PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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"Durch zweier Zeugen Mund wird alle Wahrheit kund" — August Fick
(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
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PIE



PIE √t- √to- √te- (vb.) ‘nehmen, rauben, stehlen’
(IEW 1010)
(WP. 2:610)
√to/e-
(Pyysalo 2013:88-9)
Hitt. ta-
(vb.2.) ‘nehmen : Sum. ME’
(HEG 3:5-11)
(Hitt. taḫi [1sg], da-a-i [3sg], daḫun [1sg])
1. PIE *to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ta-
HLu. ta-
(CAPERE.vb.1.) ‘nehmen’
(CHLu. 2.9.27)
(HLu. tà-ti-i [3pl] 2.11+12.28, tà-ta [3sg] 3.6.12)
1. PIE *to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ta-
HLu. ta-
(CAPERE.vb.2.) ‘nehmen’
(CHLu. 3.2.9)
(HLu. tà-i [3sg] 3.2.9, 3.5.13, etc.)
1. PIE *to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ta-
OInd. ta-
(m.) ‘thief : Dieb’
(MonWil. 431)
(Lex. taḥ [sgN])
1. PIE *to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. ta-
Lith. tè-
(ipv) ‘take’
(LiEtWb. 1071)
(Lith. tè [ipv2sg])
1. PIE *té-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → Lith. tè-
√teɑh-
Ion.-Att. τή·τη-
(f.) Hes. = ‘ἀπορία, ἔνδεια, στέρησις’
(GEW 2:895)
1. PIE *tḗɑh·tēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tḗɑh·tāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tḗɑh·tāɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *tā́ɑh·tāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. tā́ɑh·tāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tā́h·tāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. tā́h·tāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tā́·tā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. tā́·tā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
Rā›ē → *tā́·tē-
6. tā́·tē-
*ā́ → ḗ
Ion-Att. change of *ā́ into ḗ
Rā́›ḗ → *tḗ·tē-
7. tḗ·tē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. τή·τη-
√teɑhi-
Dor. τᾱτάο-
(vbΜ.) ‘entbehren, darben, beraubt sein’
(GEW 2:895)
1. PIE *tēɑhtéɑhi̯o-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *tēɑhtáɑhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. tēɑhtáɑhi̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tāɑhtáɑhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. tāɑhtáɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tāhtáhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. tāhtáhi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tātái̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. tātái̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *tātáo-
6. tātáo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. τᾱτάο-
ORuss. tajĭ
(a.) ‘heimlich’ (sb.) ‘Geheimnis’
(REW 3:69)
1. PIE *tēɑhi̯i-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tāɑhi̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tāɑhi̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tāhi̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tāhi̯i-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tāi̯i-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tāi̯i-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *tāji-
5. tāji-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *taji-
6. taji-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → ORuss. tajĭ-
√toi- √tei-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. tai-
(vb.1.) ‘stehlen, bestehlen’
(HEG 3:24-)
(Hitt. ta-a-iz-zi [3sg])
1. PIE *toi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. tai-
gAv. taya-
(m.) ‘Dieb(stahl)’
(AIWb. 638)
1. PIE *toi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tai̯a-
2. tai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → gAv. taya-
gAv. taya-
(a.) ‘verstohlen, heimlich’
(AIWb. 638)
1. PIE *toi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tai̯a-
2. tai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → gAv. taya-
Dor. τέε-
(vb.) ‘take’
(in Gr. τῆ [2sg], τῆτε [2pl])
1. PIE *téi̯e-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *tée-
2. tée-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. τέε-
OInd. maṇṭáya-
(cs.) ‘sich wie ein Vermittler ‹maṇ-› benehmen’
(KEWA 2:557)
(For maṇ- cf. Lat. mallo- ‘Gericht’ [Lex Salica])
1. PIE *meɑhl̥ntéi̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *maɑhl̥ntéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. maɑhl̥ntéi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mahl̥ntéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mahl̥ntéi̯o-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
Rl̥›r̥ → *mahr̥ntéi̯o-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. mahr̥ntéi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mahr̥ntéi̯a-
5. mahr̥ntéi̯a-
PIE *hRn → ṇ
Fortunatov’s Law for *hRn
RhRn›ṇ → *maṇtéi̯a-
(SPIE §3.3.2)
6. maṇtéi̯a-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *maṇtái̯a-
7. maṇtái̯a-
*ṇt → ṇṭ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rṇt›ṇṭ → *maṇṭái̯a-
8. maṇṭái̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. maṇṭáya-
√ti-
(Pyysalo)
Lith. tèti-
(vb.) ‘take’
(LiEtWb. 1071)
(Lith. tèti-te [ipv2pl])
1. PIE *téti-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → Lith. tèti-
√ti-
LAv. aiwi·ϑy-
(a.) ‘sich befassend mit [G]’
(AIWb. 91)
(LAv. aiwiϑyō [plN])
1. PIE *Π·ti̯-
*tR → ϑR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
RtR›ϑR → *Π·ϑi̯-
2. Π·ϑi̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. Π·ϑy-
Hitt. tai̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘(be)stehlen’
(HEG 3:24f.)
(Hitt. da-a-i-ia-zi [3sg])
1. PIE *toii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *taii̯a-
2. taii̯a-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *taia-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. taia-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → Hitt. tai̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
Hitt. taiške/a-
(vb.) ‘nehmen’
(HHand. 158)
(Hitt. ta-iš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *toiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *toisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. toisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *taisḱe/a-
3. taisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *taiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. taiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. taiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√tos-, √tes-
(Pyysalo)
RV. abhí (…) tatas·-
(pf.) ‘berauben, ausplündern’
(WbRV. 509)
(RV. tatasre)
1. PIE *Π·tetos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·tetas-
2. Π·tetas-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. Π·tatas-
RV. ví (…) tatas·-
(pf.) ‘bestürmen’
(WbRV. 509)
(RV. ví tatasre [3pl])
1. PIE *Π·tetos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·tetas-
2. Π·tetas-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. Π·tatas-
Hitt. taške/a-
(vb.) ‘nehmen’
(HHand. 158)
(Hitt. da-aš-ki-e-mi, da-aš-ki-e-u-e-ni)
1. PIE *toski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *tosḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. tosḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tasḱe/a-
3. tasḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *taske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. taske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. taške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. táskara-
(m.) ‘Räuber, Dieb’ (: ‘a tief, robber’)
(WbRV. 533)
1. PIE *tósku̯oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tósku̯ara-
2. tósku̯ara-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *tásku̯ara-
3. tásku̯ara-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → RV. táskara-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
OInd. taskar·āya-
(vb.M.) ‘to behave like a thief’
(MonWil. 441)
1. PIE *tosku̯or·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tasku̯ar·Σ-
2. tasku̯ar·Σ-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → OInd. taskar·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
OInd. tāskarya-
(n.) ‘thievishness, thieving’ (KEWA 1:491)
(MonWil. 446)
1. PIE *tōsku̯ori̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tōsku̯ari̯a-
2. tōsku̯ari̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *tāsku̯ari̯a-
3. tāsku̯ari̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *tāskari̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. tāskari̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. tāskarya-
OInd. taskarī-
(f.) ‘a passionate woman; a kind of Mimosa’
(MonWil. 446)
1. PIE *tosku̯oriɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *tosku̯oriíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. tosku̯oriíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tasku̯ariíh-
3. tasku̯ariíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tasku̯arií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tasku̯arií-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *taskarií-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. taskarií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → OInd. taskarī́-
OInd. taskaratā-
(f.) ‘thievishness, thieving’
(MonWil. 441)
1. PIE *tosku̯orotēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tosku̯orotāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tosku̯orotāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tosku̯orotāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tosku̯orotāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tasku̯aratāh-
4. tasku̯aratāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tasku̯aratā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. tasku̯aratā-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → OInd. taskaratā-
(SPIE §4.8.3)


PIE √t- √to- √te- (vb.) ‘ankommen, treten, gehen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√to-
CLu. ta-
(vb.) ‘ankommen’
(HHand. 158)
1. PIE *to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ta-
HLu. ta-
(vb.) ‘walk’
(CHLu. 9.1.3)
(PES2(-)tà-ta [3pl])
1. PIE *to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ta-
HLu. ta-
(vb.) ‘walk’
(CHLu. 1.1.35)
(HLu. PES2.PES2(-)tà-ti
1. PIE *to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ta-
HLu. sara´ ta·-
(vb.) ‘come up’
(CHLu. 10.14.15)
(HLu. SARA´ “PES”2(-)tà-i [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·ta-
√toi-
HLu. tai-
(vb.) ‘treten (?)’
(CHLu. 10.44.5)
HLu. PES2.PES2(-)tà-ia; Kimball 1999:444)
1. PIE *toi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. tai-
√teio-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. tei̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘(hin)treten : step’
(HHand. 175)
(Hitt. ti-ia, HIL. 1016)
1. PIE *tei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. tei̯a-
OInd. taya-
(pr.M.) ‘to go’
(MonWil. 438)
(Dhātup. tayate [3sg])
1. PIE *tei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tei̯a-
2. tei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *tai̯a-
3. tai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. taya-
Hitt. tei̯a·u̯ar-
(n.) ‘das Eintreten’
(HHand. 176)
(HIL. 1015-6)
1. PIE *tei̯o·u̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. tei̯a·u̯ar-
√teis-
Hitt. teišage/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘treten’
(Kimball 1999:444)
(Hitt. teišakezi [3sg])
1. PIE *teisogɑɦe/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teisogɦe/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. teisogɦe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *teisagɦe/a-
3. teisagɦe/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *teisage/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. teisage/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. teišage/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. teišige/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘treten’
(Oettinger 1979:322)
(Hitt. ti-iš-ši-ki-mi ‘ich trete (?)’)
1. PIE *teisigɑɦe/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teisigɦe/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. teisigɦe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *teisigɦe/a-
3. teisigɦe/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *teisige/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. teisige/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. teišige/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √tɑh- √dɑɦ- (vb.) ‘sehen, wünschen’ (sb.) ‘Auge’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√tɑh-
Gr. ὄθο-
(pr.M.) ‘take heed, regard’
(Gr. ὄθομαι)
1. PIE *ótɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ótho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ótho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄθο-
√tɑhēɑh-
Att. ὄθη-
(f.) ‘φροντία, ὤρα, φόβος, λόγος’
(LSJ. 1200)
1. PIE *ótɑhēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ótɑhāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ótɑhāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *óthāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. óthāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *óthā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. óthā-
ā –> ē (Att)
Attican change of ā –› ē
Rā›ēAtt → *óthē-
5. óthē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Att. ὄθη-
√tɑhi-
Hitt. atei-
(.) ‘ein Körperteil; ‹Auge(n) (?)›’
(HEG 1:94)
(Hitt. ad-di-)
1. PIE *otɑhei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *othei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. othei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *athei-
3. athei-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. atei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. ὀθέο-
(pr.A.) ‘φροντίζω’
(Gr. ὀθέω [1sg])
1. PIE *otɑhéi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *othéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. othéi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *othéo-
3. othéo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὀθέο-
Lith. àč-
(vb.) ‘sehen’
(LiEtWb. 1)
(Lith. ač ‘siehe!’, àčte)
1. PIE *ótɑhi̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *óthi̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. óthi̯-
PIE *thi̯ → č h
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›čh → *óčh-
(SPIE §XX)
3. óčh-
ó → ò
Emergence of gravis PLith. ò
RLiAcc5 → *òčh-
4. òčh-
PIE *ò → à
Change of *ò into à
Rò›à → Lith. àčh-
OLat. praed·otio-
(pr.) ‘praeoptare’
(WH. 2:212)
(PaulFest. praed·otiont [3pl])
1. PIE *Π·otɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·othi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·othi̯o-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *Π·oti̯o-
3. Π·oti̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OLat. Π·otio-
√tɑhm-
Dor. ὄθματ-
(n.) ‘Gl. ὄμμα; LSJ. 1200’
(Aeol. ὄθματα [plNA])
1. PIE *ótɑhmeɑht-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *ótɑhmaɑht-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. ótɑhmaɑht-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *óthmaht-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. óthmaht-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *óthmat-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. óthmat-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. ὄθματ-


PIE √tɑh- (vb.) ‘schweigen’
(IEW 1055+1056)
(Pyysalo)
√tɑh·ki-
(IEW 1055)
(WP. 1:703)
Goth. þaha-
(vb.) ‘be silent, keep secret’
(GoEtD. Þ3.)
(Goth. þahan [inf.])
1. PIE *teɑhki̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhki̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhki̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahki̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahki̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *tahḱo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. tahḱo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *taḱo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. taḱo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *tako-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. tako-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *taxo-
7. taxo-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þaxo-
8. þaxo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þaxa-
9. þaxa-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → Goth. þaha-
Lat. taceo-
(pr.2.) ‘schweigen : be silent’
(Lat. taceō [1sg])
1. PIE *teɑhki̯ei̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhki̯ei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhki̯ei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahki̯ei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahki̯ei̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *tahḱei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. tahḱei̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *taḱei̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. taḱei̯o-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *takei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. takei̯o-
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
Rei̯o›eo → *takeo-
7. takeo-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. taceo-
Lat. tacito-
(pt.) ‘schweigsam’
(WH. 2:641-2)
1. PIE *teɑhki̯ito-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhki̯ito-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhki̯ito-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahki̯ito-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahki̯ito-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *tahḱito-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. tahḱito-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *taḱito-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. taḱito-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *takito-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. takito-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. tacito-
√tɑh·us-
(IEW 1056)
CLu. taḫuši̯a-
(vb.) ‘keep ‹ušia-› silent/quiet ‹taḫ-›’
(DLL. 89)
(CLu. da-ḫu-ši-i̯a-aḫ-ḫa [1sg])
1. PIE *teɑhusi̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhusi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhusi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahusi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahusi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tahusi̯a-
4. tahusi̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *tahuši̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. tahuši̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. taḫuši̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
RV. tūṣṇī́-
(adv.) ‘still, schweigend’
(WbRV. 547)
(RV. tūṣṇī́m [adv.])
1. PIE *tɑ́husniɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *tɑ́husniíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. tɑ́husniíh-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *túhusniíh-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
3. túhusniíh-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *túhušniíh-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. túhušniíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *túušnií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. túušnií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *túušnī́-
6. túušnī́-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *tū́šnī́-
7. tū́šnī́-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *tū́ṣnī́-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
8. tū́ṣnī́-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. tū́ṣṇī́-
Sloven. po·túhni-
(vb.) ‘stille werden’
(APrS. 452)
(Sloven. potúhniti [inf.])
1. PIE *po·teɑhúsniɑ́h-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *po·taɑhúsniɑ́h-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. po·taɑhúsniɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *po·taɑhúsniíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
3. po·taɑhúsniíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po·tahúsniíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. po·tahúsniíh-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiSlav → *po·tahúšniíh-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
5. po·tahúšniíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pa·tahúšniíh-
6. pa·tahúšniíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pa·taúšnií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. pa·taúšnií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *pa·taúšnī́-
8. pa·taúšnī́-
*š → x
Slavonic change of *š to x
Rš›x → *pa·taúxnī́-
9. pa·taúxnī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *po·toúxnī́-
10. po·toúxnī́-
*oú → ū́
Monophthongization of *oú into ū́
Roú›ū́ → *po·tū́xnī́-
11. po·tū́xnī́-
*x → ch
Orthographic change of *x into ch
Rx›ch → *po·tū́chnī́-
12. po·tū́chnī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *po·tū́chní-
13. po·tū́chní-
*ū́ → ú
Orthographic change of *ū́ into ú
Rū́›ú → *po·túchní-
14. po·túchní-
ch → h
Change of *ch into h
Rch›h → Sloven. po·túhní-
OCS. po·tuchnǫ-
(vb.) ‘quiescere’
(APrS. 452)
OCS. potuchnǫti [inf.])
1. PIE *po·teɑhusnun
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *po·taɑhusnun
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. po·taɑhusnun
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po·tahusnun
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. po·tahusnun
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiSlav → *po·tahušnun
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. po·tahušnun
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pa·tahušnun
5. pa·tahušnun
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pa·taušnun
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. pa·taušnun
*š → x
Slavonic change of *š to x
Rš›x → *pa·tauxnun
7. pa·tauxnun
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *po·touxnun
8. po·touxnun
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *po·tūxnun
9. po·tūxnun
*-un → -ǫ
Emergence of nasal vowel ǫ
Run›ǫ → *po·tūxnǫ
10. po·tūxnǫ
*x → ch
Orthographic change of *x into ch
Rx›ch → *po·tūchnǫ
11. po·tūchnǫ
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → OCS. po·tuchnǫ


PIE √tɑh- √dɑɦ- (vb.) ‘sprechen’
(IEW 291)
(+ Pyysalo)
√tɑh-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. ā́th-
(pf.) ‘speak’
(MonWil. 124)
(Br. ā́ttha [2sg])
1. PIE *ṓtɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ṓth-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ṓth-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → OInd. ā́th-
CLu. tata-
(GKLvb.) ‘verbum dicendi, HHand. 172’
(DLL. 95)
(CLu. ta-at-ta-ah-ha [1sg])
1. PIE *tɑhotɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thotho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thotho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thatha-
3. thatha-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → CLu. tata-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦ-
LAv. āδ-
(pr.P.) ‘genannt werden, heißen’
(AIWb. 55)
(LAv. āiδi [3sg])
1. PIE *ō·dɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ō·dɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ō·dɦ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ā·dɦ-
3. ā·dɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ā·d-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. ā·d-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → LAv. ā·δ-
LAv. pairi.āδ·-
(pf.) ‘aufsagen, hersagen’
(AIWb. 55)
(LAv. pairi.āδa [3sg])
1. PIE *Π.ō·dɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π.ō·dɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π.ō·dɦ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π.ā·dɦ-
3. Π.ā·dɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π.ā·d-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. Π.ā·d-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → LAv. Π.ā·δ-
LAv. aδ-
(pf.M.) ‘sagen’
(AIWb. 55)
(LAv. aδaeča [1sg] uiti)
1. PIE *odɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *odɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. odɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *adɦ-
3. adɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ad-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. ad-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → LAv. aδ-
√dɑɦe/o-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. de-
(vb.) ‘(autoritativ) sprechen’
(HEG 3:291)
(Hitt. temi, tesi, tezi, tenun, tet, tedu, HHand. 173)
1. PIE *dɑɦe-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦe-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦe-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. de-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. paity·āδa-
(m.) ‘Anwort’
(AIWb. 840)
1. PIE *Π·ō·dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ō·dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ō·dɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ō·dɦa-
3. Π·ō·dɦa-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·ā·dɦa-
4. Π·ā·dɦa-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·ā·da-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ā·da-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → LAv. Π·ā·δa-
√dɑɦeio-
(Pyysalo)
OCS. dejo-
(vb.) ‘sagen’
(Sadnik √146)
(OCS. dejǫ [1sg])
1. PIE *dɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦei̯a-
3. dɦei̯a-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dei̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dei̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *dei̯o-
5. dei̯o-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → OCS. dejo-
LAv. paiti·aδaya-
(pr.) ‘antworten auf [A]’
(AIWb. 55)
(LAv. paiti.aδayā)
1. PIE *Π·odɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·odɦei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·odɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·adɦei̯a-
3. Π·adɦei̯a-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·adei̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. Π·adei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *Π·adai̯a-
5. Π·adai̯a-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → *Π·aδai̯a-
6. Π·aδai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. Π·aδaya-
LAv. paiti (…) āδaya·-
(iter.) ‘antworten’
(AIWb. 55)
(LAv. paiti (…) āδayoi)
1. PIE *Π·ōdɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ōdɦei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ōdɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ōdɦei̯a-
3. Π·ōdɦei̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·ādɦei̯a-
4. Π·ādɦei̯a-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·ādei̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ādei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *Π·ādai̯a-
6. Π·ādai̯a-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → *Π·āδai̯a-
7. Π·āδai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. Π·āδaya-
√dɑɦomo-
Lyd. ẽ·tam-
(c.) ‘Bestimmung, Verordnung’
(LydWb. 108)
(Lyd. XX)
1. PIE *en·dɑɦomo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *en·dɦomo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. en·dɦomo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *en·dɦama
3. en·dɦama
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *en·dama
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. en·dama
*am/n → ãm/n
Emergence of nasal vowel ã
RaN›ãN → *en·dãma
5. en·dãma
*en → ẽn
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
ReN›ẽN → *ẽn·dãma
6. ẽn·dãma
PIE *Nd → Nt
Devoicing of PIE *d after N
RNd›Nt → *ẽn·tãma
7. ẽn·tãma
*nt → ñt
Change of *n into ñ before t
Rnt›ñt → *ẽñ·tãma
8. ẽñ·tãma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Lyd. ẽñ·tãm
HLu. a·dama-
(n.pt.) ‘name’
(CHLu. 1.1.39)
(HLu. á-ta4-ma-za Melchert 1984:82-83)
1. PIE *o·dɑɦomo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·dɦomo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·dɦomo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·dɦama-
3. a·dɦama-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. a·dama-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LycA. a·dãma-
(n.) ‘name’
(DLycLg. 1)
(Lyc. adãma [plA])
1. PIE *o·dɑɦomo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·dɦomo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·dɦomo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·dɦama-
3. a·dɦama-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *a·dama-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. a·dama-
*am/n → ãm/n
Emergence of nasal vowel ã
RaN›ãN → LycA. a·dãma-
HLu. a·dama·ni-
(sb.) ‘name’
(CHLu. 6.2.19)
(HLu. á-ta5-ma-ni-)
1. PIE *o·dɑɦomo·ni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·dɦomo·ni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·dɦomo·ni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·dɦama·ni-
3. a·dɦama·ni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. a·dama·ni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √tɑh- √dɑɦ- (vb.) ‘geben, schenken’
(IEW 223-226)
(+ Pyysalo √tɑh-)
√to/eɑh-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. τό-
(pr.) ‘geben’
(Grundr2 1:654)
(Gr. τότω ‘dato’)
1. PIE *tóɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tóh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tóh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tó-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. tó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. τό-
Hitt. iški·taḫ-
(vb.2.) ‘ein Zeichen geben ‹Hitt. šagi- ‘Zeichen’›’
(HHand. 65)
(Hitt. iš-kit9-ta-aḫ-ḫi; or to Gr. δό- (?))
1. PIE *Π·ski̯ɑhi·toɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ski̯hi·toh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ski̯hi·toh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *Π·sḱhi·toh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·sḱhi·toh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·sḱhi·tah-
4. Π·sḱhi·tah-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *Π·skhi·tah-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. Π·skhi·tah-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *Π·ski·tah-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. Π·ski·tah-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·ški·tah-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. Π·ški·tah-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·ški·taḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Dor. ἀφρο·δί̄·τᾱ-
(f.) ‘= Gr. ἀφροτίδη’
(KVG:249)
1. PIE *ɦɑebɑɦro·dɑ́hi·tēɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́hi·tēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́hi·tēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́hi·tāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́hi·tāɑh-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *ɦɑabɑɦro·díhi·tāɑh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
4. ɦɑabɑɦro·díhi·tāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦabɦro·díhi·tāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
5. ɦabɦro·díhi·tāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *abɦro·díhi·tāh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. abɦro·díhi·tāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *abɦro·díi·tā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. abɦro·díi·tā-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *aphro·díi·tā-
8. aphro·díi·tā-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *aphro·dī́·tā-
9. aphro·dī́·tā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. ἀφρο·δί̄·τᾱ-
Ion.-Att. ἀφρο·τί̄·δη-
(f.) ‘= Gr. ἀφροδίτα’
(KVG:249)
1. PIE *ɦɑebɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dēɑɦ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dēɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dēɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dāɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *ɦɑabɑɦro·tíhi·dāɑɦ-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
4. ɦɑabɑɦro·tíhi·dāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦabɦro·tíhi·dāɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
5. ɦabɦro·tíhi·dāɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *abɦro·tíhi·dā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. abɦro·tíhi·dā-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *abɦro·tíi·dā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. abɦro·tíi·dā-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *aphro·tíi·dā-
8. aphro·tíi·dā-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *aphro·tī́·dā-
9. aphro·tī́·dā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
Rā›ē → *aphro·tī́·dē-
10. aphro·tī́·dē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. ἀφρο·τί̄·δη-
Phryg. τοϝε/ο-
(vb.) ‘geben’
(Fryg 138)
(Phryg. τοϝο, τοϝοι, ετοϝες)
1. PIE *toɑhu̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tohu̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tohu̯e/o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tou̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. tou̯e/o-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Phryg. τοϝε/ο-
√dōɑɦ-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. iški·dāḫ-
(vb.2.) ‘ein Zeichen geben’
(HED E/I:426)
(Hitt. iš-ki-da-a-aḫ-ḫi [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·ski̯ɑhi·dōɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ski̯hi·dōɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ski̯hi·dōɦ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *Π·sḱhi·dōɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·sḱhi·dōɦ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·sḱhi·dāɦ-
4. Π·sḱhi·dāɦ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *Π·skhi·dāɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. Π·skhi·dāɦ-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *Π·ski·dāɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. Π·ski·dāɦ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·ški·dāɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. Π·ški·dāɦ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·ški·dāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Gr. δώ-
(ao.) ‘geben’
(Gr. ἔδων [1sg])
1. PIE *dṓɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dṓɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dṓɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dṓ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. dṓ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. δώ-
OLith. dúo-
(vb.) ‘geben’
(LiEtWb. 111f.)
(OLith. dúomi, Lith. dúoti [inf.])
1. PIE *dṓɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dṓɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dṓɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dṓ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. dṓ-
*ṓ → úo
Change of ṓ into úo
Rṓ›úo → OLith. dúo-
Latv. duô-
(vb.) ‘geben’
(LiEtWb. 111f.)
(Latv. duôt [inf.])
1. PIE *dṓɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dṓɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dṓɦ-
*ṓH → ôH
Latvian tone rule for ṓH
RAccLatv7 → *dôɦ-
3. dôɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dô-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dô-
*ô → uô
Change of ô into uô
Rô›uô → Latv. duô-
RV. dā́-
(ao.) ‘geben’
(WbRV. 590)
(RV. ádāt [3sg])
1. PIE *dṓɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dṓɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dṓɦ-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *dā́ɦ-
3. dā́ɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → RV. dā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. dōno-
(n.) ‘Gabe, Geschenk, das Geben’
(Lat. dōnum [sgN])
1. PIE *dōɑɦno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dōɦno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dōɦno-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Lat. dōno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
RV. dā́na-
(n.) ‘das Geben, die Gabe’
(WbRV. 594)
1. PIE *dṓɑɦno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dṓɦno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dṓɦno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dṓɦna-
3. dṓɦna-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *dā́ɦna-
4. dā́ɦna-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → RV. dā́na-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Gr. δώρο-
(n.) ‘Geschenk’
(Gr. δῶρον)
1. PIE *dṓɑɦro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dṓɦro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dṓɦro-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dṓro-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. dṓro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. δώρο-
OCS. darŭ-
(m.) ‘Gabe, Geschenk, Dank’
(Sadnik √132)
(OCS. darŭ)
1. PIE *dōɑɦro
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dōɦro
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dōɦro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dōɦra
3. dōɦra
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *dāɦra
4. dāɦra
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dāra
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dāra
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *dāro
6. dāro
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *dāru
7. dāru
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *daru
8. daru
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. darŭ
√doɑɦ-
Gr. δό-
(ao.M.) ‘geben’
(Gr. ἐδόμην)
1. PIE *dóɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dóɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dóɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dó-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. dó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. δό-
RV. dā·ta
(ao.) ‘geben’
(WbRV. 590)
(RV. dāta [2pl] with Brugmann’s Law II)
1. PIE *doɑɦ·te
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *doɦ·te
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. doɦ·te
PIE *oHCV → āHCV
Brugmann’s Law for *ohCV
RoHCV›āHCV → *dāɦ·te
(SPIE §2.3.7)
3. dāɦ·te
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dā·te
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dā·te
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. dā·ta
RV. draviṇo·dá-
(a.m.) ‘Gut gebend, Reichtumgeber’
(WbRV. 645)
1. PIE *Π·dóɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dóɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dóɦ-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·dáɦ-
3. Π·dáɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → RV. Π·dá-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lith. priẽ·da-
(m.) ‘Zugabe, Zulage’
(LiEtWb. 112)
(Lith. priẽdas [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·doɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·doɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·doɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·do-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·do-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lith. Π·da-
LAv. daδa-
(a.) ‘gebend, schenkend’
(AIWb. 678)
1. PIE *dedoɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dedoɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dedoɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dedaɦ-
3. dedaɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *deda-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. deda-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *dada-
5. dada-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → LAv. daδa-
Gr. δοί-
(ao.) ‘geben’
(Gr. δοίην [opt1sg])
1. PIE *doɑɦí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *doɦí-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. doɦí-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *doí-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. doí-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. δοί-
RV. de-
(ao.) ‘geben’
(WbRV. 589)
(RV. dehí [ipv2sg])
1. PIE *doɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *doɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. doɦi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *daɦi-
3. daɦi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dai-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *dē-
5. dē-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → RV. de-
Gr. δόμεν-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘zu geben’
(Thess. Hom. δόμεν, Hom. δόμεναι)
1. PIE *dóɑɦmen-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dóɦmen-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dóɦmen-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dómen-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. dómen-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. δόμεν-
RV. dā́man-
(n.) ‘das Geben’
(WbRV. 595)
(RV. dā́mane [sgD], Brugmann’s Law II)
1. PIE *dóɑɦmen-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dóɦmen-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dóɦmen-
PIE *óhCV → ā́hCV
Brugmann’s Law for *óhCV
RóHCV›ā́HCV → *dā́ɦmen-
(SPIE §2.3.7)
3. dā́ɦmen-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dā́men-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dā́men-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. dā́man-
Fal. doui-
(pr.) ‘gewähren’
(WbOU. XX)
(in Fal. douiad [conj3sg])
1. PIE *doɑɦu̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *doɦu̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. doɦu̯i-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dou̯i-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. dou̯i-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Fal. doui-
Umbr. pur.doui·-
(pr.) ‘porriciō’
(WbOU. 613)
(in Umbr. purdouitu [3sg])
1. PIE *Π.doɑɦu̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π.doɦu̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π.doɦu̯i-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π.dou̯i-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π.dou̯i-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → *Π.doui-
4. Π.doui-
*d → ř
Change of *d into ř
Rd›ř → Umbr. Π.řoui·-
Latv. davana-
(f.) ‘Gabe’
(LiEtWb. 112)
1. PIE *doɑɦu̯onēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *doɑɦu̯onāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. doɑɦu̯onāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *doɦu̯onāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. doɦu̯onāh
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dou̯onāh
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dou̯onāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dou̯onā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dou̯onā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dau̯anā
6. dau̯anā
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *davanā
7. davanā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → Latv. davana
Lith. davanà-
(f.) ‘Gabe’
(LiWtWb. 112)
1. PIE *doɑɦu̯onḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *doɑɦu̯onā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. doɑɦu̯onā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *doɦu̯onā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. doɦu̯onā́h
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dou̯onā́h
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dou̯onā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dou̯onā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dou̯onā́
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dau̯anā́
6. dau̯anā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *dau̯anṓ
(XX:XX)
7. dau̯anṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → *dau̯anà
8. dau̯anà
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. davanà
Dor. ἀπυ·δόᾱ-
(pr.) ‘XX’
(GrGr. 1:745)
(in Arc. ἀπυδόας [pt.])
1. PIE *Π·dóɑɦu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·dóɑɦu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·dóɑɦu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dóɦu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·dóɦu̯āh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·dóu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·dóu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·dóu̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·dóu̯ā-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *Π·dóā-
6. Π·dóā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. Π·δόᾱ-
AV. bala·dā́vā-
(a.) ‘Kraftverleihung’
(WbRV. 902)
1. PIE *Π·dóɑɦu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·dóɑɦu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·dóɑɦu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dóɦu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·dóɦu̯āh-
PIE *óhCV → ā́hCV
Brugmann’s Law for *óhCV
RóHCV›ā́HCV → *Π·dā́ɦu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.3.7)
4. Π·dā́ɦu̯āh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·dā́u̯āh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·dā́u̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·dā́u̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. Π·dā́u̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → AV. Π·dā́vā-
Latv. dãvâ-
(vb.iter.) ‘anbieten, schenken’
(LiEtWb. 112)
(Latv. dãvât [inf.])
1. PIE *doɑɦu̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *doɑɦu̯ā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. doɑɦu̯ā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *doɦu̯ā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. doɦu̯ā́h-
*ā́H → âH
Latvian tone rule for *ā́h
RAccLatv3 → *doɦu̯âh-
4. doɦu̯âh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dou̯âh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dou̯âh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dou̯â-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. dou̯â-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dau̯â-
7. dau̯â-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Latv. davâ-
RV. dāván-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘geben’
(WbRV. 596)
(RV. dāváne; With Brugmann’s Law II)
1. PIE *doɑhu̯én-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dohu̯én-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dohu̯én-
PIE *oHCV → āHCV
Brugmann’s Law for *ohCV
RoHCV›āHCV → *dāhu̯én-
(SPIE §2.3.7)
3. dāhu̯én-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dāu̯én-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dāu̯én-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *dāu̯án-
5. dāu̯án-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. dāván-
ODor. δόϝεν-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘geben’
(GEW 1:388-9)
(Gr. δόϝεναι = Hom. Att. δοῦναι)
1. PIE *dóɑhu̯en-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dóhu̯en-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dóhu̯en-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dóu̯en-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. dóu̯en-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → ODor. δόϝεν-
√dēɑɦ-
Lat. dā-
(ao.) ‘geben, gewähren’
(Lat. dās [2sg])
1. PIE *dēɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dāɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dāɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dāɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Lat. dā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. man·dā-
(pr.1.) ‘übergeben, anvertrauen, überlassen, befehlen, offenbaren, schicken’
(WH. 2:24)
Lat. mandāre)
1. PIE *Π·dēɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·dāɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·dāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dāɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·dāɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Lat. Π·dā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Ion.-Att. ἀφρο·τί̄·δη-
(f.) ‘= Gr. ἀφροδίτα’
(KVG:249)
1. PIE *ɦɑebɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dēɑɦ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dēɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dēɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dāɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *ɦɑabɑɦro·tíhi·dāɑɦ-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
4. ɦɑabɑɦro·tíhi·dāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦabɦro·tíhi·dāɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
5. ɦabɦro·tíhi·dāɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *abɦro·tíhi·dā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. abɦro·tíhi·dā-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *abɦro·tíi·dā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. abɦro·tíi·dā-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *aphro·tíi·dā-
8. aphro·tíi·dā-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *aphro·tī́·dā-
9. aphro·tī́·dā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
Rā›ē → *aphro·tī́·dē-
10. aphro·tī́·dē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. ἀφρο·τί̄·δη-
Arm. ta-
(vb.) ‘geben’
(EtDiArm. 595; ArmGr. 1:496)
(Arm. tam [1sg])
1. PIE *dḗɑɦ-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *dā́ɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dā́ɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dā́ɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dā́ɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dā́-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *tā́-
5. tā́-
*ā́ → a
Change of *ā́ into á
Rā́›á → *tá-
6. tá-
*á → a
Loss/absence of accent
Rá›a → Arm. ta-
RV. bala·dā́-
(a.) ‘Kraft gebend’
(WbRV. 901)
1. PIE *beɦɑLo·dḗɑɦ-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *beɦɑLo·dā́ɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. beɦɑLo·dā́ɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *beɦLo·dā́ɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. beɦLo·dā́ɦ-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *beɦlo·dā́ɦ-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. beɦlo·dā́ɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *beɦla·dā́ɦ-
5. beɦla·dā́ɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *bela·dā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. bela·dā́-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. bala·dā́-
LAv. xšaϑrō.dā·-
(a.) ‘Herrschaft schenkend’
(AIWb. 547)
(LAv. xšaϑrō.då [sgN])
1. PIE *Π.dēɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π.dāɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π.dāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π.dāɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π.dāɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → LAv. Π.dā·-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lith. donì-
(.) ‘Zins, Steuer, Tribut’ ‹ not a loan (!) ›
(LiEtWb. 99)
(Lith. donì-)
1. PIE *dēɑɦní-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dāɑɦní-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dāɑɦní-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dāɦní-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dāɦní-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *dāɦnì-
4. dāɦnì-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dānì-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dānì-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *dōnì-
(XX:XX)
6. dōnì-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → Lith. donì-
OCS. danĭ-
(f.) ‘Aufgabe, Zoll, Tribut’
(Sadnik √132)
(OCS. danĭ)
1. PIE *dēɑɦni-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dāɑɦni-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dāɑɦni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dāɦni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dāɦni-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dāni-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dāni-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *dani-
5. dani-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → OCS. danĭ-
Lat. man·dāto-
(n.) ‘Auftrag, Befehl, Nachricht’
(WH. 2:34)
(Lat. mandātum)
1. PIE *Π·dēɑɦto-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·dāɑɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·dāɑɦto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dāɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·dāɦto-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Lat. Π·dāto-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OGaul. man·dāto-
(PN.m.) ‘-(?)-’
(ACSS 2:402)
(OGaul. mandato-, cf. also OGaul. epomandatumduro- ACSS 2:401
1. PIE *Π·dēɑɦto-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·dāɑɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·dāɑɦto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dāɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·dāɦto-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → OGaul. Π·dāto-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. man·dāu-
(pf.) ‘übergeben, anvertrauen, überlassen, befehlen, offenbaren, schicken’
(WH. 2:24)
(Lat. mandāui [1sg])
1. PIE *Π·dēɑɦu
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·dāɑɦu
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·dāɑɦu
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dāɦu
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·dāɦu
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Lat. Π·dāu
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lith. dovanà-
(3f. dó-) ‘Gabe’
(LiEtWb.112)
(Lith. dovanà [sgN])
1. PIE *dēɑɦu̯onḗɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dāɑɦu̯onḗɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dāɑɦu̯onḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *dāɑɦu̯onā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. dāɑɦu̯onā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dāɦu̯onā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. dāɦu̯onā́h
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dāu̯onā́h
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dāu̯onā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dāu̯onā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. dāu̯onā́
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dāu̯anā́
7. dāu̯anā́
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *dōu̯anā́
(XX:XX)
8. dōu̯anā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *dōu̯anṓ
(XX:XX)
9. dōu̯anṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → *dōu̯anà
10. dōu̯anà
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *dou̯anà
11. dou̯anà
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. dovanà
Latv. dâvana-
(f.) ‘Gabe’
(LiEtWb. 112)
1. PIE *dḗɑɦu̯onēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dḗɑɦu̯onāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dḗɑɦu̯onāɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *dā́ɑɦu̯onāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. dā́ɑɦu̯onāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dā́ɦu̯onāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. dā́ɦu̯onāh
*ā́H → âH
Latvian tone rule for *ā́h
RAccLatv3 → *dâɦu̯onāh
5. dâɦu̯onāh
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dâu̯onāh
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. dâu̯onāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dâu̯onā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. dâu̯onā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dâu̯anā
8. dâu̯anā
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *dâvanā
9. dâvanā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → Latv. dâvana
√deɑɦ-
Lat. da-
(√pr.) ‘geben, gewähren’
(in Lat. damus [1pl], datum [pret.pt.])
1. PIE *deɑɦ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *daɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. daɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *daɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. daɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Lat. da-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Arm. ta-
(pr.) ‘geben, usw.’
(EtDiArm. 595)
(Arm. tamk‘ [1pl])
1. PIE *déɑɦ-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *dáɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. dáɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dáɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dáɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dá-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dá-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *tá-
5. tá-
*á → a
Loss/absence of accent
Rá›a → Arm. ta-
gAv. da-
(vb.) ‘geben’
(AIWb. 678)
(gAv. daidyāi [inf.])
1. PIE *deɑɦ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *daɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. daɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *daɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. daɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → gAv. da-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Gr. δάνοσ-
(n.) ‘Gabe (Euph. 42), Darlehen, Schuld’
(GEW 1:347)
(Gr. δάνος [sgNA])
1. PIE *déɑɦnos-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *dáɑɦnos-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. dáɑɦnos-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dáɦnos-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dáɦnos-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dános-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dános-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. δάνοσ-
OLat. danu-
(pr.) ‘geben’
(in OLat. danunt [3pl])
1. PIE *deɑɦnu-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *daɑɦnu-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. daɑɦnu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *daɦnu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. daɦnu-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → OLat. danu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. dato-
(pt.) ‘gegeben’
(in Lat. datus, datum, datī)
1. PIE *deɑɦto-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *daɑɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. daɑɦto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *daɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. daɦto-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Lat. dato-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Fal. dato-
(pt.) ‘gegeben’
(WH. 1:361)
(in Fal. datu)
1. PIE *deɑɦto-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *daɑɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. daɑɦto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *daɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. daɦto-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Fal. dato-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Pael. dato-
(pt.) ‘gegeben’
(WH. 1:361)
(in Pael. datas ‘datas’
1. PIE *deɑɦto-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *daɑɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. daɑɦto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *daɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. daɦto-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Pael. dato-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
RV. dátra-
(n.) ‘Gabe’
(WbRV. 573)
1. PIE *déɑɦtro-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *dáɑɦtro-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. dáɑɦtro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dáɦtro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dáɦtro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dáɦtra-
4. dáɦtra-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → RV. dátra-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. datrīc-
(f.) ‘Geberin’
(WH. 1:361)
(Lat. datrīx)
1. PIE *deɑɦtrɑheik-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *daɑɦtrɑheik-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. daɑɦtrɑheik-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *daɦtrheik-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. daɦtrheik-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *datrheik-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. datrheik-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *datreik-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. datreik-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *datrīk-
6. datrīk-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. datrīc-
√dɑ́ɦ-
Dor. ἀφρο·δί̄·τᾱ-
(f.) ‘= Gr. ἀφροτίδη’
(KVG:249)
1. PIE *ɦɑebɑɦro·dɑ́ɦi·tēɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́ɦi·tēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́ɦi·tēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́ɦi·tāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́ɦi·tāɑh-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *ɦɑabɑɦro·díɦi·tāɑh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
4. ɦɑabɑɦro·díɦi·tāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦabɦro·díɦi·tāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
5. ɦabɦro·díɦi·tāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *abɦro·díi·tāh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. abɦro·díi·tāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *abɦro·díi·tā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. abɦro·díi·tā-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *aphro·díi·tā-
8. aphro·díi·tā-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *aphro·dī́·tā-
9. aphro·dī́·tā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. ἀφρο·δί̄·τᾱ-
RV. díya-
(n.) ‘Gabe’
(WbRV. 600)
(RV. díya-)
1. PIE *dɑ́ɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi̯ → íḫi̯
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i̯
Rɑ́Hi̯›íHi̯ → *díɦi̯o-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. díɦi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *díɦi̯a-
3. díɦi̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *díi̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. díi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. díya-
RV. dúv-
(f.?) ‘Gabe’
(WbRV. 623)
(RV. dúvas [plN, plA])
1. PIE *dɑ́ɦu̯-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu̯ → úḫu̯
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u̯
Rɑ́Hu̯›úHu̯ → *dúɦu̯-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. dúɦu̯-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dúu̯-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. dúu̯-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. dúv-
ODor. δύϝανο-
(inf.) ‘er möge geben’
(GEW 1:388-9)
(Cypr. δυϝάνοι)
1. PIE *dɑ́ɦu̯eɑhno-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *dɑ́ɦu̯aɑhno-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. dɑ́ɦu̯aɑhno-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu̯ → úḫu̯
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u̯
Rɑ́Hu̯›úHu̯ → *dúɦu̯aɑhno-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
3. dúɦu̯aɑhno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dúɦu̯ahno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. dúɦu̯ahno-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dúu̯ahno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dúu̯ahno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dúu̯ano-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. dúu̯ano-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → ODor. δύϝανο-
√dɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013:154-5)
Osc. āmana.f·-
(pf.) ‘übergeben, anheimgeben’
(WbOU. 448)
(Osc. aamanaffed, aamanafed ‘mandavit’ [3sg])
1. PIE *Π.dɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π.dɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π.dɦ-
*dɦ → f
Affricativization of dental *dɦ
Rdɦ›f → Osc. Π.f·-
Osc. ēmana.f·-
(pf.) ‘übergeben, anheimgeben’
(WbOU. 448)
(Osc. emanafed [3sg[)
1. PIE *Π.dɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π.dɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π.dɦ-
*dɦ → f
Affricativization of dental *dɦ
Rdɦ›f → Osc. Π.f·-
RV. dh·iṣ-
(f.) ‘Opfer·lust ‹√iṣ-›, Lust zu geben’
(WbRV. 683)
(RV. dhiṣā́ [sgI])
1. PIE *dɑɦ·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦ·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦ·Σ-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. dh·Σ-
RV. dh·iṣā́-
(des.a.f.) ‘Lust zu geben, Freigebigkeit, Opferlust’
(WbRV. 683)
1. PIE *dɑɦ·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦ·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦ·Σ-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. dh·Σ-
RV. dh·íṣṇia-
(des.a.) ‘freigiebig, gerne gebend, gerne helfend’
(WbRV. 683)
1. PIE *dɑɦ·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦ·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦ·Σ-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. dh·Σ-
√dɑɦo-
OInd. ratna·dhá-
(.) ‘Schätze verleihend’
(IEW 235-39)
(OInd. ratnadháḥ)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·dɦá-
3. Π·dɦá-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → OInd. Π·dhá-
Osc. mana.fo·-
(pf.) ‘übergeben, anheimgeben’
(WbOU. 448)
(Osc. manafum)
1. PIE *Π.dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π.dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π.dɦo-
*dɦ → f
Affricativization of dental *dɦ
Rdɦ›f → Osc. Π.fo·-
Lith. nuo·da-
(m.) ‘Gift’
(IEW 235-39)
(Lith. nuodaĩ [plN])
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·dɦa-
3. Π·dɦa-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → Lith. Π·da-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
HLu. teina·da-
(n.) ‘tithe = argentum·dare i.e. ‘silver·giving’
(CHLu. 347)
(HLu. ARGENTUM.DARE)ti-na-tá, ti-na-ta-za)
1. PIE *teino·dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teino·dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. teino·dɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *teina·dɦa-
3. teina·dɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. teina·da-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. kuša·da-
(n.) ‘Brautpreis : bride-price, HHand. 87’
(HEG I:673)
(Hitt. ku-ša-ta-, ku-ú-ša-a-ta- HIL. 576, Rieken 1999:256f.)
1. PIE *kuso·dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kuso·dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kuso·dɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kusa·dɦa-
3. kusa·dɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *kusa·da-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. kusa·da-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. kuša·da-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦēɑh-
IEW 259 + 237)
(Pyysalo: OInd.)
OInd. vayō·dhā́-
(a.) ‘Lebenskraft verleihend’
(IEW 235-39)
(OInd. vayōdh̃ā́ḥ)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *Π·dɑɦā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·dɑɦā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·dɦā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·dɦā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·dɦā́-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → OInd. Π·dhā́-
Lat. fāno-
(n.) ‘heiliger, den Göttern geweihter Ort’
(IEW 259)
(WH. 1:453f.; EM2 333, 347f. or PIE *dɑɦēɑhs·no-?)
1. PIE *dɑɦēɑh·no-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dɑɦāɑh·no-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dɑɦāɑh·no-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦāh·no-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dɦāh·no-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dɦā·no-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dɦā·no-
*dɦ → f
Affricativization of dental *dɦ
Rdɦ›f → Lat. fā·no-
√dɑɦi-
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
HLu. teina·di-
(n.) ‘tithe’
(CHLu. 347)
(HLu. [ti]-na-ti-i)
1. PIE *teino·dɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teino·dɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. teino·dɦi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *teina·dɦi-
3. teina·dɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. teina·di-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. dádhi-
(a.) ‘gebend, verleihend’
(WbRV. 574)
(or PIE dɑɦódɑɦi- ?)
1. PIE *dɑɦédɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦédɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦédɦi-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmann → *dédɦi-
(SPIE §4.6.4)
3. dédɦi-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *dádɦi-
4. dádɦi-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. dádhi-
√dɑɦs-
(IEW 259)
(+ Pyysalo: RV.)
RV. dhās-
(s.ao.) ‘hinschaffen, zuteilen, verleihen, geben’
(WbRV. 673)
(RV. dhāsathas [2du])
1. PIE *dɑɦēs-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦēs-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦēs-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *dɦās-
3. dɦās-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. dhās-
Osc. fēsnā-
(f.) ‘templum: Tempel’
(WbOU. 281-2)
(Osc. fíísnú, fíísnam, físnam)
1. PIE *dɑɦēsnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dɑɦēsnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dɑɦēsnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦēsnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dɦēsnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dɦēsnā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dɦēsnā-
*dɦ → f
Affricativization of dental *dɦ
Rdɦ›f → Osc. fēsnā-
Umbr. fēsnā-
(f.) ‘Tempel’
(WbOU. 281-2)
(Umbr. fesnere, fesnafe)
1. PIE *dɑɦēsnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dɑɦēsnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dɑɦēsnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦēsnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dɦēsnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dɦēsnā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dɦēsnā-
*dɦ → f
Affricativization of dental *dɦ
Rdɦ›f → Umbr. fēsnā-
√dɑɦos- and/or √dɑɦōs-
(IEW –)
(Melchert + Pyysalo)
Hitt. teina·daši-
(PÚa.gen.) ‘‹≈ argentum·dare’›
(OGH. 554)
(Hitt. ti-i-na-ta-aš-ši-iš, (OGHErg. 211) › Šaluataši (ON)’
1. PIE *teino·dɑɦosi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teino·dɦosi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. teino·dɦosi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *teina·dɦasi-
3. teina·dɦasi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *teina·dasi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. teina·dasi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. teina·daši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Pal. daš·ura-
(sb.) ‘Opfertisch; Melchert 1994:191’
(DPal. 73)
(Pal. ta-šu-ú-ra [sgL])
1. PIE *dɑɦos·uro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦos·uro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦos·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦas·ura-
3. dɦas·ura-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *das·ura-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. das·ura-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Pal. daš·ura-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lyd. taśẽν-
(sb.) ‘votive object’
(Melchert 1994:331)
(Lyd. taśẽν, Melchert (1994:362 = HLu. ta-sa-za)
1. PIE *dɑɦoseni
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦoseni
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦoseni
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦaseni
3. dɦaseni
PIE * s → ś
Orthographic change of *s into ś
Rs›ś → *dɦaśeni
4. dɦaśeni
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *daśeni
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. daśeni
*en → ẽn
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
ReN›ẽN → *daśẽni
6. daśẽni
PIE *Nd → Nt
Devoicing of PIE *d after N
RNd›Nt → Lyd. taśẽni
LycA. ϑϑẽ
(sb.) ‘votive object’
(Melchert 1994:287)
1. PIE *dɑɦòsen-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦòsen-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦòsen-
PIE *ò → à
Change of *ò into à
Rò›à → *dɦàsen-
3. dɦàsen-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *dàsen-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. dàsen-
*en → ẽn
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
ReN›ẽN → *dàsẽn-
5. dàsẽn-
PIE *Nd → Nt
Devoicing of PIE *d after N
RNd›Nt → *tàsẽn-
6. tàsẽn-
PIE *s → h
Change of fricative *s into h
Rs›h → *tàhẽn-
7. tàhẽn-
*a → Ø
Loss of unaccented *a
Rà›0 → *thẽn-
8. thẽn-
*th → ϑ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›ϑ → *ϑẽn-
9. ϑẽn-
*ϑ- → ϑϑ-
Initial gemination of ϑ
Rϑ=›ϑϑ= → LycA. ϑϑẽn-


PIE √tɑh- √dɑɦ- (vb.) ‘essen, fressen’ (sb.) ‘Getreide, Brot, Speise’ (Lat. frūmentum) (a.) ‘brauchbar, nützlich’ (Goth. brūk-)
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√tɑh-
OInd. tha-
(m.) ‘eating’
(MonWil. 464)
(Lex. thas [sgN])
1. PIE *tɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. tha-
√dɑɦ-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ed-
(vb.) ‘essen’
(HEG 1:117-9)
(Hitt. e-te-ir [3pl])
1. PIE *edɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *edɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. edɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ed-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ad-
(vb.) ‘essen, fressen’
(HEG 1:91)
(HHand. 28)
1. PIE *odɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *odɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. odɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *adɦ-
3. adɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ad-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. θώ-
(vb.) ‘schmausen: feast’
(GEW 1: 676-7)
(A. Fr. 49 θῶσθαι· δαίνυσθαι, θοινα̃σθαι, Hes. θῶται· εὐθηνει̃ται, θοινα̃ται, GrGr. 675 A. 8)
1. PIE *dɑɦṓ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦṓ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦṓ-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *thṓ-
3. thṓ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. θώ-
HLu. ARHA·ada-
(vb.) ‘eat up, consume’
(CHLu. 10.14.33)
(HLu. ARHA á-tà-tu-u)
1. PIE *Π·odɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·odɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·odɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·adɦa-
3. Π·adɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. Π·ada-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦi-
Pal. adaa-
(vb.) ‘essen’
(DPal. 52)
(Pal. a-ta-a-an-ti [3pl])
1. PIE *odɑɦoi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *odɦoi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. odɦoi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *adɦai̯a-
3. adɦai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *adɦaa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. adɦaa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Pal. adaa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. az-
(vb.M.) ‘essen’
(DLL. 36)
(CLu. az-tu-u-wa-ri)
1. PIE *odɑɦi̯
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *odɦi̯
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. odɦi̯
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *ojɦ
3. ojɦ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ajɦ
4. ajɦ
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *azɦ
5. azɦ
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. az
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. eza-
(vb.) ‘essen’
(HED E:135ff.)
(Hitt. ezateni [2pl])
1. PIE *edɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *edɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. edɦi̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *ejɦo-
3. ejɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ejɦa-
4. ejɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *eja-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. eja-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. eza-
HLu. ARHA aza·-
(vb.) ‘eat away, consume’
(CHLu. 10.9.12)
(HLu. ARHA á-za-tu)
1. PIE *Π·odɑɦi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·odɦi̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·odɦi̯o
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *Π·ojɦo
3. Π·ojɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ajɦa
4. Π·ajɦa
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *Π·aja
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. Π·aja
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → HLu. Π·aza
gAv. a·idyu-
(a.) ‘brauchbar, nützlich, tüchtig zu [D]’
(AIWb. 65-6)
1. PIE *o·dɑɦi̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·dɦi̯u-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·dɦi̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·dɦi̯u-
3. a·dɦi̯u-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *a·di̯u-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. a·di̯u-
*adi → aidi
Anaptyxis of *i
RadI›aidI → *a·idi̯u-
5. a·idi̯u-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → gAv. a·idyu-
TochA. nä·tsw-
(vb.) ‘starve’
(Poucha 150)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦiu̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦiu̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦiu̯-
PIE *dɦi → jɦi
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi›jɦi → *Π·jɦiu̯-
3. Π·jɦiu̯-
*jɦ → j
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *jɦ
Rjɦ›j → *Π·jiu̯-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. Π·jiu̯-
*j → t s
Loss of voice of media *j
Rj›ts → *Π·tsiu̯-
5. Π·tsiu̯-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. Π·tsiw-
TochB. mä·tsor-
(sb.) ‘hunger’
(DTochB. 459)
(TochB. mätsors)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦi̯our-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦi̯our-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦi̯our-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·dɦi̯aur-
3. Π·dɦi̯aur-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *Π·jɦaur-
4. Π·jɦaur-
*jɦ → j
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *jɦ
Rjɦ›j → *Π·jaur-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. Π·jaur-
*j → t s
Loss of voice of media *j
Rj›ts → *Π·tsaur-
6. Π·tsaur-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *Π·tsōr-
7. Π·tsōr-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. Π·tsor-
√dɑɦiuuo-
Hitt. zuu̯a-
(c.) ‘Brot, Speise’
(HIL. 1202)
(Hitt. zu-u-ua-aš [plD], HuIdg. 99-100)
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯uu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦi̯uu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦi̯uu̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *jɦuu̯o-
3. jɦuu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *jɦuu̯a-
4. jɦuu̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *juu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. juu̯a-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. zuu̯a-
CLu. zuu̯a-
(c.) ‘NINDA : pain, nourriture’
(DLL. 116)
(Hitt. zu-u-ua-aš [plD], HuIdg. 99-100)
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯uu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦi̯uu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦi̯uu̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *jɦuu̯o-
3. jɦuu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *jɦuu̯a-
4. jɦuu̯a-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *zɦuu̯a-
5. zɦuu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. zuu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. zuu̯ai-
(vb.1.) ‘Objekt: Rauch’
(HHand. 210)
(Hitt. zu-ua-a-iz-zi; zu-ua-a-it, HIL. 1202)
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯uu̯oi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦi̯uu̯oi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦi̯uu̯oi-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *jɦuu̯oi-
3. jɦuu̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *jɦuu̯ai-
4. jɦuu̯ai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *juu̯ai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. juu̯ai-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. zuu̯ai-
√dɑɦu-
CLu. adu-
(vb.) ‘essen’
(DLL. 34)
(CLu. aduna [inf.])
1. PIE *odɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *odɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. odɦu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *adɦu-
3. adɦu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. adu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦuno-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. a·duna-
(sb.) ‘provision’
(CHLu. 11.1.fg18)
(HLu. (“*205”)á-tu-na-ri+i [sgI?])
1. PIE *o·dɑɦuno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·dɦuno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·dɦuno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·dɦuna-
3. a·dɦuna-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. a·duna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. θύνο-
(pr.M.) ‘ἥδεται’
(Gr. θύνεται : ἥδεται)
1. PIE *dɑɦúno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦúno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦúno-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *thúno-
3. thúno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. θύνο-
Hitt. dunabi-
(d.) ‘› RDH. 90’
(OHP. 1:528-9)
(Hitt. tu-u-na-pí [Abs], tu-na-a-pí [Abs])
1. PIE *dɑɦunobɑɦi
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦunobɦi
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦunobɦi
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦunabɦi
3. dɦunabɦi
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dunabi
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dunabtu-
(NINDAc.) ‘ein Gebäck = tuniptu-’
(HHand. 180)
1. PIE *dɑɦunobɑɦtu
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦunobɦtu
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦunobɦtu
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦunabɦtu
3. dɦunabɦtu
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dunabtu
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦuni-
HLu. a·duni-
(c.) ‘provision’
(CHLu. 11.1.a7)
(HLu. (*205)á-tu-ni-na-wa/i-mu)
1. PIE *o·dɑɦuni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·dɦuni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·dɦuni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·dɦuni-
3. a·dɦuni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. a·duni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. duni-
() ((NINDA)c.) ‘eine Speise, Gebäck’
(HHand. 180)
1. PIE *dɑɦuni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦuni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦuni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. duni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. duni-
(TU7c.) ‘eine Suppe oder eines Brei’
(HHand. 180)
1. PIE *dɑɦuni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦuni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦuni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. duni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Kpd. dunei̯a-
(LÚ.c.) ‘XX’
(NOMS. 1375)
(Kpd. du-ni-a)
1. PIE *dɑɦunei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦunei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦunei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦunei̯a-
3. dɦunei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Kpd. dunei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dunei̯a-
(LÚ.c.) ‘XX’
(NOMS. Fr. 60)
(Hitt. duniia-z[…)
1. PIE *dɑɦunei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦunei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦunei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦunei̯a-
3. dɦunei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dunei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. duniša-
(a.gen.n.) ‘-(?)-’
(HHand. 180)
(CLu. duniša [plNA])
1. PIE *dɑɦuniso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦuniso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦuniso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦunisa-
3. dɦunisa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *dunisa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. dunisa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. duniša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦunigɑɦ-
Hitt. dunig-
(NINDAn.) (ein Gebäck) (= tunink-)
(HHand. 180)
1. PIE *dɑɦunigɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦunigɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦunigɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dunig-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Kpd. duniguni-
(LÚ.c.)
(NOMS. 1376)
1. PIE *dɑɦunigɑɦuni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦunigɦuni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦunigɦuni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Kpd. duniguni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦuningɑɦ-
Hitt. duning-
(NINDAn.) (ein Gebäck = tunik-)
(HHand. 180)
1. PIE *dɑɦuningɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦuningɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦuningɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. duning-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. duningala-
(.) ‘maker of TUNIG’
(II.13.§ )
(HLu. (SCUTELLA)tu-ni-ka-la-sa) (CHLu. 111)
1. PIE *dɑɦuningɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦuningɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦuningɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦuningɦala-
3. dɦuningɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. duningala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. duningara-
(.) ‘PANIS.SCUTELLA’
(CHLu. 553)
(HLu. (“PANIS.SCUTELLA”)tu-ni-ka-ra+a-sa)
1. PIE *dɑɦuningɑɦoro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦuningɦoro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦuningɦoro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦuningɦara-
3. dɦuningɦara-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. duningara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦunibɑɦ-
Hitt. dunib
(URU.) ‘NW von Homs, OGHErg. 174’
(OGH. 440)
(Hitt. tu-ni-ip)
1. PIE *dɑɦunibɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦunibɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦunibɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dunib-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. duniba-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGH. 440)
(Hitt. du-ni-ip-pa, du-ni-pa)
1. PIE *dɑɦunibɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦunibɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦunibɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦunibɦa-
3. dɦunibɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. duniba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dunibi-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGH. 440)
(Hitt. tu-ni-ip-pí)
1. PIE *dɑɦunibɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦunibɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦunibɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dunibi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dunibtu-
(NINDA.c.) ‘ein Gebäck = tunaptu-’
(HHand. 180)
1. PIE *dɑɦunibɑɦtu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦunibɦtu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦunibɦtu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dunibtu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √tɑɦ- √dɑɦ- (vb.) ‘setzen, legen, stellen, gründen, einrichten’
(IEW 235-9)
√dɑɦo-
Hitt. da-
(vb.2.) ‘(ein)setzen, legen, stellen’ (Sum. GAR)
(HHand. 159)
(in Hitt. da-i [3sg], da-a-i)
1. PIE *dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦa-
3. dɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. da-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LycA. ta-
(vb.) ‘put, place’
(DLycLg. 59-60)
(LycA. tadi [3sg], tãti [3pl])
1. PIE *dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦa-
3. dɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *da-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. da-
PIE *Nd → Nt
Devoicing of PIE *d after N
RNd›Nt → LycA. ta-
HLu. da-
(vb.) ‘put (?), obj. stele’
(CHLu. 2.43.1.)
(HLu. ta-ta [3sg])
1. PIE *dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦa-
3. dɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. da-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦoi-
(HEG T:19f.)
(HIL. 931f.)
Hitt. dai-
(vb.2.) ‘GAR: (ein)setzen, legen, stellen’
(HHand. 159)
(Hitt. da-a-iš [3sg] IEW 235-39)
1. PIE *dɑɦoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦai-
3. dɦai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. dhāy-
(ao.ps.) ‘einsetzen, aufrichten’
(WbRV. 672)
(RV. ádhāy-i [3sg])
1. PIE *dɑɦōi̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦōi̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦōi̯-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *dɦāi̯-
3. dɦāi̯-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *dhāi̯-
4. dhāi̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. dhāy-
√dɑɦei-
Hitt. dei-
(vb.2.) ‘(ein)setzen, legen, stellen’
(HHand. 173)
(Hitt. te-eḫ-ḫi [1sg], ti-an-zi [3pl] Pedersen Hitt. 91, 112 f., 166)
1. PIE *dɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. θεί-
(ao.) ‘(hin)setzen, (nieder)legen, (fest-, her)stellen, gründen, einrichten’
(GEW 2: 897-898)
(Gr. θει̃ναι [inf.], θείην [opt.])
1. PIE *dɑɦeí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦeí-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦeí-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *theí-
3. theí-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. θεί-
TochB. tse-
(pr.M.) ‘place, set’
(DTochB. 283)
(TochB. tseñtär [3pl])
1. PIE *dɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦei-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *dɦi̯ai-
3. dɦi̯ai-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *jɦai-
4. jɦai-
*jɦ → j
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *jɦ
Rjɦ›j → *jai-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. jai-
*j → t s
Loss of voice of media *j
Rj›ts → *tsai-
6. tsai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *tsē-
7. tsē-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. tse-
RV. dhay-
(ao.) ‘hinschaffen, -setzen,- stellen, -legen’
(WbRV. 667)
(RV. dhehí [2sgIpv.], dhehi; ‹not †dhaddhi vs. Grassmann›)
1. PIE *dɑɦei̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦei̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦei̯-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *dɦai̯-
3. dɦai̯-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *dhai̯-
4. dhai̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. dhay-
RV. iṣu·dhay-
(m.obl.) ‘Köcher-’
(WbRV. 277)
(RV. iṣudhés [sgG])
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦei̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦei̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦei̯-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *Π·dɦai̯-
3. Π·dɦai̯-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *Π·dhai̯-
4. Π·dhai̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·dhay-
√dɑɦeio-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. dei̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘sich stellen’
(HHand. 175)
1. PIE *dɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦei̯a-
3. dɦei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dei̯a-
(vb.A.) ‘setzen’
(HHand. 175)
(Hitt. tiiaueni)
1. PIE *dɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦei̯a-
3. dɦei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. ni·δaya-
(pr.) ‘niedersetzen’
(AIWb. 721)
(LAv. niδayeinte [3pl])
1. PIE *ni·dɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ni·dɦei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ni·dɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ni·dɦei̯a-
3. ni·dɦei̯a-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ni·dei̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. ni·dei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *ni·dai̯a-
5. ni·dai̯a-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → *ni·δai̯a-
6. ni·δai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. ni·δaya-
Hitt. dei̯an-
(n.) ‘das Setzen, Legen, Stellen’
(HHand. 176)
(Hitt. dei̯anna)
1. PIE *dɑɦei̯on-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦei̯on-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦei̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦei̯an-
3. dɦei̯an-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dei̯an-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dei̯ania-
(vb.1.) ‘hinlegen’
(HHand. 176)
1. PIE *dɑɦei̯oneia-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦei̯oneia-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦei̯oneia-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦei̯aneia-
3. dɦei̯aneia-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dei̯aneia-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dei̯ant-
(pt.) ‘gesetzt, vesetzt, bestückt, versehen mit’
(HEG T:366)
(Hitt. dei̯ant-, HHand. 176)
1. PIE *dɑɦei̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦei̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦei̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦei̯ant-
3. dɦei̯ant-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dei̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dei̯adar-
(n.) ‘das Setzen, Legen, Stellen, HHand. 176’
(HEG T:370)
(Hitt. t]i-ia-dar)
1. PIE *dɑɦei̯odɑɦor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦei̯odɦor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦei̯odɦor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦei̯adɦar-
3. dɦei̯adɦar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dei̯adar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦi-
RV. dhi-
(ao.M.) ‘hinschaffen, -setzen,- stellen, -legen’
(WbRV. 669)
(RV. dhiṣe [3sg])
1. PIE *dɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦi-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. dhi-
RV. dhi-
(pf.M.) ‘sich anlegen’
(WbRV. 669)
(RV. dhire [3pl])
1. PIE *dɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦi-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. dhi-
RV. iṣu·dhí-
(m.) ‘Köcher’
(WbRV. 277)
(RV. iṣudhís [N], iṣudhī́n [plA])
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦí-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦí-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. Π·dhí-
RV. dadhi-
(red.pf.) ‘setzen’
(WbRV. 670)
(RV. dadhimá [1pl])
1. PIE *dɑɦedɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦedɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦedɦi-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmann → *dedɦi-
(SPIE §4.6.4)
3. dedɦi-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *dadɦi-
4. dadɦi-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. dadhi-


PIE √tɑh- √dɑh- (vb.) ‘stehen, bleiben, überstehen’ (sb.) ‘Art’
(IEW 32)
(Pyysalo: Celt. + CLu. + Gr.)
√tēɑh-
OIr. ar·tā-
(vb.) ‘remain over: übrig bleiben’
(GOIr. 480)
(OIr. arathā [rel.] ‘who remains over’)
1. PIE *Π·tēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·tāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·tāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·tāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·tāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·tā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·tā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OIr. Π·ta-
OIr. nī·dī·tā-
(vb.) ‘non differunt’
(GOIr. 480)
(OIr. ní·dí-thāt)
1. PIE *Π·Π·tēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·Π·tāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·Π·tāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·Π·tāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·Π·tāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·Π·tā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·Π·tā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OIr. Π·Π·ta-
√toɑho-
HLu. taḫa-
(n.pl.) ‹‘altar(?) o.ä.’›
(CHLu. 2.25a)
(HLu. ta-ha [plNA] (PONERE)tu-wa/i-ha)
1. PIE *toɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *toho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. toho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *taha-
3. taha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. taḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. in·taḫa-
(a.) ‹‘in altar (?)’›
(DLL. 51)
(CLu. tiwata i-in-ta-ḫa tiwata, HHand. 62’)
1. PIE *in·toɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *in·toho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. in·toho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *in·taha-
3. in·taha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. in·taḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√toɑhno-
OPers. hagma·tāna-
(URU.pt.) ‘‹≈ Handel·Stadt/Stelle›’
(AIWb. 1744)
(VS. sagmá- ‘Einswerden (im Handel)’)
1. PIE *Π·toɑhno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·tohno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·tohno-
PIE *oHCV → āHCV
Brugmann’s Law for *ohCV
RoHCV›āHCV → *Π·tāhno-
(SPIE §2.3.7)
3. Π·tāhno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·tāhna-
4. Π·tāhna-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OPers. Π·tāna-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
LAv. fra·daxš·tānā-
(f.) ‘Schleuder·stein’
(AIWb. 981-2)
1. PIE *Π·Π·toɑhnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·Π·toɑhnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·Π·toɑhnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·Π·tohnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·Π·tohnāh-
PIE *oHCV → āHCV
Brugmann’s Law for *ohCV
RoHCV›āHCV → *Π·Π·tāhnāh-
(SPIE §2.3.7)
4. Π·Π·tāhnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → LAv. Π·Π·tānā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√tɑho-
CLu. ta-
(vb.) ‘stehen : stand’
(HHand. 158)
1. PIE *tɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tha-
3. tha-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → CLu. ta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. ta-
(vb.) ‘stand’
(CHLu. 12.1.1.)
(HLu. (CRUS)ta-i)
1. PIE *tɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tha-
3. tha-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → HLu. ta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. ἀλκά·θο-
(pr.) ‘beistehen’
(GEW 1:69)
(Gr. ἀλκάθω)
1. PIE *Π·tɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·tho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·tho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·θο-
Gr. ἀμυνά·θο-
(pr.*) ‘abwehren, helfen’
(GEW 1:97)
(Gr. ἀμυνάθω, Schwyzer 703)
1. PIE *Π·tɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·tho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·tho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·θο-
√tɑhoni-
Hitt. tani·nu-
(cs.1.) ‘einrichten, ordnen, festigen’
(HHand. 164)
(Hitt. da-ni-nu-nu-un; Melchert 1983:150)
1. PIE *tɑhoni·nu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thoni·nu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thoni·nu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thani·nu-
3. thani·nu-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. tani·nu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. tani·nu-
(cs.A.) ‘install, settle’
(HIL. 955)
1. PIE *tɑhoni·nu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thoni·nu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thoni·nu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thani·nu-
3. thani·nu-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → CLu. tani·nu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. tani·nu̯ant-
(cs.pt.) ‘einrichten, ordnen, festigen’
(HHand. 164)
1. PIE *tɑhoni·nuont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thoni·nuont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thoni·nuont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thani·nuant-
3. thani·nuant-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. tani·nuant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. tani·numar/n-
(N.act.) ‘einrichten, ordnen, festigen’
(HHand. 164)
(Hitt. ta-ni-nu-ma-an-zi)
1. PIE *tɑhoni·numor/n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thoni·numor/n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thoni·numor/n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thani·numar/n-
3. thani·numar/n-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. tani·numar/n-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. tani·ša-
() ((STELE).) ‘Stele’
(CHLu. 9.13.1)
(HLu. (STELE)ta-ni-sà-za)
1. PIE *tɑhoni·so-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thoni·so-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thoni·so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thani·sa-
3. thani·sa-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *tani·sa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tani·sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. tani·ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. tani·d-
(n.) ‘ein best. Kultobjekt, ‘Stele’ (?)’
(HHand. 164)
(KLuN. 1990:206)
1. PIE *tɑhoni·dɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thoni·dɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thoni·dɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thani·dɦ-
3. thani·dɦ-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *tani·dɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tani·dɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. tani·d-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. tani·da-
(n.) ‘ein best. Kultobjekt, ‘Stele, HHand. 164’ (?)
(DLL. 90)
(DLL. da-a-ni-ta [plNA])
1. PIE *tɑhoni·dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thoni·dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thoni·dɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thani·dɦa-
3. thani·dɦa-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *tani·dɦa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tani·dɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. tani·da-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√tɑhonu-
HLu. tanu̯a-
(vb.) ‘make stand, begin, begin to, set up’
(CHLu. 2.22.19)
(HLu. ta-nu-wa/i-ha-‘ [1sg], (‘CRUS’)ta-nu-wa-wa/i-i [1sg])
1. PIE *tɑhonu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thonu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thonu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thanu̯a-
3. thanu̯a-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → HLu. tanu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. tanu̯a-
(m.c.) (héraut = herald)
(NOMS. 1245)
(Hitt. ta-nu-ua-aš, -an, ta-nu-u-i [D], da-a-nu-ua-aš [G.])
1. PIE *tɑhonu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thonu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thonu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thanu̯a-
3. thanu̯a-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. tanu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. tanu·na-
(KUR.) ‘Freu, Luwiya 1980:205f. Forlanini, VO7 1988:141f.’
(OGH. 158)
(in Akd. ta-nu-ú-na)
1. PIE *tɑhonu·no-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thonu·no-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thonu·no-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thanu·na-
3. thanu·na-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. tanu·na-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√tɑhostɑh-
(IEW 1004ff.)
RV. tasth-
(pf.) ‘stehen’
(WbRV. 1600)
(RV. tasthús [3pl])
1. PIE *tɑhostɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thosth-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thosth-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → RV. thasth-
CLu. tašta-
(vb.) ‘stand (?); Yakubovicz, Luwian Corpus’
(DLL. 95)
(CLu. da-aš-da-a-ui [1sg]; HHand. 172)
1. PIE *tɑhostɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thostho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thostho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thastha-
3. thastha-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *tasta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tasta-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. tašta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. tašta-
(URU.) “Im Bezirk von > Kartapaḫa.”
(OGH. 412)
(Hitt. ta-a-aš?-ta, ta-aš-ta)
1. PIE *tɑhostɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thostho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thostho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thastha-
3. thastha-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *tasta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tasta-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. tašta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦogiɑɦ-
(Pyysalo: OAnat. + Germ.)
CLu. daza-
(vb.) ‘continue to stand, remain’
(DTochB. 288)
1. PIE *dɑɦogi̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦogi̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦogi̯ɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *dɦoj́ɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. dɦoj́ɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦaj́ɦa-
4. dɦaj́ɦa-
*j́ɦ → zɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to zɦ
Rj́ɦ›zɦ → *dɦazɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. dɦazɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *dazɦa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. dazɦa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. daza-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. ARHA daza·-
(vb.) ‘stand, be continue’
(I.1.§ )
(HLu. ARHA?! (“CRUS<”>)ta-za-tu)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦogi̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦogi̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦogi̯ɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *Π·dɦoj́ɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·dɦoj́ɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·dɦaj́ɦa-
4. Π·dɦaj́ɦa-
*j́ɦ → zɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to zɦ
Rj́ɦ›zɦ → *Π·dɦazɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. Π·dɦazɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *Π·dazɦa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. Π·dazɦa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. Π·dazḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OEng. daga-
(wk.vb.) ‘überstehen, erdulden, überleben’
(Hh. 70)
(OEng. dagan, cf. díegan)
1. PIE *dɑɦogi̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦogi̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦogi̯ɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *dɦoǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. dɦoǵɦo-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *dɦogɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. dɦogɦo-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dogɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. dogɦo-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *dogo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. dogo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OEng. daga-
OIcl. dauð.dagi-
(sb.) ‘Todesart’
(ANEtWb. 71b)
(OIcl. dauðdagi)
1. PIE *dɦɑeudɑɦ.dɑɦogi̯ɑɦi-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *dɦɑaudɑɦ.dɑɦogi̯ɑɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. dɦɑaudɑɦ.dɑɦogi̯ɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦaudɦ.dɦogi̯ɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dɦaudɦ.dɦogi̯ɦi-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *dɦaudɦ.dɦoǵɦi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. dɦaudɦ.dɦoǵɦi-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *dɦaudɦ.dɦogɦi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. dɦaudɦ.dɦogɦi-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *daud.dogɦi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. daud.dogɦi-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *daud.dogi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. daud.dogi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *daud.dagi-
8. daud.dagi-
*d -› ð
Change of d into ð
Rd›ð → OIcl. dauð.ðagi-


PIE √tɑh- √dɑɦ- (vb.) ‘gebären’ (sb.) ‘Vater, Grossvater, Tante, Amme’
(IEW: in extensions)
√dɑɦodɑɦ-
(IEW 235; HEG T:270f.)
(cf. for stops, see ModHG. tate)
Kpd. dada-
(I.c.) (fils d’Assyriens et fils d’indigènes)
(NOMS. 1300)
(Kpd. da-da)
1. PIE *dɑɦodɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦodɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦodɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦadɦa-
3. dɦadɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Kpd. dada-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dada-
(m.c.) (onomastisches Element)
(NOMS. 1300)
(Hitt. da-a-da-aš [sgN], da-da, da-da-ia)
1. PIE *dɑɦodɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦodɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦodɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦadɦa-
3. dɦadɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dada-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Car. δαδα-
(PN.m.)
(KPN §244-4)
(Car. Δαδας [sgN])
1. PIE *dɑɦodɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦodɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦodɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦadɦa-
3. dɦadɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *dada-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. dada-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Car. δαδα-
Hitt. dada·šuna-
(d.) ‘-(?)-’
(OHP. 1:461)
(Hitt. ta-ta-aš-šu-na-an [sgA])
1. PIE *dɑɦodɑɦo·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦodɦo·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦodɦo·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦadɦa·Σ
3. dɦadɦa·Σ
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dada·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dada·šuna-
(URU.) ‘Zwischen > Katapa und > Taḫurpa’
(OGH. 414)
(Hitt. ta-at-ta-šu-na [Stf.], OGHErg. 165)
1. PIE *dɑɦodɑɦo·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦodɦo·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦodɦo·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦadɦa·Σ
3. dɦadɦa·Σ
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dada·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dada·šuna-
(URU.)
(OGH. 414)
(Hitt. ta-ta-šu-na [Stf.])
1. PIE *dɑɦodɑɦo·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦodɦo·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦodɦo·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦadɦa·Σ
3. dɦadɦa·Σ
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dada·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. dada·uani-
(c.) ‘Schwiegervater : peau-père, HHand. 173’
(DLL. 95)
(CLu. ta-a-ta-ua-an-ni-i[š] [sgN])
1. PIE *dɑɦodɑɦo·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦodɦo·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦodɦo·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦadɦa·Σ
3. dɦadɦa·Σ
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. dada·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦodɑɦoi-
HLu. dadai-
(I.)
(CHLu. 10.36.45)
(HLu. Ita-ta-ia [sgD])
1. PIE *dɑɦodɑɦoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦodɦoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦodɦoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦadɦai-
3. dɦadɦai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. dadai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Kpd. dadaa-
(I.c.) (fils d’Assyriens et fils d’indigènes)
(NOMS. 1300)
(Kpd. da-da-a)
1. PIE *dɑɦodɑɦoi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦodɦoi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦodɦoi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦadɦai̯a-
3. dɦadɦai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *dɦadɦaa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. dɦadɦaa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Kpd. dadaa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦodɑɦoli-
Kpd. dadali-
(I.c.) ‘paternal (?), DKašg. 89’
(NOMS. 1302)
(Kpd. ta-ta-li(-i))
1. PIE *dɑɦodɑɦoli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦodɦoli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦodɦoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦadɦali-
3. dɦadɦali-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Kpd. dadali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. dadali-
(.) ‘paternal’
(II.11.§ )
(HLu. tá-tà-li-sa)
1. PIE *dɑɦodɑɦoli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦodɦoli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦodɦoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦadɦali-
3. dɦadɦali-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. dadali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦēdɑɦo-
OCS. dĕdŭ-
(m.) ‘Grossvater’
(Sadnik √144)
(OCS. dĕdŭ)
1. PIE *dɑɦēdɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦēdɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦēdɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦēdɦa
3. dɦēdɦa
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dēda
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dēda
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *dēdo
5. dēdo
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *dēdu
6. dēdu
*ē → ĕ
Change of *ē into ĕ
Rē›ĕ → *dĕdu
7. dĕdu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. dĕdŭ
OCS. pra·dĕdŭ-
(m.) ‘Urahne’
(Sadnik √144)
(OCS. pradĕdŭ)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦēdɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦēdɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦēdɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·dɦēdɦa
3. Π·dɦēdɦa
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·dēda
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. Π·dēda
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *Π·dēdo
5. Π·dēdo
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *Π·dēdu
6. Π·dēdu
*ē → ĕ
Change of *ē into ĕ
Rē›ĕ → *Π·dĕdu
7. Π·dĕdu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. Π·dĕdŭ
OCS. prĕ·dĕdŭ-
(m.) ‘Vorfahre, Ahne’
(Sadnik √144)
(OCS. prĕdĕdŭ)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦēdɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦēdɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦēdɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·dɦēdɦa
3. Π·dɦēdɦa
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·dēda
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. Π·dēda
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *Π·dēdo
5. Π·dēdo
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *Π·dēdu
6. Π·dēdu
*ē → ĕ
Change of *ē into ĕ
Rē›ĕ → *Π·dĕdu
7. Π·dĕdu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. Π·dĕdŭ


PIE √tɑhis- √dɑɦis- (sb.) ‘Deisam, Teig’ (vb.) ‘modellieren’
(IEW 1053)
(Pyysalo: OAnat. + IE)
√teɑhis-
(IEW 1053-4)
OHG. deismo·n-
(m.) ‘Deisam, Sauerteig: fermentum, zyma’
(EWAhd 2: 569)
(B, GB. Gl, OT, T)
1. PIE *teɑhismu·n-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhismu·n-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhismu·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahismu·n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahismu·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *taismu·n-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. taismu·n-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þaismu·n-
5. þaismu·n-
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
Rai›ei → *þeismu·n-
6. þeismu·n-
*þ → d
OHG sound shift of *þ
Rþ›d → *deismu·n-
7. deismu·n-
R=un-›=on- → OHG. deismo·n-
OIr. taes-
(m.*o) ‘dough’
(EtDiPC. 374)
(OIr. taís, LEIA T-17)
1. PIE *teɑhisso
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhisso
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhisso
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahisso
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahisso
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *taisso
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. taisso
*iCo → eCo
Lowering of *i into e
Risso›esso → *taesso
5. taesso
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → OIr. taess
CS. tĕsto-
(n.) ‘Teig: dough’ (for PIE *h, see SCr. tȉjesto)
(IEW 1054)
1. PIE *teɑhistos
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhistos
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhistos
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahistos
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahistos
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tahistas
4. tahistas
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *taistas
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. taistas
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *toistos
6. toistos
*oi → ē
Monophthongization of *oi into ē
Roi›ē → *tēstos
7. tēstos
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root-final)
Ros=›o= → *tēsto
8. tēsto
*ē → ĕ
Change of *ē into ĕ
Rē›ĕ → CS. tĕsto
√dɑɦeis-
Hitt. deišai-
(vb.) ‘in die richtige Form bringen, modellieren’
(HHand. 174)
1. PIE *dɑɦeisoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦeisoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦeisoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦeisai-
3. dɦeisai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *deisai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. deisai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. deišai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. deišai-
(vb.) ‘in die richtige Form bringen, modellieren’
(HHand. 174)
1. PIE *dɑɦeisoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦeisoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦeisoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦeisai-
3. dɦeisai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *deisai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. deisai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. deišai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. deišant-
(MUNUS.c.) ‘(eine Funktionärin)’
(HHand. 174)
1. PIE *dɑɦeisont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦeisont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦeisont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦeisant-
3. dɦeisant-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *deisant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. deisant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. deišant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. deišmara-
(m.c.) ‘‹Hitt. ·mara- = ‘-(?)-’(!)›
(NOMS. 1336)
(Hitt. ti-eš-ma-ra-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *dɑɦeismoro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦeismoro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦeismoro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦeismara-
3. dɦeismara-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *deismara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. deismara-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. deišmara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. deišmu-
(f.c.) ‘‹Hitt. ·mu- = muwa- (?)’
(NOMS. 1337)
(Hitt. ti-eš-mu-uš [sgN])
1. PIE *dɑɦeismu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦeismu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦeismu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *deismu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. deismu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. deišmu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. deišumi-
() ((DUG)c.) ‘ein Tongefäß, ‘Becher(?); ›·umi = (?)’
(HHand. 175)
(Hitt. tešumi-, tišumi-)
1. PIE *dɑɦeisumi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦeisumi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦeisumi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *deisumi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. deisumi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. deišumi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. deišumin deišai-
(fig.et.) ‘einen Becher modellieren’
(HHand. 175)
1. PIE *dɑɦeisumin dɑɦeisoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦeisumin dɦeisoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦeisumin dɦeisoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦeisumin dɦeisai-
3. dɦeisumin dɦeisai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *deisumin deisai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. deisumin deisai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. deišumin deišai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √tɑhk- √tɑɦg- √dɑɦg- (sb.) ‘Erde’
(IEW 416)
√tɑhk-
ModPers. tag-
(sb.) ‘Boden, Grund’
(ArmGr. 250f.)
(ModPers. tak, tag)
1. PIE *√teɑɦko
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *√taɑɦko
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. √taɑɦko
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *√taɦko
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. √taɦko
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *√taɦka
4. √taɦka
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *√taka
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. √taka
VkV -› VgV
Lenition k -› g between vowels
RVkV›VgV → *√taga
6. √taga
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → ModPers. tag
√deɑɦg-
Arm. tak-
(sb.) ‘down, below: was unterhalb ist, Stamm; Stiel’
(ArmGr. 250f.)
(Arm. tak [G] taki [G], Kapancjan 1931-33:66)
1. PIE *deɑɦg-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *daɑɦg-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. daɑɦg-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *daɦg-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. daɦg-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dag-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dag-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *tag-
5. tag-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → Arm. tak-
√dɑɦeg-
(HEG T:292-300)
Hitt. dega-
(n.) ‘Erde = KI’
(HIL. 991)
(Hitt. de-e-ga-aš-še-it [sgN])
1. PIE *dɑɦego-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦego-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦego-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦega-
3. dɦega-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dega-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. degan-
(n.) ‘Erde’ = Sum. KI)
(HHand. 174)
(Hitt. te-kán [sgNA])
1. PIE *dɑɦegon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦegon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦegon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦegan-
3. dɦegan-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. degan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. erbi·degan-
(d.) ‘DINGIR irbitigan tagnaš ENan’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦegon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦegon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦegon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·dɦegan-
3. Π·dɦegan-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. Π·degan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦog-
Hitt. daga-
(d.) ‘-(?)-’ (GLHur. 249)
(OHP. 1:430-1)
(Hitt. ta-ga-aš [N])
1. PIE *dɑɦogo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦogo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦogo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦaga-
3. dɦaga-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. daga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. daga·ziba-
(c.) ‘Erde, Boden, Estrich, Fußboden = KI’
(HHand. 160)
(da-ga-zi-pu-uš)
1. PIE *dɑɦogo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦogo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦogo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦaga·Σ-
3. dɦaga·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. daga·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦogmi-
HLu. dagmi-
(.) ‘terra’
(CHLu. 10.14.38)
(HLu.(“TERRA”)ta-ka-mi-i)
1. PIE *dɑɦogmi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦogmi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦogmi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦagmi-
3. dɦagmi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. dagmi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦogn-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. dagna-
(adv.) ‘zu/am Boden, nieder’
(HHand. 160)
(tág-na-az,[Abl = adv.])
1. PIE *dɑɦogno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦogno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦogno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦagna-
3. dɦagna-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dagna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Kpd. dagna·bura-
(LÚ.c.) ‘Erde+BURA’
(NOMS. 1211)
(Kpd. da-ag-na-bu-ra)
1. PIE *dɑɦogno·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦogno·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦogno·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦagna·Σ-
3. dɦagna·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Kpd. dagna·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dagna·za
(adv.) ‘aus der Erde’
(HHand. 160)
1. PIE *dɑɦogno·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦogno·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦogno·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦagna·Σ-
3. dɦagna·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dagna·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Kpd. dagni-
(LÚ.c.) ‘≈ ruralis (?)’
(NOMS. 1212)
(Kpd. da-ag-ni(-iš) [All-(N)])
1. PIE *dɑɦogni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦogni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦogni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦagni-
3. dɦagni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Kpd. dagni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OSax. dakno
(adv.) ‘heimlich: stealthily: clanculo’
(Gl.)
(OSax. dakno clanculo SAGA 174, 26 = Gl 2, 143, 26 , Hildesheimer Canonesglossen, Glossen Leipzig Universitätsbibliothek Rep. II. 6)
1. PIE *dɑɦognu
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦognu
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦognu
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dɦoknu
3. dɦoknu
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *doknu
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. doknu
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *daknu
5. daknu
*-u → -o
Change of root-final -u into -o
R=u›=o → OSax. dakno
√dɑɦgo-
Hitt. erbi·dga-
(d.) ‘König des TGA-’
(XX:XX)
(Hitt. dirbi-tgaš [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦgo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦgo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦgo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·dɦga-
3. Π·dɦga-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. Π·dga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ḫartei·dga-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’ “(Personennamen) in Ḫ.”
(OGHErg. 32)
(Hitt. ḫar-ti-it-ka [All])
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦgo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦgo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦgo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·dɦga-
3. Π·dɦga-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. Π·dga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦgon-
(Friedrich 1924 [AfK 2]: 122n2)
Hitt. dgan
(adv.) ‘zu/am Boden, nieder, zur Erde’
(HHand. 160)
(Hitt. dagan [adv.])
1. PIE *dɑɦgon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan-
3. dɦgan-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dgan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dgan·za
(adv.) ‘aus der Erde’
(HHand. 160)
1. PIE *dɑɦgon·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan·Σ-
3. dɦgan·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dgan·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dgan·za-
(URU.) ‘Im Lande ›Tarḫuntaša’
(OGHErg. 154)
(Hitt. da-ga-an-za-aš [N])
1. PIE *dɑɦgon·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan·Σ-
3. dɦgan·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dgan·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dgan·zeia-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGH. 383)
(Hitt. ta-ga-an-zi-ia)
1. PIE *dɑɦgon·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan·Σ-
3. dɦgan·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dgan·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dgan·ziba-
(c.) ‘Erde, Boden, Estrich, Fußboden’
(HHand. 160)
1. PIE *dɑɦgon·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan·Σ-
3. dɦgan·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dgan·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dgan·ziba-
(GN.c.) ‘Genius der Erde, RDH. 68, GhR. 299, KN 100n2’
(OHP. 1:431)
(Hitt. ta-ga-a-an-zi-pa-aš [sgN], ta-ga-an-zi-pa-aš [sgN], Klinger 1996:146-7)
1. PIE *dɑɦgon·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan·Σ-
3. dɦgan·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dgan·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dgan·unda-
(URU.) ‘Im Lande Tarḫuntaša, › Munanta’
(OGHErg. 154)
(Hitt. da-ga-an-nu-un-ta-aš [N])
1. PIE *dɑɦgon·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan·Σ-
3. dɦgan·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dgan·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
TochA. tkan-
(f.) ‘terra, mundus, locus: Erde, E-boden, Stätte, Ort’
(PouchA. 128)
(TochA. tkaṃ [N], tkanis [G], tkanā, tkani [plN])
1. PIE *dɑɦgon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan-
3. dɦgan-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dgan-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dgan-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dkan-
5. dkan-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → TochA. tkan-
TochA. tkan·ṣi-
(a.) ‘terrae, terrestis’
(Poucha 128)
(TochA. tkaṃ ṣi)
1. PIE *dɑɦgon·sí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon·sí-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon·sí-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan·sí-
3. dɦgan·sí-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dgan·sí-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dgan·sí-
*sí → ṣí
Palatalization of *sí
Rsí›ṣ → *dgan·ṣí-
5. dgan·ṣí-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dkan·ṣí-
6. dkan·ṣí-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *tkan·ṣí-
7. tkan·ṣí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → TochA. tkan·ṣi-
TochA. tkan·ñkät
(f.) ‘Terra(-dea)’
(Poucha 128)
(TochA. tkaṃ ñkät [sgN])
1. PIE *dɑɦgon·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan·Σ-
3. dɦgan·Σ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dgan·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dgan·Σ-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dkan·Σ-
5. dkan·Σ-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → TochA. tkan·Σ-
TochB. ken-
(f.) ‘earth, ground’
(DTochB. 192)
(TochB. keṃ, kentsa)
1. PIE *dɑɦgon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan-
3. dɦgan-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dgan-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dgan-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dkan-
5. dkan-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → TochB. tkan-
TochB. ken·tarśke-
(PN.) (in monastic records)
(DTochB. 193)
1. PIE *dɑɦgon·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan·Σ-
3. dɦgan·Σ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dgan·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dgan·Σ-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dkan·Σ-
5. dkan·Σ-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → TochB. tkan·Σ-
√dɑɦgono-
Kpd. ·dgana-
(LÚ.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 1206)
(Kpd. da-ga-na)
1. PIE *dɑɦgono·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgono·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgono·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgana·Σ-
3. dɦgana·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Kpd. dgana·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
TochB. kena·ṣṣe-
(a.) ‘prtng to earth’
(DTochB. 192)
(TochB. kenaṣṣe)
1. PIE *dɑɦgono·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgono·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgono·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgana·Σ-
3. dɦgana·Σ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dgana·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dgana·Σ-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dkana·Σ-
5. dkana·Σ-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → TochB. tkana·Σ-
TochB. kenä·ttse
(a.) ‘earthly, terrestial’
(DTochB. 192)
(TochB. kenättse)
1. PIE *dɑɦgono·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgono·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgono·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgana·Σ-
3. dɦgana·Σ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dgana·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dgana·Σ-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dkana·Σ-
5. dkana·Σ-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → TochB. tkana·Σ-
√dɑɦgoniio-
Kpd. dganii̯a-
(.) ‘cf. below’
(NOMS. 1206)
(Kpd. da-ga-ni-a)
1. PIE *dɑɦgonii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgonii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgonii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦganii̯a-
3. dɦganii̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Kpd. dganii̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
TochB. kañiya-
(a.) ‘of a country, rural’
(DTochB. 190)
(TochB. kañiye)
1. PIE *dɑɦgonii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgonii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgonii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦganii̯a-
3. dɦganii̯a-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dganii̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dganii̯a-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dkanii̯a-
5. dkanii̯a-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *tkanii̯a-
6. tkanii̯a-
*ni → ñ i
Palatalization of *n before i̯
Rni›ñi → *tkañii̯a-
7. tkañii̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. tkañiya-


PIE √tɑhki- √dɑɦki- (sb.) ‘Brust’ (vb.) ‘tropfen lassen, fließen’
(IEW —)
(Pyysalo)
√tɑhoki-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. takani-
(sb.) ‘Brust: UZUGAB, Akd. IRTU’
(HHand. 160)
(Hitt. tág-ga[-ni-ia], tág-ga-n]i-ia = L.)
1. PIE *tɑhoki̯oni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thoki̯oni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thoki̯oni-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *thoḱoni-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. thoḱoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thaḱani-
4. thaḱani-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *thakani-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. thakani-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. takani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lith. tašin-
(vb.) ‘tropfen lassen, fließen’
(LiEtWb. 1065)
(Lith. tašinti [inf.])
1. PIE *tɑhoki̯ɑhin-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thoki̯hin-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thoki̯hin-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *thoćhin-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. thoćhin-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thaćhin-
4. thaćhin-
*ć → š
From Satem *ć to š
R曚 → *thašhin-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. thašhin-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tašhin-
6. tašhin-
*šh → š
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *šh
Ršh›š → Lith. tašin-
√tɑheki-
Lith. tė̃š-
(vb.) ‘strotzendes, straffes Euter bekommen (Kuh)’
(LiEtWb. 1084)
(Lith. tė̃šti tešiù, tėšiaũ)
1. PIE *tɑhḗki-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thḗki-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thḗki-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *thḗć-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. thḗć-
ḗ → ė̃
Change of ḗ into ė̃
RLiAcc8 → *thė̃ć-
4. thė̃ć-
*ć → š
From Satem *ć to š
R曚 → *thė̃š-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. thė̃š-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → Lith. tė̃š-
Lith. tešìma-
(m.) ‘Biestmilch, Kolostrum’
(LiEtWb. 1084)
(Lith. tešìmas)
1. PIE *tɑheki̯ímo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *theki̯ímo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. theki̯ímo-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *thećímo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. thećímo-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *thećìmo-
4. thećìmo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thećìma-
5. thećìma-
*ć → š
From Satem *ć to š
R曚 → *thešìma-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. thešìma-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → Lith. tešìma-
Lith. tešmuõ
(.) ‘Euter’
(LiEtWb. 1084)
(Lith. tešmuõ [sgN])
1. PIE *tɑhekimṓ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thekimṓ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thekimṓ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *thećmṓ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. thećmṓ-
*ṓ -› ō̃
Cirumflex intonation for ṓ
Rṓ›ō̃ → *thećmō̃-
4. thećmō̃-
*ć → š
From Satem *ć to š
R曚 → *thešmō̃-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. thešmō̃-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tešmō̃-
6. tešmō̃-
ō̃ -› uõ
Change of ō̃ into uõ
Rō̃›uõ → Lith. tešmuõ-
Lith. tešmen-
(obl.) ‘Euter’
(LiEtWb. 1084)
(Lith. tešmens [sgG])
1. PIE *tɑhekimen-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thekimen-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thekimen-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *thećmen-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. thećmen-
*ć → š
From Satem *ć to š
R曚 → *thešmen-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. thešmen-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → Lith. tešmen-
√dɑɦeki-
(IEW 241-2)
(Pyysalo)
Alb. djathë-
(m./n.) ‘Käse’
(AlbEtD. 67)
1. PIE *dɑɦeki̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dɑɦeki̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dɑɦeki̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦeki̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dɦeki̯āh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *dɦećāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. dɦećāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dɦećā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dɦećā-
*ć → th
From Satem *ć to th
Rć›th → *dɦethā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. dɦethā-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dethā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. dethā-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *di̯athā-
8. di̯athā-
*ā → ë
Change of *ā into Alb. ë
Rā›ë → *di̯athë-
(XX:XX)
9. di̯athë-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Alb. djathë-
Latv. desmen-
(.) ‘Euter’
(LiEtWb. 1084)
(Latv. desmens [sgN])
1. PIE *dɑɦekimen-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦekimen-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦekimen-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *dɦećmen-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. dɦećmen-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *dɦesmen-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
4. dɦesmen-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → Latv. desmen-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
Lith. dedešra-
(f.) ‘Käsekraut’
(LiEtWb. 85)
1. PIE *dɑɦedɑɦekirēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dɑɦedɑɦekirāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dɑɦedɑɦekirāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦedɦekirāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dɦedɦekirāh
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *dɦedɦećrāh
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. dɦedɦećrāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dɦedɦećrā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dɦedɦećrā
*ć → š
From Satem *ć to š
R曚 → *dɦedɦešrā
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. dɦedɦešrā
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dedešrā
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. dedešrā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *dedešrō
(XX:XX)
8. dedešrō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → Lith. dedešra


PIE √tɑhku- (sb.) ‘Fluß’
(IEW 1059-60)
(Pyysalo)
√tɑhku-
Hitt. taḫaku-
(PÚ.) ‘Im Kontext (...) der ON Zinišḫa’
(OGH. 551)
(Hitt. da-ḫa-ak-ku x[)
1. PIE *teɑhoku-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhoku-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhoku-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahoku-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahoku-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tahaku-
4. tahaku-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. taḫaku-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lith. į́·toka-
(f.) ‘Mündung: mouth (of a river) ‹i.e. ‘in-flow’›’
(IEW 1059)
(Lith. įtoka [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·tēɑhku̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·tāɑhku̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·tāɑhku̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·tāhku̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·tāhku̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·tāku̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·tāku̯ā
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *Π·tākā
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. Π·tākā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *Π·tōkō
(XX:XX)
6. Π·tōkō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *Π·tōka
7. Π·tōka
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → Lith. Π·toka


PIE √tɑhl- √dɑɦl- (vb.) ‘nehmen, halten’ (sb.) ‘Behälter, Gefäß, Besitz’
(IEW 194-6 + 197)
(LIV. 96)
√deɑɦl-
RV. ū́r·dara-
(m.) ‘Gefäss zum Messen des Getreides, Scheffel’
(WbRV. 274)
(cf. ModPers. dāra- ‘Gehalt’)
1. PIE *Π·deɑɦlo-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *Π·daɑɦlo-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. Π·daɑɦlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·daɦlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·daɦlo-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *Π·daɦro-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. Π·daɦro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·daɦra-
5. Π·daɦra-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → RV. Π·dara-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. dōlio-
(n.) ‘Faß: pot, drinking-vessel (of stone)’
(WH. 1:364)
(Schrijver 1991:123, Lat. dōlium [sgNA])
1. PIE *dōɑɦlii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dōɦlii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dōɦlii̯o-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dōlii̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. dōlii̯o-
*ii̯o → io
Loss *i̯ between i and o
Rii̯o›io → Lat. dōlio-
√deɑɦlgiɑɦ-
OBret. dalg-
(sb.) ‘maintenance, tenure’
(EtDiPC. 94)
(cf. Bret. dalc’h- ‘Besitz’, IEW 197)
1. PIE *deɑɦlgiɑɦ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *daɑɦlgiɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. daɑɦlgiɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *daɦlgiɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. daɦlgiɦ-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *daɦlǵɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. daɦlǵɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dalǵɦ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dalǵɦ-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *dalgɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. dalgɦ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → OBret. dalg-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
Cymr. dal-
(vb.) ‘saisir, tenir, contenir’
(DLG. 139)
(Cymr. dala)
1. PIE *deɑɦlgiɑɦo
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *daɑɦlgiɑɦo
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. daɑɦlgiɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *daɦlgiɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. daɦlgiɦo
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *daɦlǵɦo
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. daɦlǵɦo
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dalǵɦo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dalǵɦo
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *dalgɦo
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. dalgɦo
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *dalgo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. dalgo
*-o → -Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R=o›=0 → Cymr. dalg
√dɑɦolo-
Hitt. dala-
() ((GIŠ).) (ein Gefäß, = tali-, talai-)
(HHand. 161)
(Hitt. tala-)
1. PIE *dɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦala-
3. dɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. dala-
(GKL.) (ein Gefäß)
(HHand. 161)
(CLu. tal-la-an [sgA])
1. PIE *dɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦala-
3. dɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. dala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. agu·dala-
(.) ‘container of water’
(HIL. 204)
(Hitt. a-ku-ta-al-li-it [sgI])
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·dɦala-
3. Π·dɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. Π·dala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ḫalua·dala-
(DUG.n.) (ein Gefäß)
(HHand. 37)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·dɦala-
3. Π·dɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. Π·dala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ḫilua·dala-
(DUG.) ‘ein Gefäß’
(HEG I:237)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·dɦala-
3. Π·dɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. Π·dala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dalami-
(DUG.c.) (ein Gefäß)
(HHand. 161)
1. PIE *dɑɦolomi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦolomi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦolomi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦalami-
3. dɦalami-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dalami-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦelgiɑɦ-
OGaul. delgo-
(pr.) ‘contenir’
(DLG. 139)
(OGaul. delgu [1sg] ‘je contiens’)
1. PIE *dɑɦelgiɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦelgiɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦelgiɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *dɦelǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. dɦelǵɦo-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *dɦelgɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. dɦelgɦo-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *delgɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. delgɦo-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → OGaul. delgo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
OBret. delgi-
(pr.) ‘tenere’
(DLG. 139)
(OBret. delgim [1sg])
1. PIE *dɑɦelgiɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦelgiɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦelgiɦi-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *dɦelǵɦi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. dɦelǵɦi-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *dɦelgɦi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. dɦelgɦi-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *delgɦi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. delgɦi-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → OBret. delgi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
Hitt. delgei̯a-
(d.) ‘-(?)-’
(OHP. 1:479)
(Hitt. ti-el-ki-ia-an [sgA])
1. PIE *dɑɦelgiɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦelgiɦei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦelgiɦei̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *dɦelǵɦei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. dɦelǵɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦelǵɦei̯a-
4. dɦelǵɦei̯a-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *dɦelgɦei̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. dɦelgɦei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. delgei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √tɑhlu- (sb.) ‘Lager, Grund, Erde, Ton’
(IEW —)
(Pyysalo)
√tɑholu-
Hitt. i·špa·talu-
(.) ‘Nachtlager, Herberge; ‹w/ Hitt. spa- Nacht’›’
(HEG i:420)
(Hitt. išpattalu-)
1. PIE *Π·spo·tɑholu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·spo·tholu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·spo·tholu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·spa·thalu-
3. Π·spa·thalu-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *Π·spa·talu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·spa·talu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. Π·špa·talu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. talu·benu-
(d.) ‘XX’
(OHP. 1:435-6)
(Hitt. ta-lu-uee-nu [X])
1. PIE *tɑholu·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tholu·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tholu·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thalu·Σ
3. thalu·Σ
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. talu·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√tɑholupi-
Hitt. talupi-
(c.) ‘Tonbrocken, Erdklumpen; Fladen, Brotstück’
(HHand. 162)
1. PIE *tɑholupi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tholupi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tholupi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thalupi-
3. thalupi-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. talupi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. talupi-
(c.) ‘Tonbrocken, Erdklumpen, Teigfetzen’
(DLL. 89)
(CLu. ta-lu-up-pí-iš, ta-lu-up-pí-in, HHand. 162)
1. PIE *tɑholupi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tholupi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tholupi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thalupi-
3. thalupi-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → CLu. talupi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OHitt. talupuša-
(c.) ‘in ah. Ritualtext; ‹uncertain›’
(HHand. 162)
1. PIE *tɑholupuso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tholupuso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tholupuso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thalupusa-
3. thalupusa-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *talupusa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. talupusa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → OHitt. talupuša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√tɑhelu-
Gr. προ·θέλυ·μνο-
(a.) ‘dessen Grundlage weg ist, (von der Grundlage) losgerissen’
(GEW 1:659-60)
(Gr. προθέλυμνος, also in τετραθέλυμνος ‘mit vier Schichten’)
1. PIE *Π·tɑhélu·mno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·thélu·mno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·thélu·mno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·θέλυ·μνο-
OHG. dilo.n-
(m.) ‘Brett, Boden, Diele, Planke, Bohle, Schindel, Bretterwand’
(Gl 11. Cent.)
(Gl. compages, laterculus, paries, planca, pluteus, tabula)
1. PIE *tɑhelu.n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thelu.n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thelu.n-
*t h → þ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›þ → *þelu.n-
3. þelu.n-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *þilu.n-
4. þilu.n-
*þ → d
OHG sound shift of *þ
Rþ›d → OHG. dilu.n-


PIE √tɑhp- √dɑɦp- √dɑɦb- (sb.) ‘Flüssigkeit, Salbe, Schmiere’ (vb.) ‘schmieren, spucken, usw.’
(IEW —)
√tɑhop-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. tapa-
(vb.) ‘spucken, HHand. 165’
(DLL. 90)
(CLu. tap-pa-(a)-at-ta [3sg], Meriggi, WZKM 53:207)
1. PIE *tɑhopo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thopo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thopo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thapa-
3. thapa-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → CLu. tapa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lith. iñ·tapa-
(m.) ‘Muttermal, Zeichen’
(LiEtWb. 1057)
1. PIE *Π·tɑhopo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·thopo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·thopo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·thapa-
3. Π·thapa-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → Lith. Π·tapa-
Lith. tapý-
(vb.) ‘malen, färben, schmieren: fingere ex luto’
(LiEtWb. 1057)
(Lith. tapýti [inf.])
1. PIE *tɑhopiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *tɑhopiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. tɑhopiíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thopiíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. thopiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thopií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. thopií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *thopī́-
5. thopī́-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thapī́-
6. thapī́-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tapī́-
7. tapī́-
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
Rī́›ý → Lith. tapý-
Lith. tapnó-
(vb.) ‘streichen, schmieren’
(LiEtWb. 1057)
(Lith. tapnóti)
1. PIE *tɑhopnḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *tɑhopnā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tɑhopnā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thopnā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. thopnā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thopnā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. thopnā́-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thapnā́-
5. thapnā́-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tapnā́-
6. tapnā́-
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *tapnṓ-
(XX:XX)
7. tapnṓ-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → Lith. tapnó-
√tɑhep-
Lith. tèp-
(vb.) ‘schmieren, salben, besudeln, anstreichen’
(LiEtWb. 1081)
(Lit. tèpti, tẽpa)
1. PIE *tɑhép-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thép-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thép-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → *thèp-
3. thèp-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → Lith. tèp-
Latv. tep-
(vb.) ‘schmieren, streichen’
(LiEtWb. 1081)
(Latv. tept)
1. PIE *tɑhep-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thep-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thep-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → Latv. tep-
Lith. tpa-
(pr.) ‘schmieren, salben, besudeln, anstreichen’
(LiEtWb. 1081)
(Lit. tẽpa [pr.])
1. PIE *tɑhépo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thépo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thépo-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → *thèpo-
3. thèpo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thèpa-
4. thèpa-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → Lith. tèpa-
Lith. tpala-
(m.) ‘Salbe, Schmiere’
(LiEtWb. 1081)
1. PIE *tɑhépolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thépolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thépolo-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → *thèpolo-
3. thèpolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thèpala-
4. thèpala-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → Lith. tèpala-
Russ. tëpa-
(pr.) ‘schmieren’
(REW 3:94)
1. PIE *tɑhépēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tɑhépāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tɑhépāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thépāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. thépāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thépā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. thépā-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tépā-
5. tépā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Russ. tépa-
Russ. tëpa-
(f.) ‘Schmierfink’
(REW 3:94)
1. PIE *tɑhépēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tɑhépāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tɑhépāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thépāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. thépāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thépā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. thépā-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tépā-
5. tépā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Russ. tépa-
Lith. tpė-
(pret.) ‘schmieren, salben, besudeln, anstreichen’
(LiEtWb. 1081)
(Lith. tẽpė)
1. PIE *tɑhépēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thépēh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thépēh-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → *thèpēh-
3. thèpēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thèpē-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. thèpē-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tèpē-
5. tèpē-
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → Lith. tèpė-
Latv. tepê-
(vb.) ‘schmieren’
(LiEtWb. 1081)
(Latv. tepêt)
1. PIE *tɑhepḗhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thepḗh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thepḗh-
*ḗH → êH
Latvian tone rule for ḗH
RAccLatv6 → *thepêh-
3. thepêh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thepê-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. thepê-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → Latv. tepê-
Lith. tepìma-
(m2.) ‘Bestreichen : smearing, greasing’
(Senn 2:266)
(Lith. tepìmas [sgN])
1. PIE *tɑhepímo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thepímo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thepímo-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *thepìmo-
3. thepìmo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thepìma-
4. thepìma-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → Lith. tepìma-
Lith. tepno-
(vb.) ‘schmieren, salben’
(LiEtWb. 1081)
(Lith. tepnoti [inf.])
1. PIE *tɑhepnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tɑhepnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tɑhepnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thepnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. thepnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thepnā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. thepnā-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tepnā-
5. tepnā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *tepnō-
(XX:XX)
6. tepnō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → Lith. tepno-
TochB. cap·raṣṭo-
(sb.) ‘a medical ingredient; ‹uncertain!›
(DTochB. 730)
1. PIE *tɑhep·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thep·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thep·Σ
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *thi̯ap·Σ
3. thi̯ap·Σ
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *chap·Σ
4. chap·Σ
*ch → c
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *ch
Rch›c → TochB. cap·Σ
TochA. cāp··onā
(.) ‘-(?)-’
(DTochB. 730)
(TochA. /// ślak 6 wamśir ursäk nunak cāponā śäkko śpārate co ///)
1. PIE *Π·tɑhēp·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·thēp·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·thēp·Σ
PIE *ē → i̯ ā
Change of *ē into i̯ā
Rē›i̯ā → *Π·thi̯āp·Σ
3. Π·thi̯āp·Σ
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *Π·chāp·Σ
4. Π·chāp·Σ
*ch → c
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *ch
Rch›c → TochA. Π·cāp·Σ
TochA. ·cāp
(.) ‘Gramm §125 adn.)
(DTochB. 730)
1. PIE *Π·tɑhēp
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·thēp
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·thēp
PIE *ē → i̯ ā
Change of *ē into i̯ā
Rē›i̯ā → *Π·thi̯āp
3. Π·thi̯āp
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *Π·chāp
4. Π·chāp
*ch → c
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *ch
Rch›c → TochA. Π·cāp
√dɑɦop-
(Pyysalo)
Lith. dãpa-
(m.) ‘Überschwemmung’
(LiEtWb. 82)
1. PIE *dɑɦópo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦópo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦópo-
ó → ò
Emergence of gravis PLith. ò
RLiAcc5 → *dɦòpo-
3. dɦòpo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦòpa-
4. dɦòpa-
PIE *ò → à
Change of *ò into à
Rò›à → *dɦàpa-
5. dɦàpa-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → Lith. dàpa-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
√dɑɦob-
OIcl. leir·depil-
(m.) ‘Lehmpfütze (cf. ModNorw. depel)
(ANEtWb. 75)
(OIcl. leirdepill [sgN], depli [D])
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦobilo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦobilo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦobilo
*b → p
Loss of voice of media *b
Rb›p → *Π·dɦopilo
3. Π·dɦopilo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·dopilo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. Π·dopilo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·dapila
5. Π·dapila
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *Π·dapil
6. Π·dapil
*d -› ð
Change of d into ð
Rd›ð → OIcl. Π·ðapil
√dɑɦebu-


PIE √tɑhr- √dɑɦr- (vb.) ‘zerbrechen, zerschmettern’
(IEW: in extensions)
√dɑɦrɑh-
CLu. dadarḫ-
(vb.) ‘zerbrechen: break: briser, HEG T:159’
(DLL. 95)
(CLu. ta-ta-ar-ḫa-an-du [3pl])
1. PIE *dɑɦodɑɦorɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦodɦorh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦodɦorh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦadɦarh-
3. dɦadɦarh-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *dadarh-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. dadarh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. dadarḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√dɑɦrɑhn-
Gr. συν·τεθράνω-
(ps.pf.) ‘zerschmettern’
(GEW 1:679)
(Gr. συντεθράνωται [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦedɑɦréɑhnō-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *Π·dɑɦedɑɦráɑhnō-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. Π·dɑɦedɑɦráɑhnō-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦedɦráhnō-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·dɦedɦráhnō-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·dɦedɦránō-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·dɦedɦránō-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *Π·thethránō-
5. Π·thethránō-
*Th–Th → T–Th
Grassmann’s Law
Rtheth›teth → *Π·tethránō-
(SPIE §4.6.4)
6. Π·tethránō-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·τεθράνω-
Dor. θρᾱνύξ-
(ao.) ‘zerschmettern’
(GEW 1:679)
(Gr. θρανύξαντες [pt.])
1. PIE *dɑɦrēɑhnúkis-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dɑɦrāɑhnúkis-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dɑɦrāɑhnúkis-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦrāhnúkis-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dɦrāhnúkis-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *dɦrāhnúḱs-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. dɦrāhnúḱs-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dɦrānúḱs-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dɦrānúḱs-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *thrānúḱs-
6. thrānúḱs-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *thrānúks-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. thrānúks-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. θρᾱνύξ-


PIE √tɑhr- √dɑɦr- (sb.) ‘Stimme, Klage, Lärm, Fluch, usw.’
(IEW: in extensions)
√dɑɦori-
HLu. dadarei̯a-
(vb.) ‘curse (subj. (DEUS)TONITRUS)’
(CHLu. 2.13.21)
(HLu. (DEUS)TONITRUS-sa (LOQUI)tá-tara/i-ia-tu)
1. PIE *dɑɦodɑɦorei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦodɦorei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦodɦorei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦadɦarei̯a-
3. dɦadɦarei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. dadarei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. dadarei̯aman-
(n.) ‘Fluch : malediction, HEG T:141, DLL. 95’
(HHand. 173)
(CLu. ta-(a)-ta-ri-ia-(am)-ma-an, ta-ta-ri-ia-ma-an)
1. PIE *dɑɦodɑɦorei̯omon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦodɦorei̯omon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦodɦorei̯omon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦadɦarei̯aman-
3. dɦadɦarei̯aman-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. dadarei̯aman-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. dadarei̯amna-
(n.pl.) ‘Fluch : malediction, curse’
(DLL. 95)
(CLu. ta-ta-ar-ri-ia-am-na [pl.])
1. PIE *dɑɦodɑɦorei̯omno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦodɦorei̯omno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦodɦorei̯omno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦadɦarei̯amna-
3. dɦadɦarei̯amna-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. dadarei̯amna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. dadarei̯amnaši-
(a.gen.) ‘of curse, DLL. 95’
(HHand. 173)
(CLu. da-a-ta-ri-ia-am-na-aš-ši-iš, ta-ta-ri-ia-am-na-aš–ši-in)
1. PIE *dɑɦodɑɦorei̯omnosi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦodɦorei̯omnosi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦodɦorei̯omnosi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦadɦarei̯amnasi-
3. dɦadɦarei̯amnasi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *dadarei̯amnasi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. dadarei̯amnasi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. dadarei̯amnaši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦorub-
Gr. θόρυβο-
(m.) ‘Lärm, Geschrei, Geräusch, Tumult’
(GEW 1:678)
(Gr. θόρυβος)
1. PIE *dɑɦórubo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦórubo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦórubo-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *thórubo-
3. thórubo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. θόρυβο-
Gr. θορυβέο-
(vb.) ‘lärmen, in Verwirrung bringen’
(GEW 1:678)
(Gr. θορυβέω)
1. PIE *dɑɦorubéi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦorubéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦorubéi̯o-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *thorubéi̯o-
3. thorubéi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *thorubéo-
4. thorubéo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. θορυβέο-
√dɑɦron-
(IEW 255-6)
OInd. dhráṇa-
(pr.1.) ‘tönen’
(GEW 1: 681-682)
(Dhātup. dhráṇati [3sg])
1. PIE *dɑɦréno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦréno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦréno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦréna-
3. dɦréna-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *dɦrána-
4. dɦrána-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → *dɦráṇa-
5. dɦráṇa-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → OInd. dhráṇa-
Gr. θρήνο-
(m.) ‘Totenklage, Klagelied’
(GEW 1: 681-682)
(Gr. θρῆνος [sgN])
1. PIE *dɑɦrḗno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦrḗno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦrḗno-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *thrḗno-
3. thrḗno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. θρήνο-
Gr. θρηνέο-
(pr.A.) ‘wehklagen’
(GEW 1: 681-682)
(Gr. θρηνέω)
1. PIE *dɑɦrēnéi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦrēnéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦrēnéi̯o-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *thrēnéi̯o-
3. thrēnéi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *thrēnéo-
4. thrēnéo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. θρηνέο-
OSax. drān-
(m.) ‘Drohne’
(ASächsWb. 12)
1. PIE *dɑɦrēno
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦrēno
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦrēno
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *drēno
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. drēno
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *drēna
4. drēna
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *drēn
5. drēn
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → OSax. drān
Ion.-Att. ἀν·θρήνη-
(f.) ‘Waldbiene’
(GEW 1: 681-682)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦrḗnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·dɑɦrḗnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·dɑɦrḗnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦrḗnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·dɦrḗnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·dɦrḗnā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·dɦrḗnā-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *Π·thrḗnā-
5. Π·thrḗnā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
Rā›ē → *Π·thrḗnē-
6. Π·thrḗnē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. Π·θρήνη-
Ion.-Att. τεν·θρήνη-
(f.) ‘Horniße’
(GEW 1: 681-682)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦrḗnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·dɑɦrḗnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·dɑɦrḗnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦrḗnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·dɦrḗnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·dɦrḗnā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·dɦrḗnā-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *Π·thrḗnā-
5. Π·thrḗnā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
Rā›ē → *Π·thrḗnē-
6. Π·thrḗnē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. Π·θρήνη-


PIE √tɑhs- √dɑɦs- (vb.) ‘eilen, galoppieren’ (sb.) ‘Gewässername, Fisch, usw.’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√tɑhs-
RV. vi·tástā-
(IDf.) ‘im Fünfstromland; neben asiknî-’
(WbRV. 1269)
1. PIE *Π·tóɑhstēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·tóɑhstāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·tóɑhstāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·tóhstāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·tóhstāh-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·táhstāh-
4. Π·táhstāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. Π·tástā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
LAv. baeša·tastura-
(a.) ‘von baešatastura- abstammend, dessen Nachkomme’
(AIWb. 914)
1. PIE *Π·toɑhsturo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·tohsturo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·tohsturo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·tahstura-
3. Π·tahstura-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → LAv. Π·tastura-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
LAv. aoiγma·tastura-
(Im.) ‘EN eines Gläubigen’
(AIWb. 357)
(LAv. aoiγmatasturahe [sgG])
1. PIE *Π·toɑhsturo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·tohsturo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·tohsturo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·tahstura-
3. Π·tahstura-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → LAv. Π·tastura-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
LAv. vi·taŋuhaitī-
(IDf.) ‘N. eines Gewässers’
(AIWb. 1438-9)
1. PIE *Π·toɑhsu̯etiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *Π·toɑhsu̯etiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·toɑhsu̯etiíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·tohsu̯etiíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·tohsu̯etiíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·tahsu̯etiíh-
4. Π·tahsu̯etiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·tasu̯etií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·tasu̯etií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *Π·tasu̯etī́-
6. Π·tasu̯etī́-
su̯ -> ŋuh
Change of su̯ into ŋuh
Rsu̯›ŋuh → *Π·taŋuhetī́-
7. Π·taŋuhetī́-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *Π·taŋuhatī́-
8. Π·taŋuhatī́-
*ati → aiti
Anaptyxis of *i
RatI›aitI → *Π·taŋuhaitī́-
9. Π·taŋuhaitī́-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → LAv. Π·taŋuhaitī-
√deɑɦs-
Gr. δασκάζο-
(vb.) Hes. ‘ὑποφεύγει’
(LSJ. 370)
(Gr. δασκάζει)
1. PIE *deɑɦski̯éɑdi̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *daɑɦski̯éɑdi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. daɑɦski̯éɑdi̯o-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *daɑɦski̯áɑdi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
3. daɑɦski̯áɑdi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *daɦski̯ádi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. daɦski̯ádi̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *daɦsḱádi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. daɦsḱádi̯o-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dasḱádi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. dasḱádi̯o-
PIE *di̯ → j
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
Rdi̯›j → *dasḱájo-
7. dasḱájo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *daskájo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
8. daskájo-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *daskázo-
9. daskázo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. δασκάζο-
Gr. δάσκιλλο-
(.) ‘a name of a fish’
(Gr. δάσκιλλος)
1. PIE *déɑɦski̯ilno-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *dáɑɦski̯ilno-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. dáɑɦski̯ilno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dáɦski̯ilno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dáɦski̯ilno-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *dáɦsḱilno-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. dáɦsḱilno-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dásḱilno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dásḱilno-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *dáskilno-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. dáskilno-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *dáskillo-
7. dáskillo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. δάσκιλλο-
√dɑɦesoi-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. dešai-
(vb.) [Mg.] ‘in Marsch setzen, mobil machen’
(HHand. 174)
1. PIE *dɑɦesoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦesoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦesoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦesai-
3. dɦesai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *desai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. desai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. dešai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. dešai-
(vb.) ‘mouvoir’
(DLL. 97)
(CLu. ti-iš-ša-a-i [ipv2sg], ti-ša-in-ta [3pl])
1. PIE *dɑɦesoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦesoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦesoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦesai-
3. dɦesai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *desai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. desai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. dešai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dešaiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘modellieren; in Marsch setzen, mobil machen’
(HHand. 174)
1. PIE *dɑɦesoiske/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦesoiske/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦesoiske/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦesaiske/a-
3. dɦesaiske/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *desaiske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. desaiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. dešaiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. dešaiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘mouvoir’
(HHand. 174)
1. PIE *dɑɦesoiske/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦesoiske/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦesoiske/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦesaiske/a-
3. dɦesaiske/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *desaiske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. desaiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. dešaiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dedešai-
(vb.2.?) ‘auf die Beine bringen (?), HHand. 174
(HEG T:389-90)
(HHand. 178, Hitt. titessai-)
1. PIE *dɑɦesdɑɦesoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦesdɦesoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦesdɦesoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦesdɦesai-
3. dɦesdɦesai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *desdesai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. desdesai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. dešdešai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦesti-
Lat. con.festī·-
(adv.) ‘stracks, sofort’
(Lat. con·festim, Walde: *“mit Eile”)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦestiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *Π·dɑɦestiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·dɑɦestiíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦestiíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·dɦestiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·dɦestií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·dɦestií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *Π·dɦestī́-
5. Π·dɦestī́-
*dɦ → f
Affricativization of dental *dɦ
Rdɦ›f → *Π·festī́-
6. Π·festī́-
*f → b
Change of *f into b
Rf›b → *Π·bestī́-
7. Π·bestī́-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → Lat. Π·bestī-
Lat. festīnā-
(pr.1.) ‘sich sputen, eilen’
(Lat. festīnāre [inf.])
1. PIE *dɑɦestiɑ́nēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dɑɦestiɑ́nāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dɑɦestiɑ́nāɑh-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *dɑɦestiínāɑh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
3. dɑɦestiínāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦestiínāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. dɦestiínāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dɦestiínā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dɦestiínā-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *dɦestī́nā-
6. dɦestī́nā-
*dɦ → f
Affricativization of dental *dɦ
Rdɦ›f → *festī́nā-
7. festī́nā-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → Lat. festīnā-
√dɑɦostor-
Hitt. daštara-
(GN.c.) ‘‹cf. below & above›’
(OHP. 1:460)
(Hitt. ta-aš-ta-ra-an [sgA])
1. PIE *dɑɦostoro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦostoro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦostoro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦastara-
3. dɦastara-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *dastara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. dastara-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. daštara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. daštari-
(vb.) ‘galoppieren (?)’
(HHand. 172)
(DLL. 95)
1. PIE *dɑɦostori-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦostori-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦostori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦastari-
3. dɦastari-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *dastari-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. dastari-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. daštari-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. daštari̯eša-
(URUc.) ‘Nicht weit entfernt von › Kaštama’
(OGH. 412)
(“(...) › Ka˙amiša. Neben › Taptina”; OGHErg. 164-5)
1. PIE *dɑɦostori̯eso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦostori̯eso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦostori̯eso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦastari̯esa-
3. dɦastari̯esa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *dastari̯esa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. dastari̯esa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. daštari̯eša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √tɑhu- (a.) ‘kräftig’ (sb.) ‘Stier’
(IEW 1083)
√teɑhuro-
Gr. ταύρο-
(m.) ‘Stier’
(GEW 2:860-1)
(Il. ταῦρος [sgN])
1. PIE *teɑhúro-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhúro-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhúro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahúro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahúro-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *taúro-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. taúro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ταύρο-
Lith. taũra-
(m.) ‘Büffel, Auerochs, Stier’
(LiEtWb. 1067)
(Lith. taũras [sgN])
1. PIE *teɑhúro
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhúro
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhúro
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahúro
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahúro
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis PLith. ù
RLiAcc3 → *tahùro
4. tahùro
RaHù›aHũ → *tahũro
5. tahũro
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *taũro
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. taũro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lith. taũra
OCS. turŭ-
(m.) ‘Auerochs’
(Sadnik √1013)
(OCS. turъ [sgN])
1. PIE *teɑhuro
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhuro
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhuro
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahuro
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahuro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tahura
4. tahura
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *taura
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. taura
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *touro
6. touro
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *touru
7. touru
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *tūru
8. tūru
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → *tūrŭ
9. tūrŭ
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → OCS. turŭ
√tɑheuno-
Pal. teuna-
(c.) ‘= GU4.MAH ‘bull; KBo 19.152+ I 19'-21'’
(DPal. 75)
(OHitt. 19' (…) GU4.MAḪ-an ḫu-it-tị-i̯ a-an-[zi] 20' [na-an-š]a-an la-a-ma-an ti-ú-na-aš 21' [ḫal-zi-i]ḫ-ḫi (…))
1. PIE *tɑheuno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *theuno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. theuno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *theuna-
3. theuna-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Pal. teuna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√tɑheuro-
Hitt. teura-
(URU.) ‘›Tuwanuwa’
(OGH. 430-1)
(Hitt. ti-i-u-ra ti-ú-ra-aš Kultordnung für den Wettergott von Ḫašuna OGHErg. 171)
1. PIE *tɑheuro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *theuro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. theuro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *theura-
3. theura-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. teura-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OIcl. þjōr-
(m.a) ‘Stier’ (PGerm. *þeuraz-)
(ANEtWb. 614a)
(OIcl. þjōrr [sgN]; IEW 1080-85)
1. PIE *tɑheuro
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *theuro
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. theuro
*t h → þ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›þ → *þeuro
3. þeuro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þeura
4. þeura
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *þiura
5. þiura
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *þiur
6. þiur
*eu → iō
Change of *iu into iō
Riu›iō → OIcl. þiōr
OSax. thior-
(a.) ‘kräftig, hart?’
(EH)
(EH thiores [n.sgG] Wa 21, 4 = SAAT 15, 4, Wa 21, 14 = SAAT 15, 14)
1. PIE *tɑheuro
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *theuro
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. theuro
*t h → þ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›þ → *þeuro
3. þeuro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þeura
4. þeura
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *þiura
5. þiura
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OSax. þiur


PIE √tɑhu- (sb.) ‘XX’
√tɑhum-
OInd. tomára-
(m.) ‘Wurfspieß, Spieß’
(KEWA 1:527)
1. PIE *teɑhumóro-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhumóro-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhumóro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahumóro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahumóro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tahumóra-
4. tahumóra-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *tahumára-
5. tahumára-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *taumára-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. taumára-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *tōmára-
7. tōmára-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → OInd. tomára-
√tɑhur-
Lat. tauro-
(m.) ‘Baumstumpf’
(WH. 2:650)
1. PIE *teɑhuro-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhuro-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhuro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahuro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahuro-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. tauro-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Hitt. taḫuru̯aili-
(LÚ.c.) ‘Seigneur de la lance ‹or LU(?)›’
(NOMS. 1205)
(Hitt. ta-ḫur-ua-i-li-iš)
1. PIE *teɑhuru̯oili-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhuru̯oili-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhuru̯oili-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahuru̯oili-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahuru̯oili-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tahuru̯aili-
4. tahuru̯aili-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. taḫuru̯aili-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√tɑhut-
Lat. tautano-
(n.) ‘Wurfholz, Keule’
(WH. 2:652)
1. PIE *teɑhuteɑhno-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhutaɑhno-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhutaɑhno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahutahno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahutahno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. tautano-
(SPIE §2.1.4)


PIE √tɑhu- √dɑɦu- (vb.) ‘glänzen, leuchten, brennen’
(IEW: in extensions)
√tɑhui-
(IEW —)
(Pyysalo)
OHG. dewe-
(vb.) ‘brennen: tepere’
(EWAhd 2:619)
1. PIE *teɑhu̯io-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhu̯io-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhu̯io-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahu̯io-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahu̯io-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tau̯io-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tau̯io-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þau̯io-
5. þau̯io-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þau̯ia-
6. þau̯ia-
*awi → ewi
Umlaut of *au̯i to eu̯i
Rau̯i›eu̯i → *þeu̯ia-
7. þeu̯ia-
*þ → d
OHG sound shift of *þ
Rþ›d → *deu̯ia-
8. deu̯ia-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. dewia-
OHG. dewil-
(m.) ‘Brenneisen, Brandeisen: cauter, cauterium’
(EWAhd 2, 623)
1. PIE *teɑhu̯ilo
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhu̯ilo
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhu̯ilo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahu̯ilo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahu̯ilo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tau̯ilo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tau̯ilo
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þau̯ilo
5. þau̯ilo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þau̯ila
6. þau̯ila
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *þau̯il
7. þau̯il
*awi → ewi
Umlaut of *au̯i to eu̯i
Rau̯i›eu̯i → *þeu̯il
8. þeu̯il
*þ → d
OHG sound shift of *þ
Rþ›d → *deu̯il
9. deu̯il
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. dewil
OHG. dewo·n-
(m.) ‘Brenneisen, Brandeisen: brand-iron: cauter’
(Gl 11. cent.)
1. PIE *teɑhu̯io·n-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhu̯io·n-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhu̯io·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahu̯io·n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahu̯io·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tau̯io·n-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tau̯io·n-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þau̯io·n-
5. þau̯io·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þau̯ia·n-
6. þau̯ia·n-
*awi → ewi
Umlaut of *au̯i to eu̯i
Rau̯i›eu̯i → *þeu̯ia·n-
7. þeu̯ia·n-
*þ → d
OHG sound shift of *þ
Rþ›d → *deu̯ia·n-
8. deu̯ia·n-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. dewia·n-
√tɑhu-
(Pyysalo)
Lith. tav·arúo-
(pr.) ‘flimmern’
(LiEtWb. 1071)
(Lith. tavarúoja [3sg])
1. PIE *teɑhu̯·orṓɑh
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhu̯·orṓɑh
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhu̯·orṓɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahu̯·orṓh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahu̯·orṓh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tau̯·orṓ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tau̯·orṓ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tau̯·arṓ
5. tau̯·arṓ
*ṓ → úo
Change of ṓ into úo
Rṓ›úo → *tau̯·arúo
6. tau̯·arúo
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. tav·arúo
Lith. pa·tav·arav-
(pret.) ‘es schien’
(LiEtWb. 1071)
(Lith. patavarava [3sg])
1. PIE *po·teɑhu̯·orou̯-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *po·taɑhu̯·orou̯-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. po·taɑhu̯·orou̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po·tahu̯·orou̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. po·tahu̯·orou̯-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *po·tau̯·orou̯-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. po·tau̯·orou̯-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pa·tau̯·arau̯-
5. pa·tau̯·arau̯-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. pa·tav·arav-
√tɑhu·(o)rP-
Hitt. taḫu·arba-
(URU.) [aus] Ḫattuša nach T.’ ›Katapa, Arina, Tipuwa’
(OGH. 380-2)
(Hitt. ta-ḫu-ua-ar-pa-aš, Ertem 130f., OGHErg. 153)
1. PIE *teɑhu·orbɑɦo-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhu·orbɑɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhu·orbɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahu·orbɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahu·orbɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tahu·arbɦa-
4. tahu·arbɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *tahu·arba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. tahu·arba-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. taḫu·arba-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. taḫurb·eštanu-
(d.) ‘GhR. 422, RDH. 32’
(OHP. 1:429)
(Hitt. ta-a-ḫur-pé-eš-ta-nu [X], Hitt. ta-a-ḫur-pí-iš-ta[-,D. Yoshida (1992 [BMECCJ 6]:151)
1. PIE *teɑhurbɑɦ·estonu-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhurbɑɦ·estonu-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhurbɑɦ·estonu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahurbɦ·estonu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahurbɦ·estonu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tahurbɦ·estanu-
4. tahurbɦ·estanu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *tahurb·estanu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. tahurb·estanu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *tahurb·eštanu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. tahurb·eštanu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. taḫurb·eštanu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. taḫurba-
(URU.)
(OGH. 380-2)
(Hitt. da-ḫur-pa, ta-ḫur-pa-aš)
1. PIE *teɑhurbɑɦo
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhurbɑɦo
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhurbɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahurbɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahurbɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tahurbɦa
4. tahurbɦa
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *tahurba
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. tahurba
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. taḫurba
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. taḫurba·ni-
(URU.)
(OGH. 380-2)
(Hitt. ta-ḫur-pa-an-ni)
1. PIE *teɑhurbɑɦo·ni-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhurbɑɦo·ni-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhurbɑɦo·ni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahurbɦo·ni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahurbɦo·ni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tahurbɦa·ni-
4. tahurbɦa·ni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *tahurba·ni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. tahurba·ni-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. taḫurba·ni-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. taḫurbi-
(URU.)
(OGH. 380-2)
(Hitt. ta-a-ḫur-pí, ta-ḫur-pí, da-ḫur-pí)
1. PIE *teɑhurbɑɦi-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhurbɑɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhurbɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahurbɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahurbɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *tahurbi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tahurbi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. taḫurbi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√tɑhuui-
OHG. douwe-
(vb.) ‘brennen: tepere’
(EWAhd 2:619)
1. PIE *teɑhuu̯io-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhuu̯io-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhuu̯io-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahuu̯io-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahuu̯io-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tauu̯io-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tauu̯io-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þauu̯io-
5. þauu̯io-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þauu̯ia-
6. þauu̯ia-
*au → ou
Change of au into ou
Rau›ou → *þouu̯ia-
7. þouu̯ia-
*þ → d
OHG sound shift of *þ
Rþ›d → *douu̯ia-
8. douu̯ia-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. douwia-
OHG. douwil-
(m.) ‘Brenneisen, Brandeisen: cauter, cauterium’
(EWAhd 2:746)
1. PIE *teɑhuu̯ilo
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhuu̯ilo
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhuu̯ilo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahuu̯ilo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahuu̯ilo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tauu̯ilo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tauu̯ilo
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þauu̯ilo
5. þauu̯ilo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þauu̯ila
6. þauu̯ila
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *þauu̯il
7. þauu̯il
*au → ou
Change of au into ou
Rau›ou → *þouu̯il
8. þouu̯il
*þ → d
OHG sound shift of *þ
Rþ›d → *douu̯il
9. douu̯il
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. douwil
√tɑhōu-
(IEW —)
(+ LIV2 AC + Pyysalo: CLu.)
Sogd. ϑāw-
(vb.) ‘brennen’
(LIV2 AC:13)
(See LIV2 AC for additional Iranian forms)
1. PIE *tɑhōu̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thōu̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thōu̯-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *thāu̯-
3. thāu̯-
*th → ϑ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›ϑ → *ϑāu̯-
4. ϑāu̯-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Sogd. ϑāw-
√tɑhōuɑh-
OPers. ϑavā-
(vb.) ‘ausbrennen, abbrennen’
(A2 Sa 2,4)
(OPers. aϑavā- [3sg], AC LIV2:3)
1. PIE *tɑheu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tɑheu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tɑheu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *theu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. theu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *theu̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. theu̯ā-
*th → ϑ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›ϑ → *ϑeu̯ā-
5. ϑeu̯ā-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *ϑau̯ā-
6. ϑau̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OPers. ϑavā-
Chwar. ϑ´wȳ-
(vb.) ‘brennen’
(LIV2 AC:13)
1. PIE *tɑhōu̯ɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *tɑhōu̯íhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. tɑhōu̯íhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thōu̯íhi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. thōu̯íhi-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *thāu̯íhi-
4. thāu̯íhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thāu̯íi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. thāu̯íi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *thāu̯ī́-
6. thāu̯ī́-
*th → ϑ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›ϑ → *ϑāu̯ī́-
7. ϑāu̯ī́-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → *ϑāwī́-
8. ϑāwī́-
ā → ´
Orthographic change of *ā into ´
Rā›´ → *ϑ´wī́-
9. ϑ´wī́-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → *ϑ´wī-
10. ϑ´wī-
ī → ȳ
Orthographic change of *ī into ȳ
Rī›ȳ → Chwar. ϑ´wȳ-
√tɑhōuɑhs-
(Pyysalo)
Khot. ϑūs-
(vb.) brennen’
(LIV2 AC:13)
1. PIE *tɑhuɑ́hski-
PIE *uɑ́ → uú
Assimilation of *u and *ɑ́
Ruɑ́›uú → *tɑhuúhski-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. tɑhuúhski-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thuúhski-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. thuúhski-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *thuúhsć-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. thuúhsć-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thuúsć-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. thuúsć-
*uú → ū́
Contraction of u and ú
Ruú›ū́ → *thū́sć-
6. thū́sć-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *thū́ss-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
7. thū́ss-
*th → ϑ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›ϑ → *ϑū́ss-
8. ϑū́ss-
*ū́ → ū
Absence of accent
Rū́›ū → Khot. ϑūss-
TochA. tāwsu-
(pret.pt.) ‘kindle, ignite, light’ (DTochB. 298)
(Poucha 136)
(HIL. 1026f.)
1. PIE *tɑhōu̯ɑhsu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thōu̯hsu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thōu̯hsu-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *thāu̯hsu-
3. thāu̯hsu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thāu̯su-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. thāu̯su-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tāu̯su-
5. tāu̯su-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. tāwsu-
√tɑhuɑh-
CLu. tuḫ·ara-
(.) ‘Bez. einer brennbaren Substanz, HHand. 158’
(DLL. 88)
(CLu. tuḫ-ḫa-ra-an-zi [plN], tuḫ-ḫa-ra-an-za [A], HHand. 179)
1. PIE *tɑhuɑh·oro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thuh·oro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thuh·oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thuh·ara-
3. thuh·ara-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *tuh·ara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tuh·ara-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. tuḫ·ara-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√tɑhuɑhs-
TochB. twāsa-
(vb.) ‘kindle, light, ignite : anzünden ]
(DTochB. 298)
(TochB. twāsasi [inf.], LeToch1 519, MA. 87)
1. PIE *tɑhu̯ɑhōso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thu̯hōso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thu̯hōso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thu̯hōsa-
3. thu̯hōsa-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *thu̯hāsa-
4. thu̯hāsa-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thu̯āsa-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. thu̯āsa-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tu̯āsa-
6. tu̯āsa-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. twāsa-
TochA. twās-
(vb.A.) ‘kindle, ignite, light’ (DTochB. 298)
(Poucha 136)
(TochA. twāsiṣ)
1. PIE *tɑhu̯ɑhōs-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thu̯hōs-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thu̯hōs-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *thu̯hās-
3. thu̯hās-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thu̯ās-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. thu̯ās-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tu̯ās-
5. tu̯ās-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. twās-
TochA. twāslune-
(vb.sb.) ‘kindle, ignite, light’ (DTochB. 298)
(Poucha 136)
1. PIE *tɑhu̯ɑhōslunoi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thu̯hōslunoi̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thu̯hōslunoi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thu̯hōslunai̯a
3. thu̯hōslunai̯a
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *thu̯hāslunai̯a
4. thu̯hāslunai̯a
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thu̯āslunai̯a
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. thu̯āslunai̯a
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tu̯āslunai̯a
6. tu̯āslunai̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *tu̯āslunai̯
7. tu̯āslunai̯
*a y → ē
Change of ay into ē in root-final
R=ay›=ē → *tu̯āslunē
8. tu̯āslunē
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *tu̯āslune
9. tu̯āslune
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. twāslune
TochA. tuse-
(pr.) ‘kindle, ignite, light’ (DTochB. 298)
(Poucha 125)
(TochA. tuseñcäṃ)
1. PIE *tɑhuɑhsoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thuhsoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thuhsoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thuhsai-
3. thuhsai-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thusai-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. thusai-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tusai-
5. tusai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *tusē-
6. tusē-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochA. tuse-
TochA. tātwsu-
(pret.pt.) ‘kindle, ignite, light’ (DTochB. 298)
(Poucha 136)
(TochA. tātwsuṣ)
1. PIE *tɑhōtɑhu̯ɑhsu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thōthu̯hsu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thōthu̯hsu-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *thāthu̯hsu-
3. thāthu̯hsu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thāthu̯su-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. thāthu̯su-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tātu̯su-
5. tātu̯su-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. tātwsu-
TochB. twasas-
(pr.M.) ‘kindle, ignite, light’
(DTochB. 298)
(TochB. twasastär [3sg])
1. PIE *tɑhu̯ɑhosos-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thu̯hosos-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thu̯hosos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thu̯hasas-
3. thu̯hasas-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thu̯asas-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. thu̯asas-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tu̯asas-
5. tu̯asas-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. twasas-
Lith. tvaskė́-
(vb.) ‘glänzen, leuchten flimmern, glitzern’
(LiEtWb. 1151)
1. PIE *tɑhu̯ɑhoskḗhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thu̯hoskḗh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thu̯hoskḗh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thu̯oskḗ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. thu̯oskḗ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thu̯askḗ-
4. thu̯askḗ-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tu̯askḗ-
5. tu̯askḗ-
*ḗ -> ė́
Change of *ḗ -> ė́
Rḗ›ė́ → *tu̯askė́-
6. tu̯askė́-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. tvaskė́-
TochB. twāsäsk-
(pr.A.) ‘kindle’
(DTochB. 298)
TochB. twāsäṣṣim, opt1sg)
1. PIE *tɑhu̯ɑhōsoski-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thu̯hōsoski-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thu̯hōsoski-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *thu̯hōsosḱ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. thu̯hōsosḱ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thu̯hōsasḱ-
4. thu̯hōsasḱ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *thu̯hāsasḱ-
5. thu̯hāsasḱ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thu̯āsasḱ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. thu̯āsasḱ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *thu̯āsask-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. thu̯āsask-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tu̯āsask-
8. tu̯āsask-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. twāsask-
TochB. twāsk-
(pr.A.) ‘kindle, ignite, light’
(DTochB. 298)
(TochB. twāṣṣäm [3sg])
1. PIE *tɑhu̯ɑhōski-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thu̯hōski-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thu̯hōski-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *thu̯hōsḱ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. thu̯hōsḱ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *thu̯hāsḱ-
4. thu̯hāsḱ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thu̯āsḱ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. thu̯āsḱ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *thu̯āsk-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. thu̯āsk-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tu̯āsk-
7. tu̯āsk-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. twāsk-
TochA. tuṣ-
(pr.A.) ‘kindle, ignite, light’ (DTochB. 298)
(Poucha 125)
1. PIE *tɑhuɑhsi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thuhsi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thuhsi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thusi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. thusi-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tusi-
4. tusi-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
Rsi›ṣ → TochA. tuṣ-
TochB. tuṣi
(PN.) ‘in monastic records; ‹‘enlightened’ (?)›’
(DTochB. 302)
1. PIE *tɑhuɑhsí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thuhsí-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thuhsí-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thusí-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. thusí-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tusí-
4. tusí-
*sí → ṣí
Palatalization of *sí
Rsí›ṣ → *tuṣí-
5. tuṣí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → TochB. tuṣi-
√tɑhuɑhu-
TochB. two-
(pret.pt.) ‘kindled’
(DTochB. 298)
1. PIE *tɑhu̯ɑhou-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thu̯hou-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thu̯hou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thu̯hau-
3. thu̯hau-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *thu̯au-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. thu̯au-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *tu̯au-
5. tu̯au-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *tu̯ō-
6. tu̯ō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *tu̯o-
7. tu̯o-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. two-
√deɑɦu-
(IEW 179-81)
(+ Pyysalo: Hitt.)
Hitt. daḫu·štama-
(.) ‘ein Gegenstand aus Silber; ‹glänzend·Ohr?›
(HEG T:18)
(HHand. 159, Hitt. t]a-ḫu-u-uš-ta-ma)
1. PIE *deɑɦu·stomo-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *daɑɦu·stomo-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. daɑɦu·stomo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *daɦu·stomo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. daɦu·stomo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *daɦu·stama-
4. daɦu·stama-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *daɦu·štama-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. daɦu·štama-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. daḫu·štama-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Gr. δέδαυ-
(pf.) ‘be in fire, LSJ. 366’
(GEW 1:342-3)
(Gr. δεδαυμένο-)
1. PIE *dédēɑɦu-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dédāɑɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dédāɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dédāɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dédāɦu-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dédāu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dédāu-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *dédau-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. dédau-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. δέδαυ-
√dɑɦu-
(IEW 261)
CLu. du̯anta-
(.) ‘ein Gegenstand aus Silber’
(HEG T:492)
(CLu. tu-u-ua-an-ta-an-za KÙ.BABBAR [plA])
1. PIE *dɑɦu̯onto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦu̯onto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦu̯onto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦu̯anta-
3. dɦu̯anta-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. du̯anta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. pa·du̯anta-
(URU.) ‘›Ḫuwar[…; (OGHErg. 123)’
(OGH. 311)
(Hitt. pa-du-ua-an-da-aš)
1. PIE *po·dɑɦu̯onto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po·dɦu̯onto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. po·dɦu̯onto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pa·dɦu̯anta-
3. pa·dɦu̯anta-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. pa·du̯anta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. du̯·arba-
(URU.) ‘Bei ›Kinara’
(OGH. 432)
(Hitt. tu-ar-pa-a)
1. PIE *dɑɦu̯·orbɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦu̯·orbɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦu̯·orbɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦu̯·arbɦa-
3. dɦu̯·arbɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. du̯·arba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦe/ouilo-
(Pyysalo)
(Hitt. requires verification/falsification(!))
Hitt. dau̯ila-
(c.) ‘-(?)-, im Ritual; ‹uncertain if here’
(HHand. 173)
1. PIE *dɑɦou̯ilo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦou̯ilo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦou̯ilo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦau̯ila-
3. dɦau̯ila-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dau̯ila-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. θειλό·πεδο-
(n.) ‘Platz zum Trocknen in der Sonne’
(GEW 1:657)
(s. εἱλόπεδον)
1. PIE *dɑɦeu̯iló·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦeu̯iló·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦeu̯iló·Σ
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *theu̯iló·Σ
3. theu̯iló·Σ
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *theiló·Σ
4. theiló·Σ
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. θειλό·Σ
√dɑɦuis-
CLu. du̯iš-
(adv.) ‘hell, licht, HHand. 184’
(DLL. 101)
(CLu. tu-ú-iš)
1. PIE *dɑɦu̯is-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦu̯is-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦu̯is-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *du̯is-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. du̯is-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. du̯iš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. du̯iša-
(mc.) ‘cf. above’
(NOMS. 1409)
(Hitt. du/tu-ú-i-ša(-aš) [Abs.(N)])
1. PIE *dɑɦu̯iso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦu̯iso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦu̯iso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦu̯isa-
3. dɦu̯isa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *du̯isa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. du̯isa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. du̯iša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √tɑhudɑɦ- (sb.) ‘Heerlager, Truppe’
(IEW 1084f.)
√tɑheudɑɦ-
Goth. þiudo-
(f.sg.) ἐθνικοί, ἔθνος: ethnici, gens, gentiles’
(GoEtD. Þ40.)
(Goth. þiuda Joh 18,35 CA; þiuda Luk 7,5 CA, þiudos 2Kr 11,32 B, þiudai Rom 10,19 A)
1. PIE *tɑheudɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tɑheudɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tɑheudɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *theudɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. theudɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *theudɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. theudɦā-
*t h → þ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›þ → *þeudɦā-
5. þeudɦā-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *þeudā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. þeudā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *þeudō-
(XX:XX)
7. þeudō-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *þiudō-
8. þiudō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → Goth. þiudo-
Goth. þiudisk-
(a.) ‘heidnisch: heathenly: ἐθνικῶς: gentiliter’
(GoEtD. Þ42.)
(Goth. þiudisko [adv.] Gal 2,14 B, GoElB. 191A2, HbGo 28,4, 154,2, 193,2, GoEtD. 361)
1. PIE *tɑheudɑɦisko
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *theudɦisko
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. theudɦisko
*t h → þ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›þ → *þeudɦisko
3. þeudɦisko
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *þeudisko
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. þeudisko
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þeudiska
5. þeudiska
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *þiudiska
6. þiudiska
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Goth. þiudisk
√tɑhudɑɦ-
Hitt. tuzi-
(c.) ‘KARAŠ: Heer(lager), Truppenmacht’
(HHand. 184)
1. PIE *tɑhudɑɦi̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thudɦi̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thudɦi̯i-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *thujɦi-
3. thujɦi-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *tujɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tujɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *tuji-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. tuji-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. tuzi-
Hitt. kan·tuzi-
(m.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 502)
(Hitt. kán-tu-zi [abs.])
1. PIE *Π·tɑhudɑɦi̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·thudɦi̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·thudɦi̯i-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *Π·thujɦi-
3. Π·thujɦi-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *Π·tujɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·tujɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *Π·tuji-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. Π·tuji-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. Π·tuzi-
Hitt. tuzeia-
(vb.1.) ‘lagern (mit dem Heer)’
(HHand. 184)
1. PIE *tɑhudɑɦi̯ei̯a-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thudɦi̯ei̯a-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thudɦi̯ei̯a-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *thujɦei̯a-
3. thujɦei̯a-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *tujɦei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tujɦei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *tujei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. tujei̯a-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. tuzei̯a-
Hitt. tuzeiašešar/n-
(n.) ‘Heerlager, Heer’
(HHand. 184)
1. PIE *tɑhudɑɦi̯ei̯osesor/n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thudɦi̯ei̯osesor/n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thudɦi̯ei̯osesor/n-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *thujɦei̯osesor/n-
3. thujɦei̯osesor/n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thujɦei̯asesar/n-
4. thujɦei̯asesar/n-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *tujɦei̯asesar/n-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. tujɦei̯asesar/n-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *tujei̯asesar/n-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. tujei̯asesar/n-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *tuzei̯asesar/n-
7. tuzei̯asesar/n-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. tuzei̯ašešar/n-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. kan·tuzi·li-
(m.c.) ‘prince hittite ‹a.k.a. mkan·li-›’
(NOMS. 503)
(Hitt. kán-tu-uz-zi-li)
1. PIE *Π·tɑhudɑɦi̯i·li-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·thudɦi̯i·li-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·thudɦi̯i·li-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *Π·thujɦi·li-
3. Π·thujɦi·li-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *Π·tujɦi·li-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·tujɦi·li-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *Π·tuji·li-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. Π·tuji·li-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. Π·tuzi·li-


PIE √tɦɑg- √dɦɑg- (vb.) ‘decken, verbergen, verstecken, schirmen’
(IEW 1013-14)
√teɦɑgo-
Lat. tego-
(pr.) ‘decken, verbergen, verstecken, schirmen’
(EM. 977-8)
(Lat. tegō, tegere; IEW 1013-1014)
1. PIE *teɦɑgo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teɦgo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. teɦgo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Lat. tego-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OGaulG. στολού·τεγο-
(.) ‘Art die Waffe im Rückzug zu schleudern’
(WH. 2:655)
(Gaul. στολούτεγον)
1. PIE *Π·teɦɑgo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·teɦgo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·teɦgo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·tego-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·tego-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → OGaulG. Π·τεγο-
OIr. teg·lach-
(.) ‘Hausgenossenschaft’
(IEW 1013-1014)
(OIr. teglach [sgN])
1. PIE *teɦɑgò·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teɦgò·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. teɦgò·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → OIr. tegò·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√toɦɑgo-
OIcl. þak-
(n.*a-) ‘Dach, Decke, Dachmaterial’
(ANEtWb. 605)
(OIcl. þak; IEW 1013-1014)
1. PIE *toɦɑgo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *toɦgo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. toɦgo
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *togo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. togo
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þogo
4. þogo
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *þoko
5. þoko
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þaka
6. þaka
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OIcl. þak
Lat. togā-
(f.) ‘Gewand, Toga’
(WH. 2:654)
(Lat. toga; IEW 1013-1014
1. PIE *toɦɑgēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *toɦɑgāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. toɦɑgāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *toɦgāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. toɦgāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *togāh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. togāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. togā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√doɦɑk-
Gr. δοκό-
(f.) ‘Dachsparre, Balken’
(GEW 1:406)
1. PIE *doɦɑkó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *doɦkó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. doɦkó-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dokó-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. dokó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. δοκό-
√deɦɑk-
Ion.-Att. δεκτή-
(f.) ‘χλαῖνα, χλανίς’
(GEW 1:360)
(Ion. Att. δεκτή: χλαῖνα, χλανίς)
1. PIE *deɦɑktḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *deɦɑktā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. deɦɑktā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *deɦktā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. deɦktā́h-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dektā́h-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dektā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dektā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dektā́-
*ā́ → ḗ
Ion-Att. change of *ā́ into ḗ
Rā́›ḗ → *dektḗ-
6. dektḗ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. δεκτή-
√dɦɑēg-
TochB. kuca·tāk-
(sb.) ‘tower, balcony’ ‹cf. Hitt. kut- ‘mauer’›
(DTochB. 181)
(TochB. kucatākmeṃ)
1. PIE *Π·dɦɑēg-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *Π·dɦɑāg-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·dɦɑāg-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦāg-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·dɦāg-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·dāg-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. Π·dāg-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *Π·dāk-
5. Π·dāk-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → TochB. Π·tāk-
TochA. kucca·tāk-
(sb.) ‘tower, balcony’
(Poucha 76)
(TochA. kuccatāki)
1. PIE *Π·dɦɑēg-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *Π·dɦɑāg-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·dɦɑāg-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦāg-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·dɦāg-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·dāg-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. Π·dāg-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *Π·dāk-
5. Π·dāk-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → TochA. Π·tāk-
Hitt. an·dāga-
(c.) ‘Zimmer, Privatgemach, HHand. 17’
(HEG 1:34)
(Hitt. an-ta-ki=iš-ši [sgL], an-ta-ga-aš-ša)
1. PIE *on·dɦɑēgo-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *on·dɦɑāgo-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. on·dɦɑāgo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *on·dɦāgo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. on·dɦāgo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *an·dɦāga-
4. an·dɦāga-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. an·dāga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. an·dāgeit-
(c/n?.) ‘Zimmer, Privatgemach’
(HIL. 223)
(Hitt. an-ta-ki-it-ti [DL])
1. PIE *on·dɦɑēgeit-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *on·dɦɑāgeit-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. on·dɦɑāgeit-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *on·dɦāgeit-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. on·dɦāgeit-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *an·dɦāgeit-
4. an·dɦāgeit-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. an·dāgeit-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √ti- √toi- √tei- (sb.) ‘Donner’
√tiku-
(IEW 1068 [diff.])
(Pyysalo; or tɑhiku- (?)
Hitt. teiku·gu̯a-
(URU.) ‘Donnerschlag ?; Ḫurna › Taritara › Tašmaḫa’
(OGH. 420-1)
(Hitt. ti-ik-ku-ku-ua, OGHErg. 169)
1. PIE *teiku·gɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teiku·gɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. teiku·gɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *teiku·gɦu̯a-
3. teiku·gɦu̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. teiku·gu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Goth. þeiƕo·n-
(n.) ‘Donner: thunder: βροντή: tonitrus’
(GoEtD. Þ31.)
(Goth. þeiƕon [A] Joh 12,29 CA, þeiƕons [G) Mrk 3,17 CA, GoElB. 54,2, HbGo. 100n2, 139,1)
1. PIE *teiku̯ēɑh·n
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *teiku̯āɑh·n
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. teiku̯āɑh·n
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teiku̯āh·n
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. teiku̯āh·n
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *teiku̯ā·n
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. teiku̯ā·n
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *teixu̯ā·n
5. teixu̯ā·n
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þeixu̯ā·n
6. þeixu̯ā·n
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *þeixu̯ō·n
(XX:XX)
7. þeixu̯ō·n
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *þīxu̯ō·n
8. þīxu̯ō·n
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *þīhu̯ō·n
9. þīhu̯ō·n
hw → ƕ
Monophonemization of hw into ƕ
Rhu̯›ƕ → *þīƕō·n
10. þīƕō·n
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *þīƕo·n
11. þīƕo·n
*ī → ei
Orthographic change of *ī into ei
Rī›ei → Goth. þeiƕo·n


PIE √ti- √toi- √tei- (vb.) ‘erscheinen, brennen, glänzen’ (sb.) ‘Glanz, Zeichen, Gott’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√tei-
Hitt. pua·tei-
(.) ‘Kenn-zeichen, Marke, Farbe’
(HHand. 137)
(Hitt. puwatti-)
Hitt. memišar·tei-
(d.) ‘A. Archi (1990 [Or. 59]:114-128)’
(OHP. 1:301-2)
(Hitt. me-mi-šar-ti-iš, me-me-šar-ti-iš, me-me-šar-ti-iš [sgN])
Hitt. angar·tei-
(GN.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(OHP. 1:31)
(Hitt. dan-kar-ti [Abs], -in [sgA])
√teio-
(Pyysalo)
OPhryg. τεο-
(m.) ‘Gott’
(Phryg. XX)
1. PIE *tei̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → *teio-
2. teio-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → OPhryg. τειο-
Pal. tei̯ad-
(c.) ‘sun-god’
(DPal. XX)
(Pal. teiaz)
1. PIE *tei̯odɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tei̯odɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tei̯odɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tei̯adɦ-
3. tei̯adɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Pal. tei̯ad-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. tei̯adei-
(c.) (eine Drogenpflanze?, ‘Teufelsdreck’ ?)
(HHand. 176)
1. PIE *tei̯odɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tei̯odɦei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tei̯odɦei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tei̯adɦei-
3. tei̯adɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. tei̯adei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OPhryg. τειᾱ-
(f.) ‘Göttin’
(Phryg. 136)
1. PIE *teii̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *teii̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. teii̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teii̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. teii̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *teii̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. teii̯ā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → *teiiā-
5. teiiā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → OPhryg. τειιᾱ-
√ti-
(Pyysalo)
OPhryg. τι-
(m.) ‘Gott’
(Phryg. 136)
(Phryg. tios ‘dei’ [sgG])
1. PIE *ti-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → OPhryg. τι-
RV. amá·ti-
(f.) ‘Sonnenschein, Sonnenglanz’
(WbRV. 90)
(RV. ámati-)
Lat. penā·ti-
(m.) ‘im Inneren des Hauses waltenden Gottheiten’
(WH. 2:278)
(Lat. penātēs, penātium)
√tio-
√tiɑh-
OInd. tī-
(f.) [mng.] ‘Lakṣmi’
(MonWil. 431)
1. PIE *tiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *tiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. tiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. tií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → OInd. tī́-
OInd. bhāra·tī-
(f.) ‘Goddess of speech, wisdom and arts’
(WbRV. 933)