaui̯
*x → h
Change of *x into h
R19a → *haui̯
7. haui̯
*i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
R19b → *hauj
8. hauj
*auj → ey
Umlaut for auj
R22 → OIcl. hey
√kɑhuiēhɑ-
Serb. kȕjē-
(vb.) ‘schmieden, prägen’
(IEW. 535)
(Serb. kȕjēm [1sg])
1. PIE *kḗɑhui̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *kā́ɑhui̯ēhɑ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhui̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kā́hui̯ēh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kā́hui̯ēh-
ā́hu → āhȕ
Serbo-Croatian double gravis rule
RAcc2 → *kāhȕi̯ēh-
4. kāhȕi̯ēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāȕi̯ē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāȕi̯ē-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R17a1 → *kaȕi̯ē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. kaȕi̯ē-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *koȕi̯ē-
7. koȕi̯ē-
*oȕ → ȕ
Monophthongization of *oȕ into ȕ
R27b → *kȕi̯ē-
8. kȕi̯ē-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R34a → Serb. kȕjē-
Pol. kuje-
(pr.) ‘schmieden’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Pol. kuję [1sg])
1. PIE *kēɑhui̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhui̯ēhɑ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhui̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhui̯ēh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhui̯ēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāui̯ē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāui̯ē-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R17a1 → *kaui̯ē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
5. kaui̯ē-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *koui̯ē-
6. koui̯ē-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *kūi̯ē-
7. kūi̯ē-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R34a → *kūjē-
8. kūjē-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
R34h → *kūje-
9. kūje-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R34k → Pol. kuje-
√kɑhuiɑh-
Lith. kū́ja-
(f.) ‘Stelze : pale, stake’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kū́ja [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hui̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kɑ́hui̯āɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kɑ́hui̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *kúhui̯āɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
3. kúhui̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kúhui̯āh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kúhui̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *kúui̯ā
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kúui̯ā
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
R13d → *kū́i̯ā
6. kū́i̯ā
*ā → ō
Change of ā into ō
R20a → *kū́i̯ō
7. kū́i̯ō
*-ō → -a
Change of ō into a in root-final
R21a → *kū́i̯a
8. kū́i̯a
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j *
R25 → Lith. kū́ja
Latv. kũja-
(f.) ‘Stab, Stock, Keule’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Latv. kũja [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hui̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kɑ́hui̯āɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kɑ́hui̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *kúhui̯āɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
3. kúhui̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kúhui̯āh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kúhui̯āh
*úhu → uhû
Latvian tone rule for *úhu
RAcc5 → *kuhûi̯āh
5. kuhûi̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R14b → *kuûi̯ā
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kuûi̯ā
*uû → û
Contraction of u and û
R15h → *kûi̯ā
7. kûi̯ā
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j *
R25 → *kûjā
8. kûjā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final
R27 → Latv. kûja
√kɑhuii-
Lith. kū́ji-
(.) ‘schwerer Schmiedehammer’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kū́jis [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hui̯i-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *kúhui̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. kúhui̯i-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *kúui̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kúui̯i-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
R13d → *kū́i̯i-
4. kū́i̯i-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j *
R25 → Lith. kū́ji-
RussCS. kyjĭ-
(.) ‘Hammer, Knüttel’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(RussCS. kyjĭ)
1. PIE *kɑ́hui̯i-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *kúhui̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. kúhui̯i-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kúui̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kúui̯i-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
R16d → *kū́i̯i-
4. kū́i̯i-
*ū́, ū → y
Change of ū́ into y
R26 → *kyi̯i-
5. kyi̯i-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R32a → *kyji-
6. kyji-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
R32e → RussCS. kyjĭ-
√kɑhuku-
OGaul. cōp-
(sb.) ‘Silbermünze der transpadanischen Boier’
(ACSS 1:1114)
(OGaul. cop.)
1. PIE *koɑhuku-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohuku-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohuku-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R10b → *kouku-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kouku-
*ku/u̯ → p
Bilabialization of labiovelar ku/u̯
R16a → *koup-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. koup-
*ou → ō
Monophthongization of ou
R21 → *kōp-
5. kōp-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
R23 → OGaul. cōp-
OIr. cuach-
(sb.) ‘combat, attaque’
(LEIA C-134)
(OIr. cuach, coach, *o for noun)
1. PIE *koɑhuku̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohuku̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohuku̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R10b → *kouku̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kouku̯o
*ku/u̯ → q
Emergence of labiovelar q
R16a → *kouqo
4. kouqo
*ou → ō
Monophthongization of ou
R21 → *kōqo
5. kōqo
*q → k
Delabialization of labiovelar *q
R22 → *kōko
6. kōko
*ō → ua
Brechung of *ō into ua
R23 → *kuako
7. kuako
VkV → VkhV
Lenition of voiceless stop *k
R25 → *kuakho
8. kuakho
*o- → Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R27b → *kuakh
9. kuakh
*k → c
Orthographic change of k into c
R28a → OIr. cuach
OInd. kóka-
(m.) ‘Wolf : wolf’
(KEWA I:268)
OInd. kókas [sgN])
1. PIE *kóɑhuku̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kóhuku̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kóhuku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *kóhuku̯a-
3. kóhuku̯a-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
R9b → *káhuku̯a-
4. káhuku̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *káhuka-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. káhuka-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *káuka-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. káuka-
aú → ṓ
Monophthongization of *aú
R27d → *kṓka-
7. kṓka-
ṓ → ó
Orthographic change of ṓ into ó
R33g → OInd. kóka-
RV. kóka·yātu-
(m.) ‘Kobold in Gestalt eines Wolfes’
(WbRV. 352)
(KEWA I:268, nicht ‘Kukuk’, vs. Grassmann)
1. PIE *kóɑhuku̯o·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kóhuku̯o·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kóhuku̯o·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *kóhuku̯a·Σ-
3. kóhuku̯a·Σ-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
R9b → *káhuku̯a·Σ-
4. káhuku̯a·Σ-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *káhuka·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. káhuka·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *káuka·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. káuka·Σ-
aú → ṓ
Monophthongization of *aú
R27d → *kṓka·Σ-
7. kṓka·Σ-
ṓ → ó
Orthographic change of ṓ into ó
R33g → RV. kóka·Σ-
√kɑhugɑɦii-
OSax. hōgi-
(n.) ‘Heu : grass’
(ASächsWb. 35)
(OSax. hōgi)
1. PIE *koɑhugɑɦi̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohugɦi̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohugɦi̯i-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Centum neutralization of *gɦi/i̯
R8e → *kohugɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. kohugɦi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R9b → *kougɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kougɦi-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
R13a → *xougɦi-
5. xougɦi-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R15a → *xougi-
6. xougi-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
R16a → *xaugi-
7. xaugi-
*x → h
Change of *x into h
R19a → *haugi-
8. haugi-
*au → ō
Monophthongization of *au into ō
R22 → OSax. hōgi-
OEng. hīeg-
(.) ‘grass’
(ANEtWb. 226)
(OEng. hīeg-, ASaxD. –)
1. PIE *koɑhugɑɦi̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohugɦi̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohugɦi̯i-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Centum neutralization of *gɦi/i̯
R8e → *kohugɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. kohugɦi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R9b → *kougɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kougɦi-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
R13a → *xougɦi-
5. xougɦi-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R15a → *xougi-
6. xougi-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
R16a → *xaugi-
7. xaugi-
*x → h
Change of *x into h
R19a → *haugi-
8. haugi-
*au → eā
Change of *eu into eā
R24 → *heāgi-
9. heāgi-
*eā—i → īe–Ø
Umlaut for eā—i
R25 → OEng. hīeg-
Far. hoyggj-
(n.) ‘Heu : grass’
(ANEtWb. 226)
(Far. hoyggj [sgNA])
1. PIE *koɑhugɑɦi̯igɑɦii̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohugɦi̯igɦii̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohugɦi̯igɦii̯o
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Centum neutralization of *gɦi/i̯
R8e → *kohugɦigɦi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. kohugɦigɦi̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R9b → *kougɦigɦi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kougɦigɦi̯o
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
R13a → *xougɦigɦi̯o
5. xougɦigɦi̯o
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R15a → *xougigi̯o
6. xougigi̯o
*o → a
Change of *o into a
R16a → *xaugigi̯a
7. xaugigi̯a
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R18 → *xaugigi̯
8. xaugigi̯
*x → h
Change of *x into h
R19a → *haugigi̯
9. haugigi̯
*i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
R19b → *haugigj
10. haugigj
*au—i → oy—Ø
Umlaut for au—i
R22 → Far. hoyggj
√kɑhugɑɦilo-
Russ. kuzló-
(n.) ‘Schmiedearbeit, Schmiedeesse’
(REW 1:682)
(Russ. kuzló [sgNA])
1. PIE *koɑhugɑɦilós
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohugɦilós
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohugɦilós
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kahugɦilós
3. kahugɦilós
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
R8b → *kahugɦilás
4. kahugɦilás
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
R10e → *kahuj́ɦlás
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. kahuj́ɦlás
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kauj́ɦlás
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kauj́ɦlás
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to OCS.
R18c → *kauzɦlás
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
7. kauzɦlás
*zɦ → z
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
R21d → *kauzlás
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
8. kauzlás
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *kouzlós
9. kouzlós
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in root final os-
R25b → *kouzló
10. kouzló
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *kūzló
11. kūzló
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R35k → Russ. kuzló
√kɑhugɑɦini-
ORuss. kuznĭ-
(f.) ‘Schmiederarbeit, Beschlag’
(REW 1:682)
(LiEtWb. 232)
1. PIE *koɑhugɑɦini-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohugɦini-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohugɦini-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kahugɦini-
3. kahugɦini-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
R10e → *kahuj́ɦni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. kahuj́ɦni-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kauj́ɦni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kauj́ɦni-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to OCS.
R18c → *kauzɦni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. kauzɦni-
*zɦ → z
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
R21d → *kauzni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
7. kauzni-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *kouzni-
8. kouzni-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *kūzni-
9. kūzni-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
R32e → *kūznĭ-
10. kūznĭ-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R32k → ORuss. kuznĭ-
RussCS. kuznĭcĭ-
(m.) ‘Schmied’
(REW 1:682)
(RussCS. kuznĭcĭ)
1. PIE *koɑhugɑɦiniku̯ɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohugɦiniku̯hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohugɦiniku̯hi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kahugɦiniku̯hi-
3. kahugɦiniku̯hi-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
R10e → *kahuj́ɦniku̯hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. kahuj́ɦniku̯hi-
*ku̯hi → chi
2nd palatalization of *ku̯hi
R13 → *kahuj́ɦnichi-
5. kahuj́ɦnichi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kauj́ɦnici-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kauj́ɦnici-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to OCS.
R18c → *kauzɦnici-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
7. kauzɦnici-
*zɦ → z
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
R21d → *kauznici-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
8. kauznici-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *kouznici-
9. kouznici-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *kūznici-
10. kūznici-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
R32e → *kūznĭcĭ-
11. kūznĭcĭ-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R32k → RussCS. kuznĭcĭ-
Russ. kuznéc-
(m.) ‘Schmied’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Russ. kuznéc [sgN])
1. PIE *koɑhugɑɦiníku̯ɑhi
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohugɦiníku̯hi
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohugɦiníku̯hi
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kahugɦiníku̯hi
3. kahugɦiníku̯hi
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
R10e → *kahuj́ɦníku̯hi
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. kahuj́ɦníku̯hi
*ku̯hi → chi 2nd palatalization of *ku̯hi
R13 → *kahuj́ɦníchi
5. kahuj́ɦníchi
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kauj́ɦníci
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kauj́ɦníci
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to OCS.
R18c → *kauzɦníci
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
7. kauzɦníci
*zɦ → z
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
R21d → *kauzníci
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
8. kauzníci
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *kouzníci
9. kouzníci
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *kūzníci
10. kūzníci
*i- → Ø
Loss of root-final -i
R33 → *kūzníc
11. kūzníc
*í → é
Change of *i into e
R34 → *kūznéc
12. kūznéc
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R35k → Russ. kuznéc
√kɑhugɑɦui-
Lith. kū́gi-
(.) ‘schwerer Schmiedehammer’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kū́gis [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hugɑɦu̯i-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *kúhugɑɦu̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. kúhugɑɦu̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kúhugɦu̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kúhugɦu̯i-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R11 → *kúhugɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. kúhugɦi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *kúugɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kúugɦi-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
R13d → *kū́gɦi-
6. kū́gɦi-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R17c → Lith. kū́gi-
OPr. cugi-
(m.) ‘hamer = Hammer’
(APrS. 364)
(OPr. cugis [sgN], Voc. 518)
1. PIE *kɑ́hugɑɦu̯i-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *kúhugɑɦu̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. kúhugɑɦu̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kúhugɦu̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kúhugɦu̯i-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R11 → *kúhugɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. kúhugɦi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *kúugɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kúugɦi-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
R13d → *kū́gɦi-
6. kū́gɦi-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R17c → *kū́gi-
7. kū́gi-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
R22c → *cū́gi-
8. cū́gi-
PIE *ū́ → u
Orthographic change of *ū́ into u
R22e → OPr. cugi-
√kɑhul-
Lith. kúl-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, dreschen, verprügeln’
(LiEtWb. 211-2)
(Lith. kùlti [inf.])
1. PIE *kɑ́hul-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *kúhul-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. kúhul-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *kúul-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kúul-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
R13d → *kū́l-
4. kū́l-
*ū́RC → úRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ū́RC
R14e2 → Lith. kúl-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
Latv. kul̃-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, dreschen, prügeln’
(LiEtWb. 211-2)
(Latv. kul̃t [inf.])
1. PIE *kɑ́hul-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *kúhul-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. kúhul-
*úhu → uhû
Latvian tone rule for *úhu
RAcc5 → *kuhûl-
3. kuhûl-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R14b → *kuûl-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kuûl-
*uû → û
Contraction of u and û
R15h → Latv. kûl-
Latv. kūl-
(m.) ‘zu dreschendes Gertreide’
(LiEtWb. 211)
(Latv. kūls [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hulo
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *kúhulo
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. kúhulo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kúhula
3. kúhula
*úhu → uhû
Latvian tone rule for *úhu
RAcc5 → *kuhûla
4. kuhûla
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R14b → *kuûla
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kuûla
*uû → û
Contraction of u and û
R15h → *kûla
6. kûla
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final a
R26 → Latv. kûl
Lith. kū̃lė-
(f.) ‘Dreschen, Drusch’
(LiEtWb. 211)
(Lith. kū̃lė [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hulē-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *kúhulē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. kúhulē-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *kúulē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kúulē-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
R13d → *kū́lē-
4. kū́lē-
* ē -> ė
Orthographic change of *ē into ė
R27a → Lith. kū́lė-
Lith. kūlė̃-
(f.) ‘Dreschen, Drusch, Schlägel, Keule, Streitkolben’
(LiEtWb. 211)
(Lith. kūlė̃ [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hulḗ-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *kúhulḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. kúhulḗ-
ḗ → ė̃
Change of ḗ into ė̃
RAcc6 → *kúhulė̃-
3. kúhulė̃-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *kúulė̃-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kúulė̃-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
R13d → Lith. kū́lė̃-
TochA. kolune-
(vb.sb.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 85)
(TochA. kolune)
1. PIE *kēɑhulunoi̯o
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhulunoi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhulunoi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhulunoi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhulunoi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kāhulunai̯a
4. kāhulunai̯a
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāulunai̯a
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāulunai̯a
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kaulunai̯a
6. kaulunai̯a
*auC → ōC
Osthoff’s Law for auC
R22b → *kōlunai̯a
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
7. kōlunai̯a
*a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R25 → *kōlunai̯
8. kōlunai̯
*a y → ē
Change of ay into ē in root-final
R26 → *kōlunē
9. kōlunē
*ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
R27a → *kōlune
10. kōlune
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27b → TochA. kolune
√kɑhun-
Lith. káuna-
(pr.) ‘schlagen, hauen, umbringen, vernichten’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. káunu [1sg])
1. PIE *kḗɑhuno-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *kā́ɑhuno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhuno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kā́huno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kā́huno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kā́huna-
4. kā́huna-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *kā́una-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kā́una-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
R14a2 → Lith. káuna-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
Lith. nu·káuna-
(pr.) ‘to kill, strike’
(Senn II:227)
(Lith. nu·káuna [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·kḗɑhuno-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *Π·kā́ɑhuno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·kā́ɑhuno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·kā́huno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·kā́huno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *Π·kā́huna-
4. Π·kā́huna-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *Π·kā́una-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·kā́una-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
R14a2 → Lith. Π·káuna-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
Latv. kaûna-
(pr.) ‘schlagen, hauen, stechen, schlachten, treten’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Latv. kaûnu [1sg])
1. PIE *kḗɑhuno-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *kā́ɑhuno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhuno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kā́huno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kā́huno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kā́huna-
4. kā́huna-
*ā́hu → āhû
Latvian tone rule for *ā́hu
RAcc2 → *kāhûna-
5. kāhûna-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R14b → *kāûna-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kāûna-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R16a1 → Latv. kaûna-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
Lith. kaũni-
(.) ‘Handgemenge; Merkinē [Lith. ũ!]’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kaũnis [sgN])
1. PIE *kēɑhúni-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhúni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhúni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhúni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhúni-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis Li. ù
RAcc3 → *kāhùni-
4. kāhùni-
ā h ù → ā h ũ
Circumflex intonation for *āhù
RAcc5 → *kāhũni-
5. kāhũni-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *kāũni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kāũni-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R14a1 → Lith. kaũni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
Lith. kaunià-
(f.) ‘Handgemenge; Valkininkai’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kaunià [sgN])
1. PIE *kēɑhuni̯ḗɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhuni̯ḗɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuni̯ḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *kāɑhuni̯ā́ɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. kāɑhuni̯ā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhuni̯ā́h
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kāhuni̯ā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *kāuni̯ā́
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāuni̯ā́
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R14a1 → *kauni̯ā́
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. kauni̯ā́
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
R20b → *kauni̯ṓ
7. kauni̯ṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R21b → *kauni̯à
8. kauni̯à
*ni̯ → ni
Orthographic change of ni̯ into ni
R24 → Lith. kaunià
Lith. kaunù-
(a.) ‘kampflustig, kämpferisch’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kaunùs [sgN]; or *o-grade ?)
1. PIE *kēɑhunú-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhunú-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhunú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhunú-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhunú-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis Li. ù
RAcc3 → *kāhunù-
4. kāhunù-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *kāunù-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāunù-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R14a1 → Lith. kaunù-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
√kɑhur-
TochA. kākor-
(absol.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 85)
(TochA. kākoräṣ [absol])
1. PIE *kēɑhkēɑhur-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhkāɑhur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhkāɑhur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhkāhur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhkāhur-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kākāur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kākāur-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kākaur-
5. kākaur-
*auC → ōC
Osthoff’s Law for auC
R22b → *kākōr-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
6. kākōr-
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27b → TochA. kākor-
√kɑhus-
TochB. kaus-
(pret.A.) ‘kill’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kausa [3sg])
1. PIE *kēɑhus-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhus-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhus-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhus-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhus-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāus-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāus-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → TochB. kaus-
TochA. kos-
(vb.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 85)
(TochA. kossi [inf.])
1. PIE *kēɑhus-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhus-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhus-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhus-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhus-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāus-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāus-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kaus-
5. kaus-
*auC → ōC
Osthoff’s Law for auC
R22b → *kōs-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
6. kōs-
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27b → TochA. kos-
TochA. kosa-
(pr.A.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 85)
(TochA. kosam)
1. PIE *kēɑhuso-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhuso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhuso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhuso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kāhusa-
4. kāhusa-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāusa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāusa-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kausa-
6. kausa-
*auC → ōC
Osthoff’s Law for auC
R22b → *kōsa-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
7. kōsa-
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27b → TochA. kosa-
TochB. kause-
(prA.) ‘kill, strike down, destroy’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kauseṃ [3pl])
1. PIE *kēɑhusoi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhusoi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhusoi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kāhusai-
4. kāhusai-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāusai-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāusai-
*ai → ē
Monophtongization of *ai
R21a → *kāusē-
6. kāusē-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kausē-
7. kausē-
*ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
R22a → TochB. kause-
TochB. kausemana-
(pr.pt.M.) ‘= Skt. bhidyamāna-’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kausem[ane] [m.sgN])
1. PIE *kēɑhusoimono-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhusoimono-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusoimono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhusoimono-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusoimono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kāhusaimana-
4. kāhusaimana-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāusaimana-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāusaimana-
*ai → ē
Monophtongization of *ai
R21a → *kāusēmana-
6. kāusēmana-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kausēmana-
7. kausēmana-
*ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
R22a → TochB. kausemana-
TochA. kosmān-
(pr.pt.M.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 85)
(TochA. kosmāṃ [sgN])
1. PIE *kēɑhusmōno
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhusmōno
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusmōno
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhusmōno
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusmōno
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kāhusmōna
4. kāhusmōna
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
R8c → *kāhusmāna
5. kāhusmāna
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāusmāna
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kāusmāna
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kausmāna
7. kausmāna
*auC → ōC
Osthoff’s Law for auC
R22b → *kōsmāna
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
8. kōsmāna
*a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R25 → *kōsmān
9. kōsmān
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27b → TochA. kosmān
√kɑhusο-
OInd. kṣá-
(ao.) ‘töten’
(Grundr2 1:405)
(Lex. ákṣata [3sg])
1. PIE *kɑhusó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
R9b → *khusá-
3. khusá-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khuṣá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. khuṣá-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *khṣá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khṣá-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → OInd. kṣá-
RV. tuvi·kṣá-
(a.) ‘viele vernichtend’
(WbRV. 543)
(RV. tuvikṣá-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·khusó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·khusó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
R9b → *Π·khusá-
3. Π·khusá-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *Π·khuṣá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. Π·khuṣá-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·khṣá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·khṣá-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → RV. Π·kṣá-
√kɑhusi-
TochB. kauṣ-
(pr.M.) ‘kill, strike down, destroy’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kauṣträ [3sg])
1. PIE *kēɑhusi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhusi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhusi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusi-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāusi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāusi-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
R19b → *kāuṣ-
5. kāuṣ-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → TochB. kauṣ-
TochB. kauṣ-
(pr.A.) ‘kill, strike down, destroy’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kauṣäm [3sg+encl.])
1. PIE *kēɑhusi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhusi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhusi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusi-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāusi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāusi-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
R19b → *kāuṣ-
5. kāuṣ-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → TochB. kauṣ-
TochA. koṣā-
(vb.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. koṣā [3sgIpv.A])
1. PIE *kēɑhusi̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhusi̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusi̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhusi̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusi̯āh-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāusi̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāusi̯ā-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
R19a → *kāuṣā-
5. kāuṣā-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kauṣā-
6. kauṣā-
*auC → ōC
Osthoff’s Law for auC
R22b → *kōṣā-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
7. kōṣā-
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27b → TochA. koṣā-
TochB. kauṣenta-
(sb.) ‘murderer’
(DTcohB. 212)
(TochB. kauṣenta-)
1. PIE *kēɑhusi̯ointeɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *kēɑhusi̯ointaɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kēɑhusi̯ointaɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhusi̯ointaɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. kāɑhusi̯ointaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhusi̯ointah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kāhusi̯ointah-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kāhusi̯aintah-
5. kāhusi̯aintah-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāusi̯ainta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kāusi̯ainta-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
R19a → *kāuṣainta-
7. kāuṣainta-
*ai → ē
Monophtongization of *ai
R21a → *kāuṣēnta-
8. kāuṣēnta-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kauṣēnta-
9. kauṣēnta-
*ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
R22a → TochB. kauṣenta-
TochB. kauṣeñca-
(pr.pt.) ‘= mr̥tyuhantā’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kauṣeñca-)
1. PIE *kēɑhusi̯ointi̯eɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *kēɑhusi̯ointi̯aɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kēɑhusi̯ointi̯aɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhusi̯ointi̯aɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. kāɑhusi̯ointi̯aɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhusi̯ointi̯ah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kāhusi̯ointi̯ah-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kāhusi̯ainti̯ah-
5. kāhusi̯ainti̯ah-
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
R11a → *kāhusi̯aincah-
6. kāhusi̯aincah-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāusi̯ainca-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. kāusi̯ainca-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
R19a → *kāuṣainca-
8. kāuṣainca-
*nc → ñc
Palatalization of *n before c
R20b → *kāuṣaiñca-
9. kāuṣaiñca-
*ai → ē
Monophtongization of *ai
R21a → *kāuṣēñca-
10. kāuṣēñca-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kauṣēñca-
11. kauṣēñca-
*ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
R22a → TochB. kauṣeñca-
TochB. kauṣalle-
(ger.) ‘kill, strike down, destroy’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kauṣalle)
1. PIE *kēɑhusi̯olnoi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhusi̯olnoi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusi̯olnoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhusi̯olnoi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusi̯olnoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kāhusi̯alnai-
4. kāhusi̯alnai-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāusi̯alnai-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāusi̯alnai-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
R19a → *kāuṣalnai-
6. kāuṣalnai-
*ai → ē
Monophtongization of *ai
R21a → *kāuṣalnē-
7. kāuṣalnē-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kauṣalnē-
8. kauṣalnē-
*ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
R22a → *kauṣalne-
9. kauṣalne-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
R23 → TochB. kauṣalle-
TochA. koṣänt-
(sb.m.) ‘carnifex : hangman, executer’
(Poucha 85 & 88)
(TochA. koṣänt)
1. PIE *kēɑhusi̯ont-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhusi̯ont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusi̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhusi̯ont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusi̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kāhusi̯ant-
4. kāhusi̯ant-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāusi̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāusi̯ant-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
R19a → *kāuṣant-
6. kāuṣant-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kauṣant-
7. kauṣant-
*auC → ōC
Osthoff’s Law for auC
R22b → *kōṣant-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
8. kōṣant-
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27b → TochA. koṣant-
TochA. koṣlye-
(vb.a.) ‘to be killed’
(Poucha 85)
(TochA. koṣlyes)
1. PIE *kēɑhusili̯oi̯o
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhusili̯oi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusili̯oi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhusili̯oi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusili̯oi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kāhusili̯ai̯a
4. kāhusili̯ai̯a
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāusili̯ai̯a
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāusili̯ai̯a
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
R19b → *kāuṣli̯ai̯a
6. kāuṣli̯ai̯a
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kauṣli̯ai̯a
7. kauṣli̯ai̯a
*auC → ōC
Osthoff’s Law for auC
R22b → *kōṣli̯ai̯a
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
8. kōṣli̯ai̯a
*a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R25 → *kōṣli̯ai̯
9. kōṣli̯ai̯
*a y → ē
Change of ay into ē in root-final
R26 → *kōṣli̯ē
10. kōṣli̯ē
*ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
R27a → *kōṣli̯e
11. kōṣli̯e
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27b → *koṣli̯e
12. koṣli̯e
*i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
R27c → TochA. koṣlye
√kɑhusi-
OInd. kṣi-
(pr.√) ‘vernichten’
(GEW 2:1015)
(in OInd. kṣidhi [2sg])
1. PIE *kɑhusi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusi-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khuṣi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khuṣi-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *khṣi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. khṣi-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → OInd. kṣi-
gAv. xšay-
(pr.√) ‘verderben’
(AIWb. 550)
(gAv. xšayō [inf.] ‘um zu verderben’)
1. PIE *kɑhusei̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusei̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusei̯-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khušei̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khušei̯-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R18a → *khšei̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. khšei̯-
*Ths/š → Ts/š
Loss of *h between stop and s/š
R24a → *kšei̯-
5. kšei̯-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
R30a → *kšai̯-
6. kšai̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R37a → *kšay-
7. kšay-
PIE *kš → xš
Change of *k into x before *š
R38 → gAv. xšay-
OInd. kṣāy-
(ao.P.) ‘destroy, etc.’
(MonWil. 328)
(OInd. kṣāy-)
1. PIE *kɑhusōi̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusōi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusōi̯-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
R9c → *khusāi̯-
3. khusāi̯-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khuṣāi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. khuṣāi̯-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *khṣāi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khṣāi̯-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → *kṣāi̯-
6. kṣāi̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
R33b → OInd. kṣāy-
OInd. kṣáya-
(pr.) ‘vernichten, vergehen lassen’
(KEWA 1:286)
(OInd. kṣáyati [3sg], MW 328 = RV. 4.6.14.)
1. PIE *kɑhuséi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khuséi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khuséi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *khuséi̯a-
3. khuséi̯a-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khuṣéi̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. khuṣéi̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *khṣéi̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khṣéi̯a-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → *kṣéi̯a-
6. kṣéi̯a-
PIE *é → á
Aryan change of *é into á
R26b → *kṣái̯a-
7. kṣái̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
R33b → OInd. kṣáya-
OInd. kṣayá-
(m.) ‘Verlust, Zerstörung’
(KEWA 1:287)
(OInd. kṣayá-)
1. PIE *kɑhusoi̯ó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusoi̯ó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusoi̯ó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *khusai̯ó-
3. khusai̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
R9b → *khusai̯á-
4. khusai̯á-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khuṣai̯á-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
5. khuṣai̯á-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *khṣai̯á-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. khṣai̯á-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → *kṣai̯á-
7. kṣai̯á-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
R33b → OInd. kṣayá-
√kɑhusii-
OInd. kṣayaya-
(cs.) ‘destroy, ruin, make an end, corrupt’
(MonWil. 328)
(OInd. kṣayaya-)
1. PIE *kɑhusoi̯ei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusoi̯ei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusoi̯ei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *khusai̯ei̯a-
3. khusai̯ei̯a-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khuṣai̯ei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. khuṣai̯ei̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *khṣai̯ei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khṣai̯ei̯a-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → *kṣai̯ei̯a-
6. kṣai̯ei̯a-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
R26a → *kṣai̯ai̯a-
7. kṣai̯ai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
R33b → OInd. kṣayaya-
OInd. cikṣiy-
(pf.) ‘destroy, ruin, make an end, corrupt’
(MonWil. 328)
(OInd. cikṣiyathas)
1. PIE *kɑhu̯ikɑhusii̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khu̯ikhusii̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khu̯ikhusii̯-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khu̯ikhuṣii̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khu̯ikhuṣii̯-
PIE *khu̯ → čhu̯
2nd palatalization of *khu̯
R15b → *čhu̯ikhuṣii̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. čhu̯ikhuṣii̯-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *čhu̯ikhṣii̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. čhu̯ikhṣii̯-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *čhikhṣii̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. čhikhṣii̯-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *čikhṣii̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. čikhṣii̯-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → *čikṣii̯-
8. čikṣii̯-
*č → c
From 2nd palatalization *č to OIA
R24a → *cikṣii̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
9. cikṣii̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
R33b → OInd. cikṣiy-
RV. kṣī́ya-
(pr.) ‘hinschwinden, abnehmen, sich vermindern’
(WbRV. 367)
(RV. kṣī́yante [3pl])
1. PIE *kɑhusiíi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusiíi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusiíi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *khusiíi̯a-
3. khusiíi̯a-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khuṣiíi̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. khuṣiíi̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *khṣiíi̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khṣiíi̯a-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → *kṣiíi̯a-
6. kṣiíi̯a-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
R22b → *kṣī́i̯a-
7. kṣī́i̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
R33b → RV. kṣī́ya-
RV. á·kṣīya·māna-
(pr.pt.M.a.) ‘unversiegbar, unvergänglich’
(WbRV. 7)
(RV. ákṣīyamāna-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusiii̯o·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·khusiii̯o·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·khusiii̯o·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *Π·khusiii̯a·Σ-
3. Π·khusiii̯a·Σ-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *Π·khuṣiii̯a·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. Π·khuṣiii̯a·Σ-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·khṣiii̯a·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·khṣiii̯a·Σ-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → *Π·kṣiii̯a·Σ-
6. Π·kṣiii̯a·Σ-
*ii → ī
Contraction of i and i
R22c → *Π·kṣīi̯a·Σ-
7. Π·kṣīi̯a·Σ-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
R33b → RV. Π·kṣīya·Σ-
√kɑhusin-
RV. kṣiṇ-
(pr.) ‘vernichten’
(WbRV. 367)
(RV. kṣiṇánti [3pl])
1. PIE *kɑhusin-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusin-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khuṣin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khuṣin-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *khṣin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. khṣin-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → *kṣin-
5. kṣin-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
R29 → RV. kṣiṇ-
Gr. ψίνο-
(vb.) ‘Blüten/Früchte abfallen lassen, verlieren’
(GEW 2:1138)
(Gr. ψίνεσθαι [inf.], GrGr. I:326)
1. PIE *kɑhusíno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusíno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusíno-
*khu/u̯ → ph
Bilabialization of labiovelar *khu/u̯
R12b → *phsíno-
3. phsíno-
*phs → ps
Loss of *h between *p and *s
R18b → *psíno-
4. psíno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
R31 → Gr. ψίνο-
RV. kṣiṇā-
(pr.) ‘vernichten’
(WbRV. 367)
(RV. kṣiṇāti [3sg])
1. PIE *kɑhusinēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kɑhusināɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kɑhusināɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusināh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. khusināh-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khuṣināh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. khuṣināh-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *khṣināh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khṣināh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *khṣinā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. khṣinā-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → *kṣinā-
7. kṣinā-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
R29 → RV. kṣiṇā-
RV. prá (...) kṣiṇā-
(pr.) ‘vernichten’
(WbRV. 367)
(RV. prá (...) kṣiṇām [1sg])
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusinēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *Π·kɑhusināɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·kɑhusināɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·khusināh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·khusināh-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *Π·khuṣināh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. Π·khuṣināh-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·khṣināh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·khṣināh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *Π·khṣinā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·khṣinā-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → *Π·kṣinā-
7. Π·kṣinā-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
R29 → RV. Π·kṣiṇā-
Gr. ψινάζο-
(pr.A.) ‘Blüten/Früchte abfallen lassen, verlieren’
(GEW 2:1138)
(Gr. ψινάζειν [inf.])
1. PIE *kɑhusinéɑɦdi̯o-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
R1d → *kɑhusináɑɦdi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kɑhusináɑɦdi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusináɦdi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. khusináɦdi̯o-
*khu/u̯ → ph
Bilabialization of labiovelar *khu/u̯
R12b → *phsináɦdi̯o-
4. phsináɦdi̯o-
*di̯ → z
Palatalization of *di̯
R13c → *phsináɦzo-
5. phsináɦzo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *phsinázo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. phsinázo-
*phs → ps
Loss of *h between *p and *s
R18b → *psinázo-
7. psinázo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
R31 → Gr. ψινάζο-
OInd. kṣiṇu-
(pr.5.) ‘vernichten, vergehen lassen’
(GEW 2:1015)
(OInd. kṣinumas [1pl])
1. PIE *kɑhusinu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusinu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusinu-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khuṣinu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khuṣinu-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *khṣinu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. khṣinu-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → *kṣinu-
5. kṣinu-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
R29 → OInd. kṣiṇu-
OInd. kṣiṇo-
(pr.5.) ‘vernichten, vergehen lassen’
(KEWA 1:289)
(VS. kṣinómi [3sg])
1. PIE *kɑhusineu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusineu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusineu-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khuṣineu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khuṣineu-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *khṣineu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. khṣineu-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → *kṣineu-
5. kṣineu-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
R26a → *kṣinau-
6. kṣinau-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
R27c → *kṣinō-
7. kṣinō-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
R29 → *kṣiṇō-
8. kṣiṇō-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R33f → OInd. kṣiṇo-
√kɑhusibaɦ-
LinB. qσιπεh-
(n.obl.) ‘Schlachtschwert’
(GEW 2:336)
(LinB. qi-si-pe-e [du])
1. PIE *kɑhusibɑɦes-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusibɦes-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusibɦes-
*khu/u̯ → qh
Emergence of labiovelar *qh
R9b → *qhsibɦes-
3. qhsibɦes-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
R11a → *qhsiphes-
4. qhsiphes-
*qh → q
Absence of aspirates in LinB.
R15d → *qsiphes-
5. qsiphes-
*ph → p
Absence of aspirates in LinB.
R15e → *qsipes-
6. qsipes-
*s → h
Change of segmental *s into h
R16 → *qsipeh-
7. qsipeh-
Change from Latin to Old Mycenean alphabet
R20 → LinB. qσιπεh-
√kɑhusis-
OInd. kṣéṣ-
(ao.) ‘vernichten, usw.’
(GEW 2:1015)
(OInd. kṣeṣṭa, kṣeṣṭhās)
1. PIE *kɑhuseís-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khuseís-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khuseís-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khuṣeís-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khuṣeís-
PIE *is → iṣ
Ruki-rule for *is
R11d → *khuṣeíṣ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. khuṣeíṣ-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *khṣeíṣ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khṣeíṣ-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → *kṣeíṣ-
6. kṣeíṣ-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
R26a → *kṣaíṣ-
7. kṣaíṣ-
aí → ḗ
Monophthongization of *aí
R27b → *kṣḗṣ-
8. kṣḗṣ-
ḗ → é
Orthographic change of ḗ into é
R33e → OInd. kṣéṣ-
√kɑhusit-
(IEW. 487)
TochA. koṣt-
(pr.A.) ‘affligere, cadere : schlagen’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. koṣtam, koṣt)
1. PIE *kēɑhusit-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhusit-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusit-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhusit-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusit-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāusit-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāusit-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
R19b → *kāuṣt-
5. kāuṣt-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kauṣt-
6. kauṣt-
*auC → ōC
Osthoff’s Law for auC
R22b → *kōṣt-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
7. kōṣt-
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27b → TochA. koṣt-
TochA. koṣt-
(pret.A.) ‘affligere, cadere : schlagen’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. koṣt, koṣtar)
1. PIE *kēɑhusit-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhusit-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusit-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhusit-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusit-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāusit-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāusit-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
R19b → *kāuṣt-
5. kāuṣt-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kauṣt-
6. kauṣt-
*auC → ōC
Osthoff’s Law for auC
R22b → *kōṣt-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
7. kōṣt-
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27b → TochA. koṣt-
TochA. koṣt-
(sb.) ‘acies : Schneide’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. koṣt [sgN])
1. PIE *kēɑhusit-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhusit-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusit-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhusit-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusit-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāusit-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāusit-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
R19b → *kāuṣt-
5. kāuṣt-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kauṣt-
6. kauṣt-
*auC → ōC
Osthoff’s Law for auC
R22b → *kōṣt-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
7. kōṣt-
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27b → TochA. koṣt-
TochA. koṣtl-
(vb.a.) ‘affligere, cadere : schlagen’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. koṣtlaṃ [sgL])
1. PIE *kēɑhusitlo
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhusitlo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusitlo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhusitlo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusitlo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kāhusitla
4. kāhusitla
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāusitla
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāusitla
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
R19b → *kāuṣtla
6. kāuṣtla
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kauṣtla
7. kauṣtla
*auC → ōC
Osthoff’s Law for auC
R22b → *kōṣtla
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
8. kōṣtla
*a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R25 → *kōṣtl
9. kōṣtl
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27b → TochA. koṣtl
TochA. koṣtlune-
(vb.a.) ‘affligere, cadere : schlagen’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. koṣtluneyo)
1. PIE *kēɑhusitlunoio
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhusitlunoio
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusitlunoio
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhusitlunoio
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusitlunoio
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kāhusitlunaia
4. kāhusitlunaia
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāusitlunaia
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāusitlunaia
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
R19b → *kāuṣtlunaia
6. kāuṣtlunaia
*ai → ē
Monophtongization of *ai
R21a → *kāuṣtlunēa
7. kāuṣtlunēa
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kauṣtlunēa
8. kauṣtlunēa
*auC → ōC
Osthoff’s Law for auC
R22b → *kōṣtlunēa
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
9. kōṣtlunēa
*a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R25 → *kōṣtlunē
10. kōṣtlunē
*ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
R27a → *kōṣtlune
11. kōṣtlune
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27b → TochA. koṣtlune
TochA. koṣtluneṣi-
(vb.a.poss.) ‘affligere, cadere : schlagen’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. koṣtluneṣi-)
1. PIE *kēɑhusitlunoisí-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhusitlunoisí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusitlunoisí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhusitlunoisí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusitlunoisí-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kāhusitlunaisí-
4. kāhusitlunaisí-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kāusitlunaisí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāusitlunaisí-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
R19b → *kāuṣtlunaisí-
6. kāuṣtlunaisí-
*sí → ṣí
Palatalization of *sí
R19c → *kāuṣtlunaiṣí-
7. kāuṣtlunaiṣí-
*ai → ē
Monophtongization of *ai
R21a → *kāuṣtlunēṣí-
8. kāuṣtlunēṣí-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kauṣtlunēṣí-
9. kauṣtlunēṣí-
*auC → ōC
Osthoff’s Law for auC
R22b → *kōṣtlunēṣí-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
10. kōṣtlunēṣí-
*ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
R27a → *kōṣtluneṣí-
11. kōṣtluneṣí-
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27b → *koṣtluneṣí-
12. koṣtluneṣí-
*í → i
Absence of accent in Tocharian
R28 → TochA. koṣtluneṣi-
TochA. kākoṣtu-
(pret.pt.) ‘affligere, cadere : schlagen’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. kākoṣtu)
1. PIE *kēɑhkēɑhusitu-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhkāɑhusitu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhkāɑhusitu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhkāhusitu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhkāhusitu-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kākāusitu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kākāusitu-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
R19b → *kākāuṣtu-
5. kākāuṣtu-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *kākauṣtu-
6. kākauṣtu-
*auC → ōC
Osthoff’s Law for auC
R22b → *kākōṣtu-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
7. kākōṣtu-
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27b → TochA. kākoṣtu-
√kɑhusito-
OInd. kṣitá-
(pt.) ‘vergehend, abnehmend, sich erschöpfend’
(WbRV. 367)
(KEWA 1:289)
1. PIE *kɑhusitó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusitó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusitó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
R9b → *khusitá-
3. khusitá-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khuṣitá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. khuṣitá-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *khṣitá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khṣitá-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → OInd. kṣitá-
RV. á·kṣita-
(pt.) ‘unvergänglich’
(WbRV. 6)
(OInd. śrávaḥ áksitam ‘unerwüstlicher Ruhm’)
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusito-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·khusito-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·khusito-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *Π·khusita-
3. Π·khusita-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *Π·khuṣita-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. Π·khuṣita-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·khṣita-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·khṣita-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → RV. Π·kṣita-
RV. án·upa·kṣita-
(pt.) ‘unerschöpflich’
(WbRV. 60)
(RV. ánupakṣita-)
1. PIE *Π·Π·kɑhusito-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·Π·khusito-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·Π·khusito-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *Π·Π·khusita-
3. Π·Π·khusita-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *Π·Π·khuṣita-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. Π·Π·khuṣita-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·Π·khṣita-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·Π·khṣita-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → RV. Π·Π·kṣita-
RV. á·vi·kṣita-
(pt.) ‘unvermindert’
(WbRV. 130)
(RV. ávikṣita-)
1. PIE *Π·Π·kɑhusito-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·Π·khusito-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·Π·khusito-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *Π·Π·khusita-
3. Π·Π·khusita-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *Π·Π·khuṣita-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. Π·Π·khuṣita-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·Π·khṣita-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·Π·khṣita-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → RV. Π·Π·kṣita-
RV. á·pra·kṣita-
(pt.) ‘unvergänglich, unerschöpflich’
(WbRV. 78)
(RV. áprakṣita-)
1. PIE *Π·Π·kɑhusito-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·Π·khusito-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·Π·khusito-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *Π·Π·khusita-
3. Π·Π·khusita-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *Π·Π·khuṣita-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. Π·Π·khuṣita-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·Π·khṣita-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·Π·khṣita-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → RV. Π·Π·kṣita-
√kɑhusitɑh-
RV. á·kṣitā·vasu-
(a.) ‘unvergängliches Gut besitzend’
(WbRV. 7)
(RV. ákṣitāvasu-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusitēɑh·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *Π·kɑhusitāɑh·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·kɑhusitāɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·khusitāh·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·khusitāh·Σ-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *Π·khuṣitāh·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. Π·khuṣitāh·Σ-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·khṣitāh·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·khṣitāh·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *Π·khṣitā·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·khṣitā·Σ-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → RV. Π·kṣitā·Σ-
RV. kṣitā́·yus-
(a.) ‘dessen Leben dahinschwindet’
(WbRV. 367)
(RV. kṣitā́yus-)
1. PIE *kɑhusitḗɑh·Σ-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *kɑhusitā́ɑh·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kɑhusitā́ɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusitā́h·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. khusitā́h·Σ-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khuṣitā́h·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. khuṣitā́h·Σ-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *khṣitā́h·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khṣitā́h·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *khṣitā́·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. khṣitā́·Σ-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → RV. kṣitā́·Σ-
√kɑhusiti-
Hes. ψίσι-
(f.) ‘ἀπώλεια’
(GEW 2:1138)
(Hes. ψίσι-, GrGr. I:326)
1. PIE *kɑhusítsi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusítsi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusítsi-
*khu/u̯ → ph
Bilabialization of labiovelar *khu/u̯
R12b → *phsítsi-
3. phsítsi-
*phs → ps
Loss of *h between *p and *s
R18b → *psítsi-
4. psítsi-
*t s → s
Loss of dental in *ts
R29 → *psísi-
5. psísi-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
R31 → Hes. ψίσι-
AV. kṣití-
(f.) ‘Untergang, das Dahinschwinden, Vergehen’
(WbRV. 368)
(AV. kṣití-, KEWA 1:289)
1. PIE *kɑhusití-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusití-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusití-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khuṣití-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khuṣití-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *khṣití-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. khṣití-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → AV. kṣití-
RV. á·kṣiti-
(a.) ‘unvergänglich’
(WbRV. 7)
(RV. ákṣiti-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusiti-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·khusiti-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·khusiti-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *Π·khuṣiti-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. Π·khuṣiti-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·khṣiti-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·khṣiti-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → RV. Π·kṣiti-
√kɑhusen-
AV. kṣaṇiṣ-
(ao.) ‘verletzen’
(WbRV. 362)
(AV. kṣaṇiṣṭhās)
1. PIE *kɑhusenis-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusenis-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusenis-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khuṣenis-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khuṣenis-
PIE *is → iṣ
Ruki-rule for *is
R11d → *khuṣeniṣ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. khuṣeniṣ-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *khṣeniṣ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khṣeniṣ-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → *kṣeniṣ-
6. kṣeniṣ-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
R26a → *kṣaniṣ-
7. kṣaniṣ-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
R29 → AV. kṣaṇiṣ-
OInd. kṣaṇó-
(pr.) ‘verletzen, verwunden : hurt, injure, wound’
(KEWA 1:284)
(OInd. kṣanómi)
1. PIE *kɑhusenéu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusenéu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusenéu-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khuṣenéu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khuṣenéu-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *khṣenéu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. khṣenéu-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → *kṣenéu-
5. kṣenéu-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
R26a → *kṣanéu-
6. kṣanéu-
PIE *é → á
Aryan change of *é into á
R26b → *kṣanáu-
7. kṣanáu-
aú → ṓ
Monophthongization of *aú
R27d → *kṣanṓ-
8. kṣanṓ-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
R29 → *kṣaṇṓ-
9. kṣaṇṓ-
ṓ → ó
Orthographic change of ṓ into ó
R33g → OInd. kṣaṇó-
√kɑhusop-
OInd. kṣapaya-
(cs.A.) ‘zerstören, vernichten’
(KEWA 1:286)
(OInd. kṣapaya-)
1. PIE *kɑhusopei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusopei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusopei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *khusapei̯a-
3. khusapei̯a-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khuṣapei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. khuṣapei̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *khṣapei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khṣapei̯a-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → *kṣapei̯a-
6. kṣapei̯a-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
R26a → *kṣapai̯a-
7. kṣapai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
R33b → OInd. kṣapaya-
√kɑhuser-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. kṣára-
(pr.A.) ‘verschwinden’
(KEWA 1:287)
(OInd. kṣára-)
1. PIE *kɑhuséro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khuséro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khuséro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *khuséra-
3. khuséra-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khuṣéra-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. khuṣéra-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *khṣéra-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khṣéra-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → *kṣéra-
6. kṣéra-
PIE *é → á
Aryan change of *é into á
R26b → OInd. kṣára-
Gr. ψείρο-
(pr.) ‘vernichten, usw.’
(LSJ. 2019)
(Hes. ψείρει · φθείρει, GEW –)
1. PIE *kɑhuséri̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khuséri̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khuséri̯o-
*khu/u̯ → ph
Bilabialization of labiovelar *khu/u̯
R12b → *phséri̯o-
3. phséri̯o-
*phs → ps
Loss of *h between *p and *s
R18b → *pséri̯o-
4. pséri̯o-
*éri̯ → eír
Epenthesis of *i
R21b → *pseíro-
5. pseíro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
R31 → Gr. ψείρο-
√kɑhusot-
OInd. kṣata-
(pf.pt.) ‘verletzt’
(KEWA 1:284)
(OInd. kṣata-, *o-grade for noun ?)
1. PIE *kɑhusoto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusoto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusoto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *khusata-
3. khusata-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khuṣata-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. khuṣata-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *khṣata-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khṣata-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → OInd. kṣata-
RV. á·kṣata-
(pt.) ‘unverletzt’
(WbRV. 6)
(RV. ákṣata-, KEWA 1:284)
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusoto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·khusoto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·khusoto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *Π·khusata-
3. Π·khusata-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *Π·khuṣata-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. Π·khuṣata-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·khṣata-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·khṣata-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → RV. Π·kṣata-
OPers. a·xšata-
(pret.pt.) ‘unverletzt, unverstört’
(AIWb. 51)
(OPers. axšata-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusoto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·khusoto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·khusoto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *Π·khusata-
3. Π·khusata-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *Π·khušata-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. Π·khušata-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R15a → *Π·khšata-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·khšata-
*Ths/š → Ts/š
Loss of *h between stop and s/š
R18 → *Π·kšata-
6. Π·kšata-
PIE *kš → xš
Change of *k into x before *š
R28 → OPers. Π·xšata-
OInd. kṣati-
(f.) ‘Vernichtung, Beschädigung’
(KEWA 1:284)
(OInd. kṣati-)
1. PIE *kɑhusoti-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khusoti-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusoti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *khusati-
3. khusati-
PIE *us → uṣ
Ruki-rule for *us
R11b → *khuṣati-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. khuṣati-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *khṣati-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khṣati-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
R20 → OInd. kṣati-
√kɑhustahi-
Lith. káusty-
(vb.) ‘beschlagen, mit Eisen beschlagen’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. káustyti [inf.])
1. PIE *kḗɑhustɑ́hi-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *kā́ɑhustɑ́hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhustɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
R5a → *kā́ɑhustíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. kā́ɑhustíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kā́hustíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kā́hustíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *kā́ustíi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kā́ustíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
R13a → *kā́ustī́-
6. kā́ustī́-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
R14a2 → *káustī́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
7. káustī́-
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
R23 → Lith. káustý-
√kɑhuu-
TochB. kakawu-
(pt.) ‘having killed’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kakawu)
1. PIE *keɑhkoɑhu̯u-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *kaɑhkoɑhu̯u-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhkoɑhu̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kahkohu̯u-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahkohu̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kahkahu̯u-
4. kahkahu̯u-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kakau̯u-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kakau̯u-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
R22d → TochB. kakawu-
OLatv. er·kavu-
(pt.) ‘erschlagen habend’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(in OLatv. erkawusz [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·koɑhu̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·kohu̯u-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·kohu̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *Π·kahu̯u-
3. Π·kahu̯u-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R14b → *Π·kau̯u-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·kau̯u-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization *u̯ of into v
R22 → OLatv. Π·kavu-
√kɑhuuo-
OEng. ge·heāw-
(n.) ‘striking together, gnashing, grinding’
(ASaxD. 524)
(OEng. geheāw, *o-grade for noun)
1. PIE *Π·koɑhuu̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·kohuu̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·kohuu̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R9b → *Π·kouu̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. Π·kouu̯o
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
R13a → *Π·xouu̯o
4. Π·xouu̯o
*o → a
Change of *o into a
R16a → *Π·xauu̯a
5. Π·xauu̯a
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R18 → *Π·xauu̯
6. Π·xauu̯
*x → h
Change of *x into h
R19a → *Π·hauu̯
7. Π·hauu̯
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
R22 → *Π·hauw
8. Π·hauw
*au → eā
Change of *eu into eā
R24 → OEng. Π·heāw
√kɑhuuɑh-
OGaul. cōu-
(sb.) ‘Silbermünze usw.’
(ACSS 1:1114)
(OGaul. coov, wenn ‘gestampft’ ?)
1. PIE *koɑhuu̯ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohuu̯h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohuu̯h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R10b → *kouu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kouu̯-
*ou → ō
Monophthongization of ou
R21 → *kōu̯-
4. kōu̯-
*u̯ -> u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
R22 → *kōu-
5. kōu-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
R23 → OGaul. cōu-
TochB. a·kauwsa-
(a.) ‘uncut (?)’
(DTochB. 3)
(TochB. ekṣinekaṃñana misa akauwse ///)
1. PIE *Π·kēɑhuu̯ɑhso
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *Π·kāɑhuu̯ɑhso
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·kāɑhuu̯ɑhso
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·kāhuu̯hso
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·kāhuu̯hso
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *Π·kāhuu̯hsa
4. Π·kāhuu̯hsa
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *Π·kāuu̯sa
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·kāuu̯sa
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *Π·kauu̯sa
6. Π·kauu̯sa
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
R22d → TochB. Π·kauwsa
TochB. kowä-
(pr.) ‘kill’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kowän [3sg+encl.])
1. PIE *keɑhuu̯eɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *kaɑhuu̯aɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhuu̯aɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kahuu̯ah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahuu̯ah-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kauu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kauu̯a-
*au → ō
Monophtongization of *au
R21c → *kōu̯a-
5. kōu̯a-
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R22b → *kou̯a-
6. kou̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
R22d → TochB. kowa-
OSax. hauwa-
(vb.) ‘hew, cut, strike, smite’
(ASaxD. 534)
(OSax. hauwan [inf.])
1. PIE *keɑhuu̯eɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *kaɑhuu̯aɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhuu̯aɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kahuu̯ah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahuu̯ah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R9b → *kauu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kauu̯a-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
R13a → *xauu̯a-
5. xauu̯a-
*x → h
Change of *x into h
R19a → *hauu̯a-
6. hauu̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into j
R21 → OSax. hauwa-
OEng. heāwa-
(pr.) ‘hew, cut, strike, smite with a sharp weapon’
(ASaxD. 524)
OEng. heāwan [inf.])
1. PIE *keɑhuu̯eɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *kaɑhuu̯aɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhuu̯aɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kahuu̯ah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahuu̯ah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R9b → *kauu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kauu̯a-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
R13a → *xauu̯a-
5. xauu̯a-
*x → h
Change of *x into h
R19a → *hauu̯a-
6. hauu̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
R22 → *hauwa-
7. hauwa-
*au → eā
Change of *eu into eā
R24 → OEng. heāwa-
√kɑhuui-
OHG. houwe-
(n.) ‘grass’
(GoEtD. 181)
(OHG. houwe)
1. PIE *koɑhuu̯i
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohuu̯i
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohuu̯i
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R9b → *kouu̯i
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kouu̯i
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
R13a → *xouu̯i
4. xouu̯i
*o → a
Change of *o into a
R16a → *xauu̯i
5. xauu̯i
*x → h
Change of *x into h
R19a → *hauu̯i
6. hauu̯i
*-i → -e
Change of root-final -i into -e
R21 → *hauu̯e
7. hauu̯e
*au → ou
Change of au into ou
R22 → *houu̯e
8. houu̯e
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into j
R24 → OHG. houwe
OEng. hīewe·stán-
(m.) ‘hewn stone’
(ASaxD. 534)
(OEng. hiéwestán)
1. PIE *koɑhuu̯i·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohuu̯i·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohuu̯i·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R9b → *kouu̯i·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kouu̯i·Σ-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
R13a → *xouu̯i·Σ-
4. xouu̯i·Σ-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
R16a → *xauu̯i·Σ-
5. xauu̯i·Σ-
*x → h
Change of *x into h
R19a → *hauu̯i·Σ-
6. hauu̯i·Σ-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
R22 → *hauwi·Σ-
7. hauwi·Σ-
*au → eā
Change of *eu into eā
R24 → *heāwi·Σ-
8. heāwi·Σ-
*eā—e → īe–e
Umlaut for eā—e
R27 → OEng. hīewe·Σ-
√kɑhuuu-
OSax. hauwo-
(vb.) ‘hauen : to hew, beat’
(ASächsWb. 31)
(OSax. hauwon [inf.])
1. PIE *keɑhuu̯u
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *kaɑhuu̯u
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhuu̯u
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kahuu̯u
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahuu̯u
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R9b → *kauu̯u
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kauu̯u
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
R13a → *xauu̯u
5. xauu̯u
*x → h
Change of *x into h
R19a → *hauu̯u
6. hauu̯u
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into j
R21 → *hauwu
7. hauwu
*-wu → -wo
Change of root-final -wu into -wo
R24 → OSax. hauwo
OHG. houwo-
(vb.) ‘hauen : to hew, beat’
(GoEtD. 181)
(OHG. houwon [inf.])
1. PIE *keɑhuu̯u
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *kaɑhuu̯u
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhuu̯u
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kahuu̯u
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahuu̯u
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R9b → *kauu̯u
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kauu̯u
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
R13a → *xauu̯u
5. xauu̯u
*x → h
Change of *x into h
R19a → *hauu̯u
6. hauu̯u
*au → ou
Change of au into ou
R22 → *houu̯u
7. houu̯u
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into j
R24 → *houwu
8. houwu
*-wu → -wo
Change of root-final -wu into -wo
R26 → OHG. houwo
TochB. kakawor-
(sb.) ‘= -hatvā’
(DTochB. 209)
(TochB. kakawormeṃ)
1. PIE *keɑhkeɑhu̯our-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *kaɑhkaɑhu̯our-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhkaɑhu̯our-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kahkahu̯our-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahkahu̯our-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kahkahu̯aur-
4. kahkahu̯aur-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *kakau̯aur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kakau̯aur-
*au → ō
Monophtongization of *au
R21c → *kakau̯ōr-
6. kakau̯ōr-
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R22b → *kakau̯or-
7. kakau̯or-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
R22d → TochB. kakawor-
√kɑhuɦɑd-
RV. khudá-
(vb.) ‘hineinstossen : thrust into’
(WbRV. 374)
(RV. khudáta kapr̥thám [sgA], KEWA 1:310)
1. PIE *kɑhúɦɑdó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khúɦdó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khúɦdó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
R9b → *khúɦdá-
3. khúɦdá-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R19a → RV. khúdá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
√kɑɦeuɦɑd-
(IEW. 955)
(unfinished)
RV. coda-
(pr.) ‘in Bewegung setzen, antreiben, fördern’
(WbRV. 456)
(RV. codata [2pl])
1. PIE *kɑheuɦɑdo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kheuɦdo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kheuɦdo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *kheuɦda-
3. kheuɦda-
PIE *kh → čh
2nd palatalization of *kh
R14b → *čheuɦda-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. čheuɦda-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R19a → *čheuda-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. čheuda-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *čeuda-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. čeuda-
*č → c
From 2nd palatalization *č to OIA
R24a → *ceuda-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
7. ceuda-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
R26a → *cauda-
8. cauda-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
R27c → *cōda-
9. cōda-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R33f → RV. coda-
RV. códa-
(m.) ‘Werkzeug zum Antreiben, Stachel, Peitsche’
(WbRV. 458)
(RV. códa-)
1. PIE *kɑhéuɦɑdo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khéuɦdo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khéuɦdo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *khéuɦda-
3. khéuɦda-
PIE *kh → čh
2nd palatalization of *kh
R14b → *čhéuɦda-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. čhéuɦda-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R19a → *čhéuda-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. čhéuda-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *čéuda-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. čéuda-
*č → c
From 2nd palatalization *č to OIA
R24a → *céuda-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
7. céuda-
PIE *é → á
Aryan change of *é into á
R26b → *cáuda-
8. cáuda-
aú → ṓ
Monophthongization of *aú
R27d → *cṓda-
9. cṓda-
ṓ → ó
Orthographic change of ṓ into ó
R33g → RV. códa-
RV. codáya-
(cs.) ‘schärfen, wetzen’
(WbRV. 457)
(RV. codáyāmi [1sg])
1. PIE *kɑheuɦɑdéi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kheuɦdéi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kheuɦdéi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *kheuɦdéi̯a-
3. kheuɦdéi̯a-
PIE *kh → čh
2nd palatalization of *kh
R14b → *čheuɦdéi̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. čheuɦdéi̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R19a → *čheudéi̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. čheudéi̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *čeudéi̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. čeudéi̯a-
*č → c
From 2nd palatalization *č to OIA
R24a → *ceudéi̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
7. ceudéi̯a-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
R26a → *caudéi̯a-
8. caudéi̯a-
PIE *é → á
Aryan change of *é into á
R26b → *caudái̯a-
9. caudái̯a-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
R27c → *cōdái̯a-
10. cōdái̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
R33b → *cōdáya-
11. cōdáya-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R33f → RV. codáya-
√kɑhul-
Lat. per·cul-
(pf.) ‘zu Boden schlagen, zerzschmettern’
(WH 1:225)
(Lat. perculī [1sg])
1. PIE *Π·kɑhul-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·khul-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·khul-
*kh → k
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *kh
R14a → *Π·kul-
3. Π·kul-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
R20 → Lat. Π·cul-
Latv. kulinâ-
(vb.) ‘wiederholt schlagen, schütteln, rüttern’
(LiEtWb. 211-2)
(Latv. kulinâ-)
1. PIE *kɑhúlinḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *kɑhúlinā́ɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kɑhúlinā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khúlinā́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. khúlinā́h-
*ā́h → âh
Latvian tone rule for *ā́h
RAcc3 → *khúlinâh-
4. khúlinâh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R14b → *khúlinâ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. khúlinâ-
*kh → k
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *kh
R19a → Latv. kúlinâ-
Lat. per·culso-
(pf.) ‘zu Boden schlagen, zerschmettern’
(WH 1:225)
(Lat. culsus [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·kɑhultso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·khultso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·khultso-
*kh → k
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *kh
R14a → *Π·kultso-
3. Π·kultso-
*ts → s
Loss of *t before *s
R18 → *Π·kulso-
4. Π·kulso-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
R20 → Lat. Π·culso-
√kɑheuuɑh-
(Pyysalo)
TochB. śauw-
(cs.pret.) ‘let be killed’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. sauwwa [1sg])
1. PIE *kɑhēuu̯ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khēuu̯h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khēuu̯h-
PIE *ē → i̯ ā
Change of *ē into i̯ā
R10b → *khi̯āuu̯h-
3. khi̯āuu̯h-
*khi̯ → śh
2nd palatalization for plain velars
R12b → *śhāuu̯h-
4. śhāuu̯h-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *śāuu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. śāuu̯-
*āu → au
Orthographic shortening of āu
R21d → *śauu̯-
6. śauu̯-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
R22d → TochB. śauw-
OEng. heōw-
(pret.) ‘hew, cut, strike, smite with a sharp weapon’
(ASaxD. 524)
(OEng. heōw)
1. PIE *kɑhēuu̯ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khēuu̯h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khēuu̯h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R9b → *khēuu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. khēuu̯-
*ēRC → eRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ēRC
R11b1 → *kheuu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
4. kheuu̯-
*kh → x
Affricativization of *kh
R12a → *xeuu̯-
5. xeuu̯-
*x → h
Change of *x into h
R19a → *heuu̯-
6. heuu̯-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
R22 → *heuw-
7. heuw-
*eu → eō
Change of *eu into eō
R23 → OEng. heōw-
OIcl. hiō-
(pret.) ‘hauen’
(GoEtD. 181)
(OIcl. hiō)
1. PIE *kɑhēuu̯ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *khēuu̯h
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khēuu̯h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R9b → *khēuu̯
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. khēuu̯
*ēRC → eRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ēRC
R11b1 → *kheuu̯
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
4. kheuu̯
*kh → x
Affricativization of *kh
R12a → *xeuu̯
5. xeuu̯
*x → h
Change of *x into h
R19a → *heuu̯
6. heuu̯
*eu → iō
Change of *eu into iō
R21 → *hiōu̯
7. hiōu̯
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
R27 → *hiōv
8. hiōv
-v → Ø
Loss of -v in root-final position
R28 → OIcl. hiō
TochB. śowsa-
(cs.pret.) ‘let be killed’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. śowsa-)
1. PIE *kɑheuu̯ɑhso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kheuu̯hso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kheuu̯hso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *kheuu̯hsa-
3. kheuu̯hsa-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
R10a → *khi̯auu̯hsa-
4. khi̯auu̯hsa-
*khi̯ → śh
2nd palatalization for plain velars
R12b → *śhauu̯hsa-
5. śhauu̯hsa-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *śauu̯sa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. śauu̯sa-
*au → ō
Monophtongization of *au
R21c → *śōu̯sa-
7. śōu̯sa-
*ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R22b → *śou̯sa-
8. śou̯sa-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
R22d → TochB. śowsa-
√gɑɦub-
(Pyysalo)
(or √gaɦuɦab- ?)
OCS. pa·guba-
(f.) ‘Verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. paguba, *o-grade for noun)
1. PIE *Π·goɑɦubēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *Π·goɑɦubāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·goɑɦubāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·goɦubāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·goɦubāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *Π·gaɦubāh-
4. Π·gaɦubāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *Π·gaubāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·gaubāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *Π·gaubā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·gaubā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *Π·goubā-
7. Π·goubā-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *Π·gūbā-
8. Π·gūbā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
R32c → *Π·gūba-
9. Π·gūba-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R32k → OCS. Π·guba-
OCS. gyba-
(vb.) ‘zugrunde gehen, verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gyba-)
1. PIE *gɑ́ɦubēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gɑ́ɦubāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑ́ɦubāɑh-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *gúɦubāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
3. gúɦubāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gúɦubāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gúɦubāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *gúubāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gúubāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *gúubā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gúubā-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
R16d → *gū́bā-
7. gū́bā-
*ū́, ū → y
Change of ū́ into y
R26 → *gybā-
8. gybā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
R32c → OCS. gyba-
OCS. po·gyba-
(vb.) ‘zugrunde gehen, verderben, verlieren’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. po·gyba-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑ́ɦubēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *Π·gɑ́ɦubāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑ́ɦubāɑh-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *Π·gúɦubāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
3. Π·gúɦubāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gúɦubāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. Π·gúɦubāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *Π·gúubāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·gúubāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *Π·gúubā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·gúubā-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
R16d → *Π·gū́bā-
7. Π·gū́bā-
*ū́, ū → y
Change of ū́ into y
R26 → *Π·gybā-
8. Π·gybā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
R32c → OCS. Π·gyba-
Goth. kaupatja-
(vb.) ‘κολαφίζειν : strike, puffet’
(GoEtD. 216)
(Goth. kaupatja-, *ē-grade for verb ?)
1. PIE *gēɑɦubeɑɦdi̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *gēɑɦubaɑɦdi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. gēɑɦubaɑɦdi̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gāɑɦubaɑɦdi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. gāɑɦubaɑɦdi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gāɦubaɦdi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gāɦubaɦdi̯o-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R9a → *gāubadi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gāubadi̯o-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R11a1 → *gaubadi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. gaubadi̯o-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
R14a → *kaubadi̯o-
7. kaubadi̯o-
*b → p
Loss of voice of media *b
R14b → *kaupadi̯o-
8. kaupadi̯o-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
R14c → *kaupati̯o-
9. kaupati̯o-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
R16a → *kaupati̯a-
10. kaupati̯a-
*i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
R19b → Goth. kaupatja-
Goth. kaupatid-
(pt.) ‘κολαφίζειν : strike, puffet’
(GoEtD. 216)
(Goth. kaupatidai [plN])
1. PIE *gēɑɦubeɑɦdidɑɦo
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *gēɑɦubaɑɦdidɑɦo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. gēɑɦubaɑɦdidɑɦo
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gāɑɦubaɑɦdidɑɦo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. gāɑɦubaɑɦdidɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gāɦubaɦdidɦo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gāɦubaɦdidɦo
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R9a → *gāubadidɦo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gāubadidɦo
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R11a1 → *gaubadidɦo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. gaubadidɦo
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
R14a → *kaubadidɦo
7. kaubadidɦo
*b → p
Loss of voice of media *b
R14b → *kaupadidɦo
8. kaupadidɦo
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
R14c → *kaupatidɦo
9. kaupatidɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
R15c → *kaupatido
10. kaupatido
*o → a
Change of *o into a
R16a → *kaupatida
11. kaupatida
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R18 → Goth. kaupatid
√gɑɦubahi-
SCr. gùbi-
(vb.) ‘verderben’
(REW 1:317)
(SCr. gùbiti [inf.]
1. PIE *gḗɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *gā́ɑɦubɑ́hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gā́ɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
R5a → *gā́ɑɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. gā́ɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gā́ɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gā́ɦubíhi-
ā́hu → āhȕ
Serbo-Croatian double gravis rule
RAcc2 → *gāɦȕbíhi-
5. gāɦȕbíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *gāȕbíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gāȕbíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *gāȕbíi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. gāȕbíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
R16a → *gāȕbī́-
8. gāȕbī́-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R17a1 → *gaȕbī́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
9. gaȕbī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *goȕbī́-
10. goȕbī́-
*oȕ → ȕ
Monophthongization of *oȕ into ȕ
R27b → *gȕbī́-
11. gȕbī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
R34g → SCr. gȕbi-
Sloven. gubí-
(vb.) ‘verlieren’
(REW 1:317)
(Sloven. gubíti [inf.])
1. PIE *gēɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
R5a → *gāɑɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. gāɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gāɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gāɦubíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *gāubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gāubíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *gāubíi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gāubíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
R16a → *gāubī́-
7. gāubī́-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R17a1 → *gaubī́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
8. gaubī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *goubī́-
9. goubī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *gūbī́-
10. gūbī́-
*ī́ → í
Orthographic change of *ī́ into í
R34g → *gūbí-
11. gūbí-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R34k → Sloven. gubí-
Russ. gubí-
(vb.) ‘verderben, zu grunde richten’
(REW 1:317)
(Russ. gubít’ [inf.])
1. PIE *gēɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
R5a → *gāɑɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. gāɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gāɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gāɦubíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *gāubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gāubíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *gāubíi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gāubíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
R16a → *gāubī́-
7. gāubī́-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R17a1 → *gaubī́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
8. gaubī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *goubī́-
9. goubī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *gūbī́-
10. gūbī́-
*ī́ → í
Orthographic change of *ī́ into í
R35g → *gūbí-
11. gūbí-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R35k → Russ. gubí-
OCS. gubi-
(vb.) ‘ὀλεθρεύειν : vernichten, verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gubi-)
1. PIE *gēɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
R5a → *gāɑɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. gāɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gāɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gāɦubíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *gāubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gāubíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *gāubíi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gāubíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
R16a → *gāubī́-
7. gāubī́-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R17a1 → *gaubī́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
8. gaubī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *goubī́-
9. goubī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *gūbī́-
10. gūbī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
R32g → *gūbi-
11. gūbi-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R32k → OCS. gubi-
OCS. po·gubi-
(vb.) ‘vernichten, verderben, verlieren’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. po·gubi-)
1. PIE *Π·gēɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *Π·gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
R5a → *Π·gāɑɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. Π·gāɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gāɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. Π·gāɦubíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *Π·gāubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·gāubíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *Π·gāubíi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·gāubíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
R16a → *Π·gāubī́-
7. Π·gāubī́-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R17a1 → *Π·gaubī́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
8. Π·gaubī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *Π·goubī́-
9. Π·goubī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *Π·gūbī́-
10. Π·gūbī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
R32g → *Π·gūbi-
11. Π·gūbi-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R32k → OCS. Π·gubi-
Czech. hubi-
(vb.) ‘verderben, vertilgen’
(REW 1:317)
(Czech. hubiti [inf.])
1. PIE *gēɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
R5a → *gāɑɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. gāɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gāɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gāɦubíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *gāubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gāubíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *gāubíi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gāubíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
R16a → *gāubī́-
7. gāubī́-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R17a1 → *gaubī́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
8. gaubī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *goubī́-
9. goubī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *gūbī́-
10. gūbī́-
*g → ɦ
Change of *g into ɦ
R34 → *ɦūbī́-
11. ɦūbī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
R35g → *ɦūbi-
12. ɦūbi-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R35k → *ɦubi-
13. ɦubi-
*ɦ → h
Orthographic change of *ɦ into h
R35l → Czech. hubi-
Pol. gubi-
(vb.) ‘verderben, verliedern’
(REW 1:317)
(Pol. gubić [inf.])
1. PIE *gēɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
R5a → *gāɑɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. gāɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gāɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gāɦubíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *gāubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gāubíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *gāubíi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gāubíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
R16a → *gāubī́-
7. gāubī́-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R17a1 → *gaubī́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
8. gaubī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *goubī́-
9. goubī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *gūbī́-
10. gūbī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
R34g → *gūbi-
11. gūbi-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R34k → Pol. gubi-
OCS. gubiteljĭ-
(m.) ‘Vernichter, Verderber’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gubiteljĭ-)
1. PIE *goɑɦubɑ́hiteli̯i-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
R5a → *goɑɦubíhiteli̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. goɑɦubíhiteli̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *goɦubíhiteli̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. goɦubíhiteli̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gaɦubíhiteli̯i-
4. gaɦubíhiteli̯i-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *gaubíhiteli̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gaubíhiteli̯i-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *gaubíiteli̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gaubíiteli̯i-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
R16a → *gaubī́teli̯i-
7. gaubī́teli̯i-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *goubī́teli̯i-
8. goubī́teli̯i-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *gūbī́teli̯i-
9. gūbī́teli̯i-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R32a → *gūbī́telji-
10. gūbī́telji-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
R32e → *gūbī́teljĭ-
11. gūbī́teljĭ-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
R32g → *gūbiteljĭ-
12. gūbiteljĭ-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R32k → OCS. gubiteljĭ-
OCS. gubitelĭnŭ-
(a.) ‘verderblich’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gubitelĭnŭ-)
1. PIE *goɑɦubɑ́hitelino
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
R5a → *goɑɦubíhitelino
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. goɑɦubíhitelino
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *goɦubíhitelino
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. goɦubíhitelino
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gaɦubíhitelina
4. gaɦubíhitelina
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *gaubíhitelina
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gaubíhitelina
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *gaubíitelina
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gaubíitelina
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
R16a → *gaubī́telina
7. gaubī́telina
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *goubī́telino
8. goubī́telino
*-o → -u
Change of -o into -u
R24 → *goubī́telinu
9. goubī́telinu
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *gūbī́telinu
10. gūbī́telinu
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
R32e → *gūbī́telĭnu
11. gūbī́telĭnu
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
R32g → *gūbitelĭnu
12. gūbitelĭnu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
R32i → *gūbitelĭnŭ
13. gūbitelĭnŭ
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R32k → OCS. gubitelĭnŭ
OCS. gubitelĭstvo-
(n.) ‘Verderben, Vernichtung’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gubitelĭstvo-)
1. PIE *goɑɦubɑ́hitelistu̯os
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
R5a → *goɑɦubíhitelistu̯os
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. goɑɦubíhitelistu̯os
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *goɦubíhitelistu̯os
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. goɦubíhitelistu̯os
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gaɦubíhitelistu̯as
4. gaɦubíhitelistu̯as
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *gaubíhitelistu̯as
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gaubíhitelistu̯as
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *gaubíitelistu̯as
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gaubíitelistu̯as
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
R16a → *gaubī́telistu̯as
7. gaubī́telistu̯as
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *goubī́telistu̯os
8. goubī́telistu̯os
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root final)
R25 → *goubī́telistu̯o
9. goubī́telistu̯o
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *gūbī́telistu̯o
10. gūbī́telistu̯o
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
R31 → *gūbī́telistvo
11. gūbī́telistvo
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
R32e → *gūbī́telĭstvo
12. gūbī́telĭstvo
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
R32g → *gūbitelĭstvo
13. gūbitelĭstvo
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R32k → OCS. gubitelĭstvo
√gɑɦubin-
OCS. pa·gubĭnŭ-
(a.) ‘verderblich’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pagubĭnŭ-)
1. PIE *Π·goɑɦubino
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·goɦubino
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·goɦubino
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *Π·gaɦubina
3. Π·gaɦubina
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *Π·gaubina
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·gaubina
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *Π·goubino
5. Π·goubino
*-o → -u
Change of -o into -u
R24 → *Π·goubinu
6. Π·goubinu
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *Π·gūbinu
7. Π·gūbinu
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
R32e → *Π·gūbĭnu
8. Π·gūbĭnu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
R32i → *Π·gūbĭnŭ
9. Π·gūbĭnŭ
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R32k → OCS. Π·gubĭnŭ
OCS. pa·gubĭnikŭ-
(m.) ‘Verderber’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pagubĭnikŭ-)
1. PIE *Π·goɑɦubineiku̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·goɦubineiku̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·goɦubineiku̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *Π·gaɦubineiku̯a
3. Π·gaɦubineiku̯a
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R14a → *Π·gaɦubineika
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·gaɦubineika
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *Π·gaubineika
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·gaubineika
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *Π·goubineiko
6. Π·goubineiko
*-o → -u
Change of -o into -u
R24 → *Π·goubineiku
7. Π·goubineiku
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *Π·gūbineiku
8. Π·gūbineiku
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
R28a → *Π·gūbinīku
9. Π·gūbinīku
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
R32e → *Π·gūbĭnīku
10. Π·gūbĭnīku
*ī → i
Orthographic change of *ī into i
R32f → *Π·gūbĭniku
11. Π·gūbĭniku
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
R32i → *Π·gūbĭnikŭ
12. Π·gūbĭnikŭ
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R32k → OCS. Π·gubĭnikŭ
√gɑɦubēli-
OCS. gybĕlĭ-
(f.) ‘Verderben, Vergeudung, Verlust’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gybĕlĭ-)
1. PIE *gɑ́ɦubēli-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *gúɦubēli-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. gúɦubēli-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *gúubēli-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. gúubēli-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
R16d → *gū́bēli-
4. gū́bēli-
*ū́, ū → y
Change of ū́ into y
R26 → *gybēli-
5. gybēli-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
R32e → *gybēlĭ-
6. gybēlĭ-
*ē → ĕ
Orthographic change of *ē into ĕ
R32h → OCS. gybĕlĭ-
OCS. po·gybĕlĭ-
(f.) ‘Verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pogybĕlĭ-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑ́ɦubēli-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *Π·gúɦubēli-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. Π·gúɦubēli-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *Π·gúubēli-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. Π·gúubēli-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
R16d → *Π·gū́bēli-
4. Π·gū́bēli-
*ū́, ū → y
Change of ū́ into y
R26 → *Π·gybēli-
5. Π·gybēli-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
R32e → *Π·gybēlĭ-
6. Π·gybēlĭ-
*ē → ĕ
Orthographic change of *ē into ĕ
R32h → OCS. Π·gybĕlĭ-
OCS. po·gybĕlĭnŭ-
(a.) ‘verderblich, des Verderbens’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pogybĕlĭnŭ-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑ́ɦubēlino
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *Π·gúɦubēlino
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. Π·gúɦubēlino
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *Π·gúɦubēlina
3. Π·gúɦubēlina
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *Π·gúubēlina
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·gúubēlina
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
R16d → *Π·gū́bēlina
5. Π·gū́bēlina
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *Π·gū́bēlino
6. Π·gū́bēlino
*-o → -u
Change of -o into -u
R24 → *Π·gū́bēlinu
7. Π·gū́bēlinu
*ū́, ū → y
Change of ū́ into y
R26 → *Π·gybēlinu
8. Π·gybēlinu
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
R32e → *Π·gybēlĭnu
9. Π·gybēlĭnu
*ē → ĕ
Orthographic change of *ē into ĕ
R32h → *Π·gybĕlĭnu
10. Π·gybĕlĭnu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
R32i → OCS. Π·gybĕlĭnŭ
√gɑɦubli-
OCS. gubljo-
(vb.) ‘vernichten, verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gubljǫ [1sg], *ē-grade for verb ?)
1. PIE *gēɑɦubli̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gāɑɦubli̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gāɑɦubli̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gāɦubli̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gāɦubli̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gāɦubli̯a-
4. gāɦubli̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *gāubli̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gāubli̯a-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R17a1 → *gaubli̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. gaubli̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *goubli̯o-
7. goubli̯o-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *gūbli̯o-
8. gūbli̯o-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R32a → *gūbljo-
9. gūbljo-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R32k → OCS. gubljo-
Russ. gubljo-
(vb.) ‘verderben, zu grunde richten’
(REW 1:317)
(Russ. gubljú [1sg])
1. PIE *gēɑɦubli̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gāɑɦubli̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gāɑɦubli̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gāɦubli̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gāɦubli̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gāɦubli̯a-
4. gāɦubli̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *gāubli̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gāubli̯a-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R17a1 → *gaubli̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. gaubli̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *goubli̯o-
7. goubli̯o-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *gūbli̯o-
8. gūbli̯o-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R35a → *gūbljo-
9. gūbljo-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R35k → Russ. gubljo-
OCS. po·gubljo-
(vb.) ‘vernichten, verderben, verlieren’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pogubljǫ [1sg])
1. PIE *Π·gēɑɦubli̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *Π·gāɑɦubli̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gāɑɦubli̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gāɦubli̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gāɦubli̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *Π·gāɦubli̯a-
4. Π·gāɦubli̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *Π·gāubli̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·gāubli̯a-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R17a1 → *Π·gaubli̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. Π·gaubli̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *Π·goubli̯o-
7. Π·goubli̯o-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *Π·gūbli̯o-
8. Π·gūbli̯o-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R32a → *Π·gūbljo-
9. Π·gūbljo-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R32k → OCS. Π·gubljo-
OCS. po·gublja-
(vb.) ‘vernichten, verderben, verlieren’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pogublja-)
1. PIE *Π·gēɑɦubli̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *Π·gāɑɦubli̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gāɑɦubli̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gāɦubli̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gāɦubli̯āh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *Π·gāubli̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·gāubli̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *Π·gāubli̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·gāubli̯ā-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
R17a1 → *Π·gaubli̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. Π·gaubli̯ā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *Π·goubli̯ā-
7. Π·goubli̯ā-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *Π·gūbli̯ā-
8. Π·gūbli̯ā-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R32a → *Π·gūbljā-
9. Π·gūbljā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
R32c → *Π·gūblja-
10. Π·gūblja-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R32k → OCS. Π·gublja-
OCS. po·gubljeni·je-
(n.) ‘Vernichtung, Verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pogubljenije)
1. PIE *Π·goɑɦub·li̯enei·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·goɦub·li̯enei·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·goɦub·li̯enei·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *Π·gaɦub·li̯enei·Σ-
3. Π·gaɦub·li̯enei·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *Π·gaub·li̯enei·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·gaub·li̯enei·Σ-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *Π·goub·li̯enei·Σ-
5. Π·goub·li̯enei·Σ-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
R27 → *Π·gūb·li̯enei·Σ-
6. Π·gūb·li̯enei·Σ-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
R28a → *Π·gūb·li̯enī·Σ-
7. Π·gūb·li̯enī·Σ-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R32a → *Π·gūb·ljenī·Σ-
8. Π·gūb·ljenī·Σ-
*ī → i
Orthographic change of *ī into i
R32f → *Π·gūb·ljeni·Σ-
9. Π·gūb·ljeni·Σ-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
R32k → OCS. Π·gub·ljeni·Σ-
√gɑɦubn-
OCS. po·gybeni·je-
(n.) ‘Verderben, Verderblichkeit’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pogybenije)
1. PIE *Π·gɑ́ɦubenei·Σ-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *Π·gúɦubenei·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. Π·gúɦubenei·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *Π·gúubenei·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. Π·gúubenei·Σ-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
R16d → *Π·gū́benei·Σ-
4. Π·gū́benei·Σ-
*ū́, ū → y
Change of ū́ into y
R26 → *Π·gybenei·Σ-
5. Π·gybenei·Σ-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
R28a → *Π·gybenī·Σ-
6. Π·gybenī·Σ-
*ī → i
Orthographic change of *ī into i
R32f → OCS. Π·gybeni·Σ-
OCS. gybnǫ-
(vb.) ‘zugrunde gehen, verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gybnǫ-)
1. PIE *gɑ́ɦubnun
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *gúɦubnun
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. gúɦubnun
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *gúubnun
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. gúubnun
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
R16d → *gū́bnun
4. gū́bnun
*ū́, ū → y
Change of ū́ into y
R26 → *gybnun
5. gybnun
*-un → -ǫ
Emergence of nasal vowel ǫ
R29 → OCS. gybnǫ
OCS. po·gybnǫ
(vb.) ‘zugrunde gehen, verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. po·gybnǫ)
1. PIE *Π·gɑ́ɦubnun
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
R6a → *Π·gúɦubnun
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. Π·gúɦubnun
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *Π·gúubnun
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. Π·gúubnun
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
R16d → *Π·gū́bnun
4. Π·gū́bnun
*ū́, ū → y
Change of ū́ into y
R26 → *Π·gybnun
5. Π·gybnun
*-un → -ǫ
Emergence of nasal vowel ǫ
R29 → OCS. Π·gybnǫ
√gɑɦu-
(IEW. 491-3 gu̯hen-)
(WP. 1:679f., WH 1:332f.)
Hitt. gu·guš-
(vb.) ‘zerstoßen’
(HHand. 82)
(Hitt. ku-ku-uš-zi [3sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦu·gɑɦus-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu·gɦus-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu·gɦus-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
R11b → *gu·gus-
3. gu·gus-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R12 → Hitt. gu·guš-
OIcl. hǫgg-
(m.) ‘Hieb, Stoss, Schlag’
(ANEtWb. 280)
(OIcl. hǫgg-, *o-grade for noun)
1. PIE *koɑhgɑɦugɑɦi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kohgɦugɦi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohgɦugɦi̯o
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Centum neutralization of *gɦi/i̯
R8e → *kohgɦugɦo
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. kohgɦugɦo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R9b → *kogɦugɦo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kogɦugɦo
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
R13a → *xogɦugɦo
5. xogɦugɦo
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R15a → *xogugo
6. xogugo
*o → a
Change of *o into a
R16a → *xaguga
7. xaguga
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R18 → *xagug
8. xagug
*x → h
Change of *x into h
R19a → *hagug
9. hagug
*a — u → ǫ — Ø
Umlaut for a — u
R23a → OIcl. hǫgg
OIcl. hǫggva-
(vb.) ‘hauen’
(ANEtWb. 280)
(OIcl. hǫggva, PGerm. *hagu·gua-)
1. PIE *keɑhgɑɦugɑɦu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *kaɑhgɑɦugɑɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhgɑɦugɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kahgɦugɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahgɦugɦu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R9b → *kagɦugɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kagɦugɦu̯o-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
R13a → *xagɦugɦu̯o-
5. xagɦugɦu̯o-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R15a → *xagugu̯o-
6. xagugu̯o-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
R16a → *xagugu̯a-
7. xagugu̯a-
*x → h
Change of *x into h
R19a → *hagugu̯a-
8. hagugu̯a-
*a — u → ǫ — Ø
Umlaut for a — u
R23a → *hǫggu̯a-
9. hǫggu̯a-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
R27 → OIcl. hǫggva-
√gɑɦuo-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. gu̯a-
(vb.) ‘≈ schlagen, stechen o.ä. ?’
(CHLu. 6.5.3)
(HLu. CORNU(-)ku-wa/i-ha)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gɦu̯a-
3. gɦu̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
R12b → HLu. gu̯a-
OIcl. hǫggva-
(vb.) ‘to hew, beat’
(ANEtWb. 226)
(OIcl. hǫggva, PGerm. *hagu·gwa-)
1. PIE *keɑhgɑɦugɑɦu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *kaɑhgɑɦugɑɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhgɑɦugɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kahgɦugɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahgɦugɦu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R9b → *kagɦugɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kagɦugɦu̯o-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
R13a → *xagɦugɦu̯o-
5. xagɦugɦu̯o-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R15a → *xagugu̯o-
6. xagugu̯o-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
R16a → *xagugu̯a-
7. xagugu̯a-
*x → h
Change of *x into h
R19a → *hagugu̯a-
8. hagugu̯a-
*a — u → ǫ — Ø
Umlaut for a — u
R23a → *hǫggu̯a-
9. hǫggu̯a-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
R27 → OIcl. hǫggva-
OIcl. høggva-
(vb.) ‘hauen’
(ANEtWb. 280)
(OIcl. høggva, PGerm. *hogi-gwa-)
1. PIE *kēɑhgɑɦi̯igɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *kāɑhgɑɦi̯igɑɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhgɑɦi̯igɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *kāhgɦi̯igɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhgɦi̯igɦu̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Centum neutralization of *gɦi/i̯
R8e → *kāhgɦigɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. kāhgɦigɦu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R9b → *kāgɦigɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāgɦigɦu̯o-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
R13a → *xāgɦigɦu̯o-
6. xāgɦigɦu̯o-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R15a → *xāgigu̯o-
7. xāgigu̯o-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
R16a → *xāgigu̯a-
8. xāgigu̯a-
*ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
R17a → *xōgigu̯a-
9. xōgigu̯a-
*x → h
Change of *x into h
R19a → *hōgigu̯a-
10. hōgigu̯a-
*ō — i → ø — Ø
Umlaut for *ō — i
R24 → *høggu̯a-
11. høggu̯a-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
R27 → OIcl. høggva-
OInd. pari·gha-
(m.) ‘an iron bar for shutting a gate’
(MonWil. 593)
(OInd. parigha-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *Π·gɦu̯a-
3. Π·gɦu̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·gɦa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·gɦa-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → OInd. Π·gha-
OInd. pāṇi·gha-
(m.) ‘striking with the hand’
(MonWil. 615)
(OInd. pāṇigha-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *Π·gɦu̯a-
3. Π·gɦu̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·gɦa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·gɦa-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → OInd. Π·gha-
OInd. rāja·gha-
(m.) ‘slayer of kings’
(MonWil. 873)
(OInd. rājagha-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *Π·gɦu̯a-
3. Π·gɦu̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·gɦa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·gɦa-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → OInd. Π·gha-
OInd. tāḍa·gha-
(m.) ‘Grobschmied : blacksmith’
(KEWA 1:492)
(OInd. tāḍagha-, MonWil. 441)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *Π·gɦu̯a-
3. Π·gɦu̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·gɦa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·gɦa-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → OInd. Π·gha-
√gɑɦue-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. gu̯e-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, erschlagen, töten’
(HEG 1:604-5)
(Hitt. ku-e-mi [1sg], ku-e-ši [2], ku-e-ue-en [1pl])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯e-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
R11b → Hitt. gu̯e-
Arm. ǰn·ǰe-
(vb.) ‘efface, wipe clean, annihilate, destroy’
(EtDiArm. 559)
(Arm. ǰnǰem [1sg], GEW 1:657)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯in·gɑɦu̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯in·gɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯in·gɦu̯e-
gɦu/u̯ → ǰɦ
Palatalization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
R9 → *ǰɦin·ǰɦe-
3. ǰɦin·ǰɦe-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R10a → *ǰin·ǰe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ǰin·ǰe-
*i → Ø
Loss of unaccented *i
R21b → Arm. ǰn·ǰe-
RV. ha-
(pr.) ‘(er)schlagen, töten, vernichten, kämpfen’
(WbRV. 1642-3)
(RV. hathás, hatás [3du], hatám [2du], hatā́ [2pl], jahí)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯e-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *ǰɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. ǰɦu̯e-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *ǰɦe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. ǰɦe-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *ɦe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. ɦe-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
R26a → *ɦa-
6. ɦa-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → RV. ha-
RV. párā (...) ha-
(pr.) ‘umhauen, umstürzen’
(WbRV. 1642)
(RV. párā (...) hathá)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯e-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *Π·ǰɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯e-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *Π·ǰɦe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦe-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *Π·ɦe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ɦe-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
R26a → *Π·ɦa-
6. Π·ɦa-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → RV. Π·ha-
RV. sám (...) ha-
(pr.) ‘zusammendrücken’
(WbRV. 1642)
(RV. sám (...) hatas, das Euter)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯e-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *Π·ǰɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯e-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *Π·ǰɦe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦe-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *Π·ɦe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ɦe-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
R26a → *Π·ɦa-
6. Π·ɦa-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → RV. Π·ha-
gAv. ǰa-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, töten’
(AIWb. 603)
(gAv. ǰaidyāi [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯e-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R16d → *ǰɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. ǰɦu̯e-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R18b → *ǰɦe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. ǰɦe-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R19a → *ǰe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ǰe-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
R30a → gAv. ǰa-
LAv. ǰa-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, töten’
(AIWb. 490)
(LAv. ǰata [2pl])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯e-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R16d → *ǰɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. ǰɦu̯e-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R18b → *ǰɦe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. ǰɦe-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R19a → *ǰe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ǰe-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
R30a → LAv. ǰa-
OPers. ja-
(pr.) ‘strike, smite, defeat, mould’
(OldP. 185)
(OPers. jadiy [2sg], jatā [2pl.ipv.], aja [3pl])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯e-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R14d → *ǰɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. ǰɦu̯e-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R15b → *ǰɦe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. ǰɦe-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R16a → *ǰe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ǰe-
*ǰ → j
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to OPers.
R22c → *je-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. je-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
R25a → OPers. ja-
LAv. paiti (...) ǰa-
(vb.) ‘schlagen gegen’
(AIWb. 492)
(LAv. paiti (...) jaiδi [2sg])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯e-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R16d → *Π·ǰɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯e-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R18b → *Π·ǰɦe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦe-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R19a → *Π·ǰe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·ǰe-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
R30a → LAv. Π·ǰa-
√gɑɦuē-
RV. vr̥tra·hā́-
(m.) ‘Vr̥tratödter’ (a.) ‘Feinde schlagend’
(WbRV. 1336)
(RV. vr̥trahā́ [N])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *Π·ǰɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦḗ-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *Π·ɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ɦḗ-
PIE *ḗ → ā́
Aryan change of *ḗ into ā́
R26d → *Π·ɦā́-
6. Π·ɦā́-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → RV. Π·hā́-
RV. muṣṭi·hā́
(m.) ‘Faustkämpfer, im Handgemenge kämpfend’
(WbRV. 1052)
(RV. muṣṭihā́ [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *Π·ǰɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦḗ-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *Π·ɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ɦḗ-
PIE *ḗ → ā́
Aryan change of *ḗ into ā́
R26d → *Π·ɦā́-
6. Π·ɦā́-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → RV. Π·hā́-
RV. go·hā́-
(a.) ‘Rinder tötend’
(WbRV. 414)
(RV. gohā́ [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *Π·ǰɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦḗ-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *Π·ɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ɦḗ-
PIE *ḗ → ā́
Aryan change of *ḗ into ā́
R26d → *Π·ɦā́-
6. Π·ɦā́-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → RV. Π·hā́-
RV. satrā·hā́-
(a.) ‘völlig schlagend’
(WbRV. 1455)
(RV. satrāhā́ [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *Π·ǰɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦḗ-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *Π·ɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ɦḗ-
PIE *ḗ → ā́
Aryan change of *ḗ into ā́
R26d → *Π·ɦā́-
6. Π·ɦā́-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → RV. Π·hā́-
RV. nr̥·hā́-
(a.) ‘Männer tödtend’
(WbRV. 754)
(RV. nr̥hā́ [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *Π·ǰɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦḗ-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *Π·ɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ɦḗ-
PIE *ḗ → ā́
Aryan change of *ḗ into ā́
R26d → *Π·ɦā́-
6. Π·ɦā́-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → RV. Π·hā́-
RV. ahi·hā́-
(a.) ‘Schlangen/Vrtra tötend’
(WbRV. 167)
(RV. ahihan [V], ahihā́ [N], ahihánam [A])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *Π·ǰɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦḗ-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *Π·ɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ɦḗ-
PIE *ḗ → ā́
Aryan change of *ḗ into ā́
R26d → *Π·ɦā́-
6. Π·ɦā́-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → RV. Π·hā́-
RV. amīva·hā́-
(a.) ‘Leiden tilgend’
(WbRV. 93)
(RV. amīvahā́ [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *Π·ǰɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦḗ-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *Π·ɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ɦḗ-
PIE *ḗ → ā́
Aryan change of *ḗ into ā́
R26d → *Π·ɦā́-
6. Π·ɦā́-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → RV. Π·hā́-
gAv. vǝrǝϑrǝ̄m·ǰā-
(a.) ‘siegreich, Sieger’
(AIWb. 1424)
(gAv. vǝrǝϑrǝ̄m.ǰā [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ē-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯ē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯ē-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R16d → *Π·ǰɦu̯ē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯ē-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R18b → *Π·ǰɦē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦē-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R19a → *Π·ǰē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·ǰē-
PIE *ē → ā
Aryan change of *ē into ā
R30c → gAv. Π·ǰā-
√gɑɦuɑh-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. ghā-
(f.) ‘a stroke’
(MonWil. 375)
(OInd. ghā-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gɑɦu̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯āh-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *gɦāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. gɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *gɦā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gɦā-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → OInd. ghā-
Gr. πέφα-
(pf.P.) ‘die’
(GEW 1:657)
(Gr. πέφαται [3sg], πεφάσθαι [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯égɑɦu̯eɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *gɑɦu̯égɑɦu̯aɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. gɑɦu̯égɑɦu̯aɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯égɦu̯ah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯égɦu̯ah-
*gɦu̯égɦu/u̯ → bɦébɦ
Bilabialization of reduplication
R9b → *bɦébɦah-
4. bɦébɦah-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
R14a → *phéphah-
5. phéphah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *phépha-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. phépha-
*Th–Th → T–Th
Grassmann’s Law
R20b → *pépha-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.4)
7. pépha-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
R31 → Gr. πέφα-
Gr. ἀπο·φα-
(ao.M.) ‘die’
(GEW 1:657)
(Hes. ἀπέφατο · ἀπέθανεν)
1. PIE *hɑepo·gɑɦu̯eɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
R1a → *hɑapo·gɑɦu̯eɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapo·gɑɦu̯eɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *hɑapo·gɑɦu̯aɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
3. hɑapo·gɑɦu̯aɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *hapo·gɦu̯ah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. hapo·gɦu̯ah-
*gɦu/u̯ → bɦ
Bilabialization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
R12d → *hapo·bɦah-
5. hapo·bɦah-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
R14a → *hapo·phah-
6. hapo·phah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *apo·pha-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. apo·pha-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
R31 → Gr. ἀπο·φα-
√gɑɦuɑhi-
Br. jighāya
(pf.) ‘antreiben, anfeuern, schleudern, fördern’
(KEWA 3:595)
(Br. jighāya [3sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯igɑɦu̯oɑhi̯e
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯igɦu̯ohi̯e
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯igɦu̯ohi̯e
PIE *ohCV → āhCV
Brugmann’s Law for *ohCV
R8a → *gɦu̯igɦu̯āhi̯e
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.3.7)
3. gɦu̯igɦu̯āhi̯e
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *ǰɦu̯igɦu̯āhi̯e
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. ǰɦu̯igɦu̯āhi̯e
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *ǰɦu̯igɦāhi̯e
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. ǰɦu̯igɦāhi̯e
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *ǰɦigɦāhi̯e
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. ǰɦigɦāhi̯e
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *ǰɦigɦāi̯e
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. ǰɦigɦāi̯e
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
R21 → *ǰigɦāi̯e
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.4)
8. ǰigɦāi̯e
*ǰ → j
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to OIA
R24d → *jigɦāi̯e
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
9. jigɦāi̯e
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
R26a → *jigɦāi̯a
10. jigɦāi̯a
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → *jighāi̯a
11. jighāi̯a
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
R33b → Br. jighāya
OInd. jighy-
(pf.) ‘antreiben’
(KEWA 3:595)
(OInd. jighyúr [3pl])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯igɑɦu̯ɑhi̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯igɦu̯hi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯igɦu̯hi̯-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *ǰɦu̯igɦu̯hi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. ǰɦu̯igɦu̯hi̯-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *ǰɦu̯igɦhi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. ǰɦu̯igɦhi̯-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *ǰɦigɦhi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. ǰɦigɦhi̯-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *ǰɦigɦi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. ǰɦigɦi̯-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
R21 → *ǰigɦi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.4)
7. ǰigɦi̯-
*ǰ → j
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to OIA
R24d → *jigɦi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
8. jigɦi̯-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → *jighi̯-
9. jighi̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
R33b → OInd. jighy-
√o·gɑɦuɑhi-
(IEW. 44)
Gr. ὄφει-
(m.) ‘Schlange’
(GEW 2:453-4)
(Gr. ὄφεος [sgG])
1. PIE *ógɑɦu̯ɑhei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *ógɦu̯hei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ógɦu̯hei-
*gɦu/u̯ → bɦ
Bilabialization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
R12d → *óbɦhei-
3. óbɦhei-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
R14a → *óphhei-
4. óphhei-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *óphei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. óphei-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
R31 → Gr. ὄφει-
Gr. ὄφι-
(m.) ‘Schlange’
(GEW 2:453-4)
(Gr. ὄφις [sgN], ὄφιος [G])
1. PIE *ógɑɦu̯ɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *ógɦu̯hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ógɦu̯hi-
*gɦu/u̯ → bɦ
Bilabialization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
R12d → *óbɦhi-
3. óbɦhi-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
R14a → *óphhi-
4. óphhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *óphi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. óphi-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
R31 → Gr. ὄφι-
LAv. aži-
(m.) ‘Schlange, Drache, Ungeheuer’
(AIWb. 266)
(LAv. ažimča)
1. PIE *ogɑɦu̯ɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *ogɦu̯hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ogɦu̯hi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *agɦu̯hi-
3. agɦu̯hi-
PIE *gɦu̯hi → ži
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯hi
R17a → LAv. aži-
LAv. aži·karšta-
(a.) ‘von/vom Drachen bewirkt/veranlasst’
(AIWb. 266)
(LAv. ažikaršta-)
1. PIE *ogɑɦu̯ɑhi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *ogɦu̯hi·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ogɦu̯hi·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *agɦu̯hi·Σ-
3. agɦu̯hi·Σ-
PIE *gɦu̯hi → ži
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯hi
R17a → LAv. aži·Σ-
LAv. aži·čiϑra-
(a.) ‘vom Drachen abstammend’
(AIWb. 266)
(LAv. ažičiϑra-)
1. PIE *ogɑɦu̯ɑhi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *ogɦu̯hi·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ogɦu̯hi·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *agɦu̯hi·Σ-
3. agɦu̯hi·Σ-
PIE *gɦu̯hi → ži
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯hi
R17a → LAv. aži·Σ-
LAv. aži·čiϑra.ažičiϑrō.tǝma-
(a.sup.) ‘der am meisten vom Drachen abstammt’
(AIWb. 266)
(LAv. ažičiϑra.ažičiϑrō.tǝma-)
1. PIE *ogɑɦu̯ɑhi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *ogɦu̯hi·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ogɦu̯hi·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *agɦu̯hi·Σ-
3. agɦu̯hi·Σ-
PIE *gɦu̯hi → ži
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯hi
R17a → LAv. aži·Σ-
LAv. aži·vāka-
(m.) ‘N. einer Krankeheit/eines Gebreches’
(AIWb. 267)
(LAv. aživāka-)
1. PIE *ogɑɦu̯ɑhi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *ogɦu̯hi·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ogɦu̯hi·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *agɦu̯hi·Σ-
3. agɦu̯hi·Σ-
PIE *gɦu̯hi → ži
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯hi
R17a → LAv. aži·Σ-
LAv. zir·ažan-
(a.) ‘striking the veins’
(AIWb. –)
(LAv. ziražan-)
1. PIE *Π·ogɑɦu̯ɑhi̯on-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·ogɦu̯hi̯on-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·ogɦu̯hi̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *Π·agɦu̯hi̯an-
3. Π·agɦu̯hi̯an-
PIE *gɦu̯hi̯ → ž
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯hi̯
R17b → LAv. Π·ažan-
LAv. až·ana-
(n.) ‘N. einer Krankeheit/eines Gebreches’
(AIWb. 266)
(LAv. ažana-)
1. PIE *ogɑɦu̯ɑhi̯ono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *ogɦu̯hi̯ono-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ogɦu̯hi̯ono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *agɦu̯hi̯ana-
3. agɦu̯hi̯ana-
PIE *gɦu̯hi̯ → ž
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯hi̯
R17b → LAv. ažana-
LAv. až·ahva-
(m.) ‘N. einer Krankeheit/eines Gebreches’
(AIWb. 266)
(LAv. ažahva-)
1. PIE *ogɑɦu̯ɑhi̯·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *ogɦu̯hi̯·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ogɦu̯hi̯·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *agɦu̯hi̯·Σ-
3. agɦu̯hi̯·Σ-
PIE *gɦu̯hi̯ → ž
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯hi̯
R17b → LAv. až·Σ-
√gɑɦuɑhin-
Lith. gín-
(vb.) ‘wehren, verteidigen’
(LiEtWb. 152-153)
(Lith. gìnti [inf.], ginù [1sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ɑ́hin-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
R5a → *gɑɦu̯íhin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. gɑɦu̯íhin-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯íhin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯íhin-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R11 → *gɦíhin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. gɦíhin-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *gɦíin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gɦíin-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
R13a → *gɦī́n-
6. gɦī́n-
*ī́RC → íRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ī́RC
R14c2 → *gɦín-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
7. gɦín-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R17c → Lith. gín-
Lith. pa·gynà-
(f.) ‘Beendigung, Ende’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. pagynà)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ɑ́hinḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *Π·gɑɦu̯ɑ́hinā́ɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯ɑ́hinā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
R5a → *Π·gɑɦu̯íhinā́ɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. Π·gɑɦu̯íhinā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯íhinā́h
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. Π·gɦu̯íhinā́h
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R11 → *Π·gɦíhinā́h
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·gɦíhinā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *Π·gɦíinā́
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·gɦíinā́
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
R13a → *Π·gɦī́nā́
7. Π·gɦī́nā́
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R17c → *Π·gī́nā́
8. Π·gī́nā́
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
R20b → *Π·gī́nṓ
9. Π·gī́nṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R21b → *Π·gī́nà
10. Π·gī́nà
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
R23 → Lith. Π·gý
Lith. pa·gynė́-
(vb.) ‘ein wenig treiben, beendigen, vollenden’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. pagynė́ti [inf.])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ɑ́hinḗhɑ-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
R5a → *Π·gɑɦu̯íhinḗhɑ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯íhinḗhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯íhinḗh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯íhinḗh-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R11 → *Π·gɦíhinḗh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·gɦíhinḗh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *Π·gɦíinḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·gɦíinḗ-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
R13a → *Π·gɦī́nḗ-
6. Π·gɦī́nḗ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R17c → *Π·gī́nḗ-
7. Π·gī́nḗ-
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
R23 → *Π·gýnḗ-
8. Π·gýnḗ-
*ḗ -> ė́
Orthographic change of *ḗ -> ė́
R27c → Lith. Π·gýnė́-
Lith. gýnė-
(vb.) ‘wehren, verteidigen’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. gýniau [1sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ɑ́hinēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
R5a → *gɑɦu̯íhinēhɑ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. gɑɦu̯íhinēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯íhinēh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯íhinēh-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R11 → *gɦíhinēh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. gɦíhinēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *gɦíinē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gɦíinē-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
R13a → *gɦī́nē-
6. gɦī́nē-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R17c → *gī́nē-
7. gī́nē-
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
R23 → *gýnē-
8. gýnē-
* ē -> ė
Orthographic change of *ē into ė
R27a → Lith. gýnė-
√gɑɦuɑhinɑhi-
Latv. gaînî-
(vb.) ‘treiben, verfolgen’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Latv. gaînît [inf.], *e for verb)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯éɑhinɑ́hi-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
R1d → *gɑɦu̯áɑhinɑ́hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. gɑɦu̯áɑhinɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
R5a → *gɑɦu̯áɑhiníhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. gɑɦu̯áɑhiníhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯áhiníhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gɦu̯áhiníhi-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R13a → *gɦáhiníhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. gɦáhiníhi-
*áhi → ahî
Latvian tone rule for *áhi
RAcc1 → *gɦahîníhi-
6. gɦahîníhi-
*íhi → ihî
Latvian tone rule for *íhi
RAcc4 → *gɦahînihî-
7. gɦahînihî-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R14b → *gɦaîniî-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
8. gɦaîniî-
*iî → î
Contraction of i and î
R15g → *gɦaînî-
9. gɦaînî-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R20c → Latv. gaînî-
Lith. gáinio-
(vb.) ‘treiben, jagen’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. gáinio-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯éɑhini̯ēɑh-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
R1d → *gɑɦu̯áɑhini̯ēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. gɑɦu̯áɑhini̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gɑɦu̯áɑhini̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. gɑɦu̯áɑhini̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯áhini̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gɦu̯áhini̯āh-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R11 → *gɦáhini̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. gɦáhini̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *gɦáini̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gɦáini̯ā-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R17c → *gáini̯ā-
7. gáini̯ā-
*ā → ō
Change of ā into ō
R20a → *gáini̯ō-
8. gáini̯ō-
*ni̯ → ni
Orthographic change of ni̯ into ni
R24 → *gáiniō-
9. gáiniō-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R26a → Lith. gáinio-
Latv. gaĩņâ-
(vb.) ‘wiederholt treiben, abwehren’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Latv. gaĩņât [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯éɑhini̯ḗɑh-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
R1d → *gɑɦu̯áɑhini̯ḗɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. gɑɦu̯áɑhini̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *gɑɦu̯áɑhini̯ā́ɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. gɑɦu̯áɑhini̯ā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯áhini̯ā́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gɦu̯áhini̯ā́h-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R13a → *gɦáhini̯ā́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. gɦáhini̯ā́h-
*áhi → ahî
Latvian tone rule for *áhi
RAcc1 → *gɦahîni̯ā́h-
6. gɦahîni̯ā́h-
*ā́h → âh
Latvian tone rule for *ā́h
RAcc3 → *gɦahîni̯âh-
7. gɦahîni̯âh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R14b → *gɦaîni̯â-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
8. gɦaîni̯â-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R20c → *gaîni̯â-
9. gaîni̯â-
*ni̯ → ņ
Change of ni̯ into ņ (palatalization)
R24 → Latv. gaîņâ-
√gɑɦuɑhlto-
(Pyysalo)
AV. ā·ghāṭá-
(m.) ‘Zimbel’
(EWA 1:159)
(AV. āghāṭá-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ēɑhl̥tó-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥tó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥tó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯āhl̥tó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯āhl̥tó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
R9b → *Π·gɦu̯āhl̥tá-
4. Π·gɦu̯āhl̥tá-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
R10b → *Π·gɦu̯āhr̥tá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
5. Π·gɦu̯āhr̥tá-
PIE *hRt → ṭ
Fortunatov’s Law for *hRt
R12b → *Π·gɦu̯āṭá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.2)
6. Π·gɦu̯āṭá-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·gɦāṭá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
7. Π·gɦāṭá-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → AV. Π·ghāṭá-
OInd. saṃ·ghāṭa-
(m.) ‘Zimmerei, Zimmerhandwerk : carpentry’
(KEWA 2:416-7)
(OInd. saṃghāṭa-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ēɑhl̥to-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥to-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥to-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯āhl̥to-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯āhl̥to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *Π·gɦu̯āhl̥ta-
4. Π·gɦu̯āhl̥ta-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
R10b → *Π·gɦu̯āhr̥ta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
5. Π·gɦu̯āhr̥ta-
PIE *hRt → ṭ
Fortunatov’s Law for *hRt
R12b → *Π·gɦu̯āṭa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.2)
6. Π·gɦu̯āṭa-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·gɦāṭa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
7. Π·gɦāṭa-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → OInd. Π·ghāṭa-
OInd. dārv·ā·ghāṭá-
(m.) ‘Baumhacker, Specht’
(EWA 1:160)
(OInd. dārvāghāṭá-)
1. PIE *Π·Π·gɑɦu̯ēɑhl̥tó-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *Π·Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥tó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥tó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·Π·gɦu̯āhl̥tó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·Π·gɦu̯āhl̥tó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
R9b → *Π·Π·gɦu̯āhl̥tá-
4. Π·Π·gɦu̯āhl̥tá-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
R10b → *Π·Π·gɦu̯āhr̥tá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
5. Π·Π·gɦu̯āhr̥tá-
PIE *hRt → ṭ
Fortunatov’s Law for *hRt
R12b → *Π·Π·gɦu̯āṭá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.2)
6. Π·Π·gɦu̯āṭá-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·Π·gɦāṭá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
7. Π·Π·gɦāṭá-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → OInd. Π·Π·ghāṭá-
OInd. ghāṭa·karkarī-
(f.) ‘eine Art Laute’
(EWA 1:515)
(ŚrSū. ghāṭakarkarī-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ēɑhl̥to·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥to·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥to·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯āhl̥to·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯āhl̥to·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *gɦu̯āhl̥ta·Σ-
4. gɦu̯āhl̥ta·Σ-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
R10b → *gɦu̯āhr̥ta·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
5. gɦu̯āhr̥ta·Σ-
PIE *hRt → ṭ
Fortunatov’s Law for *hRt
R12b → *gɦu̯āṭa·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.2)
6. gɦu̯āṭa·Σ-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *gɦāṭa·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
7. gɦāṭa·Σ-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → OInd. ghāṭa·Σ-
TochA. kālta·ṅk-
(sb.) ‘nomen cuiusdam instrumenti musici’
(Poucha 61)
(TochA. kāltaṅk-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ēɑhl̥to·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥to·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥to·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯āhl̥to·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯āhl̥to·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gɦu̯āhl̥ta·Σ-
4. gɦu̯āhl̥ta·Σ-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R14a → *gɦāhl̥ta·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. gɦāhl̥ta·Σ-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *gɦāl̥ta·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gɦāl̥ta·Σ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
R16c → *gāl̥ta·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
7. gāl̥ta·Σ-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
R18a → *kāl̥ta·Σ-
8. kāl̥ta·Σ-
*l̥ → l
Unmarkedness of syllabicity
R23 → TochA. kālta·Σ-
OInd. ghāṭa·rī-
(f.) ‘eine Art Laute’
(EWA 1:515)
(ŚrSū. ghāṭarī-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ēɑhl̥to·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥to·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥to·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯āhl̥to·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯āhl̥to·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *gɦu̯āhl̥ta·Σ-
4. gɦu̯āhl̥ta·Σ-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
R10b → *gɦu̯āhr̥ta·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
5. gɦu̯āhr̥ta·Σ-
PIE *hRt → ṭ
Fortunatov’s Law for *hRt
R12b → *gɦu̯āṭa·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.2)
6. gɦu̯āṭa·Σ-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *gɦāṭa·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
7. gɦāṭa·Σ-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → OInd. ghāṭa·Σ-
RV. ā·ghāṭí-
(m/f.?) ‘Cymbeln’ oder ‘Klappern’
(WbRV. 172)
(RV. āghāṭí-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ēɑhl̥tí-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥tí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥tí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯āhl̥tí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯āhl̥tí-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
R10b → *Π·gɦu̯āhr̥tí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
4. Π·gɦu̯āhr̥tí-
PIE *hRt → ṭ
Fortunatov’s Law for *hRt
R12b → *Π·gɦu̯āṭí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.2)
5. Π·gɦu̯āṭí-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·gɦāṭí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. Π·gɦāṭí-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → RV. Π·ghāṭí-
OInd. apa·ghāṭilā-
(f.) ‘Instrument’
(EWA 1:159)
(OInd. apaghāṭilā-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ēɑhl̥ti·Lēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥ti·Lāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥ti·Lāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯āhl̥ti·Lāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯āhl̥ti·Lāh-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
R10b → *Π·gɦu̯āhr̥ti·Lāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
4. Π·gɦu̯āhr̥ti·Lāh-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in OIA
R10d → *Π·gɦu̯āhr̥ti·lāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
5. Π·gɦu̯āhr̥ti·lāh-
PIE *hRt → ṭ
Fortunatov’s Law for *hRt
R12b → *Π·gɦu̯āṭi·lāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.2)
6. Π·gɦu̯āṭi·lāh-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·gɦāṭi·lāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
7. Π·gɦāṭi·lāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *Π·gɦāṭi·lā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
8. Π·gɦāṭi·lā-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → OInd. Π·ghāṭi·lā-
√gɑɦueɑht-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. ἀρηΐ·φατο-
(pt.) ‘im Kampf getötet’
(GEW 1:657)
(Gr. ἀρηΐφατος [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯eɑhto-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *Π·gɑɦu̯aɑhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯aɑhto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯ahto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯ahto-
*gɦu/u̯ → bɦ
Bilabialization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
R12d → *Π·bɦahto-
4. Π·bɦahto-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
R14a → *Π·phahto-
5. Π·phahto-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *Π·phato-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·phato-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
R31 → Gr. Π·φατο-
Hes. δί·φατο-
(a.) ‘doppelt’
(WH 1:105)
(Hes. δίφατος [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯eɑhto-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *Π·gɑɦu̯aɑhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯aɑhto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯ahto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯ahto-
*gɦu/u̯ → bɦ
Bilabialization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
R12d → *Π·bɦahto-
4. Π·bɦahto-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
R14a → *Π·phahto-
5. Π·phahto-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *Π·phato-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·phato-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
R31 → Hes. Π·φατο-
OInd. jīghata-
(ao.s.) ‘cause to be slain, put to death’
(MonWil. 1287)
(OInd. ajīghatat [3sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯iɑ́hgɑɦu̯eɑhto-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *gɑɦu̯iɑ́hgɑɦu̯aɑhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. gɑɦu̯iɑ́hgɑɦu̯aɑhto-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
R3b → *gɑɦu̯iíhgɑɦu̯aɑhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. gɑɦu̯iíhgɑɦu̯aɑhto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯iíhgɦu̯ahto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gɦu̯iíhgɦu̯ahto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *gɦu̯iíhgɦu̯ahta-
5. gɦu̯iíhgɦu̯ahta-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *ǰɦu̯iíhgɦu̯ahta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. ǰɦu̯iíhgɦu̯ahta-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *ǰɦu̯iíhgɦahta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
7. ǰɦu̯iíhgɦahta-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *ǰɦiíhgɦahta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
8. ǰɦiíhgɦahta-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *ǰɦiígɦata-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
9. ǰɦiígɦata-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
R21 → *ǰiígɦata-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.4)
10. ǰiígɦata-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
R22b → *ǰī́gɦata-
11. ǰī́gɦata-
*ǰ → j
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to OIA
R24d → *jī́gɦata-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
12. jī́gɦata-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → OInd. jī́ghata-
Gr. φάσ-
(ao.s.) ‘schlagen’
(LSJ. 787)
(Gr. φάσαι [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯éɑhts-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
R1d → *gɑɦu̯áɑhts-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. gɑɦu̯áɑhts-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯áhts-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯áhts-
*gɦu/u̯ → bɦ
Bilabialization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
R12d → *bɦáhts-
4. bɦáhts-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
R14a → *pháhts-
5. pháhts-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *pháts-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. pháts-
*t s → s
Loss of dental in *ts
R29 → *phás-
7. phás-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
R31 → Gr. φάσ-
Gr. πέφασ-
(pf.fut.P.) ‘töten’
(LSJ. 787)
(Gr. πεφασμένος [sgN])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯égɑɦu̯eɑhts-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *gɑɦu̯égɑɦu̯aɑhts-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. gɑɦu̯égɑɦu̯aɑhts-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯égɦu̯ahts-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯égɦu̯ahts-
*gɦu̯égɦu/u̯ → bɦébɦ
Bilabialization of reduplication
R9b → *bɦébɦahts-
4. bɦébɦahts-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
R14a → *phéphahts-
5. phéphahts-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *phéphats-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. phéphats-
*Th–Th → T–Th
Grassmann’s Law
R20b → *péphats-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.4)
7. péphats-
*t s → s
Loss of dental in *ts
R29 → *péphas-
8. péphas-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
R31 → Gr. πέφασ-
Gr. δί·φασιο-
(a.) ‘doppelt’
(WH 1:105)
(Gr. δίφασιος [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯eɑhtsii̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
R1c → *Π·gɑɦu̯aɑhtsii̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯aɑhtsii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯ahtsii̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯ahtsii̯o-
*gɦu/u̯ → bɦ
Bilabialization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
R12d → *Π·bɦahtsii̯o-
4. Π·bɦahtsii̯o-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
R14a → *Π·phahtsii̯o-
5. Π·phahtsii̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *Π·phatsii̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·phatsii̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
R27 → *Π·phatsio-
7. Π·phatsio-
*t s → s
Loss of dental in *ts
R29 → *Π·phasio-
8. Π·phasio-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
R31 → Gr. Π·φασιο-
√gɑɦuēɑht-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. ghāta-
(m.) ‘Schlag, Tötung, Vernichtung’
(MonWil. 377)
(OInd. ghāta-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ēɑhto-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gɑɦu̯āɑhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯āɑhto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯āhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯āhto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *gɦu̯āhta-
4. gɦu̯āhta-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *gɦāhta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. gɦāhta-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *gɦāta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gɦāta-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → OInd. ghāta-
OInd. ghāta-
(a.) ‘tötend’
(MonWil. 377)
(OInd. ghāta-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ēɑhto-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gɑɦu̯āɑhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯āɑhto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯āhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯āhto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *gɦu̯āhta-
4. gɦu̯āhta-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *gɦāhta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. gɦāhta-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *gɦāta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gɦāta-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → OInd. ghāta-
YV. go·ghātá-
(m.) ‘Kuh-töter’
(EWA 2:800)
(YV. goghātá-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ēɑhtó-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhtó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhtó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯āhtó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯āhtó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
R9b → *Π·gɦu̯āhtá-
4. Π·gɦu̯āhtá-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·gɦāhtá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·gɦāhtá-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *Π·gɦātá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·gɦātá-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → YV. Π·ghātá-
OInd. ā·ghātá-
(m.) ‘Schlag, Schäger’
(EWA 1:159)
(OInd. āghātá-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ēɑhtó-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhtó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhtó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯āhtó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯āhtó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
R9b → *Π·gɦu̯āhtá-
4. Π·gɦu̯āhtá-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·gɦāhtá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·gɦāhtá-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *Π·gɦātá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·gɦātá-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → OInd. Π·ghātá-
OInd. tāḍa·ghāta-
(a.) ‘beating, hammering’
(MonWil. 441)
(OInd. tāḍaghāta-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ēɑhto-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯āhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯āhto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *Π·gɦu̯āhta-
4. Π·gɦu̯āhta-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·gɦāhta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·gɦāhta-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *Π·gɦāta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·gɦāta-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → OInd. Π·ghāta-
OInd. abhi·ghāta-
(pt.) ‘beschädigt’
(KEWA 3:576)
(OInd. abhi·ghāta-, AIGr. II/2:565)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ēɑhto-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯āhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯āhto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *Π·gɦu̯āhta-
4. Π·gɦu̯āhta-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *Π·gɦāhta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·gɦāhta-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *Π·gɦāta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·gɦāta-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → OInd. Π·ghāta-
OInd. ghātaya-
(cs.) ‘töten lassen, töten’
(KEWA 3:576)
(Br. ghātáyati [3sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ēɑhtei̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gɑɦu̯āɑhtei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯āɑhtei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯āhtei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯āhtei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *gɦu̯āhtei̯a-
4. gɦu̯āhtei̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *gɦāhtei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. gɦāhtei̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *gɦātei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gɦātei̯a-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
R26a → *gɦātai̯a-
7. gɦātai̯a-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → *ghātai̯a-
8. ghātai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
R33b → OInd. ghātaya-
Ion.-Att. πέφησο-
(pf.fut.P.) ‘töten’
(GEW 1:657)
(Gr. πεφησεται; Gr φ vs.†θ -> Ion-Att. η from PGr. *α)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯égɑɦu̯ēɑhtsi̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gɑɦu̯égɑɦu̯āɑhtsi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯égɑɦu̯āɑhtsi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯égɦu̯āhtsi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯égɦu̯āhtsi̯o-
*gɦu̯égɦu/u̯ → bɦébɦ
Bilabialization of reduplication
R9b → *bɦébɦāhtsi̯o-
4. bɦébɦāhtsi̯o-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
R14a → *phéphāhtsi̯o-
5. phéphāhtsi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *phéphātsi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. phéphātsi̯o-
*Th–Th → T–Th
Grassmann’s Law
R20b → *péphātsi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.4)
7. péphātsi̯o-
*si̯ → s
Loss of *i̯ after s
R25 → *péphātso-
8. péphātso-
*t s → s
Loss of dental in *ts
R29 → *péphāso-
9. péphāso-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
R31a → *péphēso-
10. péphēso-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
R32 → Ion.-Att. πέφησο-
AV. ghā́tuka-
(a.) ‘tötend’
(EWA 2:800)
(AV. ghā́tuka-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ḗɑhtuko-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *gɑɦu̯ā́ɑhtuko-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯ā́ɑhtuko-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯ā́htuko-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯ā́htuko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *gɦu̯ā́htuka-
4. gɦu̯ā́htuka-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R16a → *gɦā́htuka-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. gɦā́htuka-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *gɦā́tuka-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gɦā́tuka-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → AV. ghā́tuka-
√gɑɦui-
Lith. gùi-
(vb.) ‘treiben’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. gùiti [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦúi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦúi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦúi-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis Li. ù
RAcc3 → *gɦùi-
3. gɦùi-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R17c → Lith. gùi-
√gɑɦuio-
Lith. gùja-
(pr.) ‘treiben’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. gùja [3sg], gujù [1sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦúi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦúi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦúi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gɦúi̯a-
3. gɦúi̯a-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis Li. ù
RAcc3 → *gɦùi̯a-
4. gɦùi̯a-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R17c → *gùi̯a-
5. gùi̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j *
R25 → Lith. gùja-
√gɑɦuil-
Arm. o·ǰil-
(sb.) ‘Laus, Nisse, Lausei’
(ArmGr. 482)
(Arm. oǰil, oǰiloy [G])
1. PIE *ó·gɑɦu̯ílo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *ó·gɦu̯ílo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ó·gɦu̯ílo-
gɦu/u̯ → ǰɦ
Palatalization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
R9 → *ó·ǰɦílo-
3. ó·ǰɦílo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R10a → *ó·ǰílo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ó·ǰílo-
*o → Ø
Loss of unaccented *o
R21c → *ó·ǰíl-
5. ó·ǰíl-
*í → i
Unmarkedness of accent
R22b → *ó·ǰil-
6. ó·ǰil-
*ó → o
Unmarkedness of accent
R22c → Arm. o·ǰil-
Arm. or·ǰil-
(sb.) ‘Laus, Nisse, Lausei’
(ArmGr. 482)
(Arm. orǰil, orǰiloy [G])
1. PIE *ór·gɑɦu̯ílo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *ór·gɦu̯ílo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ór·gɦu̯ílo-
gɦu/u̯ → ǰɦ
Palatalization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
R9 → *ór·ǰɦílo-
3. ór·ǰɦílo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R10a → *ór·ǰílo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ór·ǰílo-
*o → Ø
Loss of unaccented *o
R21c → *ór·ǰíl-
5. ór·ǰíl-
*í → i
Unmarkedness of accent
R22b → *ór·ǰil-
6. ór·ǰil-
*ó → o
Unmarkedness of accent
R22c → Arm. or·ǰil-
√gɑɦuin-
Lith. giñ-
(vb.) ‘jagen, treiben’
(LiEtWb. 152-153)
(Lith. giñti [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ín-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯ín-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯ín-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R11 → *gɦín-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
3. gɦín-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis Li. ì
RAcc2 → *gɦìn-
4. gɦìn-
ì n → i ñ Change of ìnC into iñC
RAcc4 → *gɦiñ-
5. gɦiñ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R17c → Lith. giñ-
Lith. nu·giñ-
(vb.) ‘vegjagen : drive away’
(Senn II:227)
(Lith. nugiñti, nùginē)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ín-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯ín-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯ín-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R11 → *Π·gɦín-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
3. Π·gɦín-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis Li. ì
RAcc2 → *Π·gɦìn-
4. Π·gɦìn-
ì n → i ñ Change of ìnC into iñC
RAcc4 → *Π·gɦiñ-
5. Π·gɦiñ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R17c → Lith. Π·giñ-
OCS. žĭn-
(vb.) ‘schneiden, ernten’
(Sadnik 214B)
(OCS. žęti [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯in-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯in-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯in-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R12d → *ǰɦu̯in-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. ǰɦu̯in-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R14b → *ǰɦin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. ǰɦin-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *ǰin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ǰin-
*ǰ → ž
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to OCS
R19a → *žin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. žin-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
R32e → OCS. žĭn-
OCS. po·žĭn-
(vb.) ‘ernten’
(Sadnik 214B)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯in-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯in-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯in-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R12d → *Π·ǰɦu̯in-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯in-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R14b → *Π·ǰɦin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦin-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *Π·ǰin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·ǰin-
*ǰ → ž
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to OCS
R19a → *Π·žin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. Π·žin-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
R32e → OCS. Π·žĭn-
Arm. ǰn·ǰe-
(vb.) ‘efface, wipe clean, annihilate, destroy’
(EtDiArm. 559)
(Arm. ǰnǰem [1sg], GEW 1:657)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯in·gɑɦu̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯in·gɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯in·gɦu̯e-
gɦu/u̯ → ǰɦ
Palatalization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
R9 → *ǰɦin·ǰɦe-
3. ǰɦin·ǰɦe-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R10a → *ǰin·ǰe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ǰin·ǰe-
*i → Ø
Loss of unaccented *i
R21b → Arm. ǰn·ǰe-
Lith. giñkla-
(m.) ‘Waffe : weapon’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. giñklas [sgN])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯iñkulo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯iñkulo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯iñkulo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gɦu̯iñkula-
3. gɦu̯iñkula-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R11 → *gɦiñkla-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. gɦiñkla-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R17c → Lith. giñkla-
√gɑɦuine/o-
(Pyysalo)
Arm. ǰne-
(vb.) ‘schlagen : beat’
(EtDiArm. 558)
(Arm. ǰnem [1sg], GEW 1:657)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯iné-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯iné-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯iné-
gɦu/u̯ → ǰɦ
Palatalization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
R9 → *ǰɦiné-
3. ǰɦiné-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R10a → *ǰiné-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ǰiné-
*i → Ø
Loss of unaccented *i
R21b → *ǰné-
5. ǰné-
*é → e
Unmarkedness of accent
R22d → Arm. ǰne-
Br. hina-
(pr.A.) ‘verletzen, schädigen, zerstören’
(KEWA 3:595)
(Br. ahinat)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ino-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯ino-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯ino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *gɦu̯ina-
3. gɦu̯ina-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *ǰɦu̯ina-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. ǰɦu̯ina-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *ǰɦina-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. ǰɦina-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *ɦina-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. ɦina-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → Br. hina-
Lith. gìnė-
(vb.) ‘jagen, treiben’
(LiEtWb. 152-153)
(Lith. gìnė)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ínēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯ínēh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯ínēh-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R11 → *gɦínēh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
3. gɦínēh-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis Li. ì
RAcc2 → *gɦìnēh-
4. gɦìnēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *gɦìnē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gɦìnē-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R17c → *gìnē-
6. gìnē-
* ē -> ė
Orthographic change of *ē into ė
R27a → Lith. gìnė-
√gɑɦuinɑh-
Arm. ǰin-
(sb.) ‘Stock : staff, stick for beating’
(EtDiArm. 558)
(Arm. ǰin)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ínēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gɑɦu̯ínāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯ínāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯ínāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯ínāh-
gɦu/u̯ → ǰɦ
Palatalization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
R9 → *ǰɦínāh-
4. ǰɦínāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R10a → *ǰínāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ǰínāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R10b → *ǰínā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. ǰínā-
*ā → a
Loss of quantity of *ā
R20a → *ǰína-
7. ǰína-
*a → Ø
Loss of unaccented *a
R21a → *ǰín-
8. ǰín-
*í → i
Unmarkedness of accent
R22b → Arm. ǰin-
Arm. o·ǰin-
(sb.) ‘bunch of sticks’
(EtDiArm. 558)
(Arm. oǰin-)
1. PIE *ó·gɑɦu̯ínēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *ó·gɑɦu̯ínāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. ó·gɑɦu̯ínāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *ó·gɦu̯ínāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ó·gɦu̯ínāh-
gɦu/u̯ → ǰɦ
Palatalization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
R9 → *ó·ǰɦínāh-
4. ó·ǰɦínāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R10a → *ó·ǰínāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ó·ǰínāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R10b → *ó·ǰínā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. ó·ǰínā-
*ā → a
Loss of quantity of *ā
R20a → *ó·ǰína-
7. ó·ǰína-
*a → Ø
Loss of unaccented *a
R21a → *ó·ǰín-
8. ó·ǰín-
*í → i
Unmarkedness of accent
R22b → *ó·ǰin-
9. ó·ǰin-
*ó → o
Unmarkedness of accent
R22c → Arm. o·ǰin-
Arm. ǰna-
(sb.obl.) ‘Stock : staff, stick for beating’
(EtDiArm. 558)
(Arm. ǰnawk‘ [plI])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯inḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *gɑɦu̯inā́ɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯inā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯inā́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯inā́h-
gɦu/u̯ → ǰɦ
Palatalization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
R9 → *ǰɦinā́h-
4. ǰɦinā́h-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R10a → *ǰinā́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ǰinā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R10b → *ǰinā́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. ǰinā́-
*ā́ → á
Loss of quantity of *ā́
R20b → *ǰiná-
7. ǰiná-
*i → Ø
Loss of unaccented *i
R21b → *ǰná-
8. ǰná-
*á → a
Unmarkedness of accent
R22a → Arm. ǰna-
√gɑɦuini-
OCS. žĭnjo-
(pr.) ‘schneiden, ernten’
(Sadnik 214)
(OCS. žĭnjǫ [1sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ini̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯ini̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯ini̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gɦu̯ini̯a-
3. gɦu̯ini̯a-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R12d → *ǰɦu̯ini̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. ǰɦu̯ini̯a-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R14b → *ǰɦini̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. ǰɦini̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *ǰini̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. ǰini̯a-
*ǰ → ž
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to OCS
R19a → *žini̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
7. žini̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *žini̯o-
8. žini̯o-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R32a → *žinjo-
9. žinjo-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
R32e → OCS. žĭnjo-
Lith. guinió-
(vb.) ‘verscheuchen’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. guinióti [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦúini̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
R2d → *gɑɦúini̯ā́ɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦúini̯ā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦúini̯ā́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦúini̯ā́h-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis Li. ù
RAcc3 → *gɦùini̯ā́h-
4. gɦùini̯ā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *gɦùini̯ā́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gɦùini̯ā́-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R17c → *gùini̯ā́-
6. gùini̯ā́-
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
R20b → *gùini̯ṓ-
7. gùini̯ṓ-
*ni̯ → ni
Orthographic change of ni̯ into ni
R24 → *gùiniṓ-
8. gùiniṓ-
ṓ → ó
Orthographic change of ō into o
R26b → Lith. gùinió-
Lith. pa·guinìki-
(m.) ‘Treiber’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. guinìkis [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦúiníku̯ɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦúiníku̯hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦúiníku̯hi-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R11 → *Π·gɦúiníkhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
3. Π·gɦúiníkhi-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis Li. ì
RAcc2 → *Π·gɦúinìkhi-
4. Π·gɦúinìkhi-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis Li. ù
RAcc3 → *Π·gɦùinìkhi-
5. Π·gɦùinìkhi-
*kh → k
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *kh
R16a → *Π·gɦùinìki-
6. Π·gɦùinìki-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R17c → Lith. Π·gùinìki-
√gɑɦuines-
AV. hinás-
(pr.7.) ‘verletzen, schädigen, zerstören’
(KEWA 3:595)
(AV. hinásti [3sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯inés-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯inés-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯inés-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *ǰɦu̯inés-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. ǰɦu̯inés-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *ǰɦinés-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. ǰɦinés-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *ɦinés-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. ɦinés-
PIE *é → á
Aryan change of *é into á
R26b → *ɦinás-
6. ɦinás-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → AV. hinás-
√gɑɦuins-
AV. híṃs-
(pr.M.) ‘verletzen, schädigen, zerstören’
(KEWA 3:595)
(AV. híṃste [3sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯íns-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯íns-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯íns-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *ǰɦu̯íns-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. ǰɦu̯íns-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *ǰɦíns-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. ǰɦíns-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *ɦíns-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. ɦíns-
PIE *ns → ṃs
Emergence of nasal vowel before *ns
R31 → *ɦíṃs-
6. ɦíṃs-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → AV. híṃs-
AV. jihiṃs-
(pf.) ‘verletzen, schädigen, zerstören’
(KEWA 3:595)
(AV. jihiṃs-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯igɑɦu̯ins-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯igɦu̯ins-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯igɦu̯ins-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *ǰɦu̯iǰɦu̯ins-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. ǰɦu̯iǰɦu̯ins-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *ǰɦiǰɦins-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. ǰɦiǰɦins-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
R21 → *ǰiǰɦins-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.4)
5. ǰiǰɦins-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *ǰiɦins-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. ǰiɦins-
*ǰ → j
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to OIA
R24d → *jiɦins-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
7. jiɦins-
PIE *ns → ṃs
Emergence of nasal vowel before *ns
R31 → *jiɦiṃs-
8. jiɦiṃs-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → AV. jihiṃs-
RV. híṃsa-
(pr.) ‘A. verletzen, beleidigen’
(WbRV. 1665)
(RV. híṃsanti [3pl])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ínso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯ínso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯ínso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *gɦu̯ínsa-
3. gɦu̯ínsa-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *ǰɦu̯ínsa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. ǰɦu̯ínsa-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *ǰɦínsa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. ǰɦínsa-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *ɦínsa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. ɦínsa-
PIE *ns → ṃs
Emergence of nasal vowel before *ns
R31 → *ɦíṃsa-
7. ɦíṃsa-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → RV. híṃsa-
OInd. hiṃsā-
(f.) ‘Schädigung’
(KEWA 3:595)
(Up. hiṃsā-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯insēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gɑɦu̯insāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯insāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯insāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯insāh-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *ǰɦu̯insāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. ǰɦu̯insāh-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *ǰɦinsāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. ǰɦinsāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *ǰɦinsā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. ǰɦinsā-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *ɦinsā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
7. ɦinsā-
PIE *ns → ṃs
Emergence of nasal vowel before *ns
R31 → *ɦiṃsā-
8. ɦiṃsā-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → OInd. hiṃsā-
RV. hiṃsī-
(ao.) ‘A. verletzen, beschädigen’
(WbRV. 1665)
(RV. hiṅsīt [3sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯insɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
R5a → *gɑɦu̯insíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. gɑɦu̯insíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯insíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯insíhi-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *ǰɦu̯insíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. ǰɦu̯insíhi-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *ǰɦinsíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. ǰɦinsíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *ǰɦinsíi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. ǰɦinsíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
R22a → *ǰɦinsī́-
7. ǰɦinsī́-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *ɦinsī́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
8. ɦinsī́-
PIE *ns → ṃs
Emergence of nasal vowel before *ns
R31 → *ɦiṃsī́-
9. ɦiṃsī́-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → RV. hiṃsī́-
RV. híṃsāna-
(pt.) ‘verwundend’
(WbRV. 1665)
(RV. híṃsāna-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ínsēɑhno-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gɑɦu̯ínsāɑhno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯ínsāɑhno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯ínsāhno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯ínsāhno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *gɦu̯ínsāhna-
4. gɦu̯ínsāhna-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *ǰɦu̯ínsāhna-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. ǰɦu̯ínsāhna-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *ǰɦínsāhna-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. ǰɦínsāhna-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *ǰɦínsāna-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. ǰɦínsāna-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *ɦínsāna-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
8. ɦínsāna-
PIE *ns → ṃs
Emergence of nasal vowel before *ns
R31 → *ɦíṃsāna-
9. ɦíṃsāna-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → RV. híṃsāna-
RV. á·hiṃsāna-
(a.) ‘nicht verletzend’
(WbRV. 166)
(RV. á·hiṃsāna-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯insēɑhno-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *Π·gɑɦu̯insāɑhno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯insāɑhno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯insāhno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯insāhno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *Π·gɦu̯insāhna-
4. Π·gɦu̯insāhna-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *Π·ǰɦu̯insāhna-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ǰɦu̯insāhna-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *Π·ǰɦinsāhna-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. Π·ǰɦinsāhna-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R19b → *Π·ǰɦinsāna-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. Π·ǰɦinsāna-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *Π·ɦinsāna-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
8. Π·ɦinsāna-
PIE *ns → ṃs
Emergence of nasal vowel before *ns
R31 → *Π·ɦiṃsāna-
9. Π·ɦiṃsāna-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → RV. Π·hiṃsāna-
RV. á·hiṃsya·māna-
(a.) ‘der nicht verletzt wird’
(WbRV. 166)
(RV. á·hiṃsyamāna-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯insi̯o·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯insi̯o·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯insi̯o·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *Π·gɦu̯insi̯a·Σ-
3. Π·gɦu̯insi̯a·Σ-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *Π·ǰɦu̯insi̯a·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. Π·ǰɦu̯insi̯a·Σ-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *Π·ǰɦinsi̯a·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·ǰɦinsi̯a·Σ-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *Π·ɦinsi̯a·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. Π·ɦinsi̯a·Σ-
PIE *ns → ṃs
Emergence of nasal vowel before *ns
R31 → *Π·ɦiṃsi̯a·Σ-
7. Π·ɦiṃsi̯a·Σ-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → *Π·hiṃsi̯a·Σ-
8. Π·hiṃsi̯a·Σ-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
R33b → RV. Π·hiṃsya·Σ-
RV. hiṃsiṣ-
(ao.) ‘A. verletzen, beschädigen’
(WbRV. 1665)
(RV. hiṅsiṣṭa [2pl])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯insis-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯insis-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯insis-
PIE *is → iṣ
Ruki-rule for *is
R11d → *gɦu̯insiṣ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. gɦu̯insiṣ-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *ǰɦu̯insiṣ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. ǰɦu̯insiṣ-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *ǰɦinsiṣ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. ǰɦinsiṣ-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *ɦinsiṣ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. ɦinsiṣ-
PIE *ns → ṃs
Emergence of nasal vowel before *ns
R31 → *ɦiṃsiṣ-
7. ɦiṃsiṣ-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → RV. hiṃsiṣ-
AV. hiṃsitá-
(pf.pt.) ‘geschädigt, verletzt, verwundet’
(KEWA 3:595)
(AV. hiṃsitá-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯insitó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯insitó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯insitó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
R9b → *gɦu̯insitá-
3. gɦu̯insitá-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *ǰɦu̯insitá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. ǰɦu̯insitá-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *ǰɦinsitá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. ǰɦinsitá-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *ɦinsitá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. ɦinsitá-
PIE *ns → ṃs
Emergence of nasal vowel before *ns
R31 → *ɦiṃsitá-
7. ɦiṃsitá-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → AV. hiṃsitá-
RV. á·hiṃsat-
(a.) ‘nicht verletzend’
(WbRV. 166)
(RV. á·hiṃsat-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯inset-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯inset-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯inset-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *Π·ǰɦu̯inset-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯inset-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *Π·ǰɦinset-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦinset-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *Π·ɦinset-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ɦinset-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
R26a → *Π·ɦinsat-
6. Π·ɦinsat-
PIE *ns → ṃs
Emergence of nasal vowel before *ns
R31 → *Π·ɦiṃsat-
7. Π·ɦiṃsat-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → RV. Π·hiṃsat-
RV. hiṃsrá-
(a.) ‘verwundend’
(WbRV. 1665)
(RV. hiṃsrá-, KEWA 3:595)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯insró-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯insró-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯insró-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
R9b → *gɦu̯insrá-
3. gɦu̯insrá-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *ǰɦu̯insrá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. ǰɦu̯insrá-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *ǰɦinsrá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. ǰɦinsrá-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *ɦinsrá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. ɦinsrá-
PIE *ns → ṃs
Emergence of nasal vowel before *ns
R31 → *ɦiṃsrá-
7. ɦiṃsrá-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → RV. hiṃsrá-
√gɑɦuint-
Lith. ginty-
(vb.) ‘streiten, kämpfen, widersprechen’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. gintyti [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯intɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
R5a → *gɑɦu̯intíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. gɑɦu̯intíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯intíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯intíhi-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R11 → *gɦintíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. gɦintíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *gɦintíi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gɦintíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
R13a → *gɦintī́-
6. gɦintī́-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R17c → *gintī́-
7. gintī́-
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
R23 → Lith. gintý-
Lith. giñča-
(m.) ‘Kampf, Streit, Zank, Streithammer, usw.’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. giñčas [sgN])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ínti̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯ínti̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯ínti̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gɦu̯ínti̯a-
3. gɦu̯ínti̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R11 → *gɦínti̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. gɦínti̯a-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis Li. ì
RAcc2 → *gɦìnti̯a-
5. gɦìnti̯a-
ì n → i ñ Change of ìnC into iñC
RAcc4 → *gɦiñti̯a-
6. gɦiñti̯a-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R17c → *giñti̯a-
7. giñti̯a-
*ti̯ → č
Palatalization of dentals in Lithuanian
R18a → Lith. giñča-
Lith. giñčy-
(vb.) ‘streiten, kämpfen, widersprechen’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. giñčyti [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ínti̯ɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
R5a → *gɑɦu̯ínti̯íhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. gɑɦu̯ínti̯íhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯ínti̯íhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯ínti̯íhi-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R11 → *gɦínti̯íhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. gɦínti̯íhi-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis Li. ì
RAcc2 → *gɦìnti̯íhi-
5. gɦìnti̯íhi-
ì n → i ñ Change of ìnC into iñC
RAcc4 → *gɦiñti̯íhi-
6. gɦiñti̯íhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R12b → *gɦiñti̯íi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. gɦiñti̯íi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
R13a → *gɦiñti̯ī́-
8. gɦiñti̯ī́-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R17c → *giñti̯ī́-
9. giñti̯ī́-
*ti̯ → č
Palatalization of dentals in Lithuanian
R18a → *giñčī́-
10. giñčī́-
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
R23 → Lith. giñčý-
OCS. žętva-
(f.) ‘Ernte, Erntezeit’
(Sadnik √214)
(OCS. žętva [sgN])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯intu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
R2b → *gɑɦu̯intu̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯intu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯intu̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯intu̯āh-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R12d → *ǰɦu̯intu̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. ǰɦu̯intu̯āh-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R14b → *ǰɦintu̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. ǰɦintu̯āh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *ǰintu̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. ǰintu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
R15b → *ǰintu̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. ǰintu̯ā-
*ǰ → ž
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to OCS
R19a → *žintu̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
8. žintu̯ā-
*i n → ę
Emergence of nasal vowel ę
R30 → *žętu̯ā-
9. žętu̯ā-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
R31 → *žętvā-
10. žętvā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
R32c → OCS. žętva-
OCS. žętvĭnŭ-
(a.) ‘des Ernte’
(Sadnik √214)
(OCS. žętvĭnŭ-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯intu̯ino
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯intu̯ino
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯intu̯ino
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gɦu̯intu̯ina
3. gɦu̯intu̯ina
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R12d → *ǰɦu̯intu̯ina
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. ǰɦu̯intu̯ina
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R14b → *ǰɦintu̯ina
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. ǰɦintu̯ina
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *ǰintu̯ina
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. ǰintu̯ina
*ǰ → ž
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to OCS
R19a → *žintu̯ina
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
7. žintu̯ina
*a → o
Change of *a into o
R22a → *žintu̯ino
8. žintu̯ino
*-o → -u
Change of -o into -u
R24 → *žintu̯inu
9. žintu̯inu
*i n → ę
Emergence of nasal vowel ę
R30 → *žętu̯inu
10. žętu̯inu
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
R31 → *žętvinu
11. žętvinu
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
R32e → *žętvĭnu
12. žętvĭnu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
R32i → OCS. žętvĭnŭ
OCS. žęteljĭ-
(m.) ‘Schnitter’
(Sadnik √214)
(OCS. žęteljĭ-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯inteli̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯inteli̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯inteli̯i-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R12d → *ǰɦu̯inteli̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. ǰɦu̯inteli̯i-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R14b → *ǰɦinteli̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. ǰɦinteli̯i-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R15a → *ǰinteli̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ǰinteli̯i-
*ǰ → ž
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to OCS
R19a → *žinteli̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. žinteli̯i-
*i n → ę
Emergence of nasal vowel ę
R30 → *žęteli̯i-
7. žęteli̯i-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R32a → *žętelji-
8. žętelji-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
R32e → OCS. žęteljĭ-
√gɑɦuindɑɦin-
Lith. gindín-
(cs.) ‘treiben lassen’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. gindinti [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯indɑ́ɦin-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
R5a → *gɑɦu̯indíɦin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. gɑɦu̯indíɦin-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯indíɦin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯indíɦin-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
R11 → *gɦindíɦin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. gɦindíɦin-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
R12a → *gɦindíin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gɦindíin-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
R13a → *gɦindī́n-
6. gɦindī́n-
*ī́RC → íRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ī́RC
R14c2 → *gɦindín-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
7. gɦindín-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
R17c → Lith. gindín-
√gɑɦuitr-
RV. hétar-
(m.) ‘Treiber des Rosses’
(WbRV. 1680)
(RV. hétar-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯eítor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯eítor-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯eítor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R9a → *gɦu̯eítar-
3. gɦu̯eítar-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *ǰɦu̯eítar-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. ǰɦu̯eítar-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *ǰɦeítar-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. ǰɦeítar-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *ɦeítar-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. ɦeítar-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
R26a → *ɦaítar-
7. ɦaítar-
aí → ḗ
Monophthongization of *aí
R27b → *ɦḗtar-
8. ɦḗtar-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → *hḗtar-
9. hḗtar-
ḗ → é
Orthographic change of ḗ into é
R33e → RV. hétar-
RV. hetár-
(m.) ‘Treiber des Rosses’
(WbRV. 1680)
(RV. hetár-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯eitór-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯eitór-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯eitór-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
R9b → *gɦu̯eitár-
3. gɦu̯eitár-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *ǰɦu̯eitár-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. ǰɦu̯eitár-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *ǰɦeitár-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. ǰɦeitár-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *ɦeitár-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. ɦeitár-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
R26a → *ɦaitár-
7. ɦaitár-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
R27a → *ɦētár-
8. ɦētár-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → *hētár-
9. hētár-
ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
R33d → RV. hetár-
RV. pra·hetár-
(m.) ‘Antreiber, Treiber’
(WbRV. 885)
(RV. prahetár-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯eitór-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *Π·gɦu̯eitór-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯eitór-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
R9b → *Π·gɦu̯eitár-
3. Π·gɦu̯eitár-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R15d → *Π·ǰɦu̯eitár-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. Π·ǰɦu̯eitár-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
R16b → *Π·ǰɦeitár-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·ǰɦeitár-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R24c → *Π·ɦeitár-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. Π·ɦeitár-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
R26a → *Π·ɦaitár-
7. Π·ɦaitár-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
R27a → *Π·ɦētár-
8. Π·ɦētár-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
R33a → *Π·hētár-
9. Π·hētár-
ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
R33d → RV. Π·hetár-
√gɑhuol-
CLu. gu̯al-
(vb.) ‘schneiden : cut’
(HIL. 563)
(CLu. ku-ua-al-ti [3sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ol-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯ol-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯ol-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gɦu̯al-
3. gɦu̯al-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
R12b → CLu. gu̯al-
√gɑɦul-
Hitt. gula-
(d.) ‘Bestimmung, Schicksaal (?)’
(OHP. 1:249-55)
(Hitt. gul-aš [N], gul-an [A])
1. PIE *gɑɦulo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦulo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦulo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gɦula-
3. gɦula-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
R11b → Hitt. gula-
HLu. gula-
(*.) ‘Poetto, AthenaeumPavia 61 [1993], kulana-’
(CHLu. 1.1.9)
(if in HLu. EXERCITUUS-lá-za)
1. PIE *gɑɦulo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦulo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦulo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gɦula-
3. gɦula-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
R12b → HLu. gula-
√gɑhuolon-
CLu. gu̯alan-
(.) ‘Heer, Heerlager’
(KLuN. 234-)
(CLu. kualan-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯olon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯olon-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯olon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gɦu̯alan-
3. gɦu̯alan-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
R12b → CLu. gu̯alan-
Hitt. gu̯alana-
(URU.) ‘mit Arzawa und Maš˙uiluwa von Mira erwähnt’
(OGH. 234)
(if in Hitt. ku-ua-at-na)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯olono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯olono-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯olono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gɦu̯alana-
3. gɦu̯alana-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
R11b → Hitt. gu̯alana-
Hitt. gu̯alana-
(ḪUR.SAG.) ‘Heer’
(OGHErg. 88)
(Hitt. ku-ua-la-na, Bossert, Sprache 4:115f. ‘la’ not ‘at’)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯olono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯olono-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯olono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gɦu̯alana-
3. gɦu̯alana-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
R11b → Hitt. gu̯alana-
CLu. gu̯alana·la-
(LÚc.) ‘of army’
(NOMS. 664)
(if in Hitt. ku-ua-at!-na-al-la)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯olono·lo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯olono·lo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯olono·lo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gɦu̯alana·la-
3. gɦu̯alana·la-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
R12b → CLu. gu̯alana·la-
CLu. gu̯alana·li-
(a.) ‘militaire, ép. de lalḫia- = campagne’
(DLL. 60)
(CLu. ku-ua-at-na-al-li-in(-tar))
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯olono·li-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯olono·li-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯olono·li-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gɦu̯alana·li-
3. gɦu̯alana·li-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
R12b → CLu. gu̯alana·li-
CLu. gu̯alana·mu̯a-
(LÚc.*) (haut dignitaire sous Muršiliš II)
(NOMS. 665)
(if in Hitt. KARAŠ-mu-u-ua-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯olono·mu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯olono·mu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯olono·mu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gɦu̯alana·mu̯a-
3. gɦu̯alana·mu̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
R12b → CLu. gu̯alana·mu̯a-
CLu. gu̯alana·ziti-
(LÙc.*) (grand berger, général de Suppiluliuma Ier)
(NOMS. 666)
(if in Hitt. ku-ua-at-na-LÚ)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯olono·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯olono·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯olono·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gɦu̯alana·Σ-
3. gɦu̯alana·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
R12b → CLu. gu̯alana·Σ-
HLu. gu̯alana·ziti-
(LÙc.*) (prince)
(NOMS. 666)
(if in HLu. ARMÉE-ZITI-i)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯olono·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
R7b → *gɦu̯olono·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯olono·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
R8a → *gɦu̯alana·Σ-
3. gɦu̯alana·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
R12b → HLu. gu̯alana·Σ-