PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
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PIE



PIE √o- (pron.) ‘dieser’
(IEW 281-2)
(+ Pyysalo; compare PIE *e ‘idem’)
√o-
Hitt. a·
(pers/dem.pron.) ‘er, sie, es’
(HEG 1:1-3)
(Hitt. ·aš, ·an, etc, HiuA 58f.)
1. PIE *o·
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a·
Pal. a·
(pers/dem.pron.) ‘er, sie, es’
(DPal. 48-9)
(Hitt. -aš, -an, -at)
1. PIE *o·
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. a·
ORuss. o·se
(intj.) ‘ecce!’
(IEW 281-2)
(ORuss. ose)
1. PIE *o·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·Σ-
2. a·Σ-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → ORuss. o·Σ-
√oni-
(HEG I:29)
(HW2 A: 81, HIL. 209-10)
Hitt. a·ni-
(dem.pron.) ‘jener, [IŠ-TU AN-NI-I]Š, GÚ.R[I.TA]’
(HEG 1:29-30)
(Hitt. an-ni-iš KBo 1.42 iii 33)
1. PIE *o·ni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a·ni-
Hitt. a·ni·šan
(adv.) ‘einst, früher’
(HEG 1:31)
1. PIE *o·ni·son
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·ni·san
2. a·ni·san
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. a·ni·šan
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √o- (pref.) ‘zu’ (end.) ‘allativum’
(IEW 280-1)
(Pedersen + Pyysalo)
√o·
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. a·šma
(adv.) ‘zuerst, erstens’
(HEG A:84)
(For a·, cf. Neu apud Tischler)
1. PIE *o·smo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·sma
2. a·sma
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. a·šma
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. ὄ·ψο-
(n.) ‘Zu·kost, Zu·brot, bes. Fleisch’
(GEW 2:459)
1. PIE *ó·bɑɦso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ó·bɦso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ó·bɦso-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *ó·phso-
3. ó·phso-
*phs → ps
Loss of *h between *p and *s
Rphs›ps → *ó·pso-
4. ó·pso-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄ·ψο-
gAv. a·idyu-
(a.) ‘tüchtig zu [D], brauchbar, nützlich’
(AIWb. 65-6)
1. PIE *o·dɑɦi̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·dɦi̯u-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·dɦi̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·dɦi̯u-
3. a·dɦi̯u-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *a·di̯u-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. a·di̯u-
*adi → aidi
Anaptyxis of *i
RadI›aidI → *a·idi̯u-
5. a·idi̯u-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → gAv. a·idyu-
TochA. a·kälyme
(postp.G) ‘versus’
(Poucha 1)
(TochA. kälyme = ‘Gegend, Richtung’)
1. PIE *o·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. a·Σ-
LAv. a·sah-
(n.) ‘Gegend, Landstrich, Platz’
(AIWb. 209)
1. PIE *o·ki̯os-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *o·ćos-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. o·ćos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·ćas-
3. a·ćas-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *a·ćah-
4. a·ćah-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → LAv. a·sah-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
Goth. a·mal-
(PN.m.) ‘tapfer, tätig: active, brave’
(GoEtWb. 6)
(Goth. amals [sgN])
1. PIE *o·molo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·mala
2. a·mala
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Goth. a·mal
Goth. a·mala·bairgan-
(PN.) ‘tapfer·bergend’
(GoEtWb. 11)
(Goth. amalabairga)
1. PIE *o·molo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. a·mala·Σ-
√·o
(HiuA:29)
Hitt. ·a
(end.) ‘allative singular, in, to, “to where”’
(HIL. 195)
(The allative case is also called ‘directive’ and ‘absolutive’)
1. PIE *·o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ·a
Gr. .ο
(end.) ‘allative singular; in, to’
(HIL. 195)
(Gr. aπο, υπο, πρ·ό, etc.)
1. PIE *.o
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. .ο
RV. ·a
(end.) ‘allative singular; in, to’
(HIL. 195)
(RV. ápa, úpa, prá, etc.; also RV. aṅgá)
1. PIE *·o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → RV. ·a
LAv. ·a
(end.) ‘allative singular; in, to’
(HIL. 195)
(LAv. apa, upa, fra, etc.)
1. PIE *·o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → LAv. ·a


PIE √o- ‘horse, bird, eagle’ (as OLith. ešva- (f.) ‘Stute’ and Lith. ded·ešvà- (f.) ‘Vogelwicke’)
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√o-
HLu. a
(n?.) ‘horse’
(CHLu. 1.1.8)
(HIL. 282: EQUUS.ANIMALá=pa= wá/í=ta, KARATEPE 1 §8 Ho.)
1. PIE *o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. a
Hitt. a·u̯idei-
(.) ‘Sphinx (?) ‹Lit. “Adler·Löwe”›’
(HEG 1:99-100)
(Compare Hitt. wizi- ‘lion’(?))
1. PIE *o·u̯idɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·u̯idɦei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·u̯idɦei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·u̯idɦei-
3. a·u̯idɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. a·u̯idei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OHG. a-
(vb.) ‘festinare, vadere’
(EWAhd. 1)
(OHG. a [2sg] îla du!, bura dih!)
1. PIE *o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OHG. a-

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