PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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"Durch zweier Zeugen Mund wird alle Wahrheit kund" — August Fick
(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
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PIE



PIE √r- √or- √er- (vb.) ‘glänzen’
(IEW –)
√or-
Hitt. ar-
(vb.2.) ‘heiß, warm sein : to become hot’
(HIL. 199)
(Hitt. a-ri [3sg])
1. PIE *or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ar-
√oro-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ara·ḫabila-
(ḪUR.SAG.) ‘‹a guess by form›’
(OGH. 29)
(Hitt. a-ra-ḫa-pí-la[)
1. PIE *oro·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ara·Σ-
TochB. era-
(m.sg) ‘appearance, colour: Skt. rūpa’
(DTochB. 93)
(TochB. ere)
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochB. ara-
TochB. ere·patent-
(m.sg) ‘Form’
(DTochB. 93-4)
(TochB. erepatenta [plA], LeTokh1:149)
1. PIE *oroi·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arai·Σ-
2. arai·Σ-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *arē·Σ-
3. arē·Σ-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. are·Σ-
√oron-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. aran·ḫabila-
(ḪUR.SAG.) ‘Im Land Ulma’
(OGH. 29)
(Hitt. a-ra-an-ḫa-pí-la)
1. PIE *oron·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aran·Σ-
Hitt. aran·ḫabilani
(ḪUR.SAG.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGH. 29)
(Hitt. a-ra-an-ḫa-pí-la-ni )
1. PIE *oron·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aran·Σ-
Hitt. aran·ḫabilizi-
(LÚ.c.) ‘général de Muršilis II’
(NOMS. 114)
(Hitt. a-ra-an-ḫa-pí-li-(iz)-zi-iš/in)
1. PIE *oron·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aran·Σ-
Hitt. aran·ḫabilizi-
(LÚ.c.) ‘officier du palais sous Muwatali-’
(NOMS. 114.2)
(in Akd. a-ra-an-ḫa-pí-li-iz-zi)
1. PIE *oron·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aran·Σ-
TochA. arän-
(m.) ‘vultus, frons: aspect, apparence’
(Poucha 9)
(TochA. aräṃ [sgN])
1. PIE *orono
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arana
2. arana
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → TochA. aran
TochA. arän·pāt-
(sb.) ‘statura, figura: Skt. rūpa-’
(Poucha 9)
(TochA. arämpāt [sgObl], arämpātäntu [plA])
1. PIE *oron·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. aran·Σ-
TochA. arän·pātṣi-
(a.) ‘staturae, figurae’
(Poucha 9)
(TochA. arämpāt ṣi, LeTokh1:149)
1. PIE *oron·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. aran·Σ-
TochA. sne·arän·pātum-
(a.) ‘staturae, figurae’
(Poucha 9-10)
1. PIE *Π·oron·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. Π·aran·Σ-
√oros- √ors-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. arašan-
(a.) ‘weiß’
(Puhvel 1984:206)
(Hitt. arašan- hapax; Melchert 1994:170)
1. PIE *oroson-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arasan-
2. arasan-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. arašan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
TochB. ersna-
(f.pl.tant.) ‘form’
(DTochB. 96)
(TochB. ersna [plNA])
1. PIE *orsneɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *orsnaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. orsnaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orsnah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. orsnah-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsnah-
4. arsnah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. arsna-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
TochB. ersnāssa-
(a.) ‘well-formed, pleasing, handsome, beautiful’
(DTochB. 96)
(TochB. ersnāsse-)
1. PIE *orsnēɑhsso-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *orsnāɑhsso-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. orsnāɑhsso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orsnāhsso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. orsnāhsso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsnāhssa-
4. arsnāhssa-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. arsnāssa-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
TochB. ersnā·ṣa-
(a.) ‘prtng to form’
(DTochB. 96)
(TochB. ersnāṣṣe)
1. PIE *orsnēɑh·si̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *orsnāɑh·si̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. orsnāɑh·si̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orsnāh·si̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. orsnāh·si̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsnāh·si̯a-
4. arsnāh·si̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *arsnā·si̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. arsnā·si̯a-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
Rsi̯›ṣ → TochB. arsnā·ṣa-
RV. r̥ṣū-
(f.?) ‘Flamme des Agni’
(WbRV. 293)
(RV. ṣūnáam [plG], KEWA 1:125)
1. PIE *r̥suɑ́h-
PIE *uɑ́ → uú
Assimilation of *u and *ɑ́
Ruɑ́›uú → *r̥suúh-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. r̥suúh-
PIE *rs → rš
Ruki-rule for *rs
RRukiOIA → *r̥šuúh-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. r̥šuúh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *r̥šuú-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. r̥šuú-
*uú → ū́
Contraction of u and ú
Ruú›ū́ → *r̥šū́-
5. r̥šū́-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. r̥ṣū́-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)


PIE √r- √or- √er- (a.) ‘hoch, sehr, viel’ (vb.) ‘sich regen, erheben’ (sb.) ‘Berghöhe, Akropolis, Polis’
(IEW 5 + 1152)
√oro-
Hitt. ara-
(vb.2.) ‘to (a)rise, lift, raise’
(HEG 1:52)
(Hitt. a-ra-a-i, a-ra-i [3sg])
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ara-
Gr. ὀρό-
(ao.) ‘sich regen/erheben, losstürzen, eilen’
(Gr. ὠρόμην)
1. PIE *oró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὀρό-
√ero-
Lith. ẽra-
(m.) ‘Adler’
(LiEtWb. 122)
(Lith. ẽras [sgN])
1. PIE *éro-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → *èro-
2. èro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *èra-
3. èra-
èra -› ẽra
Circumflex intonation è -› ẽ
Rèra›ẽra → Lith. ẽra-
Gr. ἐρό-
(ao.) ‘sich regen/erheben, losstürzen, eilen’
(GEW 2:422)
1. PIE *eró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἐρό-
√ori-
RV. ud (…) ā́ri·-
(pf.) ‘sich erheben, sich in bewegung setzen’
(WbRV. 98-101)
(RV. ud (...) ā́rithā [2sg])
1. PIE *Π·ṓri-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → RV. Π·ā́ri-
CLu. ari-
(vb.) ‘erheben, tragen : raise, lift, bear, HHand. 21’
(DLL. 30-1)
(CLu. a-ri-it-t[i] [3sg],
1. PIE *ori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ari-
Hitt. arei̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘to (a)rise, lift, raise’
(HIL. 239)
(Hitt. a-ri-ia-an-zi [3pl])
1. PIE *orei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. arei̯a-
√eri-
Gr. ἐρι-
(pref.) ‘hoch, sehr’
(GEW 1:557)
1. PIE *eri-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἐρι-
Gr. ἐρι·ώλη-
(f.) ‘Wirbelwind, Orkan’
(in Gr. ἐριώλη, Lit. ‘high/rising/intense wind’)
1. PIE *eri·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἐρι·Σ-
LycA. erije-
(vb.) ‘to raise, to levy’
(HIL. 240)
(CLu. erije [3sg], erijeine [inf.], erijeina [inf
1. PIE *erii̯e-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → LycA. erije-
√ri-
TochA. ri-
(f.) ‘urbs, oppidum’
(Poucha 258)
(TochA. ri [sgN])
TochA. rī-
(f.) ‘urbs, oppidum’
(Poucha 258)
(TochA. rī [sgN])
1. PIE *rii-
*ii → ī
Contraction of i and i
Rii›ī → TochA. rī-
TochA. rī·päṣe
(.) ‘custos urbis’
(Poucha 258)
(TochA. rīpaṣe)
1. PIE *rii·Σ-
*ii → ī
Contraction of i and i
Rii›ī → TochA. rī·Σ-
LinB. ριjο-
(n.) ‘Berghöhe, Vorgebirge’
(GEW 2:659)
(LinB. ri-jo)
1. PIE *rii̯o-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *rijo-
2. rijo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. ριjο-
Gr. ρίο-
(n.) ‘Berghöhe, Vorgebirge’ (ON.) ‘in Achaia’
(GEW 2:659)
(HEG:1002, Gr. ῥίο-)
1. PIE *ríi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *río-
2. río-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ρίο-
TochA. riy-
(f.) ‘urbs, oppidum’
(Poucha 258)
(TochA. riyis [G], riyā, riyac [sgD])
1. PIE *rii̯ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *rii̯h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. rii̯h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *rii̯-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. rii̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochA. riy-
√ru-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. aru-
(a.) ‘hoch’
(HEG 1:70)
(HHand. 24)
1. PIE *oru-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aru-
Pal. aru-
(a.) ‘viel, sehr’
(HHand. 24)
1. PIE *oru-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. aru-
CLu. aru-
(a.) ‘hoch’ (adv. = n.)
(HHand. 24)
(HIL. 253)
1. PIE *oru-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. aru-
RV. made·rú-
(a.) ‘sehr erfreuend’ (Sāy.)
(WbRV. 983)
(For segmentation, see RV. máde·raghu-, WbRV. 983)


PIE √r- √or- √er- (a.) ‘lang’ (vb.) ‘verlängern’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√oro-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. āra-
(a.) ‘lang’
(HEG 1:53)
(CLu. aarati [D/Abl.])
1. PIE *ōro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōra-
2. ōra-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → CLu. āra-
HLu. āra-
(a.) ‘lang’
(HEG 1:70)
(Melchert (1994:265): CLu. aara/i- = HLu. á-ra/i-)
1. PIE *ōro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōra-
2. ōra-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → HLu. āra-
OInd. arā́ḍa-
(a.) ‘lang-hörnig’
(EWA 1:111)
(For OInd. ·ḍa- cf. Gr. ἄρδι- ‘Pfeilspitze, Stachel, MA. 439)
1. PIE *orṓɦɑrdo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orṓɦrdo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orṓɦrdo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arṓɦrda-
3. arṓɦrda-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *arā́ɦrda-
4. arā́ɦrda-
PIE *ɦRd → ḍ
Fortunatov’s Law for *ɦRd
RɦRd›ḍ → OInd. arā́ḍa-
(SPIE §3.3.2)
√oroi-
CLu. arai-
(a.) ‘long’
(DLL. 30)
(CLu. a-ar-ra-i-in-zi [plN])
1. PIE *oroi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. arai-
CLu. arai̯a-
(a.) ‘long; HHand. 20’
(DLL. 30)
(CLu. a-ar-ra-ia-ti [sgI], a-ra-ia-a-ti)
1. PIE *oroii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *araii̯a-
2. araii̯a-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *araia-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. araia-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → CLu. arai̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
HLu. arai̯a-
(a.) ‘long’ ‹epith. of ‘days’›
(CHLu. 10.11.17)
(HLu. a-ra/i-ia [plA])
1. PIE *oroii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *araii̯a-
2. araii̯a-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *araia-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. araia-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → HLu. arai̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
√oronu
CLu. aranu-
(cs.) ‘verlängern, HHand. 21’
(DLL. 30)
(CLu. a-ra-an-nu-uḫ-ḫa [1sg])
1. PIE *oronu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. aranu-
Hitt. aranu̯a-
(vb.) ‘verlängern’
(HHand. 21)
(Hitt. a-ra-nu-ua-at-ta [3sg])
1. PIE *oronu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aranu̯a-
√oriu-
CLu. ari-
(a.) ‘long’
(DLL. 30)
(CLu. aris, a-ri-i-in [sgA])
1. PIE *ori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ari-
TochA. aryu-
(a.) ‘longus de tempore = Skt. ciram ‘lang’
(Poucha 10)
(TochA. aryu-, also TochA. māryu = /mā+aryu/)
1. PIE *ori̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ari̯u-
2. ari̯u-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochA. aryu-
√oru-
OPr. arw·arb-
(.) ‘langes Holz, Langwiede’
(Voc. 301)
(OPr. arwarbs [sgN]; for OPr. arb- cf. Lat. arbor)
1. PIE *oru̯·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aru̯·Σ-
2. aru̯·Σ-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *arv·Σ-
3. arv·Σ-
*v → w
Orthographic change of of *v into w
Rv›w → OPr. arw·Σ-


PIE √r- √or- √er- (vb.) ‘eilen, kommen’ (a.) ‘schnell’ (sb.) ‘Zeit’
(IEW 53-54, 326ff.)
(+ Pyysalo: CLu. + HLu.)
√oro-
HLu. ara-
(vb.) ‘come’
(CHLu. 11.1.a6)
(HLu. (“PES2”)a+ra/i-ta-’)
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ara-
RV. ará-
(m.) ‘a spoke or radius of the wheel’
(MonWil. 86)
1. PIE *oró-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aró-
2. aró-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. ará-
OInd. ara-
(a.) ‘speedy, swift’
(MonWil. 86)
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. ara-
OInd. ará-
(m.) ‘a spoke of the time wheel’
(MonWil. 86)
1. PIE *oró-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aró-
2. aró-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → OInd. ará-
CLu. ara-
(c.) ‘Zeit’
(HHand. 20)
(Not to Goth. jer vs. Kimball 1999:361)
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ara-
HLu. ara-
(c.) ‘age, time’
(CHLu. 1.1.74)
(HLu. ara/i-zi [pl])
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ara-
Goth. af·ar-
(m.) ‘Nachkomme : ἐφημερία : vicis’
(GoEtD. A10.)
(Goth. afaram [plD] Luk 1,5 CA)
1. PIE *op·oro-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *of·oro-
2. of·oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. af·ara-
RV. ap·ará-
(adv.) ‘künftig, später’
(WbRV. 73)
1. PIE *op·oró-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ap·aró-
2. ap·aró-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. ap·ará-
RV. áp·ara-
(a.) ‘hintere, spätere, westliche, zurückstehende’
(WbRV. 72-3)
1. PIE *óp·oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *óp·ara-
2. óp·ara-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. áp·ara-
RV. sam·ará-
(m.) ‘Zusammenkommen, Zusammenströmen’
(WbRV. 1480)
1. PIE *Π·oró-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·aró-
2. Π·aró-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. Π·ará-
√oroi-
HLu. ap·arai-
(a.) ‘-(?)-’
(CLu. 6.3.20)
(HLu. POST+ra/i-i-sá [sgN])
1. PIE *op·oroi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ap·arai-
CLu. ap·arai-
(vb.) ‘‹go forth/after(?)›’
(HHand. 18)
(CLu. apparaindu [3pl])
1. PIE *op·oroi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ap·arai-
√oront-
HLu. ap·aranta
(sb.) ‘future’
(CHLu. 2.27.5)
(HLu. POST+ra/i-tá [sgAll] ‘in the future’)
1. PIE *op·oronto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ap·aranta-
CLu. ap·aranti-
(a.) ‘zukünftig : future’
(HHand. 18)
(CLu. aparanti)
1. PIE *op·oronti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ap·aranti-
√ōri-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. āri-
(c.) ‘Zeit, HHand. 20’
(DLL. 30)
(CLu. a-a-ri-i, a-a-ri-in, a-ri-i[, a-ri-i[n)
1. PIE *ōri-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → CLu. āri-
HLu. āri-
(.) ‘time’
(CHLu. 2.45.3)
1. PIE *ōri-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → HLu. āri-
OInd. par·āri
(adv.) ‘in the year before last’
(MonWil. 589)
1. PIE *Π·ōri-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → OInd. Π·āri-
OInd. par·āri·tna-
(a.) ‘belonging to the year before last’
(IEW 24 [diff.])
1. PIE *Π·ōri·tno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ōri·tna-
2. Π·ōri·tna-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → OInd. Π·āri·tna-
√ori-
OInd. ari-
(m.) ‘wheel, discus’
(MonWil. 86)
1. PIE *ori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. ari-
√ort-
HLu. arta-
(n.) ‘income’
(CHLu. 9.1.10)
(HLu. a+ra/i-tà)
1. PIE *orto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. arta-
√oru-
HLu. ARHA’ aru̯a·-
(vb.) ‘come, arrive (?); ‹stem uncertain!›’
(CHLu. 11.1.fg24)
(HLu. (“PES2”)a+ra/i-wa/i)
1. PIE *Π·oru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·aru̯a-
OSax. av·aro·n-
(m.) ‘Nachkomme, Kind; offspring, child’
(Hel. 69C)
(OSax. auaron [plN] H 69 C, auaron H 65 C, H 2126 C)
1. PIE *Π·oru·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·aru·n-
2. Π·aru·n-
R=un-›=on- → OSax. Π·aro·n-
OSax. aƀ·aro·n-
(m.) ‘Nachkomme, Kind; offspring, child’
(Hel. 3000 C)
OSax. aƀaron 3000 C [plD], abaron 2221 C, aƀaron [plA] 5485 C)
1. PIE *Π·oru·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·aru·n-
2. Π·aru·n-
R=un-›=on- → OSax. Π·aro·n-
OSax. av·aru·n-
(m.) ‘Nachkomme, Kind; offspring, child’
(Hel. 491M)
(OSax. auarun [plD] H 491 M)
1. PIE *Π·oru·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·aru·n-
2. Π·aru·n-
R=un-›=on- → OSax. Π·aro·n-
√rei-
Goth. hi.rei-
(vb.) ‘komm her: come here: δευ̃ρο, ἔρχου: veni’
(GoEtD. H66.)
(Goth. hiri [sg] Joh 11,34 CA; Joh 11,43 CA; Luk 18,22 CA; Mrk 10,21 CA)
1. PIE *ki̯i.rei-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱi.rei-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ḱi.rei-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *ki.rei-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ki.rei-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xi.rei-
4. xi.rei-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *xi.rī-
5. xi.rī-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *hi.rī-
6. hi.rī-
*ī → ei
Orthographic change of *ī into ei
Rī›ei → Goth. hi.rei-
Goth. hi.rja-
(vb.) ‘komm her: come here: δευ̃τε’
(GoEtD. H66.)
(Goth. hirjats [du] Mrk 1,17 CA, GoElB. 49,1, 215,II, Feist 257)
1. PIE *ki̯i.ri̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱi.ri̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ḱi.ri̯o-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *ki.ri̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ki.ri̯o-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xi.ri̯o-
4. xi.ri̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *xi.ri̯a-
5. xi.ri̯a-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *hi.ri̯a-
6. hi.ri̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Goth. hi.rja-
Goth. hi.rji-
(vb.) ‘komm her: come here: δευ̃τε’
(GoEtD. H66.)
(Goth. hirjiþ [pl] Mrk 12,7 CA,HbGo. 61,5e)
1. PIE *ki̯i.ri̯e-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱi.ri̯e-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ḱi.ri̯e-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *ki.ri̯e-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ki.ri̯e-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xi.ri̯e-
4. xi.ri̯e-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *xi.ri̯i-
5. xi.ri̯i-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *hi.ri̯i-
6. hi.ri̯i-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Goth. hi.rji-


PIE √r- √or- √er- (vb.) ‘zu Ende kommen, (nach)lassen’ (sb.) ‘Ende, After, Hinter’ (adv.) ‘nach, hinte(r/n), zurück’
(IEW 340)
(Pyysalo: TochA+B)
√ōr- √or-
TochA. ār-
(pret.A.) ‘finire, desinere : cease, leave, forsake’
(Poucha 9)
(TochA. ār [3sg], ārinträ [opt], TochA. āraṣ [conjA.])
1. PIE *ōr-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → TochA. ār-
TochB. ār-
(vb.tr.) ‘leave (behind), forsake, LeTokh1:166’
(DTochB. 47)
(TochB. āri [opt], ārtsi [inf.])
1. PIE *ōr-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → TochB. ār-
TochA. ar-
(pr.M.) ‘finire, desinere’
(Poucha 9)
(TochA. artär [3sg], araträṃ [conj?])
1. PIE *or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. ar-
√ōro- √oro-
(HEG I:51-2)
(HW2 A: 234, HIL. 239f.)
TochB. āra-
(vb.) ‘cease’
(DTochB. 47-8)
(TochB. āratsi, āran, āroy [optA.])
1. PIE *ōro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōra-
2. ōra-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → TochB. āra-
TochA. ara-
(pr.M.) ‘finire, desinere’
(Poucha 9)
(TochA. aratär [3sg], arantär)
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. ara-
TochB. ara-
(vb.) ‘cease’
(DTochB. 47)
(TochB. aran-me)
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochB. ara-
Hitt. ara-
(UZUc.) ‘After, Gesäß’
(HHand. 20)
(Hitt. ar-ra-an [A], ar-ra-aš [G], ar-ri [L], ar-ru-uš)
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ara-
Hitt. ara·z
(adv.) ‘mit den Beinen voran, vom Hintern her’
(HHand. 20)
(Hitt. ar-ra-az)
1. PIE *oro·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ara·Σ
√orɑh-
TochB. arā-
(vb.) ‘come an end; ‹as Hitt. apeia- ‘zu Ende sein›’
(DTochB. 47)
(TochB. arāre)
1. PIE *orēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *orāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. orāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. orāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arāh-
4. arāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. arā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√ori- √ri-
Hitt. ari-
(c.) ‘After, Gesäß; ‹as ModHG. After›’
(HHand. 20)
(Hitt. ar-ri-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *ori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ari-
TochA. ri-
(vb.) ‘relinquere, abicere’
(Poucha 258)
√ors-
(Pyysalo: TochB.)
Ion. ὀρσο·θύρη-
(f.) ‘Hinter-thüre’
(Ion. ὀρσο·θύρη-)
1. PIE *orso·Σ
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion. ὀρσο·Σ
Hitt. arša
(adv.) ‘nach hinten’
(HHand. 25)
1. PIE *orso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsa-
2. arsa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. arša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ·arša teia-
(vb.) ‘abseits stehen’
(HHand. 24)
1. PIE *orso·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsa·Σ
2. arsa·Σ
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. arša·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ·arša teia-
(vb.) ‘zurück treten’
(HHand. 24)
1. PIE *orso·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsa·Σ
2. arsa·Σ
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. arša·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
TochB. ārsa-
(vb.) ‘cease’
(DTochB. 47)
(TochB. ārsen-ne)
1. PIE *ōrso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōrsa-
2. ōrsa-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → TochB. ārsa-
OHG. ars-
(m.) ‘Arsch’
(XX:XX)
(OHG. ars [sgN])
1. PIE *orso
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsa
2. arsa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OHG. ars
OIcl. ars-
(m.) ‘Arsch, After’
(ANEtWb. 14)
(OIcl. ars [sgN])
1. PIE *orso
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsa
2. arsa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OIcl. ars
Gr. ὄρρο-
(m.) ‘Hinterer, After’
(Gr. ὄρρος)
1. PIE *órso-
*rs → rr
Assimilation of *rs into rr
Rrs›rr → *órro-
2. órro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄρρο-
Arm. oṙ-
(sb.) ‘Hinterbacken, der untere Theil, Boden’
(ArmGr. 1:482)
(Arm. oṙ [sgN], oṙ-k’ [plN])
1. PIE *orsò
*rs → ṙ
Change of *rs into ṙ
Rrs›ṙ → *oṙò
2. oṙò
*o → Ø
Loss of *ò
Rò›0 → Arm. oṙ
√ersēɑh-
OIr. err-
(f.) ‘Schwanz, Ende : tail, end’
(LEIA E-XX)
(OIr. err [sgN], VKG 2:101)
1. PIE *ersēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ersāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ersāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ersāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ersāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ersā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ersā
*rs → rr
Assimilation of *rs into rr
Rrs›rr → *errā
5. errā
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *erra
6. erra
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OIr. err
oru-
Hitt. aru-
(c.) ‘arse, anus’
(HIL. 238)
(Hitt. ar-ru-uš [sgN])
1. PIE *oru-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aru-


PIE √r- √or- √er- (vb.) ‘fließen, waschen’
(IEW –)
√or-
Hitt. ar-
(vb.2.) ‘waschen’
(HEG 1:51)
(Hitt. ar-ri [3sg])
1. PIE *or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ar-
Hitt. ar-
(vb.) ‘fließen : flow’
(HIL. 249)
(MidHitt. a-ar-zi [3sg], KBo 10.45 iv 39)
1. PIE *or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ar-
√oro-
Hitt. ara-
(vb.1.) ‘waschen’
(HIL. 237)
(Hitt. ar-ra-an-zi, a-ar-at-te-en [2pl])
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ara-
Gr. ὀρό-
(m.) ‘die Molke, Käsewasser’
(GEW 1:425)
(No initial h-, not from PIE *soro-)
1. PIE *oró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὀρό-
√rs-
(IEW 336)
(HEG 1:66-7)
Hitt. arš-
(vb.) ‘fließen’
(HHand. 23)
(Hitt. ar-aš-zi, a-ar-aš-zi, a-ar-aš-t[a?])
1. PIE *ors-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ars-
2. ars-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. arš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. arša-
(vb.) ‘fließen’
(HIL. 249)
(Hitt. ar-ša-an-zi [3pl], a-ar-ša-aš [pret3sg])
1. PIE *orso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsa-
2. arsa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. arša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. árṣa-
(pr.A.) ‘schnell fließen, strömen
(WbRV. 119-120)
(RV. árṣati [3sg])
1. PIE *órso-
PIE *rs → rš
Ruki-rule for *rs
RRukiOIA → *óršo-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. óršo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *órša-
3. órša-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *árša-
4. árša-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. árṣa-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
RV. árṣa-
(pr.A.) ‘etwas [A] herbeiströmen’
(WbRV. 119-120)
(RV. árṣat [2sg])
1. PIE *órso-
PIE *rs → rš
Ruki-rule for *rs
RRukiOIA → *óršo-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. óršo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *órša-
3. órša-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *árša-
4. árša-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. árṣa-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
√rsi-
Hitt. aršei-
(vb.) ‘fließen’
(HHand. 23)
(Hitt. ar-ši-ez-zi)
1. PIE *orsei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsei-
2. arsei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aršei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aršei̯a-
(vb.) ‘fließen’
(HIL. 249)
(Hitt. ar-ši-ia-az-zi)
1. PIE *orsei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsei̯a-
2. arsei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aršei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. aršei̯a-
(vb.) ‘fließen: couler, HHand. 24’
(DLL. 32)
(CLu. a-ar-ši-ia-an-du [3pl])
1. PIE *orsei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsei̯a-
2. arsei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. aršei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aršei̯ai-
(vb.) ‘fließen’
(HIL 249)
(Hitt. a-ar-ši-ia-iz-zi [3sg])
1. PIE *orsei̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsei̯ai-
2. arsei̯ai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aršei̯ai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aršeiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘fließen’
(HIL. 249)
(Hitt. ar-ši-iš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *orseiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *orseisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. orseisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arseisḱe/a-
3. arseisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *arseiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. arseiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aršeiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √r- √or- √er- (vb.) ‘essen’ (sb.) ‘Mund’
(IEW –)
√r-
HLu. āra-
(vb.) ‘edere’
(CHLu. 459)
(HLu. a-ra/i-tu [3sg])
1. PIE *ōro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōra-
2. ōra-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → HLu. āra-
HLu. ARHA āra·-
(vb.) ‘eat up’
(CHLu. 10.20.11)
(HLu. ARHA a+ra/i-tu)
1. PIE *Π·ōro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ōra-
2. Π·ōra-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → HLu. Π·āra-
TochA. kāp·ār-
(m.) ‘plenum ōs’
(Poucha 58)
(TochA. kāpāräs)
1. PIE *Π·ōro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ōra
2. Π·ōra
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·āra
3. Π·āra
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → TochA. Π·ār
TochA. sw·ār-
(a.) ‘dulcis’
(Poucha 389)
(TochA. swār [m.sgN])
1. PIE *su̯·ōro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su̯·ōra
2. su̯·ōra
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *su̯·āra
3. su̯·āra
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *su̯·ār
4. su̯·ār
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. sw·ār
TochB. sw·āra-
(a.) ‘sweet’
(DTochB. 725-6)
(TochB. swāre)
1. PIE *su̯·ōro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su̯·ōra-
2. su̯·ōra-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *su̯·āra-
3. su̯·āra-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. sw·āra-
TochB. sw·ara-
(a.) ‘sweet’
(DTochB. 726)
(TochB. swareṃ)
1. PIE *su̯·oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su̯·ara-
2. su̯·ara-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. sw·ara-
TochB. sw·arauñña-
(sb.) ‘sweetness’
(DTochB. 726)
(TochB. swarauññe)
1. PIE *su̯·orōuni̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su̯·arōuni̯a-
2. su̯·arōuni̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *su̯·arāuni̯a-
3. su̯·arāuni̯a-
*ni̯ → ñ
Palatalization of *n before i̯
Rni̯›ñ → *su̯·arāuña-
4. su̯·arāuña-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → *su̯·arauña-
5. su̯·arauña-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. sw·arauña-
√orgiɑɦ-
LAv. xv·arǝzišta-
(sup.) ‘der süsseste, schmackhafteste’
(AIWb. 1874)
1. PIE *su̯·orgi̯ɑɦistɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *su̯·orgi̯ɦistho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. su̯·orgi̯ɦistho-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *su̯·orgi̯ɦištho-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. su̯·orgi̯ɦištho-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *su̯·orj́ɦištho-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. su̯·orj́ɦištho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su̯·arj́ɦištha-
5. su̯·arj́ɦištha-
*r → rǝ
Anaptyxis of ǝ (Schwa)
Rr›rǝ → *su̯·arǝj́ɦištha-
6. su̯·arǝj́ɦištha-
*sth/šth → st/št
Loss of *h after st/št
RSth›St → *su̯·arǝj́ɦišta-
7. su̯·arǝj́ɦišta-
*su̯ → xu̯
Change of *su̯ into xu̯
Rsu̯›xu̯ → *xu̯·arǝj́ɦišta-
8. xu̯·arǝj́ɦišta-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *xu̯·arǝzɦišta-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
9. xu̯·arǝzɦišta-
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → *xu̯·arǝzišta-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
10. xu̯·arǝzišta-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. xv·arǝzišta-
√oru-
HLu. āru-
(vb.) ‘to eat’
(CHLu. 10.11.16)
(HLu. (‘EDERE’)á-ru-na)
1. PIE *ōru-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → HLu. āru-


PIE √r- √or- √er- (a.) ‘recht’ (vb.) ‘richten’ (sb.) ‘Richter, König’
(IEW 854f. + HEG 1+50)
√oro-
Hitt. ara-
(n.) ‘Wohl, Recht, Angemessenheit, HHand. 20’
(HEG 1:50)
(Hitt. a-a-ra, a-ra)
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ara-
√reɦɑgi-
(IEW 854f.)
Lat. rego-
(pr3.) ‘(gerade) richten, lenken, herrschen’
(WH. 2:426-7)
(Lat. regō, EM. 817-9’)
1. PIE *reɦɑgi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *reɦgi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. reɦgi̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *reɦǵo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. reɦǵo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *reǵo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. reǵo-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → Lat. rego-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
Gr. ὀ·ρέγο-
(die Hand) ‘zu erreichen suchen, hinstrecken, darreichen, sich strecken’
(GEW 2:412-413)
(Gr. ὀρέγω)
1. PIE *o·réɦɑgi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·réɦgi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·réɦgi̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *o·réɦǵo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. o·réɦǵo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *o·réǵo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. o·réǵo-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *o·régo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. o·régo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὀ·ρέγο-
Oss. '·r'zw-
(vb.) ‘errichten’
(KEWA 2:425)
(Oss. arazun [inf.])
1. PIE *o·reɦɑgi̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·reɦgi̯u-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·reɦgi̯u-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *o·reɦj́u-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. o·reɦj́u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·reɦj́u-
4. a·reɦj́u-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *a·rej́u-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. a·rej́u-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *a·rezu-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
6. a·rezu-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *a·razu-
7. a·razu-
*u → w
Orthographic change of *u into w
Ru›w → *a·razw-
8. a·razw-
*a → '
Orthographic change of *a into '
Ra›' → Oss. '·r'zw-
√rḗɦɑgi-
Lat. rēg-
(m.) ‘König; EM 817-9’
(WH. 2:426-7)
(Lat. rēx, rēgis [sgG])
1. PIE *rēɦɑgi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *rēɦgi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. rēɦgi-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *rēɦǵ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. rēɦǵ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *rēǵ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. rēǵ-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → Lat. rēg-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
RV. rā́j-
(c.) ‘König(in), Gebieter(in)’
(EWA 2:444-6)
(WbRV. 1157)
1. PIE *rḗɦɑgi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *rḗɦgi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. rḗɦgi-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *rḗɦj́-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. rḗɦj́-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *rḗj́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. rḗj́-
*j́ → j
From Satem *j́ to j
Rj́›j → *rḗj-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. rḗj-
*ḗ → ā́
Change of *ḗ into ā́
Rḗ›ā́ → RV. rā́j-
LAv. bǝrǝzi·rāz-
(a.) ‘in der Höhe gebietend’
(AIWb. 961)
(LAv. bǝrǝzi-rāzǝm [sgA])
1. PIE *Π·rēɦɑgi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·rēɦgi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·rēɦgi-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *Π·rēɦj́-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·rēɦj́-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·rēj́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·rēj́-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *Π·rēz-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. Π·rēz-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → LAv. Π·rāz-
RV. adhi·rājá-
(m.) ‘Ober-herr’
(WbRV. 47)
(RV. adhirājá-)
1. PIE *Π·rēɦɑgi̯ó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·rēɦgi̯ó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·rēɦgi̯ó-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *Π·rēɦj́ó-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·rēɦj́ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·rēɦj́á-
4. Π·rēɦj́á-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·rēj́á-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·rēj́á-
*j́ → j
From Satem *j́ to j
Rj́›j → *Π·rējá-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. Π·rējá-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → RV. Π·rājá-


PIE √r- √or- √er- (sb.) ‘Krankheit, Leid, Elend’
(IEW 781-782)
√omoro-
(HEG H:283, 327)
OHG. aram-
(a.) ‘arm, gering, schwach, kraftlos, elend, armselig, unwürdig, unglücklich’
(IEW 782)
(Or Langobardic?)
1. PIE *oromo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arama
2. arama
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OHG. aram
Hitt. ḫult·arama-
(pt.) ‘eine Krankheit des Kopfes’
(HHand. 54)
1. PIE *Π·oromo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·arama-
CLu. ḫult·araman-
(n.) ‘eine Krankheit des Kopfes’
(HHand. 54)
1. PIE *Π·oromon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. Π·araman-
CLu. ḫualt·araman-
(n.) ‘eine Krankheit des Kopfes’
(HHand. 54)
1. PIE *Π·oromon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. Π·araman-
√ormo-
Arm. oł·orm-
(sb.) ‘compassion, supplication’
(EtDiArm. 529)
1. PIE *Π·ormò
*o → Ø
Loss of *ò
Rò›0 → Arm. Π·orm
Goth. arm-
(a.) ‘elend’
(GoEtD. A201.)
(Goth. arms [sgN])
1. PIE *ormo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arma
2. arma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Goth. arm
OHG. arm-
(a.) arm, gering, schwach, kraftlos, elend, armselig, unwürdig, unglücklich’
(EWAhd 1, 333)
(B, GB, Gl, N, NGl, O, OT, RhC, T, WB, WH)
1. PIE *ormo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arma
2. arma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OHG. arm
OEng. arm-
(a.) ‘miserable’
(ASaxD. 50)
(OEng. arm, OEng. earm)
1. PIE *ormo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arma
2. arma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *arm
3. arm
*a → ea
Change of *a into ea
Ra=›ea= → OEng. earm
Goth. arma-
(vb.) ‘ἐλεεῖν; misereri, misericordiam consequi’
(GoEtD. A200.)
(Goth. arma [1sg] Rom 9,15 A)
1. PIE *ormo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. arma-
Hitt. armala-
(a.) ‘krank’
(HHand. 32, 63)
(LuPG. 131-134)
1. PIE *ormolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. armala-
Hitt. armalia-
(vb.1.) ‘be(come) ill; afflict (with illness)’
(HED A:159)
1. PIE *ormoleio-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. armaleia-
Hitt. armania-
(vb.2.M) ‘krank werden’
(HEG A:63)
1. PIE *ormoneio-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. armaneia-
√ormi-
Arm. oł·ormi-
(vb.) ‘sich erbarmen’ (WH. 1:184)
(EtDiArm. 529)
(Arm. oł·ormim)


PIE √r- √or- √er- (vb.) ‘gebären’
(IEW —)
√oro-
TochA. arä-
(pr.A.) ‘producere, procreare’
(Poucha 8)
(TochA. aräṣ, arässi [inf.])
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. ara-
√orm-
(HEG A:63)
(HIL. 248)
Hitt. armāḫ-
(vb.2.) ‘schwängern’, (za) ‘schwanger werden’
(HHand. 22)
(Hitt. ar-ma-aḫ-ḫi [3sg], ar-ma-aḫ-ḫa-an-zi)
1. PIE *ormēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ormāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ormāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ormāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ormāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *armāh-
4. armāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. armāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. armāḫiške/a-
(vb.) ‘schwängern’, (za) ‘schwanger werden’
(HHand. 22)
1. PIE *ormēɑhiski̯e/o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ormāɑhiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ormāɑhiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ormāhiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ormāhiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ormāhisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. ormāhisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *armāhisḱe/a-
5. armāhisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *armāhiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. armāhiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *armāhiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. armāhiške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. armāḫiške/a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. armāḫan-
(n.) ‘praegnancy’
(HHand. 22)
(Hitt. ar-ma-aḫ-ḫa-an-ni [L])
1. PIE *ormēɑhon-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ormāɑhon-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ormāɑhon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ormāhon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ormāhon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *armāhan-
4. armāhan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. armāḫan-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. armāḫant-
(pt.) ‘schwanger’
(HHand. 22)
(Hitt. ar-ma-aḫ-ḫa-an-t-)
1. PIE *ormēɑhont-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ormāɑhont-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ormāɑhont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ormāhont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ormāhont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *armāhant-
4. armāhant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. armāḫant-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. armāḫu-
(vb.1.) ‘schwängern’, (za) ‘schwanger werden’
(HHand. 22)
(Hitt. ar-ma-aḫ-ḫu-u[d-du])
1. PIE *ormēɑhu-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ormāɑhu-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ormāɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ormāhu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ormāhu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *armāhu-
4. armāhu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. armāḫu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. armāḫu̯a-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘schwängern’
(HIL. 248)
(Hitt. ar-ma-aḫ-ḫu-aš [G], ar-ma-ḫu-ua-az-za)
1. PIE *ormēɑhu̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ormāɑhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ormāɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ormāhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ormāhu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *armāhu̯a-
4. armāhu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. armāḫu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. armai-
(vb.1.) ‘schwanger sein’
(HHand. 22)
(Hitt. ar-ma-iz-zi, ar-ma-a-iz-zi)
1. PIE *ormoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. armai-
Hitt. armant-
(pt.) ‘schwanger’
(HHand. 22)
(Hitt. ar-ma-an-t-)
1. PIE *ormont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. armant-
Hitt. armau̯a-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘schwanger sein’
(HIL. 248)
(Hitt. ar-ma-u-ua-aš [sgG])
1. PIE *ormou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. armau̯a-
Hitt. armau̯ar/n-
(n.) ‘Schwangerschaft’
(HHand. 22)
1. PIE *ormou̯or/n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. armau̯ar/n-
Hitt. armau̯ant-
(pr.) ‘schwanger, trächtig: pregnant’
(HHand. 22)
(Hitt. ar-ma-u-ua-an-za [sgN], ar-ma-u-an-da-an)
1. PIE *ormou̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. armau̯ant-


PIE √r- √or- √er- (vb.) ‘orakeln, durch Orakel ermitteln, fragen, (unter)suchen’
(IEW 337)
√ero-
Gr. ἐρό-
(ao.) ‘fragen: ask’
(GEW 1: 467-468)
(Od. ἐρέσθαι)
1. PIE *eró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἐρό-
√orei-
(HEG A:74)
(HIL. 241f., HED A:136ff.)
Hitt. arei-
(vb.) ‘orakeln, durch Orakel ermitteln’
(HIL. 241)
(Hitt. a-ri-e-ez-zi, a-ri-en-zi, a-ri-er, HHand. 21)
1. PIE *orei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. arei-
Hitt. arei̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘to consult an oracle’
(HEG A:74)
(Hitt. a-ri-ia-mi [1], a-ri-ia-ši [2], a-ri-ia-zi [3])
1. PIE *orei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. arei̯a-
Hitt. arei̯ant-
(pt.) ‘orakeln, durch Orakel ermitteln’
(HHand. 21)
(Hitt. a-ri-ia-an-t-)
1. PIE *orei̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. arei̯ant-
Hitt. arei̯ašešar-
(n.) Orakelbefragung, Orakel’
(HEG A:74)
(Hitt. a-ri-ia-še-eš-šar)
1. PIE *orei̯osesor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arei̯asesar-
2. arei̯asesar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. arei̯ašešar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√erei-
Gr. ἐρέο-
(pr.A.) ‘fragen: ask’
(GEW 1:467-468)
(Ep. ἐρέω [1sg])
1. PIE *eréi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *eréo-
2. eréo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἐρέο-
√eri-
Gr. εἴρο-
(pr.M.) ‘fragen: ask’
(GEW 1:467-468)
(Ep. εἴρομαι [1sg])
1. PIE *éri̯o-
*éri̯ → eír
Epenthesis of *i
Réri̯›eír → *eíro-
2. eíro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. εἴρο-


PIE √r- √or- √er- (sb.) ‘Land, Ort’
(IEW —)
√oro-
HLu. ḫab·ara-
(FLUMEN.c.) ‘Flußland’
(CHLu. 1.1.48 Hu.)
(HLu. “FLUMEN”)há-/pa+ra/i-sá [sgN])
1. PIE *ɦɑebɑɦ·oro-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑabɑɦ·oro-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑabɑɦ·oro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦabɦ·oro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦabɦ·oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦabɦ·ara-
4. ɦabɦ·ara-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ɦab·ara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ɦab·ara-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. ḫab·ara-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Goth. jain·ar
(adv.) ‘an jenem Ort, dort, in yon place: ἐκει̃: ibi, illic’
(GoEtD. J4.)
(Goth. jainar Mat 5,23 CA; Mat 5,24 CA; etc., GoElB. 192A2, HbGo. 195)
1. PIE *Π·oro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ara
2. Π·ara
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Goth. Π·ar
Goth. alj·ar
(adv.) ‘anderswo sein (wisa-): ἀπει̃ναι: abesse’
(GoEtD. A127.)
(Goth. aljar wisa- 2Kr 10,1 B; 2Kr 10,11 B, GoElB. 192A2, HbGo. 195)
1. PIE *Π·oro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ara
2. Π·ara
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Goth. Π·ar


PIE √rɑh- √orɑh- √erɑh- (sb.) ‘Grenze, Gebiet, Rand, Region’ (adv.) ‘ringsum, weg(s)’
(IEW 854-7)
(Pedersen Celtic + Pyysalo Lithuanian)
√ōrēɑh-
(HEG I:55)
Lat. ōrā-
(f.) ‘Rand, Saum, Grenze, Meeresküste, Region’
(WH. 2:218)
(Puhvel HED 1/2: 129f. Melchert 1994a: 29, 84)
1. PIE *ōrēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ōrāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ōrāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ōrāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ōrāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. ōrā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Hitt. ārāḫ-
(adv.bs.) ‘ringsum, außerhalb’
(HHand. 20)
(Hitt. a-ra-aḫ-za, HIL. 291)
1. PIE *ōrēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ōrāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ōrāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ōrāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ōrāh-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ārāh-
4. ārāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ārāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
MidCymr. or-
(f.) ‘limit, boundary, coast, margin, brink, brim, bank, edge’
1. PIE *orēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *orāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. orāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. orāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *orā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. orā
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *ora
5. ora
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → MidCymr. or
√orɑho-
(HEG I:55)
Hitt. arḫa-
(c.) ‘Grenze, Gebiet’ (Sum. ZAG)
(HHand. 21)
(Hitt. ar-ḫa, ar-ḫa-an, ar-ḫa-as, ar-ḫi)
1. PIE *orɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arha-
3. arha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. arḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. arḫa
(adv.) ‘weg, abseits’ (pref.) ‘weg-, aus-, heim-’
(HHand. 21)
1. PIE *orɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arha-
3. arha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. arḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. arḫa
(postp.pref.) ‘ab, wegs’
(CHLu. 1.1.4)
(in ARHA-ha-wa/i la)
1. PIE *orɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arha-
3. arha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. arḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
MidIr. or-
(m.*o) ‘edge, limit’
(EtDiPC. 137)
(LEIA O:26)
1. PIE *orɑho
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orho
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orho
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oro
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. oro
*-o → -Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R=o›=0 → MidIr. or
Corn. or-
(n.f.) ‘boundary, border, frontier’
1. PIE *orɑho
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orho
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orho
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oro
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. oro
*-o → -Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R=o›=0 → Corn. or
OLith. ara·ki-
(m.) ‘Grenzstein, Grenze’
(ALiEtWb. A-45)
(LiEtWb. 121f.)
1. PIE *orɑho·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orho·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orho·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oro·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. oro·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OLith. ara·Σ-
√erɑhe/o-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. erḫa-
(c.) ‘Sum. ZAG : Grenze, Gebiet : border, area’
(HHand. 62)
(ir-ḫa, ir-ḫa-as, ir-ḫa-an, er-ḫi, ir-ḫa-az, ir-ḫu-us, HIL. 291)
1. PIE *erɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *erho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. erho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *erha-
3. erha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. erḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. erḫa-
(sb.) ‘frontier’
(CHLu. 1.1.19)
(HLu. (“FINES”)i+ra/i-há-za)
1. PIE *erɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *erho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. erho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *erha-
3. erha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. erḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. erḫa·mu̯a-
(NÚ.c.*) (devin; autre)
(NOMS. 461)
(Hitt. ir-ḫa-A.A; ZAG-A.A.)
1. PIE *erɑho·mu̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *erho·mu̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. erho·mu̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *erha·mu̯a
3. erha·mu̯a
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. erḫa·mu̯a
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. erḫa·u̯a-
(.) ‘Reihum·beopfern’
(HHand. 62)
1. PIE *erɑho·u̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *erho·u̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. erho·u̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *erha·u̯a-
3. erha·u̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. erḫa·u̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lith. ere·kỹ-
(m.) ‘Grenzstein, Grenze’
(ALiEtWb. A-45)
1. PIE *erɑhe·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *erhe·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. erhe·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lith. ere·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√orɑhoi-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. arḫai-
(vb.dn.) ‘die Runde machen’
(HHand. 21)
(HIL. 291)
1. PIE *orɑhoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orhoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orhoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arhai-
3. arhai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. arḫai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OLith. arai·ki-
(m.) ‘Grenz·stein, Grenze’
(ALiEtWb. A-45)
1. PIE *orɑhoi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orhoi·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orhoi·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oroi·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. oroi·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OLith. arai·Σ-
Hitt. arḫai̯·an
(adv.) ‘abseits, gesondert’ (EHS 351, 353)
(HHand. 21)
(HIL. 291)
1. PIE *orɑhoi·on-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orhoi·on-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orhoi·on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arhai·an-
3. arhai·an-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → *arhai̯·an-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. arhai̯·an-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. arḫai̯·an-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√erɑhoi-
Hitt. erḫai-
(vb.1.) ‘die Runde machen’ (HiuA 137)
(HHand. 62)
(Hitt. ir-ḫa-a-iz-zi [3sg])
1. PIE *erɑhoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *erhoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. erhoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *erhai-
3. erhai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. erḫai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√orɑhi-
LycA. eri-
(pref.) ‘XX’
(XX:XX)
(Laroche 1957-58:177f.)
1. PIE *erɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *erhi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. erhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → LycA. eri-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OLith. arì·ki-
(m.) ‘Grenzstein, Grenze’
(ALiEtWb. A-45)
1. PIE *orɑhí·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orhí·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orhí·Σ-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *orhì·Σ-
3. orhì·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *orì·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. orì·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OLith. arì·Σ-
OBret. orio-
(.) ‘gl. oram’
(EtDiPC. 137)
(OBret. orion [sgA])
1. PIE *orɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orhi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ori̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. ori̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OBret. orio-


PIE √ri- √roi- √rei- (vb.) ‘fließen, strömen’ (sb.) ‘Quelle’
(IEW 330)
√rin-
RV. riṇ-
(√aoM.) ‘ins Fließen geraten, rinnen’
(WbRV. 1164)
(in RV. riṇate [3pl])
1. PIE *rin-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. riṇ-
√rino-
RV. riṇá-
(pr.A.) ‘strömen lassen, frei lassen’
(WbRV. 1163)
(RV. riṇánti [3pl])
1. PIE *rinó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *riná-
2. riná-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. riṇá-
Hitt. arina-
(c.) ‘Quelle = PÚ=TUL2na-’
(HEG I:57-8)
(HHand. 22)
1. PIE *orino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. arina-
Hitt. arina-
(URU.) ‘›Matila’
(OGH. 32-36)
(Hitt. a-ri-in-na-aš, a-ri-in-na)
1. PIE *orino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. arina-


PIE √riu- √roiu- √reiu- (sb.) ‘Eifer, Zank; Rivale, Nebenbühler, Gegner’ (vb.) ‘nacheifern
(IEW 330-1)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + Lat. & OCS.)
√riuo-
Hitt. ḫani·riu̯a-
(c.) ‘Gerichtsgegner’ ‹read “ri” instead of “tal”!›
(HHand. 38)
1. PIE *hɑeni·riu̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑani·riu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑani·riu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hani·riu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hani·riu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hani·riu̯a-
4. hani·riu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫani·riu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫani·riu̯a·iš-
(vb.2.) ‘Prozeßgegner werden’
(HHand. 38)
(Hitt. ḫa-an-ni-ri-ua-eš-šer [3pl]; Thus read ‘ri’ instead of ‘tal’)
1. PIE *hɑeni·riu̯o·is-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑani·riu̯o·is-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑani·riu̯o·is-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hani·riu̯o·is-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hani·riu̯o·is-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hani·riu̯a·is-
4. hani·riu̯a·is-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hani·riu̯a·iš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. hani·riu̯a·iš-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫani·riu̯a·iš-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫani·riu̯a·na-
(c.) ‘Gerichtsgegner’
(HHand. 38)
(Hitt. ḫa-an-ni-ri-ua-na-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑeni·riu̯o·no-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑani·riu̯o·no-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑani·riu̯o·no-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hani·riu̯o·no-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hani·riu̯o·no-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hani·riu̯a·na-
4. hani·riu̯a·na-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫani·riu̯a·na-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lat. rīuāli-
(a.) ‘Nebenbuhler’
(WH. 2:437)
1. PIE *reiu̯ēɑhli-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *reiu̯āɑhli-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. reiu̯āɑhli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *reiu̯āhli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. reiu̯āhli-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *reiu̯āli-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. reiu̯āli-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *rīu̯āli-
5. rīu̯āli-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. rīuāli-
Lat. rīuīno-
(a.) ‘Nebenbuhler’
(WH. 2:437)
1. PIE *reiu̯eino-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *rīu̯īno-
2. rīu̯īno-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. rīuīno-
OCS. rivĭnije
(n.) ‘Eifer, Missgunst, Zank’
(Sadnik √760)
1. PIE *reiu̯ineii̯os
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *reiu̯ineii̯as
2. reiu̯ineii̯as
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *reiu̯ineii̯os
3. reiu̯ineii̯os
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root-final)
Ros=›o= → *reiu̯ineii̯o
4. reiu̯ineii̯o
*-i̯o → -i̯e
Change of root-final -i̯o to -i̯e
Ri̯o=›i̯e= → *reiu̯ineii̯e
5. reiu̯ineii̯e
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *rīu̯inīi̯e
6. rīu̯inīi̯e
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *rīvinīi̯e
7. rīvinīi̯e
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *rīvinīje
8. rīvinīje
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *rīvĭnīje
9. rīvĭnīje
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. rivĭnije
OCS. ·rivĭniteljĭ-
(m.) ‘Eiferer’
(Sadnik √760)
(Persson Beitr. 770)
1. PIE *reiu̯inei·Σ
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *rīu̯inī·Σ
2. rīu̯inī·Σ
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *rīvinī·Σ
3. rīvinī·Σ
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *rīvĭnī·Σ
4. rīvĭnī·Σ
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. rivĭni·Σ
OCS. rivĭnova-
(vb.) ‘eifersüchtig sein, nacheifern’
(Sadnik √760)
1. PIE *reiu̯inou̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *reiu̯inou̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. reiu̯inou̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *reiu̯inou̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. reiu̯inou̯āh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *reiu̯inau̯āh-
4. reiu̯inau̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *reiu̯inau̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. reiu̯inau̯ā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *reiu̯inou̯ā-
6. reiu̯inou̯ā-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *rīu̯inou̯ā-
7. rīu̯inou̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *rīvinovā-
8. rīvinovā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *rīvinova-
9. rīvinova-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *rīvĭnova-
10. rīvĭnova-
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. rivĭnova-
OCS. rivĭnostĭ-
(f.) ‘Eifer, Nacheiferung’
(Sadnik √760)
1. PIE *reiu̯inosti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *reiu̯inasti-
2. reiu̯inasti-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *reiu̯inosti-
3. reiu̯inosti-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *rīu̯inosti-
4. rīu̯inosti-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *rīvinosti-
5. rīvinosti-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *rīvĭnostĭ-
6. rīvĭnostĭ-
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. rivĭnostĭ-
OCS. rivĭnivŭ-
(a.) ‘eifernd, rechthaberisch’
(Sadnik √760)
1. PIE *reiu̯ineiu̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *reiu̯ineiu̯a
2. reiu̯ineiu̯a
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *reiu̯ineiu̯o
3. reiu̯ineiu̯o
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *reiu̯ineiu̯u
4. reiu̯ineiu̯u
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *rīu̯inīu̯u
5. rīu̯inīu̯u
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *rīvinīvu
6. rīvinīvu
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *rīvĭnīvu
7. rīvĭnīvu
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → *rivĭnivu
8. rivĭnivu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. rivĭnivŭ


PIE √rku- √orku- √erku- (vb.) ‘beten, bitten, (lob)singen, preisen’
(IEW 340)
(See Melchert 1998 & Calin 2014 for the meaning ‘chant’ in Hittite)
√orku-
Hitt. arku-
(vb.) ‘pray, plead’
(HIL. 245)
(Hitt. ar-ku-ut-ta [3sg])
1. PIE *orku-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. arku-
√rku-
RV. ŕ̥k-
(f.) ‘Lied’
(WbRV. 278)
(RV. ŕ̥cam [A], r̥cā́ [I], r̥cás [G], ŕ̥cas [plN], r̥cā́m [plG], r̥gbhís [plI], KEWA 1:50, 118)
1. PIE *ŕ̥ku-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → RV. ŕ̥k-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
RV. an·ŕ̥k-
(a.) ‘liedlos’
(WbRV. 62)
1. PIE *hɑen·ŕ̥ku-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑan·ŕ̥ku-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑan·ŕ̥ku-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *han·ŕ̥ku-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. han·ŕ̥ku-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *an·ŕ̥ku-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. an·ŕ̥ku-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → RV. an·ŕ̥k-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
RV. ān·r̥k-
(pf.) ‘singen, lobsingen’
(WbRV. 111)
(RV. ānr̥cús [3pl])
1. PIE *Π·ŕ̥ku-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → RV. Π·ŕ̥k-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
RV. r̥k·ṣāmá-
(n.) ‘Lied und Gesang’
(WbRV. 277)
1. PIE *r̥ku·shɑōmó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *r̥ku·shōmó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. r̥ku·shōmó-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *r̥ku·šhōmó-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. r̥ku·šhōmó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *r̥ku·šhōmá-
4. r̥ku·šhōmá-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *r̥ku·šhāmá-
5. r̥ku·šhāmá-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *r̥ku·šāmá-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. r̥ku·šāmá-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *r̥k·šāmá-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
7. r̥k·šāmá-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. r̥k·ṣāmá-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
√orkuo-
Hitt. arku̯a-
(vb.) ‘beten, bitten, sich entschüldigen’
(HEG 1:60-61)
(Hitt. ar-ku-ua[-mi], ar-ku-an-zi (HIL. 245))
1. PIE *orku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. arku̯a-
Hitt. arku̯a-
(vb.) ‘chant’
(Melchert 1998; Calin 2014)
(Hitt. arkuwanzi [3pl], KBo xx 26 + xxv 34 Ro. 13-15
1. PIE *orku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. arku̯a-
RV. arká-
(m.) [Mg.] ‘Lied, Preisgesang, Sänger’
(WbRV. 109)
(RV. arká-)
1. PIE *orku̯ó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arku̯ó-
2. arku̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *arku̯á-
3. arku̯á-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → RV. arká-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
√erkue/o-
RV. árca-
(pr.1.) ‘singen, besingen, lobsingen, usw.’
(WbRV. 110-1)
(RV. árcati [3sg])
1. PIE *érku̯e-
PIE *ku̯ → ču̯
2nd palatalization of *ku̯
Rku̯›ču̯ → *érču̯e-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
2. érču̯e-
*ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RČU›Č → *érče-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
3. érče-
*č → c
From 2nd palatalization *č to c
Rč›c → *érce-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. érce-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *érca-
5. érca-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → RV. árca-
√orkuskie/o-
Hitt. arkuške/a-
(vb.) ‘intone in singing manner’
(Melchert 1998 & Calin 2014)
(KUB xxv 37 + xxxv 131 + li 9 i 39-40: ishamiskan-ma apa[t] /ishamāis/ n-at ishamiyawanzi /āppa/ a[rku]skanzi “the song is being sung and they are intoning it back in singing manner”)
1. PIE *orkuski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *orkusḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. orkusḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arkusḱe/a-
3. arkusḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *arkuske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. arkuske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. arkuške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. arkuške/a-
(vb.) ‘chant’
(Melchert 1998; Calin 2014)
(KUB xxxvi 12 + KBo xxvi 64 ii 10ff, Hitt. nu-za-kan [ish]amain dās nu-ssi nepi[s] daganzipass-a kattan arkuskanzi)
1. PIE *orkuski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *orkusḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. orkusḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arkusḱe/a-
3. arkusḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *arkuske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. arkuske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. arkuške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √rl- √orl- √erl- (sb.) ‘offspring, man, boy’ (a.) ‘male’
(IEW 326+328)
(+ Pyysalo)
√orolo-
Hitt. arala-
(c.) ‘Im Lande Tarḫuntaša.’
(OGHErg. 9)
(Hitt. a-ra-al-la-aš [N])
1. PIE *orolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. arala-
Hitt. aralai-
(vb.1.) ‘beigesellen, verheiraten (?)’
(HHand. 20)
(Hitt. aralait [2sg], Oettinger 1979:32)
1. PIE *oroloi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aralai-
√erlo-
OSax. erl-
(m.) ‘(noble)man, male offspring, boy’
(ASaxD. 254)
1. PIE *erlo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *erla
2. erla
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *irla
3. irla
irla -› erla
*a-umlaut of i
Rirla›erla → *erla
4. erla
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OSax. erl
OSax. erl-
(m.) ‘man, nobleman, male offspring’
(ASaxD. 254)
1. PIE *erlo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *erla
2. erla
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *irla
3. irla
irla -› erla
*a-umlaut of i
Rirla›erla → *erla
4. erla
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OSax. erl
√orlo-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ḫud·arla-
(c.) ‘ARAD = Diener, Knecht, Sklave’
(HHand. 57)
(Lit. Hitt. ḫud+arla- ‘dienst=eilend+mann”)
1. PIE *ɦɑud·orlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦud·orlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦud·orlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦud·arla-
3. ɦud·arla-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫud·arla-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Kpd. ḫud·arla-
(LÚ.c.) (cf. above)
(NOMS. 411.1A)
(Kpd. ḫu-da-ar-lá)
1. PIE *ɦɑud·orlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦud·orlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦud·orlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦud·arla-
3. ɦud·arla-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Kpd. ḫud·arla-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. arla-
(a.) ‘‹male (?)›’
(CHLu. 9.1.15)
(HLu. ara/i-la)
1. PIE *orlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. arla-
HLu. arla-
(.) ‘‹man (?)›?
(CHLu. 2.22.19)
(HLu. ara/i-la-´)
1. PIE *orlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. arla-
Hitt. arlanta
(ḪUR.SAG.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGHErg. 12)
(Hitt. a-ar-la-an-ta)
1. PIE *orlonto
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. arlanta
Hitt. arlanta-
(ḪUR.SAG.) “An Ḫulaja -› dU-taša, Arlantuja”;
(OGH. 37-8)
(Hitt. ar-la-an-da, Luwiya 247f.)
1. PIE *orlonto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. arlanta-
Hitt. arlant·ui̯a-
(URU.) ‘In Land Tuwanuwa, s. dort.’
(OGH. 38)
(Hitt. ar-la-an-du-ia-aš [sgN]
1. PIE *orlont·ui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. arlant·ui̯a-
CLu. arla·nu̯a-
(cs.) ‘Kimball 1999:223, CLuwLex. 28, DLL. 31’
(Starke StBoT 31:567)
(CLu. a-ar-la-nu-ua-at-ta
1. PIE *orlo·nu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. arla·nu̯a-
Hitt. arla·u̯izi-
(NÚ.c.) ‘if = Hitt. LÚ.UR.MAḪ (?)’
(NOMS. 130a)
(Hitt. ar-la-ui-iz-zi [All] = Hitt. LÚ.UR.MAḪ
1. PIE *orlo·u̯idɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orlo·u̯idɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orlo·u̯idɦi-
PIE *dɦi → jɦi
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi›jɦi → *orlo·u̯ijɦi-
3. orlo·u̯ijɦi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arla·u̯ijɦi-
4. arla·u̯ijɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *arla·u̯iji-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arla·u̯iji-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. arla·u̯izi-
√orli-
Hitt. ḫud·arli-
(c.) ‘Diener, Knecht, Sklave’ (Sum. ARAD/ÍR)
(HHand. 57)
1. PIE *ɦɑud·orli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦud·orli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦud·orli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦud·arli-
3. ɦud·arli-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫud·arli-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫud·arli-
(NÚ.c.) (prêtre)
(NOMS. 411.2.)
(Hitt. ḫu-u-tar-li [All])
1. PIE *ɦɑud·orli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦud·orli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦud·orli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦud·arli-
3. ɦud·arli-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫud·arli-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. arma·ḫud·arli-
(fdc.*)
(NOMS. 132)
(in Hitt. fdSIN-ÍR-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *ormo·ɦɑud·orli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ormo·ɦud·orli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ormo·ɦud·orli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arma·ɦud·arli-
3. arma·ɦud·arli-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. arma·ḫud·arli-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. mašana·ḫud·arli-
(LÚ.c.*) (fille de Muršili II, épouse de Masturi)
(NOMS. 775)
(Hitt. DINGIRMEšÍR-in)
1. PIE *mosono·ɦɑud·orli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mosono·ɦud·orli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mosono·ɦud·orli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *masana·ɦud·arli-
3. masana·ɦud·arli-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *mašana·ɦud·arli-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. mašana·ɦud·arli-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. mašana·ḫud·arli-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. ḫud·arli-
(m*.) ‘serviteur’
(DLL. 49)
(in Hitt. mÌRli-)
1. PIE *ɦɑud·orli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦud·orli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦud·orli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦud·arli-
3. ɦud·arli-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫud·arli-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. ḫud·arlei̯a-
(a.) ‘sklavisch’
(DLL. 49)
(CLu. ḫu-tar-li-ia-an [sgA] = ÌRan [dup.]))
1. PIE *ɦɑud·orlei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦud·orlei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦud·orlei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦud·arlei̯a-
3. ɦud·arlei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫud·arlei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. ḫud·arlaa-
(c.) ‘Sklave, Diener’ (‘serviteur’)
(DLL. 49)
(CLu. ḫu-tar-la-a-an [sgA])
1. PIE *ɦɑud·orloi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦud·orloi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦud·orloi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦud·arlai̯a-
3. ɦud·arlai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *ɦud·arlaa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. ɦud·arlaa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫud·arlaa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√orlibɑɦ-
Hitt. arlib-
(c.) ‘ein Körperteil, Penis (?), Oberschenkel (?)’
(HEG I:61-2)
(EHS 331, Laroche RA 47:40-49)
1. PIE *orlibɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orlibɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orlibɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arlibɦ-
3. arlibɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. arlib-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √rn- √orn- √ern- (sb.) ‘Schuld’ (vb.) ‘büßen, ersetzen’
(IEW 501)
(Pyysalo (2013:242)
√rn-
RV. r̥ṇá-
(a.) ‘schuldig, sündig’
(WbRV. 281)
(RV. r̥ṇás [N])
1. PIE *r̥nó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *r̥ná-
2. r̥ná-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. r̥ṇá-
Sogd. 'rn-
(sb.) ‘Schuld’
(KEWA 1:121)
1. PIE *orno
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arna
2. arna
*a → '
Orthographic change of *a into '
Ra›' → Sogd. 'rn'
LAv. arǝnat·čaēša-
(pt.a.) ‘avenging debts (?), Cowgill 1965:154-5’
(AIWb. 195)
(LAv. arǝnat.čaēša-)
1. PIE *ernet·Σ-
*r → rǝ
Anaptyxis of ǝ (Schwa)
Rr›rǝ → *erǝnet·Σ-
2. erǝnet·Σ-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → LAv. arǝnat·Σ-
Khot. ārra-
(sb.) ‘Schuld’
(KEWA 1:121)
1. PIE *ōrno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōrna-
2. ōrna-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ārna-
3. ārna-
*rn → rr
Assimilation of *rn into rr
Rrn›rr → Khot. ārra-
Hitt. arnu-
(vb.) ‘büßen, ersetzen’
(Tischler 1972:278)
1. PIE *ornu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. arnu-


PIE √rs- √ors- √ers- (vb.) ‘stoßen, stechen’ (sb.) ‘Neid’
(IEW 335/338)
(Persson, Beitr. 84)
√oros-
LAv. araska-
(m.) ‘Neid : envy’
(AIWb. 187-188)
1. PIE *orosko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → LAv. araska-
√orso-
Hitt. aršani-
(vb.) ‘to be envious, angry’
(HIL. 251)
(Hitt. ar-ša-ne-e-ši)
1. PIE *orsoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsani-
2. arsani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aršani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Pal. aršani-
(GKL.vb.) ‘to be envious, angry’
(HIL. 251)
(GKL. ar-ša-ni-i-e-er)
1. PIE *orsoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsani-
2. arsani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Pal. aršani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aršanei̯a-
(vb.) ‘neidisch/eifersuchtig sein, beneide, sich ärgern’
(HHand. 24)
(Hitt. ar-ša-ni-ia-at)
1. PIE *orsonei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsanei̯a-
2. arsanei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aršanei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OInd. arṣaṇī́-
(f.) ‘stechender Schmerz’
(KEWA 1:53)
1. PIE *orsoniɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *orsoniíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. orsoniíh-
PIE *rs → rš
Ruki-rule for *rs
RRukiOIA → *oršoniíh-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. oršoniíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aršaniíh-
4. aršaniíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aršanií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. aršanií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *aršanī́-
6. aršanī́-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *arṣanī́-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
7. arṣanī́-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → OInd. arṣaṇī́-
√rso-
AV. r̥ṣa-
(pr.) ‘stossen, stechen’
(WbRV. 292)
(AV. r̥ṣati [3sg])
1. PIE *r̥so-
PIE *rs → rš
Ruki-rule for *rs
RRukiOIA → *r̥šo-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. r̥šo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *r̥ša-
3. r̥ša-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → AV. r̥ṣa-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
√orsi-
OIcl. err-
(n.) ‘Narbe’
(IEW 338)
1. PIE *orsi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. arsi-
OIcl. erra·n-
(f.) ‘Kampflust’
(ANEtWb 105)
1. PIE *orsio·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. arsia·n-
LAv. arǝšyant-
(a.) ‘neidisch, misgünstig’
(AIWb. 206)
(Benveniste BSL 33 [1932]:139)
1. PIE *orsi̯ont-
PIE *rs → rš
Ruki-rule for *rs
RRukiIr → *orši̯ont-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. orši̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arši̯ant-
3. arši̯ant-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. aršyant-
√rsi-
gAv. ǝrǝši-
(f.) ‘Neid’
(AIWb. 356)
(gAv. ǝrǝšiš [sgN])
1. PIE *r̥si-
PIE *rs → rš
Ruki-rule for *rs
RRukiIr → *r̥ši-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. r̥ši-
*r̥ → ǝr
Change of *r̥ into ǝr
Rr̥›ǝr → gAv. ǝrši-


PIE √rtɑh- √rdɑɦ- (vb.) ‘ansiedeln, pflanzen, hegen, usw.’
(IEW 332)
(Pyysalo: OSax. + OEng.)
√ortɑhi-
(HEG A:68)
Hitt. arša-
(sb.) ‘unbekannter Gegenstand’
(HHand. 24)
1. PIE *ortɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orthi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orthi̯o-
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *orcho-
3. orcho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *archa-
4. archa-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *arca-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arca-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. arša-
Hitt. arša-
(ḪUR.SAG.) ‘Liste von (göttlichen?) Bergen.’
(OGHErg. 12)
(Hitt. ar-ša-aš [N])
1. PIE *ortɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orthi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orthi̯o-
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *orcho-
3. orcho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *archa-
4. archa-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *arca-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arca-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. arša-
Hitt. aršai-
(vb.) ‘pflanzen, hegen’ (vb.MP.) ‘sich pflegen’
(HHand. 24)
1. PIE *ortɑhi̯oi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orthi̯oi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orthi̯oi-
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *orchoi-
3. orchoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *archai-
4. archai-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *arcai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arcai-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. aršai-
Hitt. aršei-
(c.) ‘Pflanzung, Baumschule (?)’
(HHand. 24)
1. PIE *ortɑhi̯ei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orthi̯ei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orthi̯ei-
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *orchei-
3. orchei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *archei-
4. archei-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *arcei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arcei-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. aršei-
Hitt. aršeike/a-
(vb.) ‘hegen : plant, cultivate’
(HHand. 24)
(Melchert 1994:178)
1. PIE *ortɑhi̯eiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orthi̯eiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orthi̯eiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *orthi̯eisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. orthi̯eisḱe/o-
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *orcheisḱe/o-
4. orcheisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *archeisḱe/a-
5. archeisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *archeiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. archeiske/a-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *arceiske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. arceiske/a-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → *aršeiske/a-
8. aršeiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aršeiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LycC. ἀρσα·λο-
(I.) ‘hegend+ λο-’
(LuPG 117)
(Lyc. Aρσαλος)
1. PIE *ortɑhi̯o·lu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orthi̯o·lu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orthi̯o·lu-
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *orcho·lu-
3. orcho·lu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *archa·lu-
4. archa·lu-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *arca·lu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arca·lu-
*c → s
Change of *c into s
Rc›s → *arsa·lu-
6. arsa·lu-
* u → o
Change of *u into o
Ru›o → *arsa·lo-
7. arsa·lo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LycC. ἀρσα·λο-
Hitt. aršana-
(Éc.) ‘Herberge, Gasthaus’
(HEG 1:75)
(HHand. 25)
1. PIE *ortɑhi̯ono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orthi̯ono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orthi̯ono-
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *orchono-
3. orchono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *archana-
4. archana-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *arcana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arcana-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. aršana-
Hitt. aršaša-
(URUa.gen.) ‘Im Gebiet von Kinara’
(OGH. 40)
(Hitt. ar-ša-a-ša [All])
1. PIE *ortɑhi̯oso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orthi̯oso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orthi̯oso-
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *orchoso-
3. orchoso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *archasa-
4. archasa-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *arcasa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arcasa-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → *aršasa-
6. aršasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aršaša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LycC. ἀρσασι-
(I.) ‘XX’
(LuPG 117)
(Lyc. Aρσασις)
1. PIE *ortɑhi̯osi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orthi̯osi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orthi̯osi-
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *orchosi-
3. orchosi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *archasi-
4. archasi-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *arcasi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arcasi-
*c → s
Change of *c into s
Rc›s → *arsasi-
6. arsasi-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LycC. ἀρσασι-
LycC. τεδι·αρσασι-
(I.) ‘-(?)-’
(LuPG. 149)
Lyc. τεδιαρσασι-)
1. PIE *Π·ortɑhi̯osi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·orthi̯osi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·orthi̯osi-
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *Π·orchosi-
3. Π·orchosi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·archasi-
4. Π·archasi-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *Π·arcasi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. Π·arcasi-
*c → s
Change of *c into s
Rc›s → *Π·arsasi-
6. Π·arsasi-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LycC. Π·αρσασι-
Hitt. aršauna-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGHErg. 13)
(Hitt. ar-ša-u-na [All])
1. PIE *ortɑhi̯ouno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orthi̯ouno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orthi̯ouno-
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *orchouno-
3. orchouno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *archauna-
4. archauna-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *arcauna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arcauna-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. aršauna-
√ordɑɦ-
OSax. ard-
(m.) ‘Aufenthaltsort’
(ASächsWb. 3)
1. PIE *ordɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ordo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. ordo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arda
4. arda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OSax. ard
OEng. eard-
(m.) ‘native soil, land, land, residence, etc.’
(ASaxD. 231)
1. PIE *ordɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ordo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. ordo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arda
4. arda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *ard
5. ard
*a → ea
Change of *a into ea
Ra=›ea= → OEng. eard
√ordɑɦi-
(Pyysalo)
OEng. eardia-
(vb.) ‘dwell, live, feed : habitare’
(ASaxD. 232)
1. PIE *ordɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦi̯o-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ordi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. ordi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ardi̯a-
4. ardi̯a-
*a → ea
Change of *a into ea
Ra=›ea= → *eardi̯a-
5. eardi̯a-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OEng. eardia-
Hitt. arzei̯a-
(n.) ‘bestelltes Land, Kornkammer des Landes’
(HEG 1:75)
(Hitt. A.ŠÀ ar-zi-ia-aš, ar-zi-ia-an)
1. PIE *ordɑɦi̯ei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦi̯ei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦi̯ei̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *orjɦei̯o-
3. orjɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arjɦei̯a-
4. arjɦei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *arjei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arjei̯a-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. arzei̯a-
CLu. arzei̯a·ši-
(a.gen.) ‘bezeichnet eine Geländeeigenschaft’
(DLL. 32)
(CLu. ar-zi-ia-aš-ši-iš [sgN], HHand. 25)
1. PIE *ordɑɦi̯ei̯o·si-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦi̯ei̯o·si-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦi̯ei̯o·si-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *orjɦei̯o·si-
3. orjɦei̯o·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arjɦei̯a·si-
4. arjɦei̯a·si-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *arzɦei̯a·si-
5. arzɦei̯a·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *arzɦei̯a·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. arzɦei̯a·ši-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. arzei̯a·ši-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. arzana-
(É.) ‘Gasthaus, Herberge’
(HEG I:75)
(HHand. 24)
1. PIE *ordɑɦi̯ono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦi̯ono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦi̯ono-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *orjɦono-
3. orjɦono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arjɦana-
4. arjɦana-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *arjana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arjana-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. arzana-
Hitt. arzanan-
(n.) ‘Ansiedlung : settlement’
(HHand. 25)
(Hitt. arzanani [sgD], EHS 296)
1. PIE *ordɑɦi̯onon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦi̯onon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦi̯onon-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *orjɦonon-
3. orjɦonon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arjɦanan-
4. arjɦanan-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *arjanan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arjanan-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. arzanan-
Hitt. arzau̯a-
(URUc.) ‘Land Luwija; -› Ašarata OGHErg. 14’
(OGH. 42-5)
(Hitt. ar-za-ua-an, ar-za-u-ua-aš)
1. PIE *ordɑɦi̯ou̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦi̯ou̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦi̯ou̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *orjɦou̯o-
3. orjɦou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arjɦau̯a-
4. arjɦau̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *arjau̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arjau̯a-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. arzau̯a-
√ordɑɦu-
OSax. ardo-
(vb.) ‘bewohnen’
(ASächsWb. 4)
(OSax. ardon [inf.])
1. PIE *ordɑɦu
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦu
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦu
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ordu
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. ordu
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ardu
4. ardu
*-u → -o
Change of root-final -u into -o
R=u›=o → OSax. ardo


PIE √rdɑɦ √ordɑɦ- √erdɑɦ- (vb.) ‘trennen, spalten, sägen’ (sb.) ‘Seite, Hälfte’ (a.) ‘vereinzelt’
(IEW 383)
√ordɑɦo-
Hitt. arda-
(vb.2.) ‘sägen (HHand. 24)’
(HEG1:56)
1. PIE *ordɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ardɦa-
3. ardɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. arda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. ardhá-
(m.) ‘die Hälfte, die Partei’ (pron.) ‘der andere’
(WbRV. 114)
1. PIE *ordɑɦó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ardɦó-
3. ardɦó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *ardɦá-
4. ardɦá-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. ardhá-
RV. árdha-
(m.) ‘Seite, Hälfte’ (des Luftkreises, des Himmels)
(WbRV. 114-5)
1. PIE *órdɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *órdɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. órdɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *órdɦa-
3. órdɦa-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *árdɦa-
4. árdɦa-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. árdha-
LAv. arǝδa-
(a.) ‘halb’ (m.) ‘Seite’
(AIWb. 193)
1. PIE *ordɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ardɦa-
3. ardɦa-
*r → rǝ
Anaptyxis of ǝ (Schwa)
Rr›rǝ → *arǝdɦa-
4. arǝdɦa-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *arǝda-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. arǝda-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → LAv. arǝδa-
Hitt. ardal-
(URUDU.n.) ‘Steinsäge’
(HHand. 24)
(Hitt. ar-da-a-la [plNA], KLuN. 306)
1. PIE *ordɑɦol-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦol-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦol-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ardɦal-
3. ardɦal-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ardal-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. ardala·ši-
(a.) ‘ARTALASI-’ (epith. of dU)
(CHLu. 10.9.5)
(HLu. a+ra/i-ta-la-si-na [sgA])
1. PIE *ordɑɦolo·si-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦolo·si-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦolo·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ardɦala·si-
3. ardɦala·si-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ardala·si-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ardala·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. ardala·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. ardali-
(.) ‘-(?)-’
(CHLu. 10.9.10)
(HLu. a+ra/i-ta-li-na)
1. PIE *ordɑɦoli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦoli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ardɦali-
3. ardɦali-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. ardali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ardadar-
(n.N.act.) ‘Einschnitt im Fels, Felsspalte, Schlucht’
(HHand. 24)
(Hitt. artatar-)
1. PIE *ordɑɦoodɑɦor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦoodɦor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦoodɦor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ardɦaadɦar-
3. ardɦaadɦar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ardaadar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√erdɑɦo-
LAv. arǝδah-
(n.) ‘Seite’
(AIWb. 194)
1. PIE *erdɑɦos-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *erdɦos-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. erdɦos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *erdɦas-
3. erdɦas-
*r → rǝ
Anaptyxis of ǝ (Schwa)
Rr›rǝ → *erǝdɦas-
4. erǝdɦas-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *erǝdɦah-
5. erǝdɦah-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *erǝdah-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. erǝdah-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *arǝdah-
7. arǝdah-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → LAv. arǝδah-
√ordɑɦi-
RV. práty·ardhi-
(a.) ‘den die Hälfte von [G] gebührt, zur Seite stehend’
(WbRV. 871-2)
(but also RV. práti·ardhi –› h-?!?)
1. PIE *Π·ordɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ordɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ordɦi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ardɦi-
3. Π·ardɦi-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. Π·ardhi-
Lith. ardý-
(vb.) ‘zerlegen, auftrennen’
(LiEtWb. 15-16)
(Lith. ardýti)
1. PIE *ordɑɦiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *ordɑɦiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. ordɑɦiíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦiíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ordɦiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ordɦií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ordɦií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *ordɦī́-
5. ordɦī́-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ardɦī́-
6. ardɦī́-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ardī́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. ardī́-
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
Rī́›ý → Lith. ardý-
√ordɑɦu-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ardu-
(ao.) ‘to cut with saw : sägen (HHand. 24)’
(HEG 1:69)
(Hitt. ar-du-me-ni [1pl])
1. PIE *ordɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ardɦu-
3. ardɦu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ardu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. arḫa (…) ardu·-
(vb.) ‘to cut off with saw’
(HED 1/2 XX:175)
(Hitt. arḫa ar-du-[me-(e-)ni])
1. PIE *Π·ordɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ordɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ordɦu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ardɦu-
3. Π·ardɦu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. Π·ardu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ardua-
(vb.) ‘sägen’ [HW2 A:347]
(HIL. 252)
(Hitt. ar-du-[uandu])
1. PIE *ordɑɦuo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦuo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦuo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ardɦua-
3. ardɦua-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ardua-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ardumar-
(N.act.) ‘sägen’
(HHand. 24)
(Hitt. ar-du-mar [sgNA])
1. PIE *ordɑɦumor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦumor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦumor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ardɦumar-
3. ardɦumar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ardumar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√erdɑɦu-
OCS. rĕdŭkŭ
(a.) ‘vereinzelt, selten’ < if PSlav. *erduko- >
(Sadnik 750)
1. PIE *erdɑɦuko
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *erdɦuko
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. erdɦuko
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *erdɦuka
3. erdɦuka
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *erduka
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. erduka
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *erduko
5. erduko
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *erduku
6. erduku
*erd → rēd
Slavic metathesis of erd
Rerd›rēd → *rēduku
7. rēduku
*ē → ĕ
Change of *ē into ĕ
Rē›ĕ → *rĕduku
8. rĕduku
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. rĕdŭkŭ


PIE √ru- (vb.) ‘sich verneigen, anbeten, huldigen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√oruo-
Hitt. aru̯a-
(vb.sb.) ‘sich verneigen, anbeten, huldigen’
(HIL. 254)
(in Hitt. a-ru-ua-an-zi [1.inf.], (Akd. ŠUKENU))
1. PIE *oru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aru̯a-
Hitt. aru̯a-
(vb.) ‘sich verneigen, anbeten, huldigen’
(HIL. 254)
(Hitt. a-ru-ua-a-zi, a-ru-ua-an-zi, a-ru-ua-a-an-zi)
1. PIE *oru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aru̯a-
√orui-
Hitt. aru̯ai-
(vb.1.) ‘sich verneigen, anbeten, huldigen’ (EHS 472)
(HEG 1:73-4)
(Hitt. a-ru-ua-ez-zi, a-ru-ua-i-ez-zi = Akd. UŠKEN)
1. PIE *oru̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aru̯ai-
Hitt. aru̯aiške/a-
(.) ‘sich verneigen, anbeten, huldigen’
(HIL. 254)
(Hitt. a-ru-ua-iš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *oru̯oiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *oru̯oisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. oru̯oisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aru̯aisḱe/a-
3. aru̯aisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *aru̯aiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. aru̯aiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aru̯aiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aru̯eiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘sich verneigen, anbeten, huldigen’
(HEG 1:74)
(Hitt. a-ru-ú-iš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *oru̯eiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *oru̯eisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. oru̯eisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aru̯eisḱe/a-
3. aru̯eisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *aru̯eiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. aru̯eiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aru̯eiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√oruoro-
HLu. aru̯ara-
(vb.) ‘bow down (?)’
(CHLu. 5.19.3)
(HLu. á-ru-wa/i+ra/i-tu [3sg])
1. PIE *oru̯oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. aru̯ara-
√oruski-
MidParth. ´rws-
(vb.) ‘to turn towards’
(MPahl. 2:30)
(in MidParth. ´rws-)
1. PIE *oruski-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiIr → *oruški-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. oruški-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *orušć-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. orušć-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arušć-
4. arušć-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *arušs-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. arušs-
*u → w
Orthographic change of *u into w
Ru›w → *arwšs-
6. arwšs-
*a → ´
Orthographic change of *a to ´
Ra›´ → MidParth. ´rwšs-


PIE √ru- √oru- √eru- (vb.) ‘eilen, fliegen (Hitt. petai-)’ (a.) ‘flink, schnell (Hitt. petali-)’ (sb.) ‘Flügel (Hitt. petar-)
(IEW 331-2)
(Pyysalo)
√oru-
(Pyysalo)
Lat. ruo-
(vb.) ‘eilen, stürtzen’
(WH. 2:453)
(GEW 2:422, Lat. ruō [1sg])
1. PIE *ru̯o-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. ruo-
HLu. ARHA aru̯a·-
(vb.) ‘come, arrive’
(CHLu. 11.1.fg24)
(HLu. (“PES2”)a+ra/i-wa/i))
1. PIE *Π·oru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·aru̯a-
LAv. aurva-
(a.) ‘schnell’
(AIWb. 200)
1. PIE *oru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aru̯a-
2. aru̯a-
*aru → auru
Anaptyxis of *u
RarU›aurU → *auru̯a-
3. auru̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. aurva-
RV. árva·śa-
(a.) ‘eilend, schnellfahrend’
(WbRV. 117)
1. PIE *óru̯o·ki̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *óru̯o·ćo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. óru̯o·ćo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *óru̯a·ća-
3. óru̯a·ća-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *áru̯a·ća-
4. áru̯a·ća-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *áru̯a·śa-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. áru̯a·śa-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. árva·śa-
OSax. aru-
(a.) ‘bereit, reif’
(ASächsWb. 4)
(OSax. aru)
1. PIE *oru̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aru̯a
2. aru̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *aru̯
3. aru̯
*-ru̯ → -ru
Change of root-final -ru̯ into -ru
R=ru̯›=ru → OSax. aru
OEng. earu-
(a.) ‘quick, active, ready’
(ASaxD. 235)
1. PIE *oru̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aru̯a
2. aru̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *aru̯
3. aru̯
*a → ea
Change of *a into ea
Ra=›ea= → *earu̯
4. earu̯
*-ru̯ → -ru
Change of root-final -ru̯ into -ru
R=ru̯›=ru → OEng. earu
√orudɑɦo-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. aruda-
(c.) ‘Flügel, Schwinge’
(HHand. 25)
(CLu. a-ru-ta-ti [sgI], Rieken (1999:440): “Mittel um zu erheben”)
1. PIE *orudɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orudɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orudɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arudɦa-
3. arudɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. aruda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aruta-
(URU.) ‘Am Fluß Šaḫirija, › Zartajawaša’
(OGH. 42)
(Hitt. a-ru-ud-da-aš)
1. PIE *oruto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aruta-
OEng. arod-
(a.) ‘flink, schnell : shift, fleet’
(ASaxD. 51)
(‹IEW 331, Is OHG. arod a ghostform (?)›)
1. PIE *orudɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orudɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orudɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *orudo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. orudo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aruda
4. aruda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *arud
5. arud
*a → ea
Change of *a into ea
Ra=›ea= → OEng. earud


PIE √ru- (sb.) ‘Horn, Hirsch, cervus’
(HEG R: 681-5)
√ru-
OInd. rúru-
(.) ‘eine Hirschart’
(KEWA 3:69)
(VS. rúru)
TochB. ruru-
(m.sg) ‘ruru-deer’
(DTochB. 539)
(TochB. ruru-)
RV. rúru·śīrṣan-
(a.) ‘mit hörnerner Spitze versehen’
(WbRV. 1177)
RV. rúru·śīrṣan-
√ruo-
(HEG X:XX)
HLu. ru̯a
(NÚ.c.) ‘Rua-, serviteur de Tuwadi du Tabal’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. ru-wa/i-sá [sgN], NOMS. 1069)
1. PIE *ru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ru̯a-
Hitt. naḫi·ru̯a-
(NÚ.c.) ‘respecting ‹nahi-› Rua-’
(NOMS. 843)
(Hitt. na-ḫi-ru-ua-aš(-ša) [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·ru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·ru̯a-


PIE √run- √orun- √erun- (sb.) ‘Wasser, Strom, See, Meer’
(IEW 328-9)
(Pyysalo)
√runo-
OIcl. run-
(n.) ‘Wasser/schmaler Strom zwischen zwei Seen’
(ANEtWb. 453)
1. PIE *runo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. runa-
√oruno-
Hitt. aruna-
(c.) ‘See’ (Sum. A.AB.BA, HHand. 25)
(HEG 1:71-3)
(Hitt. a-ru-na-aš, a-a-ru-na-aš, a-ru-na-a-aš)
1. PIE *oruno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aruna-
Pal. aruna-
(c.) ‘Meer, HHand. 25’
(DPal. 52)
(in Pal. a-ru-u-na-am(-pi) [sgA])
1. PIE *oruno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. aruna-
Hitt. aruna-
(URU.) “Grenzstad zwischen Kizuwatna und Ḫatti”
(OGH. 41)
(Hitt. a-ru-u-naKI)
1. PIE *oruno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aruna-
Hitt. aruna-
(d.) ‘preceded by DINGIRana, GhR. 467, RDH. 72’
(OHP. 1:48-9)
(Hitt. a-ru-na-an, a-ru-ni [D])
1. PIE *oruno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aruna-

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