PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

( Show the entire data in a single page )

© 2014-2015 University of Helsinki

"Durch zweier Zeugen Mund wird alle Wahrheit kund" — August Fick
(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
Contact PIE Lexicon Project

PIE



√tɑhk- √tɑɦg- √dɑɦg- ‘Erde’
(IEW. 416)
√tɑhk-
ModPers. tag-
(sb.) ‘Boden, Grund’
(ArmGr. 250f.)
(ModPers. tak, tag)
1. PIE *√teɑɦko
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *√taɑɦko
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. √taɑɦko
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *√taɦko
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. √taɦko
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *√taɦka
4. √taɦka
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *√taka
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. √taka
VkV -› VgV
Lenition k -› g between vowels
RVkV›VgV → *√taga
6. √taga
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → ModPers. tag
√deɑɦg-
Arm. tak-
(sb.) ‘down, below: was unterhalb ist, Stamm; Stiel’
(ArmGr. 250f.)
(Arm. tak [G] taki [G], Kapancjan 1931:66)
1. PIE *deɑɦg-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *daɑɦg-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. daɑɦg-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *daɦg-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. daɦg-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dag-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dag-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *tag-
5. tag-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → Arm. tak-
√dɑɦeg-
(HEG T:292-300)
Hitt. dega-
(n.) ‘Erde = KI’
(HIL. 991)
(Hitt. de-e-ga-aš-še-it [sgN])
1. PIE *dɑɦego-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦego-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦego-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦega-
3. dɦega-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dega-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. degan-
(n.) ‘Erde’ = Sum. KI)
(HHand. 174)
(Hitt. te-kán [sgNA])
1. PIE *dɑɦegon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦegon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦegon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦegan-
3. dɦegan-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. degan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. erbi·degan-
(d.) ‘DINGIR irbitigan tagnaš ENan’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦegon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦegon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦegon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·dɦegan-
3. Π·dɦegan-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. Π·degan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦog-
Hitt. daga-
(d.) ‘XX, GLHur. 249’
(OHP. 1:430-1)
(Hitt. ta-ga-aš [N])
1. PIE *dɑɦogo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦogo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦogo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦaga-
3. dɦaga-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. daga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. daga·ziba-
(c.) ‘Erde, Boden, Estrich, Fußboden = KI’
(HHand. 160)
(da-ga-zi-pu-uš)
1. PIE *dɑɦogo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦogo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦogo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦaga·Σ-
3. dɦaga·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. daga·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦogmi-
HLu. dagmi-
(.) ‘terra’
(CHLu:XX)
(HLu.(“TERRA”)ta-ka-mi-i)
1. PIE *dɑɦogmi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦogmi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦogmi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦagmi-
3. dɦagmi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. dagmi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦogn-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. dagna-
(adv.) ‘zu/am Boden, nieder’
(HHand. 160)
(tág-na-az,[Abl = adv.])
1. PIE *dɑɦogno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦogno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦogno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦagna-
3. dɦagna-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dagna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Kpd. dagna·bura-
(LÚ.c.) ‘Erde+BURA’
(NOMS. 1211)
(Kpd. da-ag-na-bu-ra)
1. PIE *dɑɦogno·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦogno·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦogno·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦagna·Σ-
3. dɦagna·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Kpd. dagna·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dagna·za
(adv.) ‘aus der Erde’
(HHand. 160)
1. PIE *dɑɦogno·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦogno·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦogno·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦagna·Σ-
3. dɦagna·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dagna·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Kpd. dagni-
(LÚ.c.) ‘≈ ruralis (?)’
(NOMS. 1212)
(Kpd. da-ag-ni(-iš) [All-(N)])
1. PIE *dɑɦogni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦogni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦogni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦagni-
3. dɦagni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Kpd. dagni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OSax. dakno
(adv.) ‘heimlich: stealthily: clanculo’
(Gl.)
(OSax. dakno clanculo SAGA 174, 26 = Gl 2, 143, 26 , Hildesheimer Canonesglossen, Glossen Leipzig Universitätsbibliothek Rep. II. 6)
1. PIE *dɑɦognu
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦognu
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦognu
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dɦoknu
3. dɦoknu
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *doknu
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. doknu
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *daknu
5. daknu
*-u → -o
Change of root-final -u into -o
R=u›=o → OSax. dakno
√dɑɦgo-
Hitt. erbi·dga-
(d.) ‘König des TGA-’
(XX:XX)
(Hitt. dirbi-tgaš [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦgo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦgo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦgo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·dɦga-
3. Π·dɦga-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. Π·dga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ḫartei·dga-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’ “(Personennamen) in Ḫ.”
(OGHErg. 32)
(Hitt. ḫar-ti-it-ka [All])
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦgo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦgo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦgo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·dɦga-
3. Π·dɦga-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. Π·dga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦgon-
(Friedrich 1924 [AfK 2]: 122n2)
Hitt. dgan
(adv.) ‘zu/am Boden, nieder, zur Erde’
(HHand. 160)
(Hitt. dagan [adv.])
1. PIE *dɑɦgon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan-
3. dɦgan-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dgan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dgan·za
(adv.) ‘aus der Erde’
(HHand. 160)
1. PIE *dɑɦgon·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan·Σ-
3. dɦgan·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dgan·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dgan·za-
(URU.) ‘Im Lande ›Tarḫuntaša’
(OGHErg. 154)
(Hitt. da-ga-an-za-aš [N])
1. PIE *dɑɦgon·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan·Σ-
3. dɦgan·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dgan·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dgan·zeia-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGH. 383)
(Hitt. ta-ga-an-zi-ia)
1. PIE *dɑɦgon·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan·Σ-
3. dɦgan·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dgan·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dgan·ziba-
(c.) ‘Erde, Boden, Estrich, Fußboden’
(HHand. 160)
1. PIE *dɑɦgon·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan·Σ-
3. dɦgan·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dgan·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dgan·ziba-
(GN.c.) ‘Genius der Erde, RDH. 68, GhR. 299, KN 100n2’
(OHP. 1:431)
(Hitt. ta-ga-a-an-zi-pa-aš [sgN], ta-ga-an-zi-pa-aš [sgN], Klinger StBoT 37:146-7)
1. PIE *dɑɦgon·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan·Σ-
3. dɦgan·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dgan·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dgan·unda-
(URU.) ‘Im Lande Tarḫuntaša, › Munanta’
(OGHErg. 154)
(Hitt. da-ga-an-nu-un-ta-aš [N])
1. PIE *dɑɦgon·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan·Σ-
3. dɦgan·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dgan·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
TochA. tkan-
(f.) ‘terra, mundus, locus: Erde, E-boden, Stätte, Ort’
(PouchA. 128)
(TochA. tkaṃ [N], tkanis [G], tkanā, tkani [plN])
1. PIE *dɑɦgon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan-
3. dɦgan-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dgan-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dgan-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dkan-
5. dkan-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → TochA. tkan-
TochA. tkan·ṣi-
(a.) ‘terrae, terrestis’
(Poucha 128)
(TochA. tkaṃ ṣi)
1. PIE *dɑɦgon·sí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon·sí-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon·sí-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan·sí-
3. dɦgan·sí-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dgan·sí-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dgan·sí-
*sí → ṣí
Palatalization of *sí
Rsí›ṣ → *dgan·ṣí-
5. dgan·ṣí-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dkan·ṣí-
6. dkan·ṣí-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *tkan·ṣí-
7. tkan·ṣí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → TochA. tkan·ṣi-
TochA. tkan·ñkät
(f.) ‘Terra(-dea)’
(Poucha 128)
(TochA. tkaṃ ñkät [sgN])
1. PIE *dɑɦgon·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan·Σ-
3. dɦgan·Σ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dgan·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dgan·Σ-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dkan·Σ-
5. dkan·Σ-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → TochA. tkan·Σ-
TochB. ken-
(f.) ‘earth, ground’
(DTochB. 192)
(TochB. keṃ, kentsa)
1. PIE *dɑɦgon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan-
3. dɦgan-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dgan-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dgan-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dkan-
5. dkan-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → TochB. tkan-
TochB. ken·tarśke-
(PN.) (in monastic records)
(DTochB. 193)
1. PIE *dɑɦgon·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgon·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgon·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgan·Σ-
3. dɦgan·Σ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dgan·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dgan·Σ-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dkan·Σ-
5. dkan·Σ-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → TochB. tkan·Σ-
√dɑɦgono-
Kpd. ·dgana-
(LÚ.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 1206)
(Kpd. da-ga-na)
1. PIE *dɑɦgono·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgono·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgono·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgana·Σ-
3. dɦgana·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Kpd. dgana·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
TochB. kena·ṣṣe-
(a.) ‘prtng to earth’
(DTochB. 192)
(TochB. kenaṣṣe)
1. PIE *dɑɦgono·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgono·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgono·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgana·Σ-
3. dɦgana·Σ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dgana·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dgana·Σ-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dkana·Σ-
5. dkana·Σ-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → TochB. tkana·Σ-
TochB. kenä·ttse
(a.) ‘earthly, terrestial’
(DTochB. 192)
(TochB. kenättse)
1. PIE *dɑɦgono·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgono·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgono·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦgana·Σ-
3. dɦgana·Σ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dgana·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dgana·Σ-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dkana·Σ-
5. dkana·Σ-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → TochB. tkana·Σ-
√dɑɦgonii̯o-
Kpd. dganii̯a-
(.) ‘cf. below’
(NOMS. 1206)
(Kpd. da-ga-ni-a)
1. PIE *dɑɦgonii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgonii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgonii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦganii̯a-
3. dɦganii̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Kpd. dganii̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
TochB. kañiya-
(a.) ‘of a country, rural’
(DTochB. 190)
(TochB. kañiye)
1. PIE *dɑɦgonii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦgonii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦgonii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦganii̯a-
3. dɦganii̯a-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dganii̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dganii̯a-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *dkanii̯a-
5. dkanii̯a-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *tkanii̯a-
6. tkanii̯a-
*ni → ñ i
Palatalization of *n before i̯
Rni›ñi → *tkañii̯a-
7. tkañii̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. tkañiya-


PIE √t- √to- √te- (vb.) ‘nehmen, rauben, stehlen’
(IEW. 1010)
[WP 2:610]
√to/e-
(Pyysalo 2013:88-9)
Hitt. ta-
(vb.2.) ‘nehmen : Sum. ME’
(HEG 3:5-11)
(Hitt. taḫi [1sg], da-a-i [3sg], daḫun [1sg])
1. PIE *to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ta-
HLu. ta-
(vb.) ‘nehmen : take’
(CHLu. 2.23.3)
(HLu. tà-ḫa [1sg], CAPERE)
1. PIE *to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ta-
OInd. ta-
(m.) ‘thief : Dieb’
(MonWil. 431)
(Lex. taḥ [sgN])
1. PIE *to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. ta-
Lith. tè-
(ipv) ‘take’
(LiEtWb. 1071)
(Lith. tè [ipv2sg])
1. PIE *té-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → Lith. tè-
√teɑh-
Ion.-Att. τή·τη-
(f.) Hes. = ‘ἀπορία, ἔνδεια, στέρησις’
(GEW 2:895)
1. PIE *tḗɑh·tēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tḗɑh·tāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tḗɑh·tāɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *tā́ɑh·tāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. tā́ɑh·tāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tā́h·tāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. tā́h·tāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tā́·tā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. tā́·tā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
Rā›ē → *tā́·tē-
6. tā́·tē-
*ā́ → ḗ
Ion-Att. change of *ā́ into ḗ
Rā́›ḗ → *tḗ·tē-
7. tḗ·tē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. τή·τη-
√teɑhi-
Dor. τᾱτάο-
(vbΜ.) ‘entbehren, darben, beraubt sein’
(GEW2:895)
1. PIE *tēɑhtéɑhi̯o-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *tēɑhtáɑhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. tēɑhtáɑhi̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tāɑhtáɑhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. tāɑhtáɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tāhtáhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. tāhtáhi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tātái̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. tātái̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *tātáo-
6. tātáo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. τᾱτάο-
ORuss. tajĭ
(a.) ‘heimlich’ (sb.) ‘Geheimnis’
(REW 3:69)
1. PIE *tēɑhi̯i-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tāɑhi̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tāɑhi̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tāhi̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tāhi̯i-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tāi̯i-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tāi̯i-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *tāji-
5. tāji-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *taji-
6. taji-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → ORuss. tajĭ-
√toi- √tei-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. tai-
(vb.1.) ‘stehlen, bestehlen’
(HEG 3:24-)
(Hitt. ta-a-iz-zi [3sg])
1. PIE *toi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. tai-
gAv. taya-
(m.) ‘Dieb(stahl)’
(AIWb. 638)
1. PIE *toi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tai̯a-
2. tai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → gAv. taya-
gAv. taya-
(a.) ‘verstohlen, heimlich’
(AIWb. 638)
1. PIE *toi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tai̯a-
2. tai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → gAv. taya-
Dor. τέε-
(vb.) ‘take’
(in Gr. τῆ [2sg], τῆτε [2pl])
1. PIE *téi̯e-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *tée-
2. tée-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. τέε-
OInd. maṇṭáya-
(cs.) ‘sich wie ein Vermittler ‹maṇ-› benehmen’
(KEWA 2:557)
(For maṇ- cf. Lat. mallo- ‘Gericht’ [Lex Salica])
1. PIE *meɑhl̥ntéi̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *maɑhl̥ntéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. maɑhl̥ntéi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mahl̥ntéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mahl̥ntéi̯o-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
Rl̥›r̥ → *mahr̥ntéi̯o-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. mahr̥ntéi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mahr̥ntéi̯a-
5. mahr̥ntéi̯a-
PIE *hRn → ṇ
Fortunatov’s Law for *hRn
RhRn›ṇ → *maṇtéi̯a-
(SPIE §3.3.2)
6. maṇtéi̯a-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *maṇtái̯a-
7. maṇtái̯a-
*ṇt → ṇṭ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rṇt›ṇṭ → *maṇṭái̯a-
8. maṇṭái̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. maṇṭáya-
√ti-
(Pyysalo)
Lith. tèti-
(vb.) ‘take’
(LiEtWb. 1071)
(Lith. tèti-te [ipv2pl])
1. PIE *téti-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → Lith. tèti-
HLu. arḫa tati·-
(vb.) ‘take away’
(CHLu. 2.9.27)
(HLu. ARHA tà-ti-i [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·toti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·tati-
√ti-
LAv. aiwi·ϑy-
(a.) ‘sich befassend mit [G]’
(AIWb. 91)
(LAv. aiwiϑyō [plN])
1. PIE *Π·ti̯-
*tR → ϑR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
RtR›ϑR → *Π·ϑi̯-
2. Π·ϑi̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. Π·ϑy-
Hitt. tai̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘(be)stehlen’
(HEG 3:24f.)
(Hitt. da-a-i-ia-zi [3sg])
1. PIE *toii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *taii̯a-
2. taii̯a-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *taia-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. taia-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → Hitt. tai̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
Hitt. taiške/a-
(vb.) ‘nehmen’
(HHand. 158)
(Hitt. ta-iš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *toiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *toisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. toisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *taisḱe/a-
3. taisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *taiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. taiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. taiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√tos-, √tes-
(Pyysalo)
RV. abhí (…) tatas·-
(pf.) ‘berauben, ausplündern’
(WbRV. 509)
(RV. tatasre)
1. PIE *Π·tetos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·tetas-
2. Π·tetas-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. Π·tatas-
RV. ví (…) tatas·-
(pf.) ‘bestürmen’
(WbRV. 509)
(RV. ví tatasre [3pl])
1. PIE *Π·tetos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·tetas-
2. Π·tetas-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. Π·tatas-
Hitt. taške/a-
(vb.) ‘nehmen’
(HHand. 158)
(Hitt. da-aš-ki-e-mi, da-aš-ki-e-u-e-ni)
1. PIE *toski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *tosḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. tosḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tasḱe/a-
3. tasḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *taske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. taske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. taške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. táskara-
(m.) ‘Räuber, Dieb’ (: ‘a tief, robber’)
(WbRV. 533)
1. PIE *tósku̯oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tósku̯ara-
2. tósku̯ara-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *tásku̯ara-
3. tásku̯ara-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → RV. táskara-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
OInd. taskar·āya-
(vb.M.) ‘to behave like a thief’
(MonWil. 441)
1. PIE *tosku̯or·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tasku̯ar·Σ-
2. tasku̯ar·Σ-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → OInd. taskar·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
OInd. tāskarya-
(n.) ‘thievishness, thieving’ (KEWA 1:491)
(MonWil. 446)
1. PIE *tōsku̯ori̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tōsku̯ari̯a-
2. tōsku̯ari̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *tāsku̯ari̯a-
3. tāsku̯ari̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *tāskari̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. tāskari̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. tāskarya-
OInd. taskarī-
(f.) ‘a passionate woman; a kind of Mimosa’
(MonWil. 446)
1. PIE *tosku̯oriɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *tosku̯oriíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. tosku̯oriíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tasku̯ariíh-
3. tasku̯ariíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tasku̯arií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tasku̯arií-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *taskarií-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. taskarií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → OInd. taskarī́-
OInd. taskaratā-
(f.) ‘thievishness, thieving’
(MonWil. 441)
1. PIE *tosku̯orotēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tosku̯orotāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tosku̯orotāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tosku̯orotāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tosku̯orotāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tasku̯aratāh-
4. tasku̯aratāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tasku̯aratā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. tasku̯aratā-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → OInd. taskaratā-
(SPIE §4.8.3)


PIE √t- √to- √te- ‘ankommen, treten, gehen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√to-
CLu. ta-
(vb.) ‘ankommen’
(HHand. 158)
1. PIE *to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ta-
HLu. ta-
(vb.) ‘walk’
(CHLu. 9.1.3)
(PES2(-)tà-ta [3pl])
1. PIE *to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ta-
HLu. ta-
(vb.) ‘walk’
(CHLu. 1.1.35)
(HLu. PES2.PES2(-)tà-ti
1. PIE *to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ta-
HLu. sara´ ta·-
(vb.) ‘come up’
(CHLu. 10.14.15)
(HLu. SARA´ “PES”2(-)tà-i [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·ta-
√toi-
HLu. tai-
(vb.) ‘treten (?)’
(CHLu. 10.44.5)
HLu. PES2.PES2(-)tà-ia; Kimball 1999:444)
1. PIE *toi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. tai-
√teio-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. tei̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘(hin)treten : step’
(HHand. 175)
(Hitt. ti-ia, HIL. 1016)
1. PIE *tei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. tei̯a-
OInd. taya-
(pr.M.) ‘to go’
(MonWil. 438)
(Dhātup. tayate [3sg])
1. PIE *tei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tei̯a-
2. tei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *tai̯a-
3. tai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. taya-
Hitt. tei̯a·u̯ar-
(n.) ‘das Eintreten’
(HHand. 176)
(HIL. 1015-6)
1. PIE *tei̯o·u̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. tei̯a·u̯ar-
√teis-
Hitt. teišage/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘treten’
(Kimball 1999:444)
(Hitt. teišakezi [3sg])
1. PIE *teisogɑɦe/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teisogɦe/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. teisogɦe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *teisagɦe/a-
3. teisagɦe/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *teisage/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. teisage/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. teišage/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. teišige/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘treten’
(Oettinger 1979:322)
(Hitt. ti-iš-ši-ki-mi ‘ich trete (?)’)
1. PIE *teisigɑɦe/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teisigɦe/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. teisigɦe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *teisigɦe/a-
3. teisigɦe/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *teisige/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. teisige/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. teišige/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √ti- √toi- √tei- ‘Donner’
√tiku-
(IEW 1068 [diff.])
(Pyysalo; or tɑhiku- (?)
Hitt. teiku·gu̯a-
(URU.) ‘Donnerschlag ?; Ḫurna › Taritara › Tašmaḫa’
(OGH. 420-1)
(Hitt. ti-ik-ku-ku-ua, OGHErg. 169)
1. PIE *teiku·gɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teiku·gɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. teiku·gɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *teiku·gɦu̯a-
3. teiku·gɦu̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. teiku·gu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Goth. þeiƕo·n-
(n.) ‘Donner: thunder: βροντή: tonitrus’
(GoEtD. Þ31)
(Goth. þeiƕon [A] Joh 12,29 CA, þeiƕons [G) Mrk 3,17 CA, GoElB. 54,2, HbGo. 100n2, 139,1)
1. PIE *teiku̯ēɑh·n
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *teiku̯āɑh·n
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. teiku̯āɑh·n
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teiku̯āh·n
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. teiku̯āh·n
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *teiku̯ā·n
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. teiku̯ā·n
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *teixu̯ā·n
5. teixu̯ā·n
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þeixu̯ā·n
6. þeixu̯ā·n
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *þeixu̯ō·n
(XX:XX)
7. þeixu̯ō·n
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *þīxu̯ō·n
8. þīxu̯ō·n
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *þīhu̯ō·n
9. þīhu̯ō·n
hw → ƕ
Monophonemization of hw into ƕ
Rhu̯›ƕ → *þīƕō·n
10. þīƕō·n
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *þīƕo·n
11. þīƕo·n
*ī → ei
Orthographic change of *ī into ei
Rī›ei → Goth. þeiƕo·n


PIE √tɑh- √dɑɦ- (vb.) ‘sehen, wünschen’ (sb.) ‘Auge’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√tɑh-
Gr. ὄθο-
(pr.M.) ‘take heed, regard’
(Gr. ὄθομαι)
1. PIE *ótɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ótho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ótho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄθο-
√tɑhēɑh-
Att. ὄθη-
(f.) ‘φροντία, ὤρα, φόβος, λόγος’
(LSJ. 1200)
1. PIE *ótɑhēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ótɑhāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ótɑhāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *óthāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. óthāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *óthā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. óthā-
ā –> ē (Att)
Attican change of ā –› ē
Rā›ēAtt → *óthē-
5. óthē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Att. ὄθη-
√tɑhi-
Hitt. atei-
(.) ‘ein Körperteil; ‹Auge(n) (?)›’
(HEG 1:94)
(Hitt. ad-di-)
1. PIE *otɑhei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *othei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. othei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *athei-
3. athei-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. atei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. ὀθέο-
(pr.A.) ‘φροντίζω’
(Gr. ὀθέω [1sg])
1. PIE *otɑhéi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *othéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. othéi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *othéo-
3. othéo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὀθέο-
Lith. àč-
(vb.) ‘sehen’
(LiEtWb. 1)
(Lith. ač ‘siehe!’, àčte)
1. PIE *ótɑhi̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *óthi̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. óthi̯-
PIE *thi̯ → č h
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›čh → *óčh-
(SPIE §XX)
3. óčh-
ó → ò
Emergence of gravis PLith. ò
RLiAcc5 → *òčh-
4. òčh-
PIE *ò → à
Change of *ò into à
Rò›à → Lith. àčh-
OLat. praed·otio-
(pr.) ‘praeoptare’
(WH. 2:212)
(PaulFest. praed·otiont [3pl])
1. PIE *Π·otɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·othi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·othi̯o-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *Π·oti̯o-
3. Π·oti̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OLat. Π·otio-
√tɑhm-
Dor. ὄθματ-
(n.) ‘Gl. ὄμμα; LSJ. 1200’
(Aiol. ὄθματα [plNA])
1. PIE *ótɑhmeɑht-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *ótɑhmaɑht-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. ótɑhmaɑht-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *óthmaht-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. óthmaht-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *óthmat-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. óthmat-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. ὄθματ-


PIE √tɑh- ‘schweigen’
(IEW 1055+1056)
(Pyysalo)
√tɑh·ki-
(IEW. 1055)
[WP. I:703]
Goth. þaha-
(vb.) ‘be silent, keep secret’
(GoEtD. 353)
(Goth. þahan [inf.])
1. PIE *teɑhki̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhki̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhki̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahki̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahki̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *tahḱo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. tahḱo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *taḱo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. taḱo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *tako-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. tako-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *taxo-
7. taxo-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þaxo-
8. þaxo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þaxa-
9. þaxa-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → Goth. þaha-
Lat. taceo-
(pr.2.) ‘schweigen : be silent’
(Lat. taceō [1sg])
1. PIE *teɑhki̯ei̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhki̯ei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhki̯ei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahki̯ei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahki̯ei̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *tahḱei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. tahḱei̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *taḱei̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. taḱei̯o-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *takei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. takei̯o-
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
Rei̯o›eo → *takeo-
7. takeo-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. taceo-
Lat. tacito-
(pt.) ‘schweigsam’
(WH. 2:641-2)
1. PIE *teɑhki̯ito-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhki̯ito-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhki̯ito-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahki̯ito-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahki̯ito-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *tahḱito-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. tahḱito-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *taḱito-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. taḱito-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *takito-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. takito-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. tacito-
√tɑh·us-
(IEW. 1056)
CLu. taḫuši̯a-
(vb.) ‘keep ‹ušia-› silent/quiet ‹taḫ-›’
(DLL 89)
(CLu. da-ḫu-ši-i̯a-aḫ-ḫa [1sg])
1. PIE *teɑhusi̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhusi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhusi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahusi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahusi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tahusi̯a-
4. tahusi̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *tahuši̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. tahuši̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. taḫuši̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
RV. tūṣṇī́-
(adv.) ‘still, schweigend’
(WbRV. 547)
(RV. tūṣṇī́m [adv.])
1. PIE *tɑ́husniɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *tɑ́husniíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. tɑ́husniíh-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *túhusniíh-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
3. túhusniíh-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *túhušniíh-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. túhušniíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *túušnií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. túušnií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *túušnī́-
6. túušnī́-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *tū́šnī́-
7. tū́šnī́-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *tū́ṣnī́-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
8. tū́ṣnī́-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. tū́ṣṇī́-
Sloven. po·túhni-
(vb.) ‘stille werden’
(APrS. 452)
(Sloven. potúhniti [inf.])
1. PIE *po·teɑhúsniɑ́h-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *po·taɑhúsniɑ́h-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. po·taɑhúsniɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *po·taɑhúsniíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
3. po·taɑhúsniíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po·tahúsniíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. po·tahúsniíh-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiSlav → *po·tahúšniíh-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
5. po·tahúšniíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pa·tahúšniíh-
6. pa·tahúšniíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pa·taúšnií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. pa·taúšnií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *pa·taúšnī́-
8. pa·taúšnī́-
*š → x
Slavonic change of *š to x
Rš›x → *pa·taúxnī́-
9. pa·taúxnī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *po·toúxnī́-
10. po·toúxnī́-
*oú → ū́
Monophthongization of *oú into ū́
Roú›ū́ → *po·tū́xnī́-
11. po·tū́xnī́-
*x → ch
Orthographic change of *x into ch
Rx›ch → *po·tū́chnī́-
12. po·tū́chnī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *po·tū́chní-
13. po·tū́chní-
*ū́ → ú
Orthographic change of *ū́ into ú
Rū́›ú → *po·túchní-
14. po·túchní-
ch → h
Change of *ch into h
Rch›h → Sloven. po·túhní-
OCS. po·tuchnǫ-
(vb.) ‘quiescere’
(APrS. 452)
OCS. potuchnǫti [inf.])
1. PIE *po·teɑhusnun
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *po·taɑhusnun
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. po·taɑhusnun
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po·tahusnun
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. po·tahusnun
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiSlav → *po·tahušnun
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. po·tahušnun
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pa·tahušnun
5. pa·tahušnun
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pa·taušnun
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. pa·taušnun
*š → x
Slavonic change of *š to x
Rš›x → *pa·tauxnun
7. pa·tauxnun
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *po·touxnun
8. po·touxnun
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *po·tūxnun
9. po·tūxnun
*-un → -ǫ
Emergence of nasal vowel ǫ
Run›ǫ → *po·tūxnǫ
10. po·tūxnǫ
*x → ch
Orthographic change of *x into ch
Rx›ch → *po·tūchnǫ
11. po·tūchnǫ
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → OCS. po·tuchnǫ


PIE √tɑh-, √dɑɦ- ‘sprechen’
(IEW 291)
(+ Pyysalo)
√tɑh-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. ā́th-
(pf.) ‘speak’
(MonWil. 124)
(Br. ā́ttha [2sg])
1. PIE *ṓtɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ṓth-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ṓth-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → OInd. ā́th-
CLu. tata-
(GKLvb.) ‘verbum dicendi, HHand. 172’
(DLL. 95)
(CLu. ta-at-ta-ah-ha [1sg])
1. PIE *tɑhotɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *thotho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. thotho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *thatha-
3. thatha-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → CLu. tata-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦ-
LAv. āδ-
(pr.P.) ‘genannt werden, heißen’
(AIWb. 55)
(LAv. āiδi [3sg])
1. PIE *ō·dɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ō·dɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ō·dɦ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ā·dɦ-
3. ā·dɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ā·d-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. ā·d-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → LAv. ā·δ-
LAv. pairi.āδ·-
(pf.) ‘aufsagen, hersagen’
(AIWb. 55)
(LAv. pairi.āδa [3sg])
1. PIE *Π.ō·dɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π.ō·dɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π.ō·dɦ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π.ā·dɦ-
3. Π.ā·dɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π.ā·d-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. Π.ā·d-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → LAv. Π.ā·δ-
LAv. aδ-
(pf.M.) ‘sagen’
(AIWb. 55)
(LAv. aδaeča [1sg] uiti)
1. PIE *odɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *odɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. odɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *adɦ-
3. adɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ad-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. ad-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → LAv. aδ-
√dɑɦe/o-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. de-
(vb.) ‘(autoritativ) sprechen’
(HEG 3:291)
(Hitt. temi, tesi, tezi, tenun, tet, tedu, HHand. 173)
1. PIE *dɑɦe-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦe-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦe-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. de-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. paity·āδa-
(m.) ‘Anwort’
(AIWb. 840)
1. PIE *Π·ō·dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ō·dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ō·dɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ō·dɦa-
3. Π·ō·dɦa-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·ā·dɦa-
4. Π·ā·dɦa-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·ā·da-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ā·da-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → LAv. Π·ā·δa-
√dɑɦeio-
(Pyysalo)
OCS. dejo-
(vb.) ‘sagen’
(Sadnik √XX)
(OCS. dejǫ [1sg])
1. PIE *dɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦei̯a-
3. dɦei̯a-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *dei̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. dei̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *dei̯o-
5. dei̯o-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → OCS. dejo-
LAv. paiti·aδaya-
(pr.) ‘antworten auf [A]’
(AIWb. 55)
(LAv. paiti.aδayā)
1. PIE *Π·odɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·odɦei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·odɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·adɦei̯a-
3. Π·adɦei̯a-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·adei̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. Π·adei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *Π·adai̯a-
5. Π·adai̯a-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → *Π·aδai̯a-
6. Π·aδai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. Π·aδaya-
LAv. paiti (…) āδaya·-
(iter.) ‘antworten’
(AIWb. 55)
(LAv. paiti (…) āδayoi)
1. PIE *Π·ōdɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ōdɦei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ōdɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ōdɦei̯a-
3. Π·ōdɦei̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·ādɦei̯a-
4. Π·ādɦei̯a-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·ādei̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ādei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *Π·ādai̯a-
6. Π·ādai̯a-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → *Π·āδai̯a-
7. Π·āδai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. Π·āδaya-
√dɑɦomo-
Lyd. ẽ·tam-
(c.) ‘Bestimmung, Verordnung’
(LydWb. 108)
(Lyd. XX)
1. PIE *en·dɑɦomo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *en·dɦomo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. en·dɦomo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *en·dɦama
3. en·dɦama
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *en·dama
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. en·dama
*am/n → ãm/n
Emergence of nasal vowel ã
RaN›ãN → *en·dãma
5. en·dãma
*en → ẽn
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
ReN›ẽN → *ẽn·dãma
6. ẽn·dãma
PIE *Nd → Nt
Devoicing of PIE *d after N
RNd›Nt → *ẽn·tãma
7. ẽn·tãma
*nt → ñt
Change of *n into ñ before t
Rnt›ñt → *ẽñ·tãma
8. ẽñ·tãma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Lyd. ẽñ·tãm
HLu. a·dama-
(n.pt.) ‘name’
(CHLu. 1.1.39)
(HLu. á-ta4-ma-za Melchert 1984:82-83)
1. PIE *o·dɑɦomo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·dɦomo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·dɦomo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·dɦama-
3. a·dɦama-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. a·dama-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LycA. a·dãma-
(n.) ‘name’
(XX)
(Lyc. adãma [plA])
1. PIE *o·dɑɦomo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·dɦomo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·dɦomo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·dɦama-
3. a·dɦama-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *a·dama-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. a·dama-
*am/n → ãm/n
Emergence of nasal vowel ã
RaN›ãN → LycA. a·dãma-
HLu. a·dama·ni-
(sb.) ‘name’
(CHLu. 6.2.19)
(HLu. á-ta5-ma-ni-)
1. PIE *o·dɑɦomo·ni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·dɦomo·ni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·dɦomo·ni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·dɦama·ni-
3. a·dɦama·ni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. a·dama·ni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √tɑh- √dɑɦ- (vb.) ‘geben, schenken’
(IEW. 223-226)
(+ Pyysalo √tɑh-)
√to/eɑh-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. τό-
(pr.) ‘geben’
(Grundr2 1:654)
(Gr. τότω ‘dato’)
1. PIE *tóɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tóh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tóh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tó-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. tó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. τό-
Hitt. iški·taḫ-
(vb.2.) ‘ein Zeichen geben ‹Hitt. šagi- ‘Zeichen’›’
(HHand. 65)
(Hitt. iš-kit9-ta-aḫ-ḫi; or to Gr. δό- (?))
1. PIE *Π·ski̯ɑhi·toɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ski̯hi·toh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ski̯hi·toh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *Π·sḱhi·toh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·sḱhi·toh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·sḱhi·tah-
4. Π·sḱhi·tah-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *Π·skhi·tah-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. Π·skhi·tah-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *Π·ski·tah-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. Π·ski·tah-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·ški·tah-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. Π·ški·tah-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·ški·taḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Dor. ἀφρο·δί̄·τᾱ-
(f.) ‘= Gr. ἀφροτίδη’
(KVG:249)
1. PIE *ɦɑebɑɦro·dɑ́hi·tēɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́hi·tēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́hi·tēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́hi·tāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́hi·tāɑh-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *ɦɑabɑɦro·díhi·tāɑh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
4. ɦɑabɑɦro·díhi·tāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦabɦro·díhi·tāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
5. ɦabɦro·díhi·tāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *abɦro·díhi·tāh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. abɦro·díhi·tāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *abɦro·díi·tā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. abɦro·díi·tā-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *aphro·díi·tā-
8. aphro·díi·tā-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *aphro·dī́·tā-
9. aphro·dī́·tā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. ἀφρο·δί̄·τᾱ-
Ion.-Att. ἀφρο·τί̄·δη-
(f.) ‘= Gr. ἀφροδίτα’
(KVG:249)
1. PIE *ɦɑebɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dēɑɦ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dēɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dēɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dāɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *ɦɑabɑɦro·tíhi·dāɑɦ-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
4. ɦɑabɑɦro·tíhi·dāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦabɦro·tíhi·dāɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
5. ɦabɦro·tíhi·dāɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *abɦro·tíhi·dā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. abɦro·tíhi·dā-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *abɦro·tíi·dā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. abɦro·tíi·dā-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *aphro·tíi·dā-
8. aphro·tíi·dā-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *aphro·tī́·dā-
9. aphro·tī́·dā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
Rā›ē → *aphro·tī́·dē-
10. aphro·tī́·dē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. ἀφρο·τί̄·δη-
Phryg. τοϝε/ο-
(vb.) ‘geben’
(Fryg 138)
(Phryg. τοϝο, τοϝοι, ετοϝες)
1. PIE *toɑhu̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tohu̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tohu̯e/o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tou̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. tou̯e/o-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Phryg. τοϝε/ο-
√dōɑɦ-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. iški·dāḫ-
(vb.2.) ‘ein Zeichen geben’
(HED E/I:426)
(Hitt. iš-ki-da-a-aḫ-ḫi [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·ski̯ɑhi·dōɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ski̯hi·dōɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ski̯hi·dōɦ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *Π·sḱhi·dōɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·sḱhi·dōɦ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·sḱhi·dāɦ-
4. Π·sḱhi·dāɦ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *Π·skhi·dāɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. Π·skhi·dāɦ-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *Π·ski·dāɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. Π·ski·dāɦ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·ški·dāɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. Π·ški·dāɦ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·ški·dāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Gr. δώ-
(ao.) ‘geben’
(Gr. ἔδων [1sg])
1. PIE *dṓɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dṓɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dṓɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dṓ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. dṓ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. δώ-
OLith. dúo-
(vb.) ‘geben’
(LiEtWb. 111f.)
(OLith. dúomi, Lith. dúoti [inf.])
1. PIE *dṓɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dṓɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dṓɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dṓ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. dṓ-
*ṓ → úo
Change of ṓ into úo
Rṓ›úo → OLith. dúo-
Latv. duô-
(vb.) ‘geben’
(LiEtWb. 111f.)
(Latv. duôt [inf.])
1. PIE *dṓɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dṓɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dṓɦ-
*ṓH → ôH
Latvian tone rule for ṓH
RAccLatv7 → *dôɦ-
3. dôɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dô-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dô-
*ô → uô
Change of ô into uô
Rô›uô → Latv. duô-
RV. dā́-
(ao.) ‘geben’
(WbRV. 590)
(RV. ádāt [3sg])
1. PIE *dṓɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dṓɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dṓɦ-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *dā́ɦ-
3. dā́ɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → RV. dā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. dōno-
(n.) ‘Gabe, Geschenk, das Geben’
(Lat. dōnum [sgN])
1. PIE *dōɑɦno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dōɦno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dōɦno-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Lat. dōno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
RV. dā́na-
(n.) ‘das Geben, die Gabe’
(WbRV. 594)
1. PIE *dṓɑɦno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dṓɦno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dṓɦno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dṓɦna-
3. dṓɦna-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *dā́ɦna-
4. dā́ɦna-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → RV. dā́na-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Gr. δώρο-
(n.) ‘Geschenk’
(Gr. δῶρον)
1. PIE *dṓɑɦro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dṓɦro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dṓɦro-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dṓro-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. dṓro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. δώρο-
OCS. darŭ-
(m.) ‘Gabe, Geschenk, Dank’
(Sadnik √XX)
(OCS. darŭ)
1. PIE *dōɑɦro
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dōɦro
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dōɦro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dōɦra
3. dōɦra
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *dāɦra
4. dāɦra
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dāra
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dāra
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *dāro
6. dāro
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *dāru
7. dāru
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *daru
8. daru
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. darŭ
√doɑɦ-
Gr. δό-
(ao.M.) ‘geben’
(Gr. ἐδόμην)
1. PIE *dóɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dóɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dóɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dó-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. dó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. δό-
RV. dā·ta
(ao.) ‘geben’
(WbRV. 590)
(RV. dāta [2pl] with Brugmann’s Law II)
1. PIE *doɑɦ·te
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *doɦ·te
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. doɦ·te
PIE *oHCV → āHCV
Brugmann’s Law for *ohCV
RoHCV›āHCV → *dāɦ·te
(SPIE §2.3.7)
3. dāɦ·te
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dā·te
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dā·te
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. dā·ta
RV. draviṇo·dá-
(a.m.) ‘Gut gebend, Reichtumgeber’
(WbRV. 645)
1. PIE *Π·dóɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dóɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dóɦ-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·dáɦ-
3. Π·dáɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → RV. Π·dá-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lith. priẽ·da-
(m.) ‘Zugabe, Zulage’
(LiEtWb. 112)
(Lith. priẽdas [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·doɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·doɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·doɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·do-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·do-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lith. Π·da-
LAv. daδa-
(a.) ‘gebend, schenkend’
(AIWb. 678)
1. PIE *dedoɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dedoɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dedoɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dedaɦ-
3. dedaɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *deda-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. deda-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *dada-
5. dada-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → LAv. daδa-
Gr. δοί-
(ao.) ‘geben’
(Gr. δοίην [opt1sg])
1. PIE *doɑɦí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *doɦí-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. doɦí-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *doí-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. doí-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. δοί-
RV. de-
(ao.) ‘geben’
(WbRV. 589)
(RV. dehí [ipv2sg])
1. PIE *doɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *doɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. doɦi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *daɦi-
3. daɦi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dai-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *dē-
5. dē-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → RV. de-
Gr. δόμεν-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘zu geben’
(Thess. Hom. δόμεν, Hom. δόμεναι)
1. PIE *dóɑɦmen-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dóɦmen-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dóɦmen-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dómen-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. dómen-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. δόμεν-
RV. dā́man-
(n.) ‘das Geben’
(WbRV. 595)
(RV. dā́mane [sgD], Brugmann’s Law II)
1. PIE *dóɑɦmen-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dóɦmen-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dóɦmen-
PIE *óhCV → ā́hCV
Brugmann’s Law for *óhCV
RóHCV›ā́HCV → *dā́ɦmen-
(SPIE §2.3.7)
3. dā́ɦmen-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dā́men-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dā́men-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. dā́man-
Fal. doui-
(pr.) ‘gewähren’
(WbOU. XX)
(in Fal. douiad [conj3sg])
1. PIE *doɑɦu̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *doɦu̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. doɦu̯i-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dou̯i-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. dou̯i-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Fal. doui-
Umbr. pur.doui·-
(pr.) ‘porriciō’
(WbOU. XX)
(in Umbr. purdouitu [3sg])
1. PIE *Π.doɑɦu̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π.doɦu̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π.doɦu̯i-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π.dou̯i-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π.dou̯i-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → *Π.doui-
4. Π.doui-
*d → ř
Change of *d into ř
Rd›ř → Umbr. Π.řoui·-
Latv. davana-
(f.) ‘Gabe’
(LiEtWb. 112)
1. PIE *doɑɦu̯onēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *doɑɦu̯onāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. doɑɦu̯onāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *doɦu̯onāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. doɦu̯onāh
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dou̯onāh
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dou̯onāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dou̯onā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dou̯onā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dau̯anā
6. dau̯anā
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *davanā
7. davanā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → Latv. davana
Lith. davanà-
(f.) ‘Gabe’
(LiWtWb. 112)
1. PIE *doɑɦu̯onḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *doɑɦu̯onā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. doɑɦu̯onā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *doɦu̯onā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. doɦu̯onā́h
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dou̯onā́h
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dou̯onā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dou̯onā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dou̯onā́
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dau̯anā́
6. dau̯anā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *dau̯anṓ
(XX:XX)
7. dau̯anṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → *dau̯anà
8. dau̯anà
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. davanà
Dor. ἀπυ·δόᾱ-
(pr.) ‘XX’
(GrGr 1:745)
(in Arc. ἀπυδόας [pt.])
1. PIE *Π·dóɑɦu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·dóɑɦu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·dóɑɦu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dóɦu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·dóɦu̯āh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·dóu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·dóu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·dóu̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·dóu̯ā-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *Π·dóā-
6. Π·dóā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. Π·δόᾱ-
AV. bala·dā́vā-
(a.) ‘Kraftverleihung’
(WbRV. 902)
1. PIE *Π·dóɑɦu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·dóɑɦu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·dóɑɦu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dóɦu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·dóɦu̯āh-
PIE *óhCV → ā́hCV
Brugmann’s Law for *óhCV
RóHCV›ā́HCV → *Π·dā́ɦu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.3.7)
4. Π·dā́ɦu̯āh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·dā́u̯āh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·dā́u̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·dā́u̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. Π·dā́u̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → AV. Π·dā́vā-
Latv. dãvâ-
(vb.iter.) ‘anbieten, schenken’
(LiEtWb. 112)
(Latv. dãvât [inf.])
1. PIE *doɑɦu̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *doɑɦu̯ā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. doɑɦu̯ā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *doɦu̯ā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. doɦu̯ā́h-
*ā́H → âH
Latvian tone rule for *ā́h
RAccLatv3 → *doɦu̯âh-
4. doɦu̯âh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dou̯âh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dou̯âh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dou̯â-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. dou̯â-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dau̯â-
7. dau̯â-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Latv. davâ-
RV. dāván-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘geben’
(WbRV. 596)
(RV. dāváne; With Brugmann’s Law II)
1. PIE *doɑhu̯én-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dohu̯én-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dohu̯én-
PIE *oHCV → āHCV
Brugmann’s Law for *ohCV
RoHCV›āHCV → *dāhu̯én-
(SPIE §2.3.7)
3. dāhu̯én-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dāu̯én-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dāu̯én-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *dāu̯án-
5. dāu̯án-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. dāván-
ODor. δόϝεν-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘geben’
(GEW 1:388-9)
(Gr. δόϝεναι = Hom. Att. δοῦναι)
1. PIE *dóɑhu̯en-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dóhu̯en-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dóhu̯en-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dóu̯en-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. dóu̯en-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → ODor. δόϝεν-
√dēɑɦ-
Lat. dā-
(ao.) ‘geben, gewähren’
(Lat. dās [2sg])
1. PIE *dēɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dāɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dāɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dāɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Lat. dā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. man·dā-
(pr.1.) ‘übergeben, anvertrauen, überlassen, befehlen, offenbaren, schicken’
(WH. 2:24)
Lat. mandāre)
1. PIE *Π·dēɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·dāɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·dāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dāɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·dāɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Lat. Π·dā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Ion.-Att. ἀφρο·τί̄·δη-
(f.) ‘= Gr. ἀφροδίτα’
(KVG:249)
1. PIE *ɦɑebɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dēɑɦ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dēɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dēɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dāɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *ɦɑabɑɦro·tíhi·dāɑɦ-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
4. ɦɑabɑɦro·tíhi·dāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦabɦro·tíhi·dāɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
5. ɦabɦro·tíhi·dāɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *abɦro·tíhi·dā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. abɦro·tíhi·dā-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *abɦro·tíi·dā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. abɦro·tíi·dā-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *aphro·tíi·dā-
8. aphro·tíi·dā-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *aphro·tī́·dā-
9. aphro·tī́·dā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
Rā›ē → *aphro·tī́·dē-
10. aphro·tī́·dē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. ἀφρο·τί̄·δη-
Arm. ta-
(vb.) ‘geben’
(ArmGr. 1:XX)
(Arm. tam [1sg])
1. PIE *dḗɑɦ-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *dā́ɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dā́ɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dā́ɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dā́ɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dā́-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *tā́-
5. tā́-
*ā́ → a
Change of *ā́ into á
Rā́›á → *tá-
6. tá-
*á → a
Loss/absence of accent
Rá›a → Arm. ta-
RV. bala·dā́-
(a.) ‘Kraft gebend’
(WbRV. 901)
1. PIE *beɦɑLo·dḗɑɦ-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *beɦɑLo·dā́ɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. beɦɑLo·dā́ɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *beɦLo·dā́ɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. beɦLo·dā́ɦ-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *beɦlo·dā́ɦ-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. beɦlo·dā́ɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *beɦla·dā́ɦ-
5. beɦla·dā́ɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *bela·dā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. bela·dā́-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. bala·dā́-
LAv. xšaϑrō.dā·-
(a.) ‘Herrschaft schenkend’
(AIWb. 547)
(LAv. xšaϑrō.då [sgN])
1. PIE *Π.dēɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π.dāɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π.dāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π.dāɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π.dāɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → LAv. Π.dā·-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lith. donì-
(.) ‘Zins, Steuer, Tribut’ ‹ not a loan (!) ›
(LiEtWb. 99)
(Lith. donì-)
1. PIE *dēɑɦní-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dāɑɦní-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dāɑɦní-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dāɦní-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dāɦní-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *dāɦnì-
4. dāɦnì-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dānì-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dānì-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *dōnì-
(XX:XX)
6. dōnì-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → Lith. donì-
OCS. danĭ-
(f.) ‘Aufgabe, Zoll, Tribut’
(Sadnik √XX)
(OCS. danĭ)
1. PIE *dēɑɦni-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dāɑɦni-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dāɑɦni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dāɦni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dāɦni-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dāni-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dāni-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *dani-
5. dani-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → OCS. danĭ-
Lat. man·dāto-
(n.) ‘Auftrag, Befehl, Nachricht’
(WH. 2:34)
(Lat. mandātum)
1. PIE *Π·dēɑɦto-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·dāɑɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·dāɑɦto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dāɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·dāɦto-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Lat. Π·dāto-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OGaul. man·dāto-
(PN.m.) ‘XX’
(ACSS. 2:402)
(OGaul. mandato-, cf. also OGaul. epomandatumduro-ACSS. 2:401
1. PIE *Π·dēɑɦto-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·dāɑɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·dāɑɦto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dāɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·dāɦto-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → OGaul. Π·dāto-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. man·dāu-
(pf.) ‘übergeben, anvertrauen, überlassen, befehlen, offenbaren, schicken’
(WH. 2:24)
(Lat. mandāui [1sg])
1. PIE *Π·dēɑɦu
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·dāɑɦu
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·dāɑɦu
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dāɦu
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·dāɦu
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Lat. Π·dāu
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lith. dovanà-
(3f. dó-) ‘Gabe’
(LiEtWb.112)
(Lith. dovanà [sgN])
1. PIE *dēɑɦu̯onḗɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dāɑɦu̯onḗɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dāɑɦu̯onḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *dāɑɦu̯onā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. dāɑɦu̯onā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dāɦu̯onā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. dāɦu̯onā́h
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dāu̯onā́h
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dāu̯onā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dāu̯onā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. dāu̯onā́
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dāu̯anā́
7. dāu̯anā́
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *dōu̯anā́
(XX:XX)
8. dōu̯anā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *dōu̯anṓ
(XX:XX)
9. dōu̯anṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → *dōu̯anà
10. dōu̯anà
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *dou̯anà
11. dou̯anà
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. dovanà
Latv. dâvana-
(f.) ‘Gabe’
(LiEtWb. 112)
1. PIE *dḗɑɦu̯onēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dḗɑɦu̯onāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dḗɑɦu̯onāɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *dā́ɑɦu̯onāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. dā́ɑɦu̯onāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dā́ɦu̯onāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. dā́ɦu̯onāh
*ā́H → âH
Latvian tone rule for *ā́h
RAccLatv3 → *dâɦu̯onāh
5. dâɦu̯onāh
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dâu̯onāh
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. dâu̯onāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dâu̯onā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. dâu̯onā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dâu̯anā
8. dâu̯anā
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *dâvanā
9. dâvanā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → Latv. dâvana
√deɑɦ-
Lat. da-
(√pr.) ‘geben, gewähren’
(in Lat. damus [1pl], datum [pret.pt.])
1. PIE *deɑɦ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *daɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. daɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *daɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. daɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Lat. da-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Arm. ta-
(pr.) ‘geben, usw.’
(ArmGr. 1:XX)
(Arm. tamk‘ [1pl])
1. PIE *déɑɦ-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *dáɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. dáɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dáɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dáɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dá-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dá-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *tá-
5. tá-
*á → a
Loss/absence of accent
Rá›a → Arm. ta-
gAv. da-
(vb.) ‘geben’
(AIWb. 678)
(gAv. daidyāi [inf.])
1. PIE *deɑɦ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *daɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. daɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *daɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. daɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → gAv. da-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Gr. δάνοσ-
(n.) ‘Gabe (Euph. 42), Darlehen, Schuld’
(GEW 1:347)
(Gr. δάνος [sgNA])
1. PIE *déɑɦnos-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *dáɑɦnos-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. dáɑɦnos-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dáɦnos-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dáɦnos-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dános-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dános-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. δάνοσ-
OLat. danu-
(pr.) ‘geben’
(in OLat. danunt [3pl])
1. PIE *deɑɦnu-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *daɑɦnu-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. daɑɦnu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *daɦnu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. daɦnu-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → OLat. danu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. dato-
(pt.) ‘gegeben’
(in Lat. datus, datum, datī)
1. PIE *deɑɦto-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *daɑɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. daɑɦto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *daɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. daɦto-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Lat. dato-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Fal. dato-
(pt.) ‘gegeben’
(WH. 1:361)
(in Fal. datu)
1. PIE *deɑɦto-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *daɑɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. daɑɦto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *daɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. daɦto-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Fal. dato-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Pael. dato-
(pt.) ‘gegeben’
(WH. 1:361)
(in Pael. datas ‘datas’
1. PIE *deɑɦto-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *daɑɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. daɑɦto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *daɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. daɦto-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Pael. dato-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
RV. dátra-
(n.) ‘Gabe’
(WbRV. 573)
1. PIE *déɑɦtro-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *dáɑɦtro-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. dáɑɦtro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dáɦtro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dáɦtro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dáɦtra-
4. dáɦtra-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → RV. dátra-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. datrīc-
(f.) ‘Geberin’
(WH. 1:361)
(Lat. datrīx)
1. PIE *deɑɦtrɑheik-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *daɑɦtrɑheik-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. daɑɦtrɑheik-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *daɦtrheik-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. daɦtrheik-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *datrheik-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. datrheik-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *datreik-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. datreik-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *datrīk-
6. datrīk-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. datrīc-
√dɑ́ɦ-
Dor. ἀφρο·δί̄·τᾱ-
(f.) ‘= Gr. ἀφροτίδη’
(KVG:249)
1. PIE *ɦɑebɑɦro·dɑ́ɦi·tēɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́ɦi·tēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́ɦi·tēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́ɦi·tāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́ɦi·tāɑh-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *ɦɑabɑɦro·díɦi·tāɑh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
4. ɦɑabɑɦro·díɦi·tāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦabɦro·díɦi·tāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
5. ɦabɦro·díɦi·tāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *abɦro·díi·tāh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. abɦro·díi·tāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *abɦro·díi·tā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. abɦro·díi·tā-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *aphro·díi·tā-
8. aphro·díi·tā-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *aphro·dī́·tā-
9. aphro·dī́·tā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. ἀφρο·δί̄·τᾱ-
RV. díya-
(n.) ‘Gabe’
(WbRV. 600)
(RV. díya-)
1. PIE *dɑ́ɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi̯ → íḫi̯
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i̯
Rɑ́Hi̯›íHi̯ → *díɦi̯o-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. díɦi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *díɦi̯a-
3. díɦi̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *díi̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. díi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. díya-
RV. dúv-
(f.?) ‘Gabe’
(WbRV. 623)
(RV. dúvas [plN, plA])
1. PIE *dɑ́ɦu̯-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu̯ → úḫu̯
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u̯
Rɑ́Hu̯›úHu̯ → *dúɦu̯-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. dúɦu̯-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dúu̯-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. dúu̯-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. dúv-
ODor. δύϝανο-
(inf.) ‘er möge geben’
(GEW 1:388-9)
(Cypr. δυϝάνοι)
1. PIE *dɑ́ɦu̯eɑhno-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *dɑ́ɦu̯aɑhno-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. dɑ́ɦu̯aɑhno-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu̯ → úḫu̯
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u̯
Rɑ́Hu̯›úHu̯ → *dúɦu̯aɑhno-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
3. dúɦu̯aɑhno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dúɦu̯ahno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. dúɦu̯ahno-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dúu̯ahno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dúu̯ahno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dúu̯ano-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. dúu̯ano-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → ODor. δύϝανο-
√dɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013:154-5)
Osc. āmana.f·-
(pf.) ‘übergeben, anheimgeben’
(WbOU. 448)
(Osc. aamanaffed, aamanafed ‘mandavit’ [3sg])
1. PIE *Π.dɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π.dɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π.dɦ-
*dɦ → f
Affricativization of dental *dɦ
Rdɦ›f → Osc. Π.f·-
Osc. ēmana.f·-
(pf.) ‘übergeben, anheimgeben’
(WbOU. 448)
(Osc. emanafed [3sg[)
1. PIE *Π.dɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π.dɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π.dɦ-
*dɦ → f
Affricativization of dental *dɦ
Rdɦ›f → Osc. Π.f·-
RV. dh·iṣ-
(f.) ‘Opfer·lust ‹√iṣ-›, Lust zu geben’
(WbRV. 683)
(RV. dhiṣā́ [sgI])
1. PIE *dɑɦ·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦ·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦ·Σ-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. dh·Σ-
RV. dh·iṣā́-
(des.a.f.) ‘Lust zu geben, Freigebigkeit, Opferlust’
(WbRV. 683)
1. PIE *dɑɦ·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦ·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦ·Σ-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. dh·Σ-
RV. dh·íṣṇia-
(des.a.) ‘freigiebig, gerne gebend, gerne helfend’
(WbRV. 683)
1. PIE *dɑɦ·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦ·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦ·Σ-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. dh·Σ-
√dɑɦo-
OInd. ratna·dhá-
(.) ‘Schätze verleihend’
(IEW 235-39)
(OInd. ratnadháḥ)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·dɦá-
3. Π·dɦá-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → OInd. Π·dhá-
Osc. mana.fo·-
(pf.) ‘übergeben, anheimgeben’
(WbOU. 448)
(Osc. manafum)
1. PIE *Π.dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π.dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π.dɦo-
*dɦ → f
Affricativization of dental *dɦ
Rdɦ›f → Osc. Π.fo·-
Lith. nuo·da-
(m.) ‘Gift’
(IEW 235-39)
(Lith. nuodaĩ [plN])
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·dɦa-
3. Π·dɦa-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → Lith. Π·da-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
HLu. teina·da-
(n.) ‘tithe = argentum·dare i.e. ‘silver·giving’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. ARGENTUM.DARE)ti-na-tá, ti-na-ta-za)
1. PIE *teino·dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teino·dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. teino·dɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *teina·dɦa-
3. teina·dɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. teina·da-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦēɑh-
IEW XX)
(Pyysalo: OInd.)
OInd. vayō·dhā́-
(a.) ‘Lebenskraft verleihend’
(IEW 235-39)
(OInd. vayōdh̃ā́ḥ)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *Π·dɑɦā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·dɑɦā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·dɦā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·dɦā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·dɦā́-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → OInd. Π·dhā́-
Lat. fāno-
(n.) ‘heiliger, den Göttern geweihter Ort’
(IEW 259)
(WH. 1:453f.; EM2 333, 347f. or PIE *dɑɦēɑhs·no-?)
1. PIE *dɑɦēɑh·no-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dɑɦāɑh·no-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dɑɦāɑh·no-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦāh·no-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dɦāh·no-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dɦā·no-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dɦā·no-
*dɦ → f
Affricativization of dental *dɦ
Rdɦ›f → Lat. fā·no-
√dɑɦi-
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
HLu. teina·di-
(n.) ‘tithe’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. [ti]-na-ti-i)
1. PIE *teino·dɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teino·dɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. teino·dɦi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *teina·dɦi-
3. teina·dɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. teina·di-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. dádhi-
(a.) ‘gebend, verleihend’
(WbRV. 574)
(or PIE dɑɦódɑɦi- ?)
1. PIE *dɑɦédɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦédɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦédɦi-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmann → *dédɦi-
(SPIE §4.6.4)
3. dédɦi-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *dádɦi-
4. dádɦi-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. dádhi-
√dɑɦs-
(IEW XX)
(+ Pyysalo: RV.)
RV. dhās-
(s.ao.) ‘hinschaffen, zuteilen, verleihen, geben’
(WbRV. 673)
(RV. dhāsathas [2du])
1. PIE *dɑɦēs-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦēs-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦēs-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *dɦās-
3. dɦās-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. dhās-
Osc. fēsnā-
(f.) ‘templum: Tempel’
(WbOU. 281-2)
(Osc. fíísnú, fíísnam, físnam)
1. PIE *dɑɦēsnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dɑɦēsnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dɑɦēsnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦēsnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dɦēsnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dɦēsnā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dɦēsnā-
*dɦ → f
Affricativization of dental *dɦ
Rdɦ›f → Osc. fēsnā-
Umbr. fēsnā-
(f.) ‘Tempel’
(WbOU. 281-2)
(Umbr. fesnere, fesnafe)
1. PIE *dɑɦēsnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dɑɦēsnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dɑɦēsnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦēsnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dɦēsnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dɦēsnā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dɦēsnā-
*dɦ → f
Affricativization of dental *dɦ
Rdɦ›f → Umbr. fēsnā-
√dɑɦos- and/or √dɑɦōs-
(IEW –)
(Melchert + Pyysalo)
Hitt. teina·daši-
(PÚa.gen.) ‘‹≈ argentum·dare’›
(OGH. 554)
(Hitt. ti-i-na-ta-aš-ši-iš, (OGHErg. 211) › Šaluataši (ON)’
1. PIE *teino·dɑɦosi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teino·dɦosi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. teino·dɦosi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *teina·dɦasi-
3. teina·dɦasi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *teina·dasi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. teina·dasi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. teina·daši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Pal. daš·ura-
(sb.) ‘Opfertisch; Melchert 1994:191’
(DPal. 73)
(Pal. ta-šu-ú-ra [sgL])
1. PIE *dɑɦos·uro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦos·uro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦos·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦas·ura-
3. dɦas·ura-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *das·ura-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. das·ura-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Pal. daš·ura-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lyd. taśẽν-
(sb.) ‘votive object’
(Melchert 1994:331)
(Lyd. taśẽν, Melchert (1994:362 = HLu. ta-sa-za)
1. PIE *dɑɦoseni
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦoseni
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦoseni
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦaseni
3. dɦaseni
PIE * s → ś
Orthographic change of *s into ś
Rs›ś → *dɦaśeni
4. dɦaśeni
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *daśeni
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. daśeni
*en → ẽn
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
ReN›ẽN → *daśẽni
6. daśẽni
PIE *Nd → Nt
Devoicing of PIE *d after N
RNd›Nt → Lyd. taśẽni
LycA. ϑϑẽ
(sb.) ‘votive object’
(Melchert 1994:2XX)
1. PIE *dɑɦòsen-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦòsen-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦòsen-
PIE *ò → à
Change of *ò into à
Rò›à → *dɦàsen-
3. dɦàsen-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *dàsen-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. dàsen-
*en → ẽn
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
ReN›ẽN → *dàsẽn-
5. dàsẽn-
PIE *Nd → Nt
Devoicing of PIE *d after N
RNd›Nt → *tàsẽn-
6. tàsẽn-
PIE *s → h
Change of fricative *s into h
Rs›h → *tàhẽn-
7. tàhẽn-
*a → Ø
Loss of unaccented *a
Rà›0 → *thẽn-
8. thẽn-
*th → ϑ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›ϑ → *ϑẽn-
9. ϑẽn-
*ϑ- → ϑϑ-
Initial gemination of ϑ
Rϑ=›ϑϑ= → LycA. ϑϑẽn-


PIE √tɑh- √dɑɦ- (vb.) ‘essen, fressen’ (sb.) ‘Getreide, Brot, Speise’ (Lat. frūmentum) (a.) ‘brauchbar, nützlich’ (Goth. brūk-)
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√tɑh-
OInd. tha-
(m.) ‘eating’
(MonWil. 464)
(Lex. thas [sgN])
1. PIE *tɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. tha-
√dɑɦ-
Hitt. ed-
(vb.) ‘essen’
(HEG 1:117-9)
(Hitt. e-te-ir [3pl])
1. PIE *edɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *edɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. edɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ed-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ad-
(vb.) ‘essen, fressen’
(HEG 1:91)
(HHand. 28)
1. PIE *odɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *odɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. odɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *adɦ-
3. adɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ad-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. ARHA ada·-
(vb.) ‘eat up, consume’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. ARHA á-tà-tu-u)
1. PIE *Π·odɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·odɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·odɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·adɦa-
3. Π·adɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. Π·ada-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦi-
Pal. adaa-
(vb.) ‘essen’
(DPal. 52)
(Pal. a-ta-a-an-ti [3pl])
1. PIE *odɑɦoi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *odɦoi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. odɦoi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *adɦai̯a-
3. adɦai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *adɦaa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. adɦaa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Pal. adaa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. az-
(vb.M.) ‘essen’
(DLL. 36)
(CLu. az-tu-u-wa-ri)
1. PIE *odɑɦi̯
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *odɦi̯
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. odɦi̯
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *ojɦ
3. ojɦ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ajɦ
4. ajɦ
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *azɦ
5. azɦ
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. az
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. eza-
(vb.) ‘manger’
(XX:XX)
(Hitt. ezateni [2pl])
1. PIE *edɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *edɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. edɦi̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *ejɦo-
3. ejɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ejɦa-
4. ejɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *eja-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. eja-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. eza-
HLu. ARHA aza·-
(vb.) ‘eat away, consume’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. ARHA á-za-tu)
1. PIE *Π·odɑɦi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·odɦi̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·odɦi̯o
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *Π·ojɦo
3. Π·ojɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ajɦa
4. Π·ajɦa
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *Π·aja
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. Π·aja
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → HLu. Π·aza
gAv. a·idyu-
(a.) ‘brauchbar, nützlich, tüchtig zu [D]’
(AIWb. 65-6)
1. PIE *o·dɑɦi̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·dɦi̯u-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·dɦi̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·dɦi̯u-
3. a·dɦi̯u-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *a·di̯u-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. a·di̯u-
*adi → aidi
Anaptyxis of *i
RadI›aidI → *a·idi̯u-
5. a·idi̯u-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → gAv. a·idyu-
TochA. nä·tsw-
(vb.) ‘starve’
(Poucha XX)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦiu̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦiu̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦiu̯-
PIE *dɦi → jɦi
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi›jɦi → *Π·jɦiu̯-
3. Π·jɦiu̯-
*jɦ → j
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *jɦ
Rjɦ›j → *Π·jiu̯-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. Π·jiu̯-
*j → t s
Loss of voice of media *j
Rj›ts → *Π·tsiu̯-
5. Π·tsiu̯-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. Π·tsiw-
TochB. mä·tsor-
(sb.) ‘hunger’
(DTochB. 459)
(TochB. mätsors)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦi̯our-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦi̯our-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦi̯our-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·dɦi̯aur-
3. Π·dɦi̯aur-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *Π·jɦaur-
4. Π·jɦaur-
*jɦ → j
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *jɦ
Rjɦ›j → *Π·jaur-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. Π·jaur-
*j → t s
Loss of voice of media *j
Rj›ts → *Π·tsaur-
6. Π·tsaur-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *Π·tsōr-
7. Π·tsōr-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. Π·tsor-
√dɑɦi̯uu̯o-
Hitt. zuu̯a-
(c.) ‘Brot, Speise’
(HIL. 1202)
(Hitt. zu-u-ua-aš [plD], HuIdg. 99-100)
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯uu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦi̯uu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦi̯uu̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *jɦuu̯o-
3. jɦuu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *jɦuu̯a-
4. jɦuu̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *juu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. juu̯a-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. zuu̯a-
CLu. zuu̯a-
(c.) ‘NINDA : pain, nourriture’
(DLL. 116)
(Hitt. zu-u-ua-aš [plD], HuIdg. 99-100)
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯uu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦi̯uu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦi̯uu̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *jɦuu̯o-
3. jɦuu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *jɦuu̯a-
4. jɦuu̯a-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *zɦuu̯a-
5. zɦuu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. zuu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. zuu̯ai-
(vb.1.) ‘Objekt: Rauch’
(HHand. 210)
(Hitt. zu-ua-a-iz-zi; zu-ua-a-it, HIL. 1202)
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯uu̯oi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦi̯uu̯oi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦi̯uu̯oi-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *jɦuu̯oi-
3. jɦuu̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *jɦuu̯ai-
4. jɦuu̯ai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *juu̯ai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. juu̯ai-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. zuu̯ai-
√dɑɦu-
CLu. adu-
(vb.) ‘essen’
(XX:XX)
(CLu. aduna [inf.])
1. PIE *odɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *odɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. odɦu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *adɦu-
3. adɦu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. adu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦuno-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. a·duna-
(sb.) ‘provision’
(XX:XX)
(HLu. (“*205”)á-tu-na-rii [sgI?])
1. PIE *o·dɑɦuno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·dɦuno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·dɦuno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·dɦuna-
3. a·dɦuna-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. a·duna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. θύνο-
(pr.M.) ‘ἥδεται’
(Gr. θύνεται : ἥδεται)
1. PIE *dɑɦúno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦúno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦúno-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *thúno-
3. thúno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. θύνο-
Hitt. dunabi-
(d.) ‘› RDH. 90’
(OHP. 1:528-9)
(Hitt. tu-u-na-pí [Abs], tu-na-a-pí [Abs])
1. PIE *dɑɦunobɑɦi
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦunobɦi
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦunobɦi
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦunabɦi
3. dɦunabɦi
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dunabi
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dunabtu-
(NINDAc.) ‘ein Gebäck = tuniptu-’
(HHand. 180)
1. PIE *dɑɦunobɑɦtu
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦunobɦtu
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦunobɦtu
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦunabɦtu
3. dɦunabɦtu
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dunabtu
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦuni-
HLu. a·duni-
(c.) ‘provision’
(XX:XX)
(HLu. (*205)á-tu-ni-na-wa/i-mu)
1. PIE *o·dɑɦuni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·dɦuni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·dɦuni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·dɦuni-
3. a·dɦuni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. a·duni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. duni-
() ((NINDA)c.) ‘eine Speise, Gebäck’
(HHand. 180)
1. PIE *dɑɦuni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦuni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦuni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. duni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. duni-
(TU7c.) ‘eine Suppe oder eines Brei’
(HHand. 180)
1. PIE *dɑɦuni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦuni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦuni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. duni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Kpd. dunei̯a-
(LÚ.c.) ‘XX’
(NOMS. 1375)
(Kpd. du-ni-a)
1. PIE *dɑɦunei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦunei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦunei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦunei̯a-
3. dɦunei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Kpd. dunei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dunei̯a-
(LÚ.c.) ‘XX’
(NOMS. Fr. 60)
(Hitt. duniia-z[…)
1. PIE *dɑɦunei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦunei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦunei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦunei̯a-
3. dɦunei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dunei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. duniša-
(a.gen.n.) ‘-(?)-’
(HHand. 180)
(CLu. duniša [plNA])
1. PIE *dɑɦuniso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦuniso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦuniso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦunisa-
3. dɦunisa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *dunisa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. dunisa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. duniša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦunigɑɦ-
Hitt. dunig-
(NINDAn.) (ein Gebäck) (= tunink-)
(HHand. 180)
1. PIE *dɑɦunigɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦunigɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦunigɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dunig-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Kpd. duniguni-
(LÚ.c.)
(NOMS. 1376)
1. PIE *dɑɦunigɑɦuni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦunigɦuni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦunigɦuni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Kpd. duniguni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦuningɑɦ-
Hitt. duning-
(NINDAn.) (ein Gebäck = tunik-)
(HHand. 180)
1. PIE *dɑɦuningɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦuningɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦuningɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. duning-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. duningala-
(.) ‘maker of TUNIG’
(II.13.§ )
(HLu. (SCUTELLA)tu-ni-ka-la-sa)
1. PIE *dɑɦuningɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦuningɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦuningɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦuningɦala-
3. dɦuningɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. duningala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. duningara-
(.) ‘PANIS.SCUTELLA’
(XX:XX)
(HLu. (“PANIS.SCUTELLA”)tu-ni-ka-raa-sa)
1. PIE *dɑɦuningɑɦoro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦuningɦoro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦuningɦoro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦuningɦara-
3. dɦuningɦara-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. duningara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦunibɑɦ-
Hitt. dunib
(URU.) ‘NW von Homs, OGHErg. 174’
(OGH. 440)
(Hitt. tu-ni-ip)
1. PIE *dɑɦunibɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦunibɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦunibɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dunib-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. duniba-
(URU.) ‘–’
(OGH. 440)
(Hitt. du-ni-ip-pa, du-ni-pa)
1. PIE *dɑɦunibɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦunibɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦunibɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦunibɦa-
3. dɦunibɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. duniba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dunibi-
(URU.) ‘–’
(OGH. 440)
(Hitt. tu-ni-ip-pí)
1. PIE *dɑɦunibɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦunibɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦunibɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dunibi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dunibtu-
(NINDAc.) ‘ein Gebäck = tunaptu-’
(HHand. 180)
1. PIE *dɑɦunibɑɦtu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦunibɦtu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦunibɦtu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dunibtu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √ti- √toi- √tei- (vb..) ‘erscheinen, brennen, glänzen’ (sb.) ‘Glanz, Zeichen, Gott’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√tei-
Hitt. pua·tei-
(.) ‘Kenn-zeichen, Marke, Farbe’
(HHand. 137)
(Hitt. puwatti-)
Hitt. memišar·tei-
(d.) ‘A. Archi (1990 [Or. 59]:114-128)’
(OHP. 1:301-2)
(Hitt. me-mi-šar-ti-iš, me-me-šar-ti-iš, me-me-šar-ti-iš [sgN])
Hitt. angar·tei-
(GN.c.) ‘XX’
(OHP. I:31)
(Hitt. dan-kar-ti [Abs], -in [sgA])
√tei̯o-
(Pyysalo)
OPhryg. τεο-
(m.) ‘Gott’
(Phryg. XX)
1. PIE *tei̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → *teio-
2. teio-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → OPhryg. τειο-
Pal. tei̯ad-
(c.) ‘sun-god’
(DPal. XX)
(Pal. teiaz)
1. PIE *tei̯odɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tei̯odɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tei̯odɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tei̯adɦ-
3. tei̯adɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Pal. tei̯ad-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. tei̯adei-
(c.) (eine Drogenpflanze?, ‘Teufelsdreck’ ?)
(HHand. 176)
1. PIE *tei̯odɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tei̯odɦei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tei̯odɦei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tei̯adɦei-
3. tei̯adɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. tei̯adei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OPhryg. τειᾱ-
(f.) ‘Göttin’
(Phryg. 136)
1. PIE *teii̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *teii̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. teii̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teii̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. teii̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *teii̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. teii̯ā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → *teiiā-
5. teiiā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → OPhryg. τειιᾱ-
√ti-
(Pyysalo)
OPhryg. τι-
(m.) ‘Gott’
(Phryg. 136)
(Phryg. tios ‘dei’ [sgG])
1. PIE *ti-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → OPhryg. τι-
RV. amá·ti-
(f.) ‘Sonnenschein, Sonnenglanz’
(WbRV. 90)
(RV. ámati-)
Lat. penā·ti-
(m.) ‘im Inneren des Hauses waltenden Gottheiten’
(WH. 2:278)
(Lat. penātēs, penātium)
√ti̯o-
√tiɑh-
OInd. tī-
(f.) [mng.] ‘Lakṣmi’
(MonWil. 431)
1. PIE *tiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *tiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. tiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. tií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → OInd. tī́-
OInd. bhāra·tī-
(f.) ‘Goddess of speech, wisdom and arts’
(XX)
1. PIE *Π·tiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *Π·tiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·tiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·tií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·tií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → OInd. Π·tī́-
LAv. harai·tī-
(f.) ‘Name eines sagenhaften Gebirgs’
(AIWb. 1787)
LAv. haraitī-
1. PIE *Π·tiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *Π·tiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·tiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·tií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·tií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *Π·tī́-
4. Π·tī́-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → LAv. Π·tī-
Lat. tī·tiōn-
(m.) ‘Feuerbrand, brennendes Scheit’
(WH. 2:685-6)
1. PIE *tiɑ́h·Σ-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *tiíh·Σ-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. tiíh·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tií·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. tií·Σ-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *tī́·Σ-
4. tī́·Σ-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → Lat. tī·Σ-
√ti̯ēɑh-
Lat. alu·tiā-
(f.pl) ‘Name gewisser Goldgruben’
(WH. 1:34)
(Lat. alutiae, cf. Hitt. halua- ‘tief’
1. PIE *Π·ti̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·ti̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·ti̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ti̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·ti̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·ti̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·ti̯ā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. Π·tiā-
√ti̯eɑhpɑh-
(IEW XX)
Gr. σάφα
(adv.) ‘bestimmt, sicher, zuverlässig; bes. mit οἰδα’
(GEW 2:684)
(Gr. σάφα, also σαφέως, σαφῶ̃ς; GrGr. 622)
1. PIE *ti̯éɑhpɑheɑh
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *ti̯éɑhpɑhaɑh
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. ti̯éɑhpɑhaɑh
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *ti̯áɑhpɑhaɑh
(SPIE §2.2.7)
3. ti̯áɑhpɑhaɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ti̯áhphah
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. ti̯áhphah
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ti̯ápha
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ti̯ápha
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›c → *cápha
6. cápha
*c → s
Change of *c into s
Rc›s → *sápha
7. sápha
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. σάφα
Gr. σαφήσ-
(a.) ‘klar, deutlich, offenbar, zuverlässig, bestimmt’
(GEW 2:684)
(Gr. σαφής, σαφές, ἀσάφεια; HomWört. 112 A. 77)
1. PIE *ti̯eɑhpɑhḗs-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *ti̯aɑhpɑhḗs-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. ti̯aɑhpɑhḗs-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ti̯ahphḗs-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ti̯ahphḗs-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ti̯aphḗs-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ti̯aphḗs-
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›c → *caphḗs-
5. caphḗs-
*c → s
Change of *c into s
Rc›s → *saphḗs-
6. saphḗs-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. σαφήσ-
Gr. σαφ·ηνήσ-
(.) ‘XX; cf. ἀπ-, προσ-ηνής’
(GEW 2:684)
(Gr. σαφηνής)
1. PIE *ti̯eɑhpɑh·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *ti̯aɑhpɑh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. ti̯aɑhpɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ti̯ahph·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ti̯ahph·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ti̯aph·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ti̯aph·Σ-
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›c → *caph·Σ-
5. caph·Σ-
*c → s
Change of *c into s
Rc›s → *saph·Σ-
6. saph·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. σαφ·Σ-
Dor. σαφ·ᾱνήσ-
(.) ‘XX’
(GEW 2:684)
(Dor. σαφᾱνής)
1. PIE *ti̯eɑhpɑh·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *ti̯aɑhpɑh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. ti̯aɑhpɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ti̯ahph·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ti̯ahph·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ti̯aph·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ti̯aph·Σ-
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›c → *caph·Σ-
5. caph·Σ-
*c → s
Change of *c into s
Rc›s → *saph·Σ-
6. saph·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. σαφ·Σ-
Gr. σαφ·ήνεια-
(f.) ‘Deutlichkeit, Klarheit’
(GEW 2:684)
(Gr. σαφήνεια)
1. PIE *ti̯eɑhpɑh·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *ti̯aɑhpɑh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. ti̯aɑhpɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ti̯ahph·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ti̯ahph·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ti̯aph·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ti̯aph·Σ-
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›c → *caph·Σ-
5. caph·Σ-
*c → s
Change of *c into s
Rc›s → *saph·Σ-
6. saph·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. σαφ·Σ-
Gr. δια·σαφέο-
(vb.) ‘XX’
(GEW 2:684)
(Gr. δια·σαφέω)
1. PIE *Π·ti̯eɑhpɑhéi̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *Π·ti̯aɑhpɑhéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. Π·ti̯aɑhpɑhéi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ti̯ahphéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·ti̯ahphéi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·ti̯aphéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·ti̯aphéi̯o-
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›c → *Π·caphéi̯o-
5. Π·caphéi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *Π·caphéo-
6. Π·caphéo-
*c → s
Change of *c into s
Rc›s → *Π·saphéo-
7. Π·saphéo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·σαφέο-
Gr. σαφ·ίζo-
(pr.) ‘klar machen, erklären’
(GEW 2:684)
(Ion-Att. σαφίζω; also Gr. σαφισμός, σαφιστικός)
1. PIE *ti̯eɑhpɑh·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *ti̯aɑhpɑh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. ti̯aɑhpɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ti̯ahph·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ti̯ahph·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ti̯aph·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ti̯aph·Σ-
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›c → *caph·Σ-
5. caph·Σ-
*c → s
Change of *c into s
Rc›s → *saph·Σ-
6. saph·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. σαφ·Σ-
Gr. σαφ·ήτωρ-
(m.) ‘μάντις ἀληθής, μηνυτής, ἑρμηνευτής’
(GEW 2:684)
(Hes. σαφήτωρ)
1. PIE *ti̯eɑhpɑhḗtōr
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *ti̯aɑhpɑhḗtōr
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. ti̯aɑhpɑhḗtōr
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ti̯ahphḗtōr
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ti̯ahphḗtōr
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ti̯aphḗtōr
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ti̯aphḗtōr
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›c → *caphḗtōr
5. caphḗtōr
*c → s
Change of *c into s
Rc›s → *saphḗtōr
6. saphḗtōr
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. σαφήτωρ
√tikis-
Gr. τίξο-
(ao.) Hes. = ‘δεῖξον’
(LSJ. 1796)
(Gr. τίξον [ipv])
1. PIE *tíkiso-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *tíḱso-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. tíḱso-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *tíkso-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. tíkso-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. τίξο-
√teiku-
OCS. tikŭ
(m.) ‘Spiegel’
(Sadnik √964)
(OCS. tikŭ – or Sadnik √965?)
1. PIE *teiku̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *teiku̯a
2. teiku̯a
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *teika
(SPIE §4.8.3)
3. teika
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *teiko
4. teiko
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *teiku
5. teiku
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *tīku
6. tīku
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → *tiku
7. tiku
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. tikŭ
RussCS. tikŭrŭ
(m.) ‘Spiegel’
(REW 3:104)
(RusCS. tikŭrŭ)
1. PIE *teiku̯uro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *teiku̯ura
2. teiku̯ura
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *teikura
(SPIE §4.8.3)
3. teikura
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *teikuro
4. teikuro
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *teikuru
5. teikuru
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *tīkuru
6. tīkuru
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → *tikuru
7. tikuru
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → RussCS. tikŭrŭ
Russ. tikr-
(m.) ‘Spiegel’
(REW 3:104)
(Russ. tikr [sgN])
1. PIE *teiku̯ùro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *teiku̯ùra
2. teiku̯ùra
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *teikùra
(SPIE §4.8.3)
3. teikùra
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *teikùro
4. teikùro
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *teikùru
5. teikùru
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *tīkùru
6. tīkùru
*-u → Ø
Loss of -u in root-final position
R=u›=0 → *tīkùr
7. tīkùr
ù -› 0
Loss of unaccented u
Rù›0 → *tīkr
8. tīkr
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → Russ. tikr
√til-
OCS. til·ište-
(sb.) ‘= lice : Stirn, Anlitz, Wange, Gestalt’
(Sadnik √462/29)
1. PIE *teil·Σ-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *tīl·Σ-
2. tīl·Σ-
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. til·Σ-
TochB. cel·en-
(pr.M.) ‘appear’
(DTochB. 256)
(TochB. celenträ [3sg])
1. PIE *teil·Σ-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *ti̯ail·Σ-
2. ti̯ail·Σ-
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›c → *cail·Σ-
3. cail·Σ-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *cēl·Σ-
4. cēl·Σ-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. cel·Σ-
TochB. cel·eñiye-
(impfM.) ‘appear’
(DTochB. 256)
(TochB. celeñiyentär)
1. PIE *teil·Σ-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *ti̯ail·Σ-
2. ti̯ail·Σ-
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›c → *cail·Σ-
3. cail·Σ-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *cēl·Σ-
4. cēl·Σ-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. cel·Σ-
TochB. cel·āmäññe-
(a.) ‘-(?)-; CeToM –ø-, cf. Adams’
(DTochB. 255)
(TochB. celāmäññe)
1. PIE *teil·Σ-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *ti̯ail·Σ-
2. ti̯ail·Σ-
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›c → *cail·Σ-
3. cail·Σ-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *cēl·Σ-
4. cēl·Σ-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. cel·Σ-
√tim- ‘dunkel (werden)’
(IEW 1063-64 √tem(ə)-)
(WP. I 720 f.)
Latv. tim-
(vb.) ‘dunkel werden’
(LiEtWb. 1080)
(Latv. timt [inf.])
√timɑh-
Latv. tima-
(pret.) ‘dunkel werden’
(LiEtWb. 1080)
(Latv. tima)
1. PIE *timēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *timāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. timāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *timāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. timāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *timā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. timā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → Latv. tima
Latv. tima-
(f.) ‘Dunkelheit’
(LiEtWB. 1080)
(Latv. tima, IEW 1063-64)
1. PIE *timēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *timāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. timāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *timāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. timāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *timā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. timā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → Latv. tima
OCS. tĭma-
(f.) ‘Finsternis: darkness’
(Sadnik √971)
(OCS. tьma, IEW 1063-64)
1. PIE *timēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *timāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. timāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *timāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. timāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *timā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. timā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *tima-
5. tima-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → OCS. tĭma-
√timi-
OCS. o·tĭmi-
(vb.) ‘verdunkeln, verfinstern’
(Sadnik 971)
1. PIE *Π·timiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *Π·timiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·timiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·timií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·timií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *Π·timī́-
4. Π·timī́-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *Π·tĭmī́-
5. Π·tĭmī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *Π·tĭmí-
6. Π·tĭmí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → OCS. Π·tĭmi-
√timin-
OCS. tĭmĭnŭ-
(a.) ‘dunkel, dinster, der Finsterniss’
(Sadnik √971)
(OCS. tьmьnъ, IEW 1063-64)
1. PIE *timino
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *timina
2. timina
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *timino
3. timino
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *timinu
4. timinu
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *tĭmĭnu
5. tĭmĭnu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. tĭmĭnŭ
OCS. prĕ·tĭmĭnŭ-
(a.) ‘überaus finster, dunkel’
(Sadnik √971)
(OCS. prĕ·tĭmĭnŭ)
1. PIE *preɑhi·timino
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *praɑhi·timino
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. praɑhi·timino
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *prahi·timino
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. prahi·timino
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *prahi·timina
4. prahi·timina
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *prai·timina
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. prai·timina
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *proi·timino
6. proi·timino
*oi → ē
Monophthongization of *oi into ē
Roi›ē → *prē·timino
7. prē·timino
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *prē·timinu
8. prē·timinu
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *prē·tĭmĭnu
9. prē·tĭmĭnu
*ē → ĕ
Change of *ē into ĕ
Rē›ĕ → *prĕ·tĭmĭnu
10. prĕ·tĭmĭnu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. prĕ·tĭmĭnŭ
OCS. o·tĭmĭni-
(vb.) ‘verfinstern’
(Sadnik √971)
(OCS. o·tĭmĭni-)
1. PIE *Π·timiniɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *Π·timiniíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·timiniíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·timinií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·timinií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *Π·timinī́-
4. Π·timinī́-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *Π·tĭmĭnī́-
5. Π·tĭmĭnī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *Π·tĭmĭní-
6. Π·tĭmĭní-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → OCS. Π·tĭmĭni-
OCS. ·tĭmĭnica-
(f.) ‘Kerker, Gefängnis’
(Sadnik √971)
(OCS. tĭmĭnica)
1. PIE *timiniɑ́h·Σ
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *timiniíh·Σ
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. timiniíh·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *timinií·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. timinií·Σ
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *timinī́·Σ
4. timinī́·Σ
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *tĭmĭnī́·Σ
5. tĭmĭnī́·Σ
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *tĭmĭní·Σ
6. tĭmĭní·Σ
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → OCS. tĭmĭni·Σ
√timir-
OInd. timirá-
(a.) ‘dunkel, finster’
(KEWA 1:502)
(IEW 1063-64, OInd. timirá-)
1. PIE *timiró-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → OInd. timirá-
Pā. timira-
(a.) ‘dunkel’ (n.) ‘Dunkelheit’
(KEWA 1:502)
Pā. timira-
1. PIE *timiro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pā. timira-
ModPers. timir-
(a.) ‘Dunkelheit’
(KEWA 1:502)
ModPers. timir-
1. PIE *timiro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *timira
2. timira
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → ModPers. timir
Russ. ·témrivo-
(.) ‘Finsternis’
(IEW 1063-64)
Russ. témrivo-
1. PIE *tímìr·Σ
*í → é
Change of *i into e
Rí›é → *témìr·Σ
2. témìr·Σ
*i → Ø
Loss of unaccented *i
Rì›0 → Russ. témr·Σ
√tein- ‘silver’
HLu. teina·da-
(n.) ‘tithe = argentum·dare i.e. ‘silver·giving’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. ARGENTUM.DARE)ti-na-tá, ti-na-ta-za)
1. PIE *teino·dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teino·dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. teino·dɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *teina·dɦa-
3. teina·dɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. teina·da-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. teina·daši-
(PÚa.gen.) ‘(OGHErg. 211) › Šaluataši (ON)’
(OGH. 554)
(Hitt. ti-i-na-ta-aš-ši-iš)
1. PIE *teino·dɑɦosi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teino·dɦosi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. teino·dɦosi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *teina·dɦasi-
3. teina·dɦasi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *teina·dasi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. teina·dasi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. teina·daši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. teina·di-
(.) ‘tithe’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. [ti]-na-ti-i)
1. PIE *teino·dɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teino·dɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. teino·dɦi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *teina·dɦi-
3. teina·dɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. teina·di-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√tin-
Gr. τιν·δαρίδαι
(m.pl) ‘Zeussöhne’
(GEW 1:611)
(Gr. τινδαρίδαι)
1. PIE *tin·deɑɦríɦɑdeɑhi
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *tin·daɑɦríɦɑdaɑhi
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. tin·daɑɦríɦɑdaɑhi
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tin·daɦríɦdahi
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tin·daɦríɦdahi
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *tin·darídahi
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tin·darídahi
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tin·darídai
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. tin·darídai
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. τιν·δαρίδαι
Gr. τιντό-
(pt.) = ἑφθόν (Hes.) (alphabet. unrichtig !)
(GEW 2:902
1. PIE *tintó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. τιντό-
Gr. τινθό-
(m.) ‘heißer Wasserdampf’ (eines Kessels) (?)
(GEW 2:902)
1. PIE *tintɑhó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tinthó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tinthó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. τινθό-
Gr. τινθ·αλέο-
(a.) ‘kochend heiß’
(GEW 2:902)
1. PIE *tintɑh·hɑeléi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *tintɑh·hɑaléi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. tintɑh·hɑaléi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tinth·haléi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tinth·haléi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tinth·aléi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tinth·aléi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *tinth·aléo-
5. tinth·aléo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. τινθ·αλέο-
√tip- √toip- √teip-
OInd. tītip-
(ao.) ‘heat’
(VGrStud. 386)
(OInd. átītipe [3sg])
1. PIE *tiɑ́htip-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *tiíhtip-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. tiíhtip-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tiítip-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. tiítip-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → OInd. tī́tip-
OInd. tep-
(pf.) ‘heat’
(VGrStud. 386)
(OInd. tepé)
1. PIE *toip-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *taip-
2. taip-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *tēp-
3. tēp-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → OInd. tep-
√tir-
(Pyysalo)
OIr. tiri-
(intr.) ‘trocken’
(IEW 1078-79)
(OIr. tirim [1sg])
1. PIE *tire-
R=e-›=i- → OIr. tiri-
Dor. τίρι-
(f.?) ‘summer’
(LSJ. 1796)
(Hes. τίριος · θέρους [sgG], Cret.)
1. PIE *tíri-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. τίρι-
Russ. tir·júcha
(f.) ‘Fieber’
(REW 3:107)
1. PIE *teir·Σ-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *tīr·Σ-
2. tīr·Σ-
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → Russ. tir·Σ-
Alb. ter-
(vb.tr.) ‘trocknen an der Luft’
(IEW 1078-79)
1. PIE *toiro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *taira
2. taira
ai -> e
Monophthongization of *ai into e
Rai›e → *tera
3. tera
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Alb. ter
√tis-
RV. tiṣí.a-
(m.) ‘ein Fixstern(bilde)’
(WbRV. 537)
(RV. tiṣía-)
1. PIE *tisíɑHo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tisíHo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tisíHo-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *tišíHo-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. tišíHo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tišíHa-
4. tišíHa-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → *tiší.a-
5. tiší.a-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. tiṣí.a-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
LAv. tiš·trya-
(m.) ‘N des als Gottheit verehrten Fixterns Sirius’
(AIWb. 651-2)
(For suffix cf. Lat. triō(n), Lat. septem·triō(n), usw.)
1. PIE *tis·tri̯o-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *tiš·tri̯o-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. tiš·tri̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tiš·tri̯a-
3. tiš·tri̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. tiš·trya-
OInd. taiṣa-
(I.) ‘‹cf. above & below›’
(EWA X:XX)
1. PIE *tōiso-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *tōišo-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. tōišo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tōiša-
3. tōiša-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *tāiša-
4. tāiša-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *tāiṣa-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
5. tāiṣa-
āi → ai
Orthographic change of āi into ai
Rāi›ai → OInd. taiṣa-
Kaśm. teś-
(.) ‘eight lunar asterim’
(EWA1:649)
1. PIE *toiso-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *toišo-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. toišo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *taiša-
3. taiša-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *tēša-
4. tēša-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *tēṣa-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
5. tēṣa-
*ṣ → ś
Change of ṣ into ś
Rṣ›ś → *tēśa-
6. tēśa-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → Kaśm. teśa-
LAv. tiš·trya-
(GN.m.) ‘Sirius’
(AIWb. 651-2)
1. PIE *tis·tri̯o-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *tiš·tri̯o-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. tiš·tri̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tiš·tri̯a-
3. tiš·tri̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. tiš·trya-
LAv. tiš·tryaeinī-
(f.) ‘Name von Sternen in der nähe des tištrya’
(AIWb. 652)
1. PIE *tis·tri̯oiniɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *tis·tri̯oiniíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. tis·tri̯oiniíh-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *tiš·tri̯oiniíh-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. tiš·tri̯oiniíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tiš·tri̯ainiíh-
4. tiš·tri̯ainiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tiš·tri̯ainií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. tiš·tri̯ainií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *tiš·tri̯ainī́-
6. tiš·tri̯ainī́-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → *tiš·tri̯aenī́-
7. tiš·tri̯aenī́-
*aeni → aeini
Anaptyxis of *i
RaenI›aeinI → *tiš·tri̯aeinī́-
8. tiš·tri̯aeinī́-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *tiš·tryaeinī́-
9. tiš·tryaeinī́-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → LAv. tiš·tryaeinī-
LAv. tiš·tryō.štāra-
(m.) ‘der tištrya- (genannte) Stern’
(AIWb. 652)
1. PIE *tis·tri̯o.Σ-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *tiš·tri̯o.Σ-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. tiš·tri̯o.Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tiš·tri̯a.Σ-
3. tiš·tri̯a.Σ-
a. → ō.
Change of a. into ō. in morpheme border
Ra›ō → *tiš·tri̯ō.Σ-
4. tiš·tri̯ō.Σ-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. tiš·tryō.Σ-
√tiu-
Lyd. ciw-
(c.) ‘Gott’
(LydWb. 92)
(Lyd. ciws [sgN])
1. PIE *tiu̯-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciu̯-
2. ciu̯-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Lyd. ciw-
Hitt. šiu-
(c.) ‘Gott’
(HEG 2:1073-87)
(Hitt. ši-i-uš [sgN])
1. PIE *tiu-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciu-
2. ciu-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. šiu-
Kpd. šiu̯·ašmi-
(LÚ.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 1163)
(Kpd. ší-ua-áš-mì-i)
1. PIE *tiu̯·osmi-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciu̯·osmi-
2. ciu̯·osmi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ciu̯·asmi-
3. ciu̯·asmi-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → *šiu̯·asmi-
4. šiu̯·asmi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Kpd. šiu̯·ašmi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√tiu̯o-
Lyd. ciwa-
(c.) ‘Gott’
(LydWb. 92)
(Lyd. ciwaν, ciwad)
1. PIE *tiu̯o-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciu̯o-
2. ciu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ciu̯a-
3. ciu̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Lyd. ciwa-
CLu. tiu̯a·šarpa-
(LÚ.c.) ‘Gott·šarpa-’
(NOMS. 1344)
(OAnat. tiuašarpaš)
1. PIE *tiu̯o·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. tiu̯a·Σ-
√teiu̯o-
Hitt. teiu̯ali-
(SARn.) ‘eine Gartenpflanze, HHand. 178’
(HEG III:395)
1. PIE *teiu̯oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. teiu̯ali-
HLu. ada·teiu̯ali-
(a.) ‘eat·TIWALI’
(CHLu. XX)
(in HLu. EDERE(?)-ta5-ti-wa/i-li-na)
1. PIE *odaho·teiu̯oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *adaha·teiu̯ali-
2. adaha·teiu̯ali-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. adaḫa·teiu̯ali-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. ara·teiu̯ali-
(.) ‘eat·TIWALI’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. ara/i-ti-ua/i-li-i-na)
1. PIE *oro·teiu̯oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ara·teiu̯ali-
CLu. teiu̯alei̯a-
(a.) ‘bei dU, dIŠTAR, ‘göttlich (?)’
(HHand. 178)
(KLu. ti-ua-li-ia [sgL?] (dIŠTAR, dU))
1. PIE *teiu̯olei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. teiu̯alei̯a-
Hitt. teiu̯alei̯a-
(d.) ‘-(?)-’
(HEG 3:396)
(Hitt. dti-ua-li-ia-, dUTU-li-ia-)
1. PIE *teiu̯olei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. teiu̯alei̯a-
Hitt. teiu̯alei̯a-
(GN.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(OHP. 1:522-3)
(Hitt. ti-ua-li-ia-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *teiu̯olei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. teiu̯alei̯a-
Hitt. teiu̯alei̯a-
(URU.) ‘Wohl Dorf im Bezirk ›Tapika. Vgl. › Arina’
(OGH. 431)
(Hitt. ti-ua-li-ia, ti-ua-li-ia-aš; OGHErg. 171)
1. PIE *teiu̯olei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. teiu̯alei̯a-
Hitt. teiu̯alu̯a·lei̯a-
(URU.) ‘In der Gegend von › Ḫarziuna’
(OGH. 431)
(Hitt. ti-ua-al-ua-al-li-ia-aš)
1. PIE *teiu̯olu̯o·lei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. teiu̯alu̯a·lei̯a-
√tiu̯on-
Hitt. šiu̯an-
(c.) ‘God’
(XX:XX)
(Hitt. šiuaneš [plN])
1. PIE *tiu̯on-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciu̯on-
2. ciu̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ciu̯an-
3. ciu̯an-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. šiu̯an-
Hitt. šiu̯ana-
(a.) ‘göttlich’
(HHand. 153)
Hitt. šiuana-
1. PIE *tiu̯ono-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciu̯ono-
2. ciu̯ono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ciu̯ana-
3. ciu̯ana-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. šiu̯ana-
CLu. tiu̯anali-
(c.) ‘-(?)-’
(HHand. 178)
KLu. tiuanali-
1. PIE *tiu̯onoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. tiu̯anali-
Hitt. šiu̯anant-
(c.) ‘Gott’
(HHand. 153)
Hitt. šiuanant-
1. PIE *tiu̯onont-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciu̯onont-
2. ciu̯onont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ciu̯anant-
3. ciu̯anant-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. šiu̯anant-
√tiuondɑɦi̯o-
Hitt. šiuanza·ḫi-
(LÚc.) (ein Funktionär)
(HHand. 153)
1. PIE *tiu̯ondɑɦi̯o·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiu̯ondɦi̯o·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiu̯ondɦi̯o·Σ-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciu̯ondɦi̯o·Σ-
3. ciu̯ondɦi̯o·Σ-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *ciu̯onjɦo·Σ-
4. ciu̯onjɦo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ciu̯anjɦa·Σ-
5. ciu̯anjɦa·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ciu̯anja·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. ciu̯anja·Σ-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *ciu̯anza·Σ-
7. ciu̯anza·Σ-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. šiu̯anza·Σ-
Hitt. šiunzana-
(MUNUSc.) (einer Priesterin, ‘Gottesmutter’ ?)
(HHand. 153)
(Hitt. šiunzana-)
1. PIE *tiundɑɦi̯ono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiundɦi̯ono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiundɦi̯ono-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciundɦi̯ono-
3. ciundɦi̯ono-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *ciunjɦono-
4. ciunjɦono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ciunjɦana-
5. ciunjɦana-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ciunjana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. ciunjana-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *ciunzana-
7. ciunzana-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. šiunzana-
Hitt. šiuanzana-
(MUNUSc.) (einer Priesterin, ‘Gottesmutter’ ?)
(HHand. 153)
(Hitt. šiuanzana-)
1. PIE *tiu̯ondɑɦi̯ono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiu̯ondɦi̯ono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiu̯ondɦi̯ono-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciu̯ondɦi̯ono-
3. ciu̯ondɦi̯ono-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *ciu̯onjɦono-
4. ciu̯onjɦono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ciu̯anjɦana-
5. ciu̯anjɦana-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ciu̯anjana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. ciu̯anjana-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *ciu̯anzana-
7. ciu̯anzana-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. šiu̯anzana-
CLu. tiuanzana-
(URU.) ‘In der Umgebung von › Tuwanuwa’
(OGH. 431)
(in Hitt. ti-ua-an-za-na-(za))
1. PIE *tiu̯ondɑɦi̯ono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiu̯ondɦi̯ono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiu̯ondɦi̯ono-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *tiu̯onjɦono-
3. tiu̯onjɦono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tiu̯anjɦana-
4. tiu̯anjɦana-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *tiu̯anzɦana-
5. tiu̯anzɦana-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. tiu̯anzana-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√tiun-
Pal. tiuna-
(.) ‘Tag, Licht; BN des dZaparua-, HHand. 178’
(DPal. 75)
(Pal ti-ú-naš ti-ú-na-aš)
1. PIE *tiuno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. tiuna-
Hitt. šiuna-
(c.) ‘Gott’
(HHand. 152)
(Hitt. šiunan, šiunaš, šiuni, šiunaz, šiunan)
1. PIE *tiuno-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciuno-
2. ciuno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ciuna-
3. ciuna-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. šiuna-
Hitt. šiunali-
(a.) ‘göttlich’
(HHand. 152)
Hitt. šiunali-
1. PIE *tiunoli-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciunoli-
2. ciunoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ciunali-
3. ciunali-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. šiunali-
√tiuni-
Hitt. šiuni-
(c.) ‘Gott’
(HHand. 152)
1. PIE *tiuni-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciuni-
2. ciuni-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. šiuni-
Lyd. ciuν-
(c.) ‘Gott’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *tiuni-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciuni-
2. ciuni-
ni -> ν
Emergence of root final palatal nasal
Rni›ν → Lyd. ciuν-
Hitt. šiuni̯a-
(vb.*) ‘göttlich sein, Gott sein’
(HHand. 152-3)
1. PIE *tiuni̯o-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciuni̯o-
2. ciuni̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ciuni̯a-
3. ciuni̯a-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. šiuni̯a-
Hitt. šiuni̯āḫ-
(vb.) ‘mit einem Gott geschlagen werden’
(HHand. 152-3)
1. PIE *tiuni̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tiuni̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tiuni̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiuni̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tiuni̯āh-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciuni̯āh-
4. ciuni̯āh-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → *šiuni̯āh-
5. šiuni̯āh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šiuni̯āḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lyd. ciuνali-
(a.) ‘Gott(es)-’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *tiuni̯oli-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciuni̯oli-
2. ciuni̯oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ciuni̯ali-
3. ciuni̯ali-
ni̯ -> ν
Emergence of palatal nasal
Rni̯›ν → Lyd. ciuνali-
Hitt. šiuni̯ant-
(*c.) ‘XX’
(XX:XX)
(Hitt. LÚ DINGIRLIMni̯ant-)
1. PIE *tiuni̯ont-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciuni̯ont-
2. ciuni̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ciuni̯ant-
3. ciuni̯ant-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. šiuni̯ant-
Hitt. šiuni̯adar-
(*n.) ‘XX’
(XX:XX)
(Hitt. LÚ DINGIRLIMni̯atar)
1. PIE *tiuni̯odɑɦor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiuni̯odɦor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiuni̯odɦor-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciuni̯odɦor-
3. ciuni̯odɦor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ciuni̯adɦar-
4. ciuni̯adɦar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ciuni̯adar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ciuni̯adar-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. šiuni̯adar-
√tiundɑɦi̯o-
Hitt. šiunzana-
(MUNUSc.) (einer Priesterin, ‘Gottesmutter’ ?)
(HHand. 153)
(Hitt. šiunzana-)
1. PIE *tiundɑɦi̯ono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiundɦi̯ono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiundɦi̯ono-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciundɦi̯ono-
3. ciundɦi̯ono-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *ciunjɦono-
4. ciunjɦono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ciunjɦana-
5. ciunjɦana-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ciunjana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. ciunjana-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *ciunzana-
7. ciunzana-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. šiunzana-
√tiu̯oro-
HLu. aza·tiu̯ara-
(I) (I(LITUUS)c.) ‘-(?)-’
(I.1.§ XXII)
1. PIE *Π·tiu̯oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·tiu̯ara-
HLu. DOMINUS·tiu̯ara-
(PN.) ‘-(?)-’
(XX:XX)
(HLu. DOMINUS-ti-wa/i+ra/i-ia)
1. PIE *Π·tiu̯oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·tiu̯ara-
HLu. tiu̯ara·lei̯a-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *tiu̯oro·lei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. tiu̯ara·lei̯a-
HLu. tiu̯ara·mi-
(pt.) ‘blessed by Ba’al’
(I.1.§ I)
(if in HLu. (DEUS)SOL-mi-sá [sgN] = HLu. ti-wa/ira/i-mi (KULULU 5, § 3)
1. PIE *tiu̯oro·mi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. tiu̯ara·mi-
HLu. a·tiu̯ara·mei̯a-
(I.) ‘-(?)-’
(XX:XX)
(HLu. Iá-ti-wa/i-ra/i-mi-ia)
1. PIE *o·tiu̯oromei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. a·tiu̯aramei̯a-
√tiu̯or·ii̯o-
CLu. tiuar·ii̯a-
(GIŠn.) ‘soleil (plante): Kraut des Sonnengottes’
(DLL. 98)
(CLu. ti-ua-ri-ia [plNA] = dUTU-aš uelku’)
1. PIE *tiu̯or·ii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. tiu̯ar·ii̯a-
√ti̯ur-
Alb. surmë-
(a.) ‘aschfarben: dark grey’
(AlbEtD. 405)
(Alb. surmë)
1. PIE *ti̯ur·mēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ti̯ur·māɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ti̯ur·māɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ti̯ur·māh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ti̯ur·māh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ti̯ur·mā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ti̯ur·mā-
PIE *ti̯ → s
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›s → *sur·mā-
5. sur·mā-
*ā → ë
Change of *ā into Alb. ë
Rā›ë → Alb. sur·më-
(XX:XX)
√tiu̯otɑh-
Phryg. τιϝοτᾱ-
(.) ‘tiu̯ad-’
(FRG 138)
(Phryg. τιϝοτας)
1. PIE *tiu̯otēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tiu̯otāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tiu̯otāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiu̯otāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tiu̯otāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tiu̯otā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tiu̯otā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Phryg. τιϝοτᾱ-
√tiu̯odɑɦ-
CLu. tiu̯ad-
(d.) ‘Sonnengott’
(OHP. 1:523)
(CLu. dti-ua-az)
1. PIE *tiu̯odɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiu̯odɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiu̯odɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tiu̯adɦ-
3. tiu̯adɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. tiu̯ad-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šiu̯ad-
(c.) ‘Tag’ (UD, UDKAM)
(HHand. 153)
1. PIE *tiu̯odɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiu̯odɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiu̯odɦ-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciu̯odɦ-
3. ciu̯odɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ciu̯adɦ-
4. ciu̯adɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ciu̯ad-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ciu̯ad-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. šiu̯ad-
HLu. aza·tiu̯ad-
(I) (I(LITUUS)c.) ‘loved by Tiuata’ (Phoen. ’ztwd)
(CHLu. 1.1.1.)
(HLu. I(LITUUS)á-za-ti-i-wa/i-tà-sá [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·tiu̯odɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·tiu̯odɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·tiu̯odɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·tiu̯adɦ-
3. Π·tiu̯adɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. Π·tiu̯ad-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. áza·tiu̯ada-
(LÚ.c.) ‘loved by dTiuat- : Phoen. ’ztwd’
(I.1.§ I)
(HLu. I(LITUUS)á-za-ti-i-wa/i-tà-sá [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·tiu̯odɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·tiu̯odɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·tiu̯odɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·tiu̯adɦa-
3. Π·tiu̯adɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. Π·tiu̯ada-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. áza·tiu̯ada-
(LÚ.c.) ‘Phoen. ’ztwd’
(I.1.§ XXII)
(HLu. (LITUUS)á-za-ti-wa/i-tà-sá [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·tiu̯odɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·tiu̯odɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·tiu̯odɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·tiu̯adɦa-
3. Π·tiu̯adɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. Π·tiu̯ada-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. tiu̯ada·mu̯a-
(LÚ.c.*) ‘haut fonctionnaire’
(NOMS. 1346)
(HLu. SOL-ua-tà-muua)
1. PIE *tiu̯odɑɦo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiu̯odɦo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiu̯odɦo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tiu̯adɦa·Σ-
3. tiu̯adɦa·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. tiu̯ada·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. tiu̯ada·nani-
(LÚ.c.*) ‘XX’
(NOMS. 1347)
(HLu. SOL-FRATER)
1. PIE *tiu̯odɑɦo·noni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiu̯odɦo·noni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiu̯odɦo·noni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tiu̯adɦa·nani-
3. tiu̯adɦa·nani-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. tiu̯ada·nani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. tiu̯ada·nani-
(LÚ.d.c.) ‘XX’
(NOMS. 1347)
(Hitt. mdUTU-ŠE[Š])
1. PIE *tiu̯odɑɦo·noni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiu̯odɦo·noni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiu̯odɦo·noni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tiu̯adɦa·nani-
3. tiu̯adɦa·nani-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. tiu̯ada·nani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šiu̯ada·šarpi-
(LÚ.d.c.) ‘XX’
(NOMS. 1349)
(Hitt. mdUTU-šar-pí)
1. PIE *tiu̯odɑɦo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiu̯odɦo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiu̯odɦo·Σ-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciu̯odɦo·Σ-
3. ciu̯odɦo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ciu̯adɦa·Σ-
4. ciu̯adɦa·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ciu̯ada·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ciu̯ada·Σ-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. šiu̯ada·Σ-
CLu. tiu̯ada·ui̯a-
(f.c.) ‘XX’
(NOMS. 1351)
(in Akd. ti-ua-ta-ú-i-ia)
1. PIE *tiu̯odɑɦo·ui̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiu̯odɦo·ui̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiu̯odɦo·ui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tiu̯adɦa·ui̯a-
3. tiu̯adɦa·ui̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. tiu̯ada·ui̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. tiu̯ada·ura-
(LÚ.c.*) ‘prince, scribe’
(NOMS. 1350)
(HLu. SOL-GRANDIS)
1. PIE *tiu̯odɑɦo·uro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiu̯odɦo·uro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiu̯odɦo·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tiu̯adɦa·ura-
3. tiu̯adɦa·ura-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. tiu̯ada·ura-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. tiu̯ada·ziti-
(LÚ.c.*) ‘XX’
(NOMS. 1352)
(in Hitt. mdUTU.LÚ-iš)
1. PIE *tiu̯odɑɦo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiu̯odɦo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiu̯odɦo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tiu̯adɦa·Σ-
3. tiu̯adɦa·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. tiu̯ada·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. tiu̯ada·ziti-
(LÚ.c.*) ‘XX’
(NOMS. 1352)
(in HLu. SOL-ZITI-i)
1. PIE *tiu̯odɑɦo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiu̯odɦo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiu̯odɦo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tiu̯adɦa·Σ-
3. tiu̯adɦa·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. tiu̯ada·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. tiu̯ata·dU-
(LÚ.c.*) ‘XX’
(NOMS. 1353)
(in Hitt. mdUTU-dU)
1. PIE *tiu̯odɑɦo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiu̯odɦo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiu̯odɦo·Σ-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *ciu̯odɦo·Σ-
3. ciu̯odɦo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ciu̯adɦa·Σ-
4. ciu̯adɦa·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ciu̯ada·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ciu̯ada·Σ-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. šiu̯ada·Σ-
HLu. ḫalpa·tiu̯ada-
(LÚ.c.*) ‘XX’
(NOMS. 257)
(in HLu. ḫal-SOL-ua-ta?-s)
1. PIE *Π·tiu̯odɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·tiu̯odɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·tiu̯odɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·tiu̯adɦa-
3. Π·tiu̯adɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. Π·tiu̯ada-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. tiu̯ada·li-
(.) ‘TIWATALI measure’
(XX:XX)
(HLu. ti-wa/i-ta-li-na [sgA])
1. PIE *tiu̯odɑɦo·li
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiu̯odɦo·li
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiu̯odɦo·li
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tiu̯adɦa·li
3. tiu̯adɦa·li
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. tiu̯ada·li
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. tiu̯ada·mi-
(LÚ.c.pt.) ‘XX’
(NOMS. 1345)
(HLu. SOL-ua+ta-mi-š [sgN])
1. PIE *tiu̯odɑɦo·mi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiu̯odɦo·mi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiu̯odɦo·mi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tiu̯adɦa·mi-
3. tiu̯adɦa·mi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. tiu̯ada·mi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. tiu̯ada·ni-
(vb.) ‘XX’
(HWErg1:333)
(KLu. tiuataniḫa, tiuataniti)
1. PIE *tiu̯odɑɦo·ni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiu̯odɦo·ni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiu̯odɦo·ni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tiu̯adɦa·ni-
3. tiu̯adɦa·ni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. tiu̯ada·ni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. áza·tiu̯adai̯a-
(URU.) ‘Phoen. ’ztwdy’
(I.1.§ XXXIX)
(HLu. á-za-ti-wa/i-tà-ia-na)
1. PIE *Π·tiu̯odɑɦoii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·tiu̯odɦoii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·tiu̯odɦoii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·tiu̯adɦaii̯a-
3. Π·tiu̯adɦaii̯a-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *Π·tiu̯adɦaia-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. Π·tiu̯adɦaia-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → *Π·tiu̯adɦai̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
5. Π·tiu̯adɦai̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. Π·tiu̯adai̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. tiu̯ada·ša-
(ḪUR.SAG.) ‘XX’
(OGH. 432)
(Hitt. ti-ua-ta-aš-ša)
1. PIE *tiu̯odɑɦo·so-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiu̯odɦo·so-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiu̯odɦo·so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tiu̯adɦa·sa-
3. tiu̯adɦa·sa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *tiu̯ada·sa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tiu̯ada·sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. tiu̯ada·ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. tiu̯ada·ši-
(PÚ.) ‘XX’
(OGH. 554)
(Hitt. ti-ua-ta-š[i)
1. PIE *tiu̯odɑɦo·si-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiu̯odɦo·si-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiu̯odɦo·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tiu̯adɦa·si-
3. tiu̯adɦa·si-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *tiu̯ada·si-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tiu̯ada·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. tiu̯ada·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. tiu̯aza-
(d.*) ‘XX’
(XX:XX)
(if in HLu. (DEUS)SOL-wa/i-za-sa-ha)
1. PIE *tiu̯odɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tiu̯odɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tiu̯odɦi̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *tiu̯ojɦo-
3. tiu̯ojɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tiu̯ajɦa-
4. tiu̯ajɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *tiu̯aja-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. tiu̯aja-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → HLu. tiu̯aza-
√diɑɦ-
(IEW XX)
√dei̯eɑɦ-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. δέα-
(pr.) ‘videbatur, pret. schien; GrGr. I 680-’
(GEW 1:354)
(Hom. δέατο [3sg], Arc. δέατοι)
1. PIE *déi̯eɑɦ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *déi̯aɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. déi̯aɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *déi̯aɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. déi̯aɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *déi̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. déi̯a-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *déa-
5. déa-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. δέα-
Hitt. dei̯aḫa-
(c.) (ein Gegenstand, ‹if something burning/-ed (?)›
(HEG T:291-2)
(Hitt. teiaḫa-, HHand. 173)
1. PIE *dei̯eɑɦo-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *dei̯aɑɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. dei̯aɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dei̯aɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dei̯aɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dei̯aɦa-
4. dei̯aɦa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. dei̯aḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. dei̯aḫa·liške/a-
(vb.) ‘-(?)-, im Ritual’
(HHand. 173)
1. PIE *dei̯eɑɦo·liski̯e/o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *dei̯aɑɦo·liski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. dei̯aɑɦo·liski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dei̯aɦo·liski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dei̯aɦo·liski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *dei̯aɦo·lisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. dei̯aɦo·lisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dei̯aɦa·lisḱe/a-
5. dei̯aɦa·lisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *dei̯aɦa·liske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. dei̯aɦa·liske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *dei̯aɦa·liške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. dei̯aɦa·liške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. dei̯aḫa·liške/a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√deiɑɦ-
RV. dī́de-
(pr.) ‘hervor (...) leuchten’
(WbRV. 609)
(RV. pra (...) dī́dayat [conj3sg], ádīdet)
1. PIE *diɑ́ɦdeiɑɦ-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *diíɦdeiɑɦ-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. diíɦdeiɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *diíɦdeiɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. diíɦdeiɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *diídei-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. diídei-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *dī́dei-
5. dī́dei-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *dī́dai-
6. dī́dai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *dī́dē-
7. dī́dē-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → RV. dī́de-
OPhryg. δει-
(sb.) ‘Gott’
[XX:XX]
(OPhryg. δει [sgD])
1. PIE *deiɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *deiɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. deiɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dei-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. dei-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → OPhryg. δει-
IllyrG. δει·πάτυρο-
(GN.c.) ‘Ζεὺς πατήρ (Hes.)’
(IEW XX)
(Illyr. Δειπάτυρος [sgN])
1. PIE *deiɑɦ·péɑhturo-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *deiɑɦ·páɑhturo-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. deiɑɦ·páɑhturo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *deiɦ·páhturo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. deiɦ·páhturo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dei·páhturo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dei·páhturo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dei·páturo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dei·páturo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → IllyrG. δει·πάτυρο-
√dēiɑɦ-
(Or √dōiɑɦ- ?, if a perfect in *ō vs. *ē)
OInd. dīdāy-
(pf.) ‘XX’
(LIV2:108)
(Ved. dīdāya [1sg])
1. PIE *diɑ́ɦdēi̯ɑɦ-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *diíɦdēi̯ɑɦ-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. diíɦdēi̯ɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *diíɦdēi̯ɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. diíɦdēi̯ɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *diídēi̯-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. diídēi̯-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *dī́dēi̯-
5. dī́dēi̯-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *dī́dāi̯-
6. dī́dāi̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. dī́dāy-
√di̯ēɑɦ-
Dor. ζᾱ́-
(m.) ‘Zeus; GrGr. I:576f.’
(GEW 1:610)
(Dor. ζάς [N], ζάν [A])
1. PIE *di̯ḗɑɦ-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *di̯ā́ɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. di̯ā́ɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *di̯ā́ɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. di̯ā́ɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *di̯ā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. di̯ā́-
PIE *di̯ → j
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
Rdi̯›j → *jā́-
5. jā́-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *zā́-
6. zā́-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. ζᾱ́-
RV. dyā́-
(m.) ‘Himmel’
(WbRV. 601-4)
(RV. dyā́m [A])
1. PIE *di̯ḗɑɦ-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *di̯ā́ɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. di̯ā́ɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *di̯ā́ɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. di̯ā́ɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *di̯ā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. di̯ā́-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. dyā́-
Lat. merī·diā-
(pr.1.) ‘Mittagsruhe halten’
(WH. 2:77)
(Lat. merīdiāre)
1. PIE *Π·di̯ēɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·di̯āɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·di̯āɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·di̯āɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·di̯āɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·di̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·di̯ā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. Π·diā-
OGaul. magi·diā-
(cogn.m.) ‘feld-’
(ACSS. 2:375)
1. PIE *Π·di̯ēɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·di̯āɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·di̯āɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·di̯āɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·di̯āɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·di̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·di̯ā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OGaul. Π·diā-
OGaul. matri·diā-
(PN.m.) ‘X’
(ACSS. 2:468)
1. PIE *Π·di̯ēɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·di̯āɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·di̯āɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·di̯āɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·di̯āɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·di̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·di̯ā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OGaul. Π·diā-
OGaul. masi·diā-
(PN.f.) ‘-(?)-’
(ACSS: 2:453)
1. PIE *Π·di̯ēɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·di̯āɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·di̯āɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·di̯āɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·di̯āɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·di̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·di̯ā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OGaul. Π·diā-
√diɑɦ-
Osc. di-
(GN.m.) ‘Zeus’
(WbOU. 183)
(Osc. di [sgV])
1. PIE *diɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *diɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. diɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Osc. di-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
RV. dī́·di-
(pr.) ‘leuchten, brennen’ ‹Text: dī́dayat, but cf. -››
(WbRV. 609 [cf.!])
(RV. dī́dyat [conj3sg])
1. PIE *diɑ́ɦ·diɑɦ-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *diíɦ·diɑɦ-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. diíɦ·diɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *diíɦ·diɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. diíɦ·diɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dií·di-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dií·di-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → RV. dī́·di-
RV. dī́·di.-
(vb.M.) ‘XX’
(WbRV. 609)
(RV. dī́diānaḥ [pt.sgN])
1. PIE *diɑ́ɦ·diɑH-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *diíɦ·diɑH-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. diíɦ·diɑH-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *diíɦ·diH-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. diíɦ·diH-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → *diíɦ·di.-
4. diíɦ·di.-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dií·di.-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dií·di.-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → RV. dī́·di.-
RV. dī́·di.-
(ao.) ‘seinen Sinn richten auf [A]’
(WbRV. 610)
(RV. acha dī́diānas [pt.], ácha dī́diat [pt.])
1. PIE *diɑ́ɦ·diɑH-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *diíɦ·diɑH-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. diíɦ·diɑH-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *diíɦ·diH-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. diíɦ·diH-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → *diíɦ·di.-
4. diíɦ·di.-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dií·di.-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dií·di.-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → RV. dī́·di.-
RV. dī́·di.agni-
(a.) ‘leuchtende Feuer habend’
(WbRV. 610)
1. PIE *diɑ́ɦ·diɑH·Σ-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *diíɦ·diɑH·Σ-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. diíɦ·diɑH·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *diíɦ·diH·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. diíɦ·diH·Σ-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → *diíɦ·di.·Σ-
4. diíɦ·di.·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dií·di.·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dií·di.·Σ-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → RV. dī́·di.·Σ-
√dei̯ɑɦo-
OLat. deo-
(m.) ‘Gott’
(WH. 1:XX)
(in Plaut. deus [sgN])
1. PIE *dei̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dei̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dei̯ɦo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dei̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. dei̯o-
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
Rei̯o›eo → OLat. deo-
CLu. deiḫa-
(vb.?) ‘-(?)-’
(DLL. 97)
(KLu. ti-i-iḫ-ḫa, ti-iḫ-ḫa-ti[)
1. PIE *deiɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *deiɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. deiɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *deiɦa-
3. deiɦa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. deiḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. deiḫa-
(.) (neben iza)
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. ti-ha‹-wa/i-za›)
1. PIE *deiɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *deiɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. deiɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *deiɦa-
3. deiɦa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. deiḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√di̯ɑɦo-
RV. a·diá
(adv.) ‘an diesem Tage, heute’
(WbRV. 39)
1. PIE *o·diɑHó
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·diHó
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·diHó
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·diHó
3. a·diHó
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *a·diHá
4. a·diHá
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → RV. a·di.á
RV. a·dyá
(adv.) ‘an diesem Tage, heute’
(WbRV. 39)
1. PIE *o·di̯ɑɦó
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·di̯ɦó
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·di̯ɦó
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·di̯ɦó
3. a·di̯ɦó
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *a·di̯ɦá
4. a·di̯ɦá
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *a·di̯á
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. a·di̯á
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. a·dyá
OGaul. magi·dio-
(cogn.m.) ‘feld-’
(ACSS. 2:375)
1. PIE *Π·di̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·di̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·di̯ɦo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·di̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·di̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OGaul. Π·dio-
OGaul. mangan·dio-
(PN.m.) ‘-’
(ACSS. M-406)
1. PIE *Π·di̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·di̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·di̯ɦo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·di̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·di̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OGaul. Π·dio-
√deiɑɦi-
Osc. dei-
(.) ‘Zeus’
(WbOU. 183)
(Osc. dei [sgV])
1. PIE *deiɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *deiɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. deiɦi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *deii-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. deii-
*ii → ī
Contraction of i and i
Rii›ī → Osc. deī-
Hitt. deiḫi·ḫa-
(URU.) ‘Bei ›Tanzila, in der Umgebung von › Nerik’
(OGHErg. 168)
(Hitt. te-ḫi-ḫa [All])
1. PIE *deiɑɦi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *deiɦi·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. deiɦi·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. deiḫi·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. deiḫi·tešub-
(LÚ.c.) ‘prince, messager de Ḫattušili III’
(NOMS. 1321)
(Hitt. ti-ḫi-dIM)
1. PIE *deiɑɦi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *deiɦi·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. deiɦi·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. deiḫi·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. deiḫi·tešub-
(LÚ.c.) ‘fonctionnaire hittitè à Ugarit’
(NOMS. 1321)
(Hitt. te-ḫi-dU-ub)
1. PIE *deiɑɦi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *deiɦi·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. deiɦi·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. deiḫi·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. a·deiḫi-
(.) ‘in connection with dU, HHand. 29’
(OHP. 3:180)
(Ḫur. a-di-ḫi-ia)
1. PIE *o·deiɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·deiɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·deiɦi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·deiɦi-
3. a·deiɦi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. a·deiḫi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√deiɑɦon-
√diɑɦn-
RV. su·dína-
(a.) ‘schön tagend’ (n.) ‘glückliche(r) Tag/Zeit’
(WbRV. 1535)
1. PIE *su·díɑɦno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *su·díɦno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. su·díɦno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su·díɦna-
3. su·díɦna-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → RV. su·dína-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
RV. madhyám·dina-
(n.) ‘Mittag, Mittagzeit’
(WbRV. 989)
(RV. madhyáṃdina-)
1. PIE *medɑɦi̯óm·diɑɦno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *medɦi̯óm·diɦno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. medɦi̯óm·diɦno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *medɦi̯óm·diɦna-
3. medɦi̯óm·diɦna-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *medɦi̯ám·diɦna-
4. medɦi̯ám·diɦna-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *medɦi̯ám·dina-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. medɦi̯ám·dina-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *madɦi̯ám·dina-
6. madɦi̯ám·dina-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *madhi̯ám·dina-
7. madhi̯ám·dina-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. madhyám·dina-
RV. puru·dína-
(n.) vielleicht ‘ein vieltägiges Fest’
(WbRV. 830)
(RV. purudíneṣu [plL])
1. PIE *pulu·díɑɦno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pulu·díɦno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pulu·díɦno-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *puru·díɦno-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. puru·díɦno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *puru·díɦna-
4. puru·díɦna-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → RV. puru·dína-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. nūn·dinae
(f.pl) ‘der an jedem 9. Tage abgehaltene Markt’
(WH. 1:350)
(Lat. nun.dinae)
1. PIE *Π·díɑɦneɑhi
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *Π·díɑɦnaɑhi
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. Π·díɑɦnaɑhi
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·díɦnahi
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·díɦnahi
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·dínahi
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·dínahi
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·dínai
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·dínai
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → *Π·dínae
6. Π·dínae
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → Lat. Π·dinae
OCS. dĭnĭ-
(m.) ‘Tag’
(Sadnik √151)
1. PIE *diɑɦni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *diɦni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. diɦni-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dini-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. dini-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → OCS. dĭnĭ-
OCS. dĭnĭ·sĭ-
(.) ‘day-this, this-day, today’
(Sadnik √151)
1. PIE *diɑɦni·ki̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *diɦni·ki̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. diɦni·ki̯i-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *diɦni·ći-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. diɦni·ći-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dini·ći-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dini·ći-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *dini·si-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. dini·si-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → OCS. dĭnĭ·sĭ-
OCS. dĭnĭnŭ-
(a.) ‘täglich, des Tages’
(Sadnik √151)
1. PIE *diɑɦnino
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *diɦnino
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. diɦnino
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *diɦnina
3. diɦnina
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dinina
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dinina
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *dinino
5. dinino
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *dininu
6. dininu
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *dĭnĭnu
7. dĭnĭnu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. dĭnĭnŭ
√di̯eɑɦbɑɦ-
(IEW. 489)
Gr. ζάφ-
(f?.) ‘πῦρ: fire’
(LSJ. 752)
(in Gr. ζάψ [sgN])
1. PIE *di̯éɑɦbɑɦ-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *di̯áɑɦbɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. di̯áɑɦbɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *di̯áɦbɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. di̯áɦbɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *di̯ábɦ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. di̯ábɦ-
PIE *di̯ → j
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
Rdi̯›j → *jábɦ-
5. jábɦ-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *jáph-
6. jáph-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *záph-
7. záph-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ζάφ-
Gr. ζάφελο-
(a.) ’heftig, hitzig’
(GEW 536-537)
(Gr. ζάφελο-)
1. PIE *di̯éɑɦbɑɦelo-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *di̯áɑɦbɑɦelo-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. di̯áɑɦbɑɦelo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *di̯áɦbɦelo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. di̯áɦbɦelo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *di̯ábɦelo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. di̯ábɦelo-
PIE *di̯ → j
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
Rdi̯›j → *jábɦelo-
5. jábɦelo-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *jáphelo-
6. jáphelo-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *záphelo-
7. záphelo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ζάφελο-
Gr. ἐπι·ζάφελο-
(a.) ‘heftig, hitzig (von Zorn)’
(GEW1:536-7)
(Hom. ἐπι·ζάφελο-)
1. PIE *epi·di̯éɑɦbɑɦelo-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *epi·di̯áɑɦbɑɦelo-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. epi·di̯áɑɦbɑɦelo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *epi·di̯áɦbɦelo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. epi·di̯áɦbɦelo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *epi·di̯ábɦelo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. epi·di̯ábɦelo-
PIE *di̯ → j
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
Rdi̯›j → *epi·jábɦelo-
5. epi·jábɦelo-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *epi·jáphelo-
6. epi·jáphelo-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *epi·záphelo-
7. epi·záphelo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἐπι·ζάφελο-
√deiɑɦu-
Hitt. deiḫuli-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGH. 419)
(Hitt. ti-ḫu-li)
1. PIE *deiɑɦuli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *deiɦuli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. deiɦuli-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. deiḫuli-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. deiḫumi-
(sb.) ‘-(?)-; in a broken context’
(ḪEG9:291)
(Hitt. te-ḫu-um-me-x[..., HHand. 173)
1. PIE *deiɑɦumi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *deiɦumi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. deiɦumi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. deiḫumi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. deiḫura·šiši-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGH. 419)
(Hitt. ti-ḫu-ra-aš-ši-ši [All])
1. PIE *deiɑɦuro·sisi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *deiɦuro·sisi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. deiɦuro·sisi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *deiɦura·sisi-
3. deiɦura·sisi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *deiɦura·šiši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. deiɦura·šiši-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. deiḫura·šiši-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√diɑɦēu-
RV. dí.au-
(m.) ‘Himmel’
(WbRV. 604)
(RV. díauṣ [V])
1. PIE *díɑHēu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *díHēu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. díHēu-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → *dí.ēu-
3. dí.ēu-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *dí.āu-
4. dí.āu-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → RV. dí.au-
RV. di.ā́u-
(m.) ‘Himmel’
(WbRV. 604)
(RV. diáuṣ [N])
1. PIE *diɑHḗu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *diHḗu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. diHḗu-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → *di.ḗu-
3. di.ḗu-
*ḗ → ā́
Change of *ḗ into ā́
Rḗ›ā́ → RV. di.ā́u-
Gr. ζεύ-
(GN.m.) ‘sky-god, Zeus’
(GEW 1:610-1)
(in Gr. ζεύς [sgN])
1. PIE *di̯ɑɦēú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *di̯ɦēú-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. di̯ɦēú-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *di̯ēú-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. di̯ēú-
PIE *di̯ → j
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
Rdi̯›j → *jēú-
4. jēú-
*ēRC → eRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ēRC
RēRC›eRC → *jeú-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. jeú-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *zeú-
6. zeú-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ζεύ-
RV. dyā́u-
(m.) ‘Himmel’
(WbRV. 603)
(RV. dyā́us [sgN], dyā́us [Abl])
1. PIE *di̯ɑɦḗu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *di̯ɦḗu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. di̯ɦḗu-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *di̯ḗu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. di̯ḗu-
*ḗ → ā́
Change of *ḗ into ā́
Rḗ›ā́ → *di̯ā́u-
4. di̯ā́u-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. dyā́u-


√ti- √toi- √tei- ‘eilen, gehen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√tik- √toik- √teik-
(P. 1067 diff.)
(+ Pyysalo)
√toik-
Goth. þaih-
(pr.) ‘προκόπτειν, συμβιβάζεσθαι: proficere’
(GoEtD. Þ29)
(Goth. þaih [3sg] Luk 2,52 CA, GoElB. 203, HbGo. 35,1a,5, 57, 92,4, 222,2, 223,3)
1. PIE *toik-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *toix-
2. toix-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þoix-
3. þoix-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þaix-
4. þaix-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → Goth. þaih-
OHG. dēh-
(pret.) ‘thrive’
(XX:XX)
(OHG. dēh [3sg])
1. PIE *toik-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *toix-
2. toix-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þoix-
3. þoix-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þaix-
4. þaix-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *þaih-
5. þaih-
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
Rai›ei → *þeih-
6. þeih-
*þ → d
OHG sound shift of *þ
Rþ›d → OHG. deih-
Goth. ga·þaih-
(pret.) ‘vorwärtskommen, hervorsprießen, wachsen, zunehmen’
(XX:XX)
(Goth. gaþaih [3sg] Sk 4,10 Enb)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·toik-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·toik-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦo·toik-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *gɦo·toix-
3. gɦo·toix-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *gɦo·þoix-
4. gɦo·þoix-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *go·þoix-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. go·þoix-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ga·þaix-
6. ga·þaix-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → Goth. ga·þaih-
Goth. ga·þaihu-
(pret.) ‘ἀναθάλλειν: reflorescere’
(GoElB. 294ff.)
(Goth. gaþaihuþ [2pl] Php 4,10 B)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·toik·u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·toik·u-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦo·toik·u-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *gɦo·toix·u-
3. gɦo·toix·u-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *gɦo·þoix·u-
4. gɦo·þoix·u-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *go·þoix·u-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. go·þoix·u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ga·þaix·u-
6. ga·þaix·u-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → Goth. ga·þaih·u-
√teik-
Pal. teika-
(vb.) ‘fließen ‹or: laufen, eilen (?)’
(HHand. 173)
1. PIE *teiko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. teika-
Goth. þeiha-
(pret.) ‘Fortschritte machen: gedeihen’
(GoEtD. Þ29)
(Goth. þeihais 1Tm 4,15 B, þeihan Sk 2,17 Enb, þeihand [3pl] 2Tm 3,9 A B)
1. PIE *teiko-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *teixo-
2. teixo-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þeixo-
3. þeixo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þeixa-
4. þeixa-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *þīxa-
5. þīxa-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *þīha-
6. þīha-
*ī → ei
Orthographic change of *ī into ei
Rī›ei → Goth. þeiha-
Hitt. teika·UR.MAḪ-
(LÚ.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 1323)
(Hitt. ti-ik-ka-UR.MAḪ-i[n] [sgA])
1. PIE *teiko·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. teika·Σ-
OInd. teka-
(vb.) ‘to go’
(MonWil. 446)
1. PIE *teiko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *teika-
2. teika-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *taika-
3. taika-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *tēka-
4. tēka-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → OInd. teka-
OHG. dīha-
(vb.) ‘thrive’
(XX:XX)
(OHG. dīhan [inf.])
1. PIE *teiko-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *teixo-
2. teixo-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þeixo-
3. þeixo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þeixa-
4. þeixa-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *þīxa-
5. þīxa-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *þīha-
6. þīha-
*þ → d
OHG sound shift of *þ
Rþ›d → OHG. dīha-
OCS. tica-
(vb.iter.) ‘laufen, eilen’
(Grundr2 1:292)
1. PIE *teikēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *teikāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. teikāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teikāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. teikāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *teikā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. teikā-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *tīkā-
5. tīkā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *tīka-
6. tīka-
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. tika-
Pal. teikand-
(pt.) ‘-(?)-’
(DPal. 74)
(Pal. te-e-ka-an-za [sgN])
1. PIE *teikondɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teikondɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. teikondɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *teikandɦ-
3. teikandɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Pal. teikand-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Goth. þeihand-
(pt.) ‘make progress, succeed wax, thrive’
(XX:XX)
(Goth. þeihandei Sk 4,10 Enb, þeihando Kol 2,19 B)
1. PIE *teikondɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *teikondɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. teikondɦ-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *teixondɦ-
3. teixondɦ-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þeixondɦ-
4. þeixondɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *þeixond-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. þeixond-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þeixand-
6. þeixand-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *þīxand-
7. þīxand-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *þīhand-
8. þīhand-
*ī → ei
Orthographic change of *ī into ei
Rī›ei → Goth. þeihand-
Goth. ufar··þeihandein-
(f.) ‘übertreffen; surpass, expand beyond, excel’
(GoEtD. 359)
(Goth. ufarþeihandei [f.sgN] Sk 3,21 Enb)
1. PIE *Π·teikondɑɦ·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·teikondɦ·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·teikondɦ·Σ-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *Π·teixondɦ·Σ-
3. Π·teixondɦ·Σ-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *Π·þeixondɦ·Σ-
4. Π·þeixondɦ·Σ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·þeixond·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. Π·þeixond·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·þeixand·Σ-
6. Π·þeixand·Σ-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *Π·þīxand·Σ-
7. Π·þīxand·Σ-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *Π·þīhand·Σ-
8. Π·þīhand·Σ-
*ī → ei
Orthographic change of *ī into ei
Rī›ei → Goth. Π·þeihand·Σ-
Goth. þeihs-
(n.) ‘Zeit: time, occasion: καιρός, χρόνος: tempus’
(GoEtD. Þ30)
(Goth. þeihs [A] Rom 13,11 A, þeihsa [A] 1Th 5,1 B, GoElB. 54,2, HbGo. 121,1b)
1. PIE *teikso-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *teixso-
2. teixso-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þeixso-
3. þeixso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þeixsa-
4. þeixsa-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *þīxsa-
5. þīxsa-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *þīhsa-
6. þīhsa-
*ī → ei
Orthographic change of *ī into ei
Rī›ei → Goth. þeihsa-
√tik-
(Pyysalo)
OCS. tĭk-
(vb.) ‘laufen, eilen’
(Sadnik √953)
(OCS. tĭci [ipv2sg], tĭcĕte [2pl])
1. PIE *tik-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → OCS. tĭk-
Umbr. ues·tico-
(2.fut.ps.) ~ ‘Trankopfer darbringen’
(WbOU. 847-8)
(Umbr. uestikos fust)
1. PIE *ues·tiko-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Umbr. ues·tico-
Umbr. ues·ticā-
(vb.) ~ ‘Trankopfer darbringen’ ()
(OUD. 847-8)
(Umbr. vestikatu, uesticatu)
1. PIE *ues·tikēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ues·tikāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ues·tikāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ues·tikāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ues·tikāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ues·tikā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ues·tikā-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Umbr. ues·ticā-
TochB. ckāckai-
(sb.) ‘leg, (particularly) shin, calf’
(DTochB. 258)
(TochB. ckāckaine, LeToch1 252)
1. PIE *tikēɑhtikēɑhi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tikāɑhtikāɑhi-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tikāɑhtikāɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tikāhtikāhi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tikāhtikāhi-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *cikāhcikāhi-
4. cikāhcikāhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *cikācikāi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. cikācikāi-
āi → ai
Orthographic change of āi into ai
Rāi›ai → TochB. cikācikai-
TochB. ckācka-
(sb.) ‘leg, (particularly) shin, calf’
(DTochB. 258)
(TochB. ckākane [plN])
1. PIE *tikēɑhtikeɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *tikēɑhtikaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. tikēɑhtikaɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tikāɑhtikaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. tikāɑhtikaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tikāhtikah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. tikāhtikah-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *cikāhcikah-
5. cikāhcikah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. cikācika-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
TochB. ckācka·ṣa-
(a.) ‘prtng to leg’
(DTochB. 258)
1. PIE *tikēɑhtikeɑh·si̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *tikēɑhtikaɑh·si̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. tikēɑhtikaɑh·si̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tikāɑhtikaɑh·si̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. tikāɑhtikaɑh·si̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tikāhtikah·si̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. tikāhtikah·si̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tikāhtikah·si̯a-
5. tikāhtikah·si̯a-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *cikāhcikah·si̯a-
6. cikāhcikah·si̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *cikācika·si̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. cikācika·si̯a-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
Rsi̯›ṣ → TochB. cikācika·ṣa-
OInd. tikno-
(pr.5.) ‘to go’
(MonWil. 446)
(OInd. tiknoti)
1. PIE *tikneu-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *tiknau-
2. tiknau-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *tiknō-
3. tiknō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → OInd. tikno-
RV. ní·tikti-
(f.) ‘Hast, Eile’
(WbRV. 728)
√tigɑɦ-
OHG. digan-
(pret.pt.) ‘XX’
(XX:XX)
OHG. digan [pt.])
1. PIE *tigɑɦono
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tigɦono
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tigɦono
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þigɦono
3. þigɦono
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *þigono
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. þigono
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þigana
5. þigana
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *þigan
6. þigan
*þ → d
OHG sound shift of *þ
Rþ›d → OHG. digan
OHG. digu-
(pret.pl) ‘to thrive’
(XX:XX)
(OHG. digun [pl])
1. PIE *tigɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tigɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tigɦu-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þigɦu-
3. þigɦu-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *þigu-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. þigu-
*þ → d
OHG sound shift of *þ
Rþ›d → OHG. digu-
Pal. tigu̯ar-
(.) ‘= ti=kuar (?) HHand. 176; ‹a guess by form›
(DPal. 73)
(Pal. ti-ku-ar [inf.?])
1. PIE *tigɑɦu̯or-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tigɦu̯or-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tigɦu̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tigɦu̯ar-
3. tigɦu̯ar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Pal. tigu̯ar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ti- ‘Spitze’
√tiɑh-
√diɑɦ-
√digɑɦi- ‘Spitze‘
OHG. zeigō-
(vb.) ‘anstacheln, stoßen: stimulare’
(Gl. 8th Cent.)
1. PIE *doigɑɦiēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *doigɑɦiāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. doigɑɦiāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *doigɦiāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. doigɦiāh-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *doiǵɦāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. doiǵɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *doiǵɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. doiǵɦā-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *doigɦā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. doigɦā-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *toigɦā-
7. toigɦā-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *toigā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
8. toigā-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *taigā-
9. taigā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *taigō-
(XX:XX)
10. taigō-
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
Rai›ei → *teigō-
11. teigō-
*t → z
OHG sound shift of *t
Rt›z → *zeigō-
12. zeigō-
*ō → uo
Change of ō into uo
Rō›uo → OHG. zeiguo-
Hitt. deigni-
(URUDU/GIŠn.) ‘Sum. URUDU/GIŠAL’
(HHand. 173)
(Hitt. te-e-kán teignet padai)
1. PIE *deigɑɦini-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *deigɦini-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. deigɦini-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *deiǵɦni-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. deiǵɦni-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *deigɦni-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. deigɦni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. deigni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √tɑhs- √dɑɦs- (vb.) ‘eilen, galoppieren’ (sb.) ‘Gewässername, Fisch, usw.’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√tɑhs-
RV. vi·tástā-
(IDf.) ‘im Fünfstromland; neben asiknî-’
(WbRV. 1269)
1. PIE *Π·tóɑhstēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·tóɑhstāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·tóɑhstāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·tóhstāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·tóhstāh-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·táhstāh-
4. Π·táhstāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. Π·tástā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
LAv. baeša·tastura-
(a.) ‘von baešatastura- abstammend, dessen Nachkomme’
(AIWb. 914)
1. PIE *Π·toɑhsturo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·tohsturo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·tohsturo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·tahstura-
3. Π·tahstura-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → LAv. Π·tastura-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
LAv. aoiγma·tastura-
(Im.) ‘EN eines Gläubigen’
(AIWb. 357)
(LAv. aoiγmatasturahe [sgG])
1. PIE *Π·toɑhsturo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·tohsturo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·tohsturo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·tahstura-
3. Π·tahstura-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → LAv. Π·tastura-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
LAv. vi·taŋuhaitī-
(IDf.) ‘N. eines Gewässers’
(AIWb. 1438-9)
1. PIE *Π·toɑhsu̯etiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *Π·toɑhsu̯etiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·toɑhsu̯etiíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·tohsu̯etiíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·tohsu̯etiíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·tahsu̯etiíh-
4. Π·tahsu̯etiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·tasu̯etií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·tasu̯etií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *Π·tasu̯etī́-
6. Π·tasu̯etī́-
su̯ -> ŋuh
Change of su̯ into ŋuh
Rsu̯›ŋuh → *Π·taŋuhetī́-
7. Π·taŋuhetī́-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *Π·taŋuhatī́-
8. Π·taŋuhatī́-
*ati → aiti
Anaptyxis of *i
RatI›aitI → *Π·taŋuhaitī́-
9. Π·taŋuhaitī́-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → LAv. Π·taŋuhaitī-
√deɑɦs-
Gr. δασκάζο-
(vb.) Hes. ‘ὑποφεύγει’
(LSJ. 370)
(Gr. δασκάζει)
1. PIE *deɑɦski̯éɑdi̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *daɑɦski̯éɑdi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. daɑɦski̯éɑdi̯o-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *daɑɦski̯áɑdi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
3. daɑɦski̯áɑdi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *daɦski̯ádi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. daɦski̯ádi̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *daɦsḱádi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. daɦsḱádi̯o-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dasḱádi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. dasḱádi̯o-
PIE *di̯ → j
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
Rdi̯›j → *dasḱájo-
7. dasḱájo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *daskájo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
8. daskájo-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *daskázo-
9. daskázo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. δασκάζο-
Gr. δάσκιλλο-
(.) ‘a name of a fish’
(Gr. δάσκιλλος)
1. PIE *déɑɦski̯ilno-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *dáɑɦski̯ilno-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. dáɑɦski̯ilno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dáɦski̯ilno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. dáɦski̯ilno-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *dáɦsḱilno-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. dáɦsḱilno-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dásḱilno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dásḱilno-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *dáskilno-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. dáskilno-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *dáskillo-
7. dáskillo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. δάσκιλλο-
√dɑɦes-
Hitt. dešai-
(vb.) ‘in Marsch setzen, mobil machen’
(HHand. 174)
1. PIE *dɑɦesoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦesoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦesoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦesai-
3. dɦesai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *desai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. desai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. dešai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦesti-
Lat. con.festī·-
(adv.) ‘stracks, sofort’
(Lat. con·festim, Walde: *“mit Eile”)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦestiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *Π·dɑɦestiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·dɑɦestiíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·dɦestiíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·dɦestiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·dɦestií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·dɦestií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *Π·dɦestī́-
5. Π·dɦestī́-
*dɦ → f
Affricativization of dental *dɦ
Rdɦ›f → *Π·festī́-
6. Π·festī́-
*f → b
Change of *f into b
Rf›b → *Π·bestī́-
7. Π·bestī́-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → Lat. Π·bestī-
Lat. festīnā-
(pr.1.) ‘sich sputen, eilen’
(Lat. festīnāre [inf.])
1. PIE *dɑɦestiɑ́nēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *dɑɦestiɑ́nāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. dɑɦestiɑ́nāɑh-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *dɑɦestiínāɑh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
3. dɑɦestiínāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦestiínāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. dɦestiínāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dɦestiínā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dɦestiínā-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *dɦestī́nā-
6. dɦestī́nā-
*dɦ → f
Affricativization of dental *dɦ
Rdɦ›f → *festī́nā-
7. festī́nā-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → Lat. festīnā-
√dɑɦostor-
Hitt. daštara-
(GN.c.) ‘‹cf. below & above›’
(OHP. 1:460)
(Hitt. ta-aš-ta-ra-an [sgA])
1. PIE *dɑɦostoro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦostoro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦostoro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦastara-
3. dɦastara-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *dastara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. dastara-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. daštara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. daštari-
(vb.) ‘galoppieren (?)’
(HHand. 172)
(DLL 95)
1. PIE *dɑɦostori-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦostori-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦostori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦastari-
3. dɦastari-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *dastari-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. dastari-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. daštari-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. daštari̯eša-
(URUc.) ‘Nicht weit entfernt von › Kaštama’
(OGH. 412)
(“(...) › Ka˙amiša. Neben › Taptina”; OGHErg. 164-5)
1. PIE *dɑɦostori̯eso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦostori̯eso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦostori̯eso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦastari̯esa-
3. dɦastari̯esa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *dastari̯esa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. dastari̯esa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. daštari̯eša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √tɑhu-
√tɑhum-
OInd. tomára-
(m.) ‘Wurfspieß, Spieß’
(KEWA X:XX)
1. PIE *teɑhumóro-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhumóro-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhumóro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahumóro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahumóro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tahumóra-
4. tahumóra-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *tahumára-
5. tahumára-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *taumára-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. taumára-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *tōmára-
7. tōmára-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → OInd. tomára-
√tɑhur-
Lat. tauro-
(m.) ‘Baumstumpf’
(WH. 2:650)
1. PIE *teɑhuro-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhuro-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhuro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahuro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahuro-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. tauro-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Hitt. taḫuru̯aili-
(LÚ.c.) ‘Seigneur de la lance ‹or LU(?)›’
(NOMS. 1205)
(Hitt. ta-ḫur-ua-i-li-iš)
1. PIE *teɑhuru̯oili-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhuru̯oili-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhuru̯oili-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahuru̯oili-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahuru̯oili-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tahuru̯aili-
4. tahuru̯aili-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. taḫuru̯aili-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√tɑhut-
Lat. tautano-
(n.) ‘Wurfholz, Keule’
(WH. 2:652)
1. PIE *teɑhuteɑhno-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑhutaɑhno-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑhutaɑhno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tahutahno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tahutahno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. tautano-
(SPIE §2.1.4)


PIE √tl- √tol- √tel- ‘lassen, dulden, ertragen’
(IEW. 1060)
(+ Kapancjan + Pyysalo)
√tolo-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. tala-
(vb.2.) ‘beistehen, (in Ruhe) lassen’
(HHand. 161)
1. PIE *tolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. tala-
Hitt. pi·tala-
(vb.) ‘verlassen, -werfen, -nachlässigen’
(HHand. 133)
(Hitt. píd-da-la-si, píd-da-la-an-zi)
1. PIE *Π·tolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·tala-
√toli-
(Kapancjan 1931)
Arm. t'oł-
(ao.) ‘lassen, dulden, ertragen’
(Arm. XX)
(in Arm. t'ołi, (HEG 3:53-4), HIL. 943-)
1. PIE *tóli̯-
*li̯ → ł
Change of *li̯ into ł
Rli̯›ł → *tół-
2. tół-
*ó → o
Loss/Absence of accent
Ró›o → Arm. toł-
Hitt. talei̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘beistehen, (in Ruhe) lassen’
(HHand. 161)
1. PIE *tolei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. talei̯a-
Hitt. pi·talai-
(vb.1.) ‘verlassen, -werfen, -nachlässigen’
(HHand. 133)
(Hitt. píd-da-la-it)
1. PIE *Π·toloi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·talai-
√toliskio-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. tališke/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘beistehen, (in Ruhe) lassen’
(HHand. 161)
1. PIE *toliski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *tolisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. tolisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *talisḱe/a-
3. talisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *taliske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. taliske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. tališke/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. pi·tališke/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘verlassen, -werfen, -nachlässigen’
(HHand. 133)
(CHD P:358, pí-it-ta-li-es-ke/a-)
1. PIE *Π·toliski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *Π·tolisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. Π·tolisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·talisḱe/a-
3. Π·talisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *Π·taliske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. Π·taliske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. Π·tališke/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√toliu-
Arm. t'ołu-
(pr.) ‘lassen, dulden, ertragen’
(XX)
(Arm. t'ołum [1sg])
1. PIE *tóli̯u-
*li̯ → ł
Change of *li̯ into ł
Rli̯›ł → *tółu-
2. tółu-
*ó → o
Loss/Absence of accent
Ró›o → Arm. tołu-
√tolno-
(Petersen 1937: 210)
(Apud HIL. 944)
Lat. tollo-
(vb.) ‘aufheben, erheben, entfernen’
(WH. 2:688)
1. PIE *tolno-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → Lat. tollo-


PIE √tl- √tol- √tel- (vb.) ‘prügeln, stampfen, schlagen’
(IEW XX)
√telo-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. tala-
(m.) ‘Anschlagen der Saiten mit linken hand’
(KEWA 1:488)
1. PIE *toLo-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *tolo-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. tolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. tala-
Lat. tēlo-
(n.) ‘speerartig lange Stange’
(Lat. tēlum)
√tolku- √telku-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. talku-
(vb.) ‹‘schlagen (?); obj. = ‘marking’’›
(DLL 89)
(CLu. ku-lu-us-ta-na-ti ta-al-ku-du [3sg])
1. PIE *tolku-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. talku-
OCS. tlĕk-
(vb.) ‘klopfen, stossen, schlagen’
(Sadnik √975)
(OCS. tlĕšti [inf.])
1. PIE *telku-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *telk-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
2. telk-
*elk -> lĕk
Slavic metathesis of elk to lĕk
Relk›lĕk → OCS. tlĕk-


PIE √tl- √tol- √tel- ‘binden’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + CLu. + Gr.)
√tolup-
(HEG T:XX)
Otten & Siegelová (1970: 36), Oettinger (1979:227), Melchert (1994a: 171
Hitt. talupa-
(vb.1.) ‘verflechten, verzieren’
(HHand. 162)
(Hitt. ta-lu-up-pa-an-da-an, ta-lu-up-pa-an)
1. PIE *tolupo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. talupa-
Att. τολύπη-
(f.) ‘Knäuel von Wolle oder Garn’
(GEW 2:909)
1. PIE *tolúpēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tolúpāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tolúpāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tolúpāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tolúpāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tolúpā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tolúpā-
ā –> ē (Att)
Attican change of ā –› ē
Rā›ēAtt → *tolúpē-
5. tolúpē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Att. τολύπη-
Att. τολύπη-
(f.) ‘Zwiebelknollen, Kürbissen, kugelförmigen Kuchen’
(GEW 2:909)
1. PIE *tolúpēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tolúpāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tolúpāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tolúpāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tolúpāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tolúpā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tolúpā-
ā –> ē (Att)
Attican change of ā –› ē
Rā›ēAtt → *tolúpē-
5. tolúpē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Att. τολύπη-
Hitt. talupi-
(c.) ‘Fladen, Brotstück, Tonbrocken, Erdklumpen’
(HHand. 162)
1. PIE *tolupi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. talupi-
CLu. talupi-
(.) ‘Tonbrocken, Erdklumpen, HHand. 162’
(DLL. 89)
(CLu. ta-lu-up-pí-iš, ta-lu-up-pí-in)
1. PIE *tolupi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. talupi-
OHitt. talupuša-
(c.) ‘-(?)-’
(HHand. 162)
1. PIE *tolupuso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *talupusa-
2. talupusa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → OHitt. talupuša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √tm- √tom- √tem- (sb.) ‘Geburt, Gebärerin’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√tom-
TochA. tam-
(pret.M.) ‘generare’ (intr.) ‘nasci’
(Poucha. 121)
1. PIE *tom-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. tam-
TochA. tamä-
(pret.M.) ‘generare’ (intr.) ‘nasci’
(Poucha. 121)
(TochA. tamät)
1. PIE *tomo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. tama-
HLu. tami-
(sb.) ‘parent(s) ?’
(CHLu. 2.27.13)
(HLu. 20 tá-mi 10 INFANS-ní)
1. PIE *tomi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. tami-
TochB. camel-
(n.) ‘birth, rebirth, birthform’
(DTochB. 251)
(TochB. camel)
1. PIE *temoil-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *temail-
2. temail-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *ti̯amail-
3. ti̯amail-
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›c → *camail-
4. camail-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *camēl-
5. camēl-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. camel-
TochB. a·tāmo-
(sb.) ‘unfruitful (barren) ground’
(DTochB. 9)
1. PIE *Π·tōmou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·tōmau-
2. Π·tōmau-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·tāmau-
3. Π·tāmau-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *Π·tāmō-
4. Π·tāmō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. Π·tāmo-


PIE √tm- √tom- √tem- (vb.) ‘schneiden’
(IEW XX)
√tom-
Gr. τόμο-
(m.) ‘XX’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *tómo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. τόμο-
Gr. τομό-
(m.) ‘XX’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *tomó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. τομό-
Hitt. tamaša·tališa-
(LÚc.) ‘Metzger’ (?) = Hitt. tapa-šatala-’
Rieken (1999:148)
1. PIE *tomoso·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tamasa·Σ-
2. tamasa·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. tamaša·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√tomi-
Hitt. tamiša·tala-
(LÚc.) ‘Metzger’ (?) = Hitt. tapa-šatala-’
(HHand. 163)
(“ein Funktionär, der mit dem Besorgen von Speisen beschäftig ist”)
1. PIE *tomiso·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tamisa·Σ-
2. tamisa·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. tamiša·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√toms-
Hitt. tamša·tala-
(LÚc.) ‘Metzger (?)’
(HHand. 163)
(“ein Funktionär, der mit dem Besorgen von Speisen beschäftig ist”)
1. PIE *tomso·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tamsa·Σ-
2. tamsa·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. tamša·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√tomu-
CLu. tamuga-
(n.) ‘Schnipsel, Abgeschnittetes, HHand. 163’
(DLL. 90)
(CLu. da-am-mu-u-ga [plA] der Zehennägel)
1. PIE *tomugɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tomugɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. tomugɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tamugɦa-
3. tamugɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. tamuga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √tep-, √top- ‘schlagen, hauen, schneiden’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo)
√tep-
Lith. tèp-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, hauen’
(LiEtWb. 1081)
1. PIE *tép-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → Lith. tèp-
Bulg. tepa-
(vb.) ‘XX’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *tepēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tepāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tepāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tepāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tepāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tepā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tepā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Bulg. tepa-
√top-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. anta tapa·-
(vb.) ‘destroy’
(CHLu. 2.13.13)
(HLu. *261(-)ta-pa-i [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·topo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·tapa-
Russ. tópa-
(vb.) ‘stampfen’
(REW 3:120)
(Russ. tópat’ [inf.])
1. PIE *tópēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *tópāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. tópāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tópāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tópāh-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *tápāh-
4. tápāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tápā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. tápā-
*á → ó
Change of *á into ó
Rá›ó → *tópā-
6. tópā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Russ. tópa-
OIcl. þefja-
(vb.) ‘stampfen (von Grütze)’
(ANEtWb. 606)
1. PIE *topei̯o-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›fRestr → *tofei̯o-
2. tofei̯o-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þofei̯o-
3. þofei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þafei̯a-
4. þafei̯a-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *þafii̯a-
5. þafii̯a-
*a – i i̯ → e – i̯
Umlaut for *a – ii̯
Rafii̯›efi̯ → *þefi̯a-
6. þefi̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → OIcl. þefja-
√topos-
Hitt. tapaša·dala-
(LÚc.) ‘Metzger’ (?)
(HHand. 163, 165)
1. PIE *toposo·dɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *toposo·dɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. toposo·dɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tapasa·dɦala-
3. tapasa·dɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *tapasa·dala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tapasa·dala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. tapaša·dala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √tr- √tor- √ter-
(IEW –, Adams)
tor-
Khot. tāra-
(.) ‘crown of the head’
(DTochB. 281)
1. PIE *tōro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tōra-
2. tōra-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → Khot. tāra-
ModPers. tār-
(sb.) ‘crown of the head’
(DTochB. 281)
1. PIE *tōro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tōra
2. tōra
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *tāra
3. tāra
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → ModPers. tār
√tori-
(Adams, DTochB.)
(Pyysalo: Gr. + HLu. + Goth.)
HLu. tari-
(vb.) ‘raise’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *tori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. tari-
Gr. τερί·καρπο-
(a.) ‘Hes. = μεγαλόκαρπον’
(LSJ. 1777)
Gr. τερί·καρπο-
1. PIE *terí·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. τερί·Σ-
Goth. þarih-
(a.) ‘unshrunk : ἄγναφος’
(GoEtWb. 355)
(Goth. þarihis [sgG])
1. PIE *toriko
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *torixo
2. torixo
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *þorixo
3. þorixo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *þarixa
4. þarixa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *þarix
5. þarix
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *þarih
6. þarih
i → ai
Opening of i into ai
Ri›ai → Goth. þaraih
Khot. tāri-
(.) ‘crown of the head’
(DTochB. 281)
1. PIE *tōri-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → Khot. tāri-
ModPers. tāre-
(sb.) ‘crown of the head’
(DTochB. 281)
1. PIE *tōrei̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tōrei̯a
2. tōrei̯a
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *tārei̯a
3. tārei̯a
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *tārai̯a
4. tārai̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *tārai̯
5. tārai̯
*a y → ē
Change of ay into ē in root-final
R=ay›=ē → *tārē
6. tārē
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → ModPers. tāre


PIE √tr- √otr- √etr- (vb.) ‘essen, fressen’ (sb.) ‘Nahrung, Fresser’ (a.) ‘verzehrend, gefrässig’
(IEW XX)
√otro-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. atra·ḫiša-
(n.) ‘Nahrung’
(HHand. 29)
(DLL. 34, at-ra-ḫi-ša)
1. PIE *otro·ɦɑiso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *otro·ɦiso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. otro·ɦiso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *atra·ɦisa-
3. atra·ɦisa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *atra·ɦiša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. atra·ɦiša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. atra·ḫiša-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
RV. átra-
(n.) ‘Nahrungsstoff’
(WbRV. 31)
(RV. átra-)
1. PIE *ótro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ótra-
2. ótra-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. átra-
RV. atrá-
(a.) ‘der Fresser’
(WbRV. 31)
(RV. atrá-)
1. PIE *otró-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *atró-
2. atró-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. atrá-
√trɦɑgi-
Gr. τρώγ-
(f.) ‘Kornwurm’
(GEW 2:XX)
(Gr. τρώξ)
1. PIE *trɦɑṓgi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *trɦṓgi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. trɦṓgi-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *trɦṓǵ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. trɦṓǵ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *trṓǵ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. trṓǵ-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *trṓg-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. trṓg-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. τρώγ-
Gr. τρώγο-
(pr.) ‘zernagen, knuppern, Rohes fressen’
(Gr. τρώγω)
1. PIE *trɦɑṓgi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *trɦṓgi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. trɦṓgi̯o-
PIE