PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
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PIE



PIE √n- √no- √ne- (vb.) ‘treiben, fahren, wenden, leiten’ (sb.) ‘Arm, Hand’
(IEW 760)
(Pyysalo: Gr.)
√no-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. na-
(vb.2.) ‘wenden, lenken, schicken’
(HEG 2:253-7
(Hitt. na-i; ‹or PIE *noj·i)
1. PIE *no-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. na-
OInd. na-
(m.) ‘gift: Geschenk’
(MonWil. 523)
(Lex. nas [sgN])
1. PIE *no-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. na-
Hitt. išḫu·na-
(.) ‘Oberarm : upper [ishu-] arm’
(HHand. 64)
(Hitt. iš-ḫu-na-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·no-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·na-
√neno- √nono-
(Pyysalo)
(Sturtevant: CGr1 [1933]: 215, 247)
Gr. ἀπο·νένο-
(pr.M.) ‘ἀποστρέφεται’
(LSJ. 210)
(Gr. ἀπονένεται · ἀποστρέφεται)
1. PIE *hɑepo·néno-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑapo·néno-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapo·néno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hapo·néno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hapo·néno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *apo·néno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. apo·néno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀπο·νένο-
Hitt. nana-
(vb.intr.) ‘treiben, ziehen, marschieren, fahren’
(HEG 2:272, HIL. 692)
(Hitt n]a-an-na-i [3sg] 1 UDU ap-pa-an-[zi] [3pl], na-an-na-aḫ-ḫi [1sg], na-na-an-zi, na-an-na-ú)
1. PIE *nono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. nana-
CLu. nana-
(vb.) ‘lenken, leiten, richten, schicken, wenden’
(DLL. 73, HHand. 110)
(CLu. na-na-a-at-ti [3sg], na-n[a-a]n-ta)
1. PIE *nono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. nana-
Hitt. apa nana·-
(vb.tr.) ‘fahren, treiben, zurückziehen, -treiben’
(HEG 2:272)
(Hitt. GIŠḫa-at-tal-ua-an-za GIM-an GIŠSAG.GUL EGIR-pa na-an-na-a-i [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·nono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·nana-
√nɑh-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. išḫu·naḫ-
(.) ‘Oberarm : upper arm’
(HHand. 64)
(Hitt. iš-ḫu-na-aḫ-)
1. PIE *Π·neɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *Π·naɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. Π·naɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·nah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·nah-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·naḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. naḫ·ši-
(c.) ‘Handvoll (Öl, Honig, Früchte & Wein)
(HEG 2:251)
(Hitt. Ì.DUG.GA na-aḫ-ši-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *neɑh·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nah·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nah·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. naḫ·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. naḫ·zi-
(c.) ‘Handvoll’ (CHD L-N 341) (Akd. (½)UPNU)
(HEG 2:251-2)
(Hitt. [G]EŠTIN! na-aḫ-zi-i[š] [sgN])
1. PIE *neɑh·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nah·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nah·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. naḫ·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. naḫa·ši-
(c.) ‘Handvoll’ (eine kleine Mengenangabe)
(HEG 2:251)
(Hitt. 1 na-aḫ-ḫa-ši-iš Ì.NUN = “1 N. Butterschmalz”)
1. PIE *neɑho·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑho·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑho·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *naho·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. naho·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *naha·Σ-
4. naha·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. naḫa·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√nɑhi-
(IEW 760)
RV. ná.i-
(ao.) ‘führen, leiten’
(WbRV. 739)
(RV. náïṣi [2sg])
1. PIE *néɑHi-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *náɑHi-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. náɑHi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *náHi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. náHi-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → RV. ná.i-
RV. ninā́y·a
(pf.A.) ‘führen, leiten’
(WbRV. 739)
(RV. ninā́ya [3sg])
1. PIE *ninóɑhi̯·e
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ninóhi̯·e
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ninóhi̯·e
PIE *óhCV → ā́hCV
Brugmann’s Law for *óhCV
RóHCV›ā́HCV → *ninā́hi̯·e
(SPIE §2.3.7)
3. ninā́hi̯·e
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ninā́i̯·e
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ninā́i̯·e
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *ninā́i̯·a
5. ninā́i̯·a
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. ninā́y·a
RV. na.itár-
(m.) ‘Führer, Leiter, Lenker’
(WbRV. 754)
(RV. naïtā́ [sgN])
1. PIE *neɑHitór-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑHitór-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑHitór-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *naHitór-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. naHitór-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *naHitár-
4. naHitár-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → RV. na.itár-
RV. nī́-
(ao.) ‘darbringen’
(WbRV. 735)
(RV. ánītām [3du])
1. PIE *nɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *níhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. níhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *níi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. níi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → RV. nī́-
√noi-
Hitt. para (...) nai-
(vb.2.) ‘lenken, leiten, richten, schicken, wenden’
(HEG 2:254)
(Hitt. pa-ra-a na-it-ti [2sg] ‘schickest’)
1. PIE *Π·noi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·nai-
Hitt. arḫa (...) nai-
(vb.2.) ‘loslassen’
(Hitt. ar-ḫa-pát na-iš [pret3sg])
1. PIE *Π·noi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·nai-
Hitt. ḫaku·nai-
(DUG?.) ‘Gefäß für Öl, ‘Flasche (?)’
(HEG I:125)
(Hitt. ḫakunai-, EHS 207)
1. PIE *hɑeku·noi-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaku·noi-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaku·noi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haku·noi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haku·noi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *haku·nai-
4. haku·nai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫaku·nai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√nei-
Hitt. nei-
(pr.2.A.) ‘wenden, lenken, leiten, richten, schicken’
(HEG 2:253-7)
(Hitt. ne-e-eḫ-ḫi, ne-e-eḫ-[ḫu-un])
Hitt. nei-
(pr.M.) ‘sich wenden’
(HEG 2:253-7)
(Hitt. ne-e-a, ne-a [3sg], ni-ia-an-ta-ri, ni-ia-ri, ne-ia-aḫ-ḫa-ri [1sg])
Hitt. arḫa nanei·-
(vb.) ‘herbeitreiben’
(HEG 2:272)
(Hitt. ar-ḫa na-an-ni--er)
1. PIE *Π·nonei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·nanei-
Hitt. nei̯a-
(vb.) ‘wenden, lenken, leiten, richten, schicken’
(HEG 2:253-7)
(Hitt. ne-e-ia-an-zi, ni-ia-ši [2sg])
1. PIE *nei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. nei̯a-
Hitt. arḫa neinei̯a·-
(vb.) ‘treiben, wegtreiben’
(HEG II:272)
(Hitt. 2 UDUḪI.A (...) ar-ḫa ne-in-ni-a-an-zi [3pl])
1. PIE *Π·neinei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·neinei̯a-
√nou-
Hitt. ḫarga·nau-
(c./n.) ‘ein Körperteil, Sohle?, Ferse?’
(HHand. 42)
(Hitt. ḫar-ga-na-ú, ḫar-ga-na-u-ua-aš)
1. PIE *ɦɑergi̯o·nou-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑargi̯o·nou-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑargi̯o·nou-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦargi̯o·nou-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦargi̯o·nou-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *ɦarǵo·nou-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. ɦarǵo·nou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦarǵa·nau-
5. ɦarǵa·nau-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *ɦarga·nau-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. ɦarga·nau-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫarga·nau-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. išḫu·nau-
(c.) ‘Oberarm’
(HHand. 64)
(Hitt. iš-ḫu-na-ú-uš [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·nou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·nau-
Hitt. išḫu·nau-
(n.) ‘Oberarm’
(HHand. 64)
(Hitt. [iš]-ḫu-na-ú, iš-ḫu-na-u-ua, iš-ḫu-na-u-ua-aš, iš-ḫu-na-u-i)
1. PIE *Π·nou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·nau-
Hitt. ḫarga·nau̯ant-
(c.) ‘ein Körperteil, Sohle?, Ferse?’
(HHand. 42)
(Hitt. ḫar-ga-na-u-ua-an-za)
1. PIE *ɦɑergi̯o·nou̯ont-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑargi̯o·nou̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑargi̯o·nou̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦargi̯o·nou̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦargi̯o·nou̯ont-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *ɦarǵo·nou̯ont-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. ɦarǵo·nou̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦarǵa·nau̯ant-
5. ɦarǵa·nau̯ant-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *ɦarga·nau̯ant-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. ɦarga·nau̯ant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫarga·nau̯ant-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. išḫu·nau̯ant-
(c.) ‘Oberarm’
(HHand. 64)
(Hitt. iš-ḫu-na-u-ua-an-za)
1. PIE *Π·nou̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·nau̯ant-
√noui-
Hitt. ḫarga·nau̯i-
(c.) ‘ein Körperteil, Sohle?, Ferse?’
(HHand. 42)
(Hitt. ḫar-ga-na-ú-i, ḫar-ga-na-u-i-ša-at [N])
1. PIE *ɦɑergi̯o·nou̯i-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑargi̯o·nou̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑargi̯o·nou̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦargi̯o·nou̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦargi̯o·nou̯i-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *ɦarǵo·nou̯i-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. ɦarǵo·nou̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦarǵa·nau̯i-
5. ɦarǵa·nau̯i-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *ɦarga·nau̯i-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. ɦarga·nau̯i-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫarga·nau̯i-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √n- ‘biegen (cf. RV. tyaj- : Gr. σεβ-)
(IEW: in extension(s))
(Pyysalo + XX)
√nɑh- ‘biegen’
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. naḫ-
(vb.1.) ‘(sich) fürchten, vorsichtig sein’
(CHD LN:338f.])
(Hitt. na-aḫ-mi, na-aḫ-ti [3sg])
1. PIE *neɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nah-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. naḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. naḫ-
(vb.2.) ‘(sich) fürchten, vorsichtig sein’
(HIL. 683)
(Hitt. na-a-ḫi [3sg], ḪUŠ-ḫi [3sg])
1. PIE *neɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nah-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. naḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Kpd. naḫ·pašu̯a-
() ((f.)c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 845)
(Kpd. na-aḫ-pá-áš-ua)
1. PIE *neɑh·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nah·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nah·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Kpd. naḫ·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OGaul. nem·na·liu-
(vb.) ‘célèbrer’
(DLG. 234)
1. PIE *nem·neɑh·liu-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *nem·naɑh·liu-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. nem·naɑh·liu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nem·nah·liu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nem·nah·liu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OGaul. nem·na·liu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OIr. nem·na·ll-
(sb.) ‘célébration (de la messe)’
(DIL. 477)
1. PIE *nem·neɑh·lno
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *nem·naɑh·lno
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. nem·naɑh·lno
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nem·nah·lno
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nem·nah·lno
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nem·na·lno
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. nem·na·lno
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *nem·na·llo
5. nem·na·llo
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → OIr. nem·na·ll
√nɑho-
Hitt. naḫa-
(LÚ.c.) ‘égyptien; if *σεβαστος vel sim.›
(NOMS. 842)
1. PIE *noɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *noho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. noho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *naha-
3. naha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. naḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. naḫa-
(.) ‘-(?)-’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *noɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *noho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. noho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *naha-
3. naha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. naḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√nɑhi-
Hitt. naḫi-
(pr.A.) ‘fürchten’
(HIL. 683)
(Hitt. na-a-ḫi, na-ḫi [ipv2sg])
1. PIE *neɑhi-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑhi-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nahi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nahi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. naḫi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Pal. naḫi-
(.) ‘-(?)-, HHand. 109)
(DPal. 64)
(Pal. na-aḫ-ḫi-ir [if 3pl?])
1. PIE *neɑhi-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑhi-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nahi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nahi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Pal. naḫi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. naḫi·ru̯a-
(NÚ.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 843)
1. PIE *neɑhi·ru̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑhi·ru̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑhi·ru̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nahi·ru̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nahi·ru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nahi·ru̯a-
4. nahi·ru̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. naḫi·ru̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. naḫiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘zu Hitt. naḫ- ‘sich fürchten’
(HHand. 109)
(Hitt. [n]a-aḫ-ḫe-eš-ki-mi-ua, na-a-ḫi-eš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *neɑhi·ski̯e/o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑhi·ski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑhi·ski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nahi·ski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nahi·ski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *nahi·sḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. nahi·sḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nahi·sḱe/a-
5. nahi·sḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *nahi·ske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. nahi·ske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *nahi·ške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. nahi·ške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. naḫi·ške/a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. naḫišra-
(.) ‘-(?)-’ < ‘Erfurcht’ (o.ä.) (?) >
(HHand. 109)
(KLu. na-ḫi-iš-ra)
1. PIE *neɑhi·sro-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑhi·sro-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑhi·sro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nahi·sro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nahi·sro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nahi·sra-
4. nahi·sra-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *nahi·šra-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. nahi·šra-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. naḫi·šra-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√nɑhim-
(Pyysalo)
RV. nem-
(pf.) ‘sich beugen, sein Macht weichen’
(WbRV. 710)
1. PIE *noɑhim-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nohim-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. nohim-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nahim-
3. nahim-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *naim-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. naim-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *nēm-
5. nēm-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → RV. nem-
RV. nemí-
(f.) ‘Radkranz, Radfelge’ (WbRV. 755)
(EWA 2:56)
1. PIE *noɑhimí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nohimí-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. nohimí-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nahimí-
3. nahimí-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *naimí-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. naimí-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *nēmí-
5. nēmí-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → RV. nemí-
Galat. δρυ·ναίμετο-
(n.) ‘heiliger Eichenhain’
(IEW. 215)
1. PIE *drɑɦu·neɑhímeto-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *drɑɦu·naɑhímeto-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. drɑɦu·naɑhímeto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *drɦu·nahímeto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. drɦu·nahímeto-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *dru·nahímeto-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. dru·nahímeto-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *dru·naímeto-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. dru·naímeto-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Galat. δρυ·ναίμετο-
√nɑhon
Hitt. naḫan-
(n.) ‘Ehrfürcht’
(HHand. 109)
(Hitt. XX)
1. PIE *neɑhon-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑhon-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑhon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nahon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nahon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nahan-
4. nahan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. naḫan-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. naḫant-
(pt.) ‘ehrfürchtig’
(HHand. 109)
(Hitt. na-aḫ-ḫa-an-te-eš [plN])
1. PIE *neɑhont-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑhont-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑhont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nahont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nahont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nahant-
4. nahant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. naḫant-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. naḫanta-
(URU.) ‘zwischen › Pitaša und dem Hulaja’
(OGHErg. 109)
(Hitt. na-aḫ-ḫa-an-ta-aš [N])
1. PIE *neɑhonto-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑhonto-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑhonto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nahonto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nahonto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nahanta-
4. nahanta-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. naḫanta-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√nɑhor-
HLu. naḫarša-
(ḪUR.SAGa.gen.) ‘of NAḪAR (?)?’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. MONS(-)na-hara/i-sà-na(?))
1. PIE *neɑhorso-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑhorso-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑhorso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nahorso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nahorso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *naharsa-
4. naharsa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *naharša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. naharša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. naḫarša-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√nɑhso-
HLu. naḫša-
(vb.iter.) mng. between ‘bow, fear, expect’ (?)
(XX:XX)
(HLu. ANNUS(-)na-ha-sax-hax [1sg])
1. PIE *neɑhso-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑhso-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑhso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nahso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nahso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nahsa-
4. nahsa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *nahša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. nahša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. naḫša-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√nɑhsr-
OIr. nār-
(a.) [ ‘schamhaft : noble, modest’
(LEIA N-3)
(OIr. nār [sgN])
1. PIE *nḗɑhsro-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *nā́ɑhsro-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. nā́ɑhsro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nā́hsro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nā́hsro-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nā́sro-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. nā́sro-
*sr → r
Loss of *s before r
Rsr›r → *nā́ro-
5. nā́ro-
Rā́›ā → OIr. nāro-
Hitt. nāḫšrat-
(c.) ‘Furcht, Angst, Ehrfurcht, Furchtsamkeit’
(HHand. 109)
(Hitt. na-aḫ-ša-ra-az, na-aḫ-ša-ra-at-ta-an)
1. PIE *nēɑhsrot-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *nāɑhsrot-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. nāɑhsrot-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nāhsrot-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nāhsrot-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nāhsrat-
4. nāhsrat-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *nāhšrat-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. nāhšrat-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. nāḫšrat-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OIr. nāire-
(f.) ‘shame, nobility, modesty’
(DIL. 474)
1. PIE *nḗɑhsri̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *nḗɑhsri̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. nḗɑhsri̯āɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *nā́ɑhsri̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. nā́ɑhsri̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nā́hsri̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. nā́hsri̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nā́sri̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. nā́sri̯ā
*sr → r
Loss of *s before r
Rsr›r → *nā́ri̯ā
6. nā́ri̯ā
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *nā́ri̯a
7. nā́ri̯a
*i̯o/i̯a -›ē
Monophthongization of final -i̯o/i̯a into -ē
R=i̯V›=ē → *nā́rē
8. nā́rē
*-ē → -e
Shortening of ē in root-final position
R=ē›=e → *nā́re
9. nā́re
Rā́›ā → OIr. nāre
Hitt. nāḫšrei̯a-
(vb.1.A.dn.) ‘sich fürchten, Ehrfurcht erweisen’
(HHand. 109)
(Hitt. na-aḫ-ša-ri-ia-az-zi [3pl])
1. PIE *nēɑhsrei̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *nāɑhsrei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. nāɑhsrei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nāhsrei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nāhsrei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nāhsrei̯a-
4. nāhsrei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *nāhšrei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. nāhšrei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. nāḫšrei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. nāḫšrei̯a-
(vb.1.M.dn.) ‘sich fürchten, Ehrfurcht erweisen’
(HHand. 109)
(Hitt. na-aḫ-šar-ri-ia-an-da-ri [3pl])
1. PIE *nēɑhsrei̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *nāɑhsrei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. nāɑhsrei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nāhsrei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nāhsrei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nāhsrei̯a-
4. nāhsrei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *nāhšrei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. nāhšrei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. nāḫšrei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. nāḫšriške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘sich fürchten, Ehrfurcht erweisen’
(HHand. 109)
(Hitt. na-aḫ-ša-ri-iš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *nēɑhsriski̯e/o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *nāɑhsriski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. nāɑhsriski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nāhsriski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nāhsriski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *nāhsrisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. nāhsrisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nāhsrisḱe/a-
5. nāhsrisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *nāhsriske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. nāhsriske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *nāhšriške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. nāhšriške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. nāḫšriške/a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. nāḫšrei̯au̯ant-
(a.) ‘furchtsam’
(HHand. 109)
(Hitt. na-aḫ-ša-ri-ia-ua-an-za)
1. PIE *nēɑhsrei̯ou̯ont-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *nāɑhsrei̯ou̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. nāɑhsrei̯ou̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nāhsrei̯ou̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nāhsrei̯ou̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nāhsrei̯au̯ant-
4. nāhsrei̯au̯ant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *nāhšrei̯au̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. nāhšrei̯au̯ant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. nāḫšrei̯au̯ant-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. nāḫšrnu-
(cs.) ‘in Furcht versetzen’
(HHand. 109)
(Hitt. na-aḫ-šar-nu-ši [2sg], na-aḫ-šar-nu-ut)
1. PIE *nēɑhsrnu-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *nāɑhsrnu-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. nāɑhsrnu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nāhsrnu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nāhsrnu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *nāhšrnu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. nāhšrnu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. nāḫšrnu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√nɑhsu-
Gr. ναύο-
(vb.) ‘ἱκετεύω’
(Hes. ναύω [1sg])
1. PIE *neɑhsúi̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑhsúi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑhsúi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nahsúi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nahsúi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nasúi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. nasúi̯o-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *nahúi̯o-
5. nahúi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *nahúo-
6. nahúo-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *naúo-
7. naúo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ναύο-
Kpd. naḫšu·šara-
(PN.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 846)
1. PIE *neɑhsu·soro-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑhsu·soro-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑhsu·soro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nahsu·soro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nahsu·soro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nahsu·sara-
4. nahsu·sara-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *nahšu·šara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. nahšu·šara-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Kpd. naḫšu·šara-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Kpd. kuni·naḫšušar-
(f.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 632)
(Kpd. ku-ni-na-aḫ-šu-šar)
1. PIE *kuni·neɑhsusor-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kuni·naɑhsusor-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kuni·naɑhsusor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kuni·nahsusor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kuni·nahsusor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kuni·nahsusar-
4. kuni·nahsusar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *kuni·nahšušar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. kuni·nahšušar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Kpd. kuni·naḫšušar-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√nɑhu-
CLu. naḫu̯a-
(vb.) ‘am Herzen liegen, Gegenst. der Sorge sein’
(DLL. 73)
(KLu. na-aḫ-ḫu-u-ua-i, na-aḫ-ḫu-ua-ad-du)
1. PIE *neɑhu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nahu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nahu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nahu̯a-
4. nahu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. naḫu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. naḫu̯a-
(n.) ‘Ehrfurcht, Verehrung’
(HHand. 109)
1. PIE *neɑhu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nahu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nahu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nahu̯a-
4. nahu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. naḫu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. naḫu̯a-
(NÚ.c.) ‘cf. above’
(NOMS. 847)
(Hitt. na-aḫ-ḫu-ua)
1. PIE *neɑhu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nahu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nahu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nahu̯a-
4. nahu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. naḫu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. naḫu̯a-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘to fear, respect, care: Sum. ḪUŠ’
(HIL. 683)
(Hitt. na-aḫ-ḫu-ua-aš [G], na-a-ḫu-u-ua-aš [G])
1. PIE *neɑhu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nahu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nahu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nahu̯a-
4. nahu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. naḫu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. naḫu̯ai̯a-
(vb.) ‘am Herzen liegen, Gegenst. der Sorge sein’
(DLL. 73)
(KLu.. na-aḫ-ḫu-ua-ia-(ad)-du [3sg])
1. PIE *neɑhu̯oii̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑhu̯oii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑhu̯oii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nahu̯oii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nahu̯oii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nahu̯aii̯a-
4. nahu̯aii̯a-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *nahu̯aia-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
5. nahu̯aia-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → *nahu̯ai̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
6. nahu̯ai̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. naḫu̯ai̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. naḫuma-
(PN.pt.) ‘-(?)-’
(HEG II:252)
1. PIE *neɑhumo-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑhumo-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑhumo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nahumo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nahumo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nahuma-
4. nahuma-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. naḫuma-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. naḫu̯ar-
(n.) ‘Ehrfürcht, Verehrung’
(HHand. 109)
1. PIE *neɑhu̯or-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑhu̯or-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑhu̯or-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nahu̯or-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nahu̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nahu̯ar-
4. nahu̯ar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. naḫu̯ar-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. naḫurei̯a-
(URU.) ‘In der Umgebung von Tuwanuwa › Šaparanta’
(OGH. 279)
(Hitt. na-aḫ-ḫu-ri-ia)
1. PIE *neɑhurei̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑhurei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑhurei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nahurei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nahurei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nahurei̯a-
4. nahurei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. naḫurei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. naḫu̯aši-
(a.gen.) ‘fruchtbar’ oder ‘fruchtsam’
(HHand. 109)
(KLu. na-aḫ-ḫu-ua-aš-ši-en<-zi>)
1. PIE *neɑhu̯osi-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑhu̯osi-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑhu̯osi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nahu̯osi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nahu̯osi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nahu̯asi-
4. nahu̯asi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *nahu̯aši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. nahu̯aši-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. naḫu̯aši-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. naḫu̯aški-
(NÚ.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 848)
(Hitt. na-aḫ-ḫu-ua-aš-ki)
1. PIE *neɑhu̯oski̯i-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *naɑhu̯oski̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. naɑhu̯oski̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nahu̯oski̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nahu̯oski̯i-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *nahu̯osḱi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. nahu̯osḱi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nahu̯asḱi-
5. nahu̯asḱi-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *nahu̯aski-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. nahu̯aski-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *nahu̯aški-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. nahu̯aški-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. naḫu̯aški-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√nem-
OGaul. nemnaliu-
(vb.) ‘célèbrer’
(DLG. 234)
(OGaul. nemnaliIumi [1sg])
1. PIE *nem·neɑh·liu-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *nem·naɑh·liu-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. nem·naɑh·liu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nem·nah·liu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nem·nah·liu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OGaul. nem·na·liu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OIr. nemnall-
(sb.) ‘célébration (de la messe)’
(DIL. 477)
1. PIE *nem·neɑh·lno
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *nem·naɑh·lno
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. nem·naɑh·lno
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nem·nah·lno
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nem·nah·lno
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nem·na·lno
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. nem·na·lno
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *nem·na·llo
5. nem·na·llo
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → OIr. nem·na·ll


PIE √n- (vb.) ‘sapere, schmecken, wissend sein, sehen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√nɑh-
(Pyysalo)
OEng. ana-
(vb.) siehen’
(Hh 4)
(OEng. ana [ipv2sg] ‘siehe!’)
1. PIE *o·nēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *o·nāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. o·nāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·nāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. o·nāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *o·nā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. o·nā-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·nā-
5. a·nā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *a·nō-
(XX:XX)
6. a·nō-
*a → ea
Change of *a into ea
Ra=›ea= → *ea·nō-
7. ea·nō-
-ō → -a
Change of stem-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a= → OEng. ea·na-
Bulg. na-
(vb.) ‘siehe da’
(WH. 2:150)
(REW 2:1919)
1. PIE *nēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *nāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. nāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. nā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Bulg. na-
OInd. nā-
(f.) ‘knowledge’
(MonWil. 523)
1. PIE *nēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *nāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. nāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OInd. nā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Dor. ἐν·κατά·νᾱ
(adv.) γνώμη, νοῦς
(LSJ. 470)
(Hes. ἐγκατανα · κατὰ γνώμην, κατὰ νοῦν)
1. PIE *Π·Π·nēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·Π·nāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·Π·nāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·Π·nāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·Π·nāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·Π·nā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·Π·nā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. Π·Π·νᾱ-
gAv. vy·ā·nā-
(f.) ‘Gescheitheit, Weisheit’
(AIWb. 1478)
(gAv. vyānā-)
1. PIE *Π·Π·nēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·Π·nāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·Π·nāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·Π·nāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·Π·nāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → gAv. Π·Π·nā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√nɑhi-
(Pyysalo)
(HEG I:25)
Hitt. anāḫi-
(n.sg) ‘Kostprobe (einer Opfergabe)’
(HHand. 15)
(Hitt. anaḫi [sgNA], anaḫita [pl])
1. PIE *onēɑhi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *onāɑhi-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. onāɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *onāhi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. onāhi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *anāhi-
4. anāhi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. anāḫi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Arm. nayi-
(vb.) ‘look at, apprehend, take care’
(EtDiArm. 499)
(Arm. nayil [inf.])
1. PIE *nēɑhi̯i-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *nāɑhi̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. nāɑhi̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nāhi̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nāhi̯i-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nāi̯i-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. nāi̯i-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *nai̯i-
5. nai̯i-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → Arm. nayi-
CLu. anāḫid-
(n.) ‘Kostprobe (einer Opfergabe)’
(HHand. 15)
1. PIE *onēɑhidɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *onāɑhidɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. onāɑhidɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *onāhidɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. onāhidɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *anāhidɦ-
4. anāhidɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *anāhid-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. anāhid-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. anāḫid-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. anāḫidai-
(vb.) ‘eine Kostprobe nehmen (?)’
(HHand. 15)
1. PIE *onēɑhidɑɦoi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *onāɑhidɑɦoi-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. onāɑhidɑɦoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *onāhidɦoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. onāhidɦoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *anāhidɦai-
4. anāhidɦai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *anāhidai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. anāhidai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. anāḫidai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. anāḫida·ḫid-
(n.) ‘eine Art Brotopfer’
(HHand. 15)
1. PIE *onēɑhidɑɦo·ɦɑid-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *onāɑhidɑɦo·ɦɑid-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. onāɑhidɑɦo·ɦɑid-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *onāhidɦo·ɦid-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. onāhidɦo·ɦid-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *anāhidɦa·ɦid-
4. anāhidɦa·ɦid-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *anāhida·ɦid-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. anāhida·ɦid-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. anāḫida·ḫid-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√noio-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. ā·naa-
(n.) ‘Erfahrung, Klugheit’
(HHand. 15)
1. PIE *ō·noi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ō·nai̯a-
2. ō·nai̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ā·nai̯a-
3. ā·nai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → CLu. ā·naa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
Hitt. ā·naa-
(NÚ.c.) (devin)
(NOMS. 57.2)
(Hitt. an-na-a [abs])
1. PIE *ō·noi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ō·nai̯a-
2. ō·nai̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ā·nai̯a-
3. ā·nai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → Hitt. ā·naa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
CLu. ā·naa-
(LÚ.c.) (arzavien-)
(NOMS. 57.3)
(CLu. an-n[a-aš] [sgN])
1. PIE *ō·noi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ō·nai̯a-
2. ō·nai̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ā·nai̯a-
3. ā·nai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → CLu. ā·naa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
Hitt. ā·naa-
([f.]c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 58.4)
(OAnat. an-na-a-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *ō·noi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ō·nai̯a-
2. ō·nai̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ā·nai̯a-
3. ā·nai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → Hitt. ā·naa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
OIr. ā·ine
(f.) [in mng.] ‘wit’
(DIL. 18/141-2)
1. PIE *ō·ni̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ō·ni̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ō·ni̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ō·ni̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ō·ni̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ō·ni̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ō·ni̯ā
*ōRC → oRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ōRC
RōRC›oRC → *o·ni̯ā
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. o·ni̯ā
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *o·ni̯a
6. o·ni̯a
*i̯o/i̯a -›ē
Monophthongization of final -i̯o/i̯a into -ē
R=i̯V›=ē → *o·nē
7. o·nē
*-ē → -e
Shortening of ē in root-final position
R=ē›=e → OIr. o·ne
√nu-
Hitt. nu-
(.) ‘Ansehen’
(XX:XX)
OEng. eonu-
(vb.) ‘sehen’
(Hh 92)
(OEng. eonu, eno [ipv2sg] siehe!)
1. PIE *enu-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *inu-
2. inu-
inu -› eonu
Umlaut of *inu to eonu
Rinu›eonu → OEng. eonu-
OEng. anna-
(vb.) ‘sehen’
(Hh 4)
(OEng. anna [ipv2sg] siehe!)
1. PIE *onu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *onu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. onu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *onu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. onu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *onu̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. onu̯ā-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *anu̯ā-
5. anu̯ā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *anu̯ō-
(XX:XX)
6. anu̯ō-
*nu̯ -› nn
Change of *nu̯ into nn
Rnu̯›nn → *annō-
7. annō-
*a → ea
Change of *a into ea
Ra=›ea= → *eannō-
8. eannō-
-ō → -a
Change of stem-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a= → OEng. eanna-


PIE √n- ‘Zeit’
(sub IEW 810 *per- 2A)
√n-
Gr. πρητ·ήν-
(m.) ‘einjähriges Lamm’
(LSJ 1463)
1. PIE *Π·ḗn
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·ήν
√no-
RV. pur·āṇá-
(a.) ‘vormalig, uralt, seit lange bestehend’
(WbRV. 827)
1. PIE *pur·ēnó
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *pur·ēná
2. pur·ēná
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *pur·āná
3. pur·āná
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. pur·āṇá
Gr. ἔνο-
(.) ‘Jahr’
(Hes. ἔνος)
1. PIE *éno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἔνο-
Gr. δί·ενο-
(a.) ‘zweijährig’
(Gr. δίενος)
1. PIE *Π·eno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·ενο-
Lith. per·na-
(m.) ‘vorige·Jahr’
(in Lith. pernai [adv.] ‘im vorigen Jahre’)
1. PIE *Π·no
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lith. Π·na


PIE √n- √on- √en- ‘gebären’; ‘Mutter, Schwester, Bruder’
(IEW 754+XX)
√ono-
Hitt. ana-
(c.) ‘Mutter, HHand. 15’
(HEG A:24)
1. PIE *ono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ana-
CLu. ana-
(c.) ‘Mutter’
(DLL. 27)
1. PIE *ono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ana-
√eno-
Lyd. ẽna-
(c.) ‘Mutter’ (LydWb. 106)
(Lyd. ẽnaś [sgN])
1. PIE *eno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ena-
2. ena-
*en → ẽn
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
ReN›ẽN → Lyd. ẽna-
LycB. ẽnesi-
(a.gen.) ‘mutterlich’
(DLycLg. 116)
1. PIE *enesi-
*en → ẽn
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
ReN›ẽN → LycB. ẽnesi-
√nono-
CLu. nana·ḫid-
(n.) ‘brüderlichkeit (o.ä.)’
(HHand. 110)
1. PIE *nono·ɦɑid-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nono·ɦid-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. nono·ɦid-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nana·ɦid-
3. nana·ɦid-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. nana·ḫid-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. nana·šara-
(c.) ‘sister’
(CHLu. 278)
(HLu. (FEMINA)na-na-sa5ra/i-za)
1. PIE *nono·soro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nana·sara-
2. nana·sara-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. nana·šara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. nana·šrei̯a-
(c.) ‘Schwester’
(DLL. 73)
(CLu. na-a-na-aš-ri[-ia], NIN-ia-an)
1. PIE *nono·srei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nana·srei̯a-
2. nana·srei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. nana·šrei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√nɑh-
√nonɑh-
RV. nanā́-
(f.) ‘Mama, Mütterchen’
(WbRV. 707)
(RV. tatáḥ (...) nanā́ [sgN] [9.112.3.])
1. PIE *nonḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *nonā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. nonā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nonā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nonā́h-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nanā́h-
4. nanā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. nanā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Alb. nanë-
(.) ‘Mutter, Amme’
(XX:XX)
Alb. nanë)
1. PIE *nonēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *nonāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. nonāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nonāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nonāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nonā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. nonā-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nanā-
5. nanā-
*ā → ë
Change of *ā into Alb. ë
Rā›ë → Alb. nanë-
(XX:XX)
RV. nánāndar-
(f.) ‘des Mannes Schwester’
(WbRV. 707)
(RV. nánāndari [sgL])
1. PIE *nónēɑhɦɑender-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *nónēɑhɦɑander-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. nónēɑhɦɑander-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *nónāɑhɦɑander-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. nónāɑhɦɑander-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nónāhɦander-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. nónāhɦander-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *nánāhɦander-
5. nánāhɦander-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *nánāhander-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. nánāhander-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nánāander-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. nánāander-
*āa → ā
 Contraction of āa into ā
Rāa›ā → *nánānder-
8. nánānder-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. nánāndar-
AV. nánāndur-
(f.) ‘des Mannes Schwester’
(EWA 2:10)
(AV. nánāndur-)
1. PIE *nónēɑhɦɑendur-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *nónēɑhɦɑandur-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. nónēɑhɦɑandur-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *nónāɑhɦɑandur-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. nónāɑhɦɑandur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nónāhɦandur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. nónāhɦandur-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *nánāhɦandur-
5. nánāhɦandur-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *nánāhandur-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. nánāhandur-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nánāandur-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. nánāandur-
*āa → ā
 Contraction of āa into ā
Rāa›ā → AV. nánāndur-
√nenɑh-
SCr. nena-
(f.) ‘Mutter’
(KEWA 2:131)
(EWA 2:9)
1. PIE *nenēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *nenāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. nenāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nenāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nenāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nenā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. nenā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → SCr. nena-
√oni-
Hitt. ani-
(c.) ‘Mutter’
(HHand. 15)
1. PIE *oni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ani-
CLu. anei̯a-
(a.) ‘mütterlich, HHand. 16’
(DLL. 27)
(CLu. [a]-an-ni-ia-an)
1. PIE *onei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. anei̯a-
√eni-
LycA. ẽni-
(c.) ‘Mutter’
(DLycLg. 20)
(LycA. ẽni [sgN])
1. PIE *eni-
*en → ẽn
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
ReN›ẽN → LycA. ẽni-
√ni-
HLu. ni-
() ((INFANS).) ‘infans’
(CHLu. 467)
(HLu. (INFANS) ni)
Hitt. ni·ga-
(c.) ‘Schwester’
(HHand. 112)
(Hitt. niga-)
1. PIE *ni·gɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ni·gɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ni·gɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ni·gɦa-
3. ni·gɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ni·ga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Kpd. ni·ga-
(LÚ.c.) ‘Schwester’
(NOMS. 878)
(Kpd. ni-ga)
1. PIE *ni·gɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ni·gɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ni·gɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ni·gɦa-
3. ni·gɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Kpd. ni·ga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ni·gna-
(c.) ‘Bruder : Sum. ŠEŠ’
(HHand. 112)
1. PIE *ni·gɑɦno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ni·gɦno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ni·gɦno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ni·gɦna-
3. ni·gɦna-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ni·gna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. ni·mu̯aza-
(.) ‘son’
(CHLu. 96)
(CHLu. (INFANS)ni-mu-wa/i-za-sa)
1. PIE *ni·mu̯odɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ni·mu̯odɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ni·mu̯odɦi̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *ni·mu̯ojɦo-
3. ni·mu̯ojɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ni·mu̯ajɦa-
4. ni·mu̯ajɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ni·mu̯aja-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ni·mu̯aja-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → HLu. ni·mu̯aza-
HLu. ni·za-
(.) ‘son’
(CHLu. 148)
(HLu. (INFANS)ni-za-sa)
1. PIE *ni·dɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ni·dɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ni·dɦi̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *ni·jɦo-
3. ni·jɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ni·jɦa-
4. ni·jɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ni·ja-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ni·ja-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → HLu. ni·za-
HLu. ni·u̯a-
(.) ‘daughter (?)’
(CHLu. 148)
(HLu. ni-wa/i-za [pl])
1. PIE *ni·u̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ni·u̯a-
HLu. ni·u̯arani-
(c.) ‘child’
(CHLu. 258)
(HLu. (INFANS)ni-wa/i-ra/i-ni-zi [plN])
1. PIE *ni·u̯oroni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ni·u̯arani-
HLu. ni·u̯aza-
(.) ‘child, son’
(CHLu. 96, 148)
(HLu. (INFANS)ni-wa/i-za-sa)
1. PIE *ni·u̯odɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ni·u̯odɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ni·u̯odɦi̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *ni·u̯ojɦo-
3. ni·u̯ojɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ni·u̯ajɦa-
4. ni·u̯ajɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ni·u̯aja-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ni·u̯aja-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → HLu. ni·u̯aza-
√noni-
CLu. nani-
(c.) ‘frère’
(DLL. 73)
(CLu. na-a-ni-e-ia [D])
1. PIE *noni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. nani-
Hitt. nani-
(NÚ.c.) ‘homme d’Išmiriga-’
(NOMS. 861.3)
(Hitt. na-ni-iš)
1. PIE *noni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. nani-
HLu. nani-
(I.) ‘–’
(CHLu. XX)
1. PIE *noni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. nani-
√neni-
LycA. nẽni-
(c.) ‘frère’
(DLycLg. 44)
1. PIE *neni-
*en → ẽn
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
ReN›ẽN → LycA. nẽni-
√ni-
Gr. ἐνι·αυτό-
(m.) ‘Jahr’
(Gr. ἐνιαυτός)
1. PIE *eni·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἐνι·Σ-
Gr. ἤνι-
(a.) ‘jährig’
(Hom. ἦνιν)
1. PIE *ḗni-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἤνι-
Goth. fair·ni-
(a.) ‘alt: old, antiquated: παλαιός: vetus’
(GoEtD. F-14)
(Goth. fairni [A] Luk 5,39 CA; fairnjamma [sgD] 1Kr 5,8 A; fairnjans [plA] Mat 9,17 CA
1. PIE *Π·ni̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ni̯a
2. Π·ni̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *Π·ni̯
3. Π·ni̯
-ni̯ -› -ni
Change of root-final -ni̯ into -ni
R=ni̯›=ni → Goth. Π·ni
Goth. fair·njan-
(a.) ‘alt: old, antiquated: παλαιός: vetus’
(XX:XX)
(Goth. fairnjan [sgA] Eph 4,22 A B, fairnjana Mat 9,16 CA)
1. PIE *Π·ni̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ni̯an-
2. Π·ni̯an-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Goth. Π·njan-
Goth. fair·njin-
(a.) ‘alt: old, antiquated: παλαιός: vetus’
(XX:XX)
(Goth. fairnjin [sgD] Luk 5,36 CA; Mrk 2,21 CA)
1. PIE *Π·ni̯en-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *Π·ni̯in-
2. Π·ni̯in-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Goth. Π·njin-
Goth. fair·njo·n
(a.f.n.) ‘XX’
(XX:XX)
(Goth. fairnjo [n.sgN] Luk 5,39 CA, fairnjons [f.sgG] 2Kr 3,14 A B;
1. PIE *Π·ni̯ēɑh·n
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·ni̯āɑh·n
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·ni̯āɑh·n
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ni̯āh·n
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·ni̯āh·n
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·ni̯ā·n
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·ni̯ā·n
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *Π·ni̯ō·n
(XX:XX)
5. Π·ni̯ō·n
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *Π·njō·n
6. Π·njō·n
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → Goth. Π·njo·n
√nin-
Goth. fair·nin-
(a.) vorjährig, alt: praeteritus, prior’
(GoEtD. F-15)
(Goth. fairnin [D] 2Kr 8,10 A B; 2Kr 9,2 A B)
Hitt. a·nita-
(c.) ‘Anita- ‹a guess by form ›
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *o·nito-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a·nita-
Goth. fair·niþo-
(f.) ‘Alter: antiquity: παλαιότης: vetustas’
(GoEtD. F-14)
(Goth. fairniþai [sgD] Rom 7,6 A, GoElB. 182, HbGo. 158,1)
1. PIE *Π·nitēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·nitāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·nitāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·nitāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·nitāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·nitā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·nitā-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *Π·niþā-
5. Π·niþā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *Π·niþō-
(XX:XX)
6. Π·niþō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → Goth. Π·niþo-
√nol- √nel-
Hitt. anala-
(a.) ‘früherer, alt’ (a.) ‘erfahren, erprobt’
(HHand. 15)
1. PIE *onolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. anala-
Hitt. anala·z
(adv.) ‘früher’
(HHand. 15)
1. PIE *onolo·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. anala·Σ
Hitt. anali-
(a.) ‘früherer, alt’ (a.) ‘erfahren, erprobt’
(HHand. 15)
1. PIE *onoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. anali-
√nos- √nes-
Gr. τετρα·ένεσ-
(a.) ‘vierjährig’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *Π·énes-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·ένεσ-


PIE √nɑhku- √nɑɦgu- (vb.) ‘biegen, krümmen, neigen’ (sb.) ‘Kuppe, Schlucht’
(IEW 754)
(Pyysalo: LAv. + OCS. + Gr.)
√nɑhku
(Pyysalo)
Att. νάπη-
(f.) ‘waldiger Talgrund, Schlucht’
(GEW 2:288)
1. PIE *néɑhku̯ēɑh
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *náɑhku̯ēɑh
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. náɑhku̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *náɑhku̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. náɑhku̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *náhku̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. náhku̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *náku̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. náku̯ā
*ku/u̯ → p
Bilabialization of labiovelar q into p
RkU›p → *nápā
6. nápā
ā –> ē (Att)
Attican change of ā –› ē
Rā›ēAtt → *nápē
7. nápē
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Att. νάπη
LAv. tīrō·nakaϑwa-
(PN.m.) ‘EN eines Gläubigen’
(AIWb. 651)
(LAv. tīrō.nakaϑwa-)
1. PIE *Π·neɑhku̯otu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *Π·naɑhku̯otu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. Π·naɑhku̯otu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·nahku̯otu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·nahku̯otu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·nahku̯atu̯a-
4. Π·nahku̯atu̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·naku̯atu̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·naku̯atu̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *Π·nakatu̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. Π·nakatu̯a-
*tR → ϑR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
RtR›ϑR → *Π·nakaϑu̯a-
7. Π·nakaϑu̯a-
*ϑu̯ → ϑw
Affricativisation of *u̯ after dental fricative ϑ
Rϑu̯›ϑw → LAv. Π·nakaϑwa-
RV. nā́ka-
(n.) ‘Himmelsgewölbe, Himmelskuppe, Himmel’
(WbRV. 721)
1. PIE *nṓɑhku̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nṓhku̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. nṓhku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nṓhku̯a-
3. nṓhku̯a-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *nā́hku̯a-
4. nā́hku̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nā́ku̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. nā́ku̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → RV. nā́ka-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
OCS. vŭz·nakŭ-
(a.) ‘zurückgeneigt, rücklings’
(Sadnik 566)
1. PIE *Π·nōɑhku̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·nōhku̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·nōhku̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·nōhku̯a
3. Π·nōhku̯a
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·nāhku̯a
4. Π·nāhku̯a
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·nāku̯a
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·nāku̯a
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *Π·nāka
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. Π·nāka
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *Π·nāko
7. Π·nāko
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *Π·nāku
8. Π·nāku
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *Π·naku
9. Π·naku
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. Π·nakŭ
LAv. uz·nāka-
(PN.m.) ‘EN eines Gläubigen’
(AIWb. 408)
(LAv. usnāka-)
1. PIE *Π·nōɑhku̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·nōhku̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·nōhku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·nōhku̯a-
3. Π·nōhku̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·nāhku̯a-
4. Π·nāhku̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·nāku̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·nāku̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → LAv. Π·nāka-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
RV. ropa·nā́kā-
(PN.m.) ‘Drossel (Say.); Lit. Fuchs+Himmel’
(WbRV. 1186)
1. PIE *Π·nṓɑhku̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·nṓɑhku̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·nṓɑhku̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·nṓhku̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·nṓhku̯āh-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *Π·nā́hku̯āh-
4. Π·nā́hku̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·nā́ku̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·nā́ku̯ā-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → RV. Π·nā́kā-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
Gr. νενώπη-
(pf.) ‘= τεταπείνωται’
(GEW 2:600)
1. PIE *nenṓɑhku̯ē-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nenṓhku̯ē-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. nenṓhku̯ē-
*ku/u̯ → t
Palatalization of labiovelar *ku/u̯
RkU›tFr → *nenṓhtē-
3. nenṓhtē-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nenṓtē-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. nenṓtē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. νενώτη-
Gr. προνωπήσ-
(a.) ‘vorwärtz gebeugt, geneigt’
(GEW 2:600)
(DELG 941)
1. PIE *pronōɑhku̯ḗs-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pronōhku̯ḗs-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pronōhku̯ḗs-
*ku/u̯ → t
Palatalization of labiovelar *ku/u̯
RkU›tFr → *pronōhtḗs-
3. pronōhtḗs-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pronōtḗs-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pronōtḗs-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. προνωτήσ-


PIE √n- (vb.) ‘behandeln, wirken, tun, treiben, helfen, nützen’ (sb.) ‘Arbeit’
(IEW 754)
√n-
√nɑh-
(HEG 1:30 )
Lith. anúo-
(vb.) ‘tun, treiben’
(HEG 1:30)
(Lith. anúoti [inf.])
1. PIE *onṓɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *onṓh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. onṓh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *onṓ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. onṓ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *anṓ-
4. anṓ-
*ṓ → úo
Change of ṓ into úo
Rṓ›úo → Lith. anúo-
Gr. ὄνα-
(vb.) ‘nützen, helfen, frommen’
(Gr. ὄνασθαι [inf.])
1. PIE *óneɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *ónaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. ónaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ónah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ónah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *óna-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. óna-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄνα-
√ni-
(HEG 1:30f.)
(HW2 A: 81f., Melchert 1994:85, Rieken 1999:107f., HIL. 216-8)
Pal. ani-
(vb.) ‘behandeln, bewirken, durchführen’
(DPal. 50)
(Pal. a-ni-it-ti [3sg], HHand. 16), Pal. 27)
1. PIE *oni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. ani-
CLu. ani-
(cs.) ‘wirken, vollbringen, tun’ (Sum. KIN)
(DLL. 27)
(CLu. a-an-ni-ti, a-an-ni-i-ti, an-ni-i-ti [3sg])
1. PIE *oni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ani-
Hitt. ani-
(vb.) ‘wirken, schaffen’
(HIL. 216)
(Hitt. a-ni-e-mi)
1. PIE *oni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ani-
Dor. ὀνί·νᾱ-
(vb.) ‘deliver, profit, benefit, support’
(GEW 2:395)
1. PIE *oní·nēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *oní·nāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. oní·nāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oní·nāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. oní·nāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oní·nā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. oní·nā
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. ὀνί·νᾱ
√nio-
(Pyysalo)
gAv. xrū·nya-
(n.) ‘Bluttat, blutige Mißhandlung’
(AIWb. 539)
(gAv. xrūnyā; to LAv. xrū- ‘blutiges, rohes Fleisch’)
1. PIE *Π·ni̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ni̯a-
2. Π·ni̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → gAv. Π·nya-
CLu. ani̯a-
(vb.) ‘durchführen, behandeln, bewirken’
(HHand. 16)
(CLu. a-ni-ia, a-ni-e-ia-an-t[i... [3pl?])
1. PIE *oni̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ani̯a-
Hitt. ani̯a-
(vb.) ‘wirken, schaffen’
(HEG1:30-)
(Hitt. a-ni-ia-mi [1sg])
1. PIE *oni̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ani̯a-
Pal. ani̯a-
(cs.) ‘wirken, tun’
(DPal. 50)
(Pal. a-ni-ia, a-ni-ia-ši [2sg])
1. PIE *oni̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. ani̯a-
√nioi-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ani̯ai-
(vb.) ‘wirken, schaffen’
(HIL. 216)
(Hitt. a-ni-ia-e-ez-zi)
1. PIE *oni̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ani̯ai-
Pal. ani̯ei-
(vb.) ‘behandeln, bewirken, durchführen’
(DPal. 50)
(Pal. a-ni-e-iḫ-a [1sg], HHand. 16, Pal. 27).
1. PIE *oni̯ei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. ani̯ei-
Hitt. gut·ani̯ei-
(vb.1.) ‘herrisch behandeln’
(HHand. 87)
1. PIE *gɦɑut·oni̯ei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦut·oni̯ei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦut·oni̯ei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦut·ani̯ei-
3. gɦut·ani̯ei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. gut·ani̯ei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ani̯ei-
(vb.) ‘wirken, schaffen’
(HIL. 216)
(Hitt. an-ni-i-ir, a-ni-i-e-i[r])
1. PIE *oni̯ei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ani̯ei-
√nion-
Hitt. ani̯an-
(n.) ‘Arbeit’
(HHand. 16)
1. PIE *oni̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ani̯an-
Hitt. ani̯ant-
(pt.) ‘XX’
(HHand. 16)
(Hitt. a-ni-ia-an-t-, a-ni-an-t-)
1. PIE *oni̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ani̯ant-
√niu-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ani̯au̯ar-
(n.) ‘Opferzurüstung’
(HHand. 16)
(Hitt. a-ni-ia-u-ua-ar, a-ni-ia-u-ua-an-zi)
1. PIE *oni̯ou̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ani̯au̯ar-
Hitt. ani̯ur-
(n.) ‘Opferritus, Ritual’
(HEG I:32)
(Hitt. a-ni-ú-ur, a-ni-ur-aš, a-ni-ú-ri)
1. PIE *oni̯ur-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ani̯ur-
Hitt. aniu̯·eiani-
(f.c.) (magicienne, auteur d’un rituel)
(NOMS. 78)
(Hitt. a-an-ni-ui/ú-ia-ni [All]
1. PIE *oniu̯·eioni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aniu̯·eiani-
Gr. ὄνειαρ
(n.) ‘Nutzen, Wert, Hilfe, Erquickung’
(GEW 2:394)
(Gr. ὄνει(ϝ)αρ)
1. PIE *óneiu̯eɑhr-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *óneiu̯aɑhr-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. óneiu̯aɑhr-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *óneiu̯ahr-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. óneiu̯ahr-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *óneiu̯ar-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. óneiu̯ar-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *óneiar-
5. óneiar-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄνειαρ-
Gr. ὄνειατ-
(n.obl.) ‘Erquickungen, Speisen, Wertsachen, Geschenke’
(GEW 2:394)
(Gr. ὄνει(ϝ)ατ-)
1. PIE *óneiu̯eɑht-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *óneiu̯aɑht-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. óneiu̯aɑht-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *óneiu̯aht-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. óneiu̯aht-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *óneiu̯at-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. óneiu̯at-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *óneiat-
5. óneiat-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄνειατ-


PIE √n- ‘unter’
(IEW 312 + 766)
√onon
Hitt. anan
(adv.) ‘unter’
(HEG 1:26)
1. PIE *onon
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. anan
CLu. anan
(adv.) ‘unter’
(HEG 1:26)
(Carruba, Oriens Antiquus 9 [1970]:86)
1. PIE *onon
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. anan
√enen
LycA. ẽnẽ
(.) ‘under’
(LuPG 62)
(Lyc. ẽnẽ xñtawata xerixehe ‘Under king Xerxes’)
1. PIE *enen
*en → ẽn
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
ReN›ẽN → *ẽnẽn
2. ẽnẽn
*-ã/ẽn → -ã/ẽ
Loss of word-final nasal
R=ãn›=ã → LycA. ẽnẽ
√ni
AV. ní
(adv.) ‘down, back, in, into, within’
(MonWil. 538)
(AV. ní [AV 10,8,7])
Arm. ni
(.) ‘nieder’
(XX:XX)
(Arm. ni)
1. PIE *ní
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → Arm. ni
RV. ni·mná-
(n.) ‘Niederung, Tiefe’
(KEWA 2:166)
1. PIE *ni·mnó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. ni·mná-
OInd. ni·mna-
(a.) ‘tief liegend’
(AiGr. 2/2:777)
1. PIE *ni·mno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. ni·mna-
√ner-
(P. 312, 766)
(WP2:333f.)
Gr. ἔ·νερο-
(m.pl) ‘die Unterirdischen’
(GEW 1:514-5)
(Gr. οἱ ἔνεροι)
1. PIE *é·nero-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἔ·νερο-
AV. nā́raka-
(a.) ‘zur Hölle in Beziehung stehend’
(KEWA 2:138)
1. PIE *nḗroko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nḗraka-
2. nḗraka-
*ḗ → ā́
Change of *ḗ into ā́
Rḗ›ā́ → AV. nā́raka-
AV. nā́raka-
(m.) ‘Unterwelt, Hölle’ (mit loká-)
(EWA 2:37)
1. PIE *nḗroko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nḗraka-
2. nḗraka-
*ḗ → ā́
Change of *ḗ into ā́
Rḗ›ā́ → AV. nā́raka-
√neroi-
TochA. ñare·ṣi-
(a.) ‘inferni, infernalis’
(Poucha 108)
(TochA. ñare ṣi-)
1. PIE *neroi·sí-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nerai·sí-
2. nerai·sí-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *ni̯arai·sí-
3. ni̯arai·sí-
*sí → ṣí
Palatalization of *sí
Rsí›ṣ → *ni̯arai·ṣí-
4. ni̯arai·ṣí-
*ni̯ → ñ
Palatalization of *n before i̯
Rni̯›ñ → *ñarai·ṣí-
5. ñarai·ṣí-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *ñarē·ṣí-
6. ñarē·ṣí-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *ñare·ṣí-
7. ñare·ṣí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → TochA. ñare·ṣi-
TochA. ñare-
(sb.) ‘infernum, sceleratum apud infernos sedes’
(Poucha 108)
(TochA. ñare)
1. PIE *neroi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nerai-
2. nerai-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *ni̯arai-
3. ni̯arai-
*ni̯ → ñ
Palatalization of *n before i̯
Rni̯›ñ → *ñarai-
4. ñarai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *ñarē-
5. ñarē-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochA. ñare-
Gr. νειρό-
(a.) ‘der Unterste’
(Gr. νειρός [sgN])
1. PIE *neri̯ó-
*eri̯ → eir
Epenthesis of *i
Reri̯›eir → *neiró-
2. neiró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. νειρό-
Arm. ner·kʼoy
(adv.) ‘sous’
(Arm. XX)
√nertr-
Umbr. nertro-
(a.) ‘links’ (‘sinistro’ (= n°rterow))
(WbOU. 492-3)
(Umbr. nertru [sgAbl])
Gr. νέρτερο-
(comp.) ‘unterer, tieferer, unterirdischer’
(GEW 1:514-5)
(Gr. νέρτερος)
1. PIE *nértero-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. νέρτερο-
√nr-
TochB. nrai
(n.) ‘hell’
(DTochB. 351)
(TochB. nran)
1. PIE *nrōi-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *nrāi-
2. nrāi-
āi → ai
Orthographic change of āi into ai
Rāi›ai → TochB. nrai-
TochB. nrai·ṣa-
(a.) ‘hellish’ (n.) ‘denizen of hell’
(DTochB. 351)
(TochB. nraiṣṣe)
1. PIE *nrōi·si̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nrōi·si̯a-
2. nrōi·si̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *nrāi·si̯a-
3. nrāi·si̯a-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
Rsi̯›ṣ → *nrāi·ṣa-
4. nrāi·ṣa-
āi → ai
Orthographic change of āi into ai
Rāi›ai → TochB. nrai·ṣa-
√neur-
TochB. ñor
(adv.) ‘below, beneath, under, down’
(DTochB. 272)
(TochB. ñor)
1. PIE *neur
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *ni̯aur
2. ni̯aur
*ni̯ → ñ
Palatalization of *n before i̯
Rni̯›ñ → *ñaur
3. ñaur
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ñōr
4. ñōr
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. ñor
TochA. ñor·īya-
(a.comp.) ‘lower’
(DTochB. 272)
(TochB. ñorīya kātso)
1. PIE *neur·Σ-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *ni̯aur·Σ-
2. ni̯aur·Σ-
*ni̯ → ñ
Palatalization of *n before i̯
Rni̯›ñ → *ñaur·Σ-
3. ñaur·Σ-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ñōr·Σ-
4. ñōr·Σ-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. ñor·Σ-
TochB. ñoru·wär
(adv.) ‘downstream’ ‹B. wär- ‘stream’›
(DTochB. 272)
(TochB. kaucūwär (...) ñoruwär ‘upstream (...) downstream’)
1. PIE *neuru·Σ-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *ni̯auru·Σ-
2. ni̯auru·Σ-
*ni̯ → ñ
Palatalization of *n before i̯
Rni̯›ñ → *ñauru·Σ-
3. ñauru·Σ-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ñōru·Σ-
4. ñōru·Σ-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. ñoru·Σ-
TochB. ñormya-
(a.) ≈ ‘lower’
(DTochB. 272)
(TochB. ñormye bhūmi)
1. PIE *neurmi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *neurmi̯a-
2. neurmi̯a-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *ni̯aurmi̯a-
3. ni̯aurmi̯a-
*ni̯ → ñ
Palatalization of *n before i̯
Rni̯›ñ → *ñaurmi̯a-
4. ñaurmi̯a-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ñōrmi̯a-
5. ñōrmi̯a-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *ñormi̯a-
6. ñormi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. ñormya-
TochB. ñormiya-
(a.) ≈ ‘lower’
(DTochB. 272)
(TochB. ñormiye wassi///)
1. PIE *neurmii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *neurmii̯a-
2. neurmii̯a-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *ni̯aurmii̯a-
3. ni̯aurmii̯a-
*ni̯ → ñ
Palatalization of *n before i̯
Rni̯›ñ → *ñaurmii̯a-
4. ñaurmii̯a-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ñōrmii̯a-
5. ñōrmii̯a-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *ñormii̯a-
6. ñormii̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. ñormiya-


PIE √n- √no- √ne- (pref.) ‘eben, gleich’ (prep.) ‘zusammen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√ono-
HLu. ana
(prep.) ‘cum, with’
(CHLu. 1.1.15.)
(CUM-na)
1. PIE *ono
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ana
Hitt. ana·niga-
(c.) ‘Schwester (von derselben Mutter)’
(HHand. 15)
(Hitt. an-na-ne-ku-uš [plA], an-na-ni-ku-uš, not ‘Dirne, Prostituierte’ HEG1:26-7)
1. PIE *ono·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ana·Σ-
Hitt. ana·uli-
(a.) ‘gleichrangig, ebenbürtig’
(HEG II:29)
(Hitt. an-na-ú-li-, EHS 212)
1. PIE *ono·uli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ana·uli-
Hitt. ana·ulei̯a-
(URUa.) ‘Im Lande Tarḫuntaša.’ (OGHErg. 5)
(Hitt. an-na-ú-li-ia-aš [sgN])
Hitt. ana·ulia-
1. PIE *ono·ulei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ana·ulei̯a-
Hitt. ana·u̯ali-
(a.) ‘gleichrangig, ebenbürtig’
(HHand. 16)
(Hitt. an-na-ú-li-e-eš)
1. PIE *ono·u̯oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ana·u̯ali-
√no-
RV. ná·veda-
(a.) ‘kundig ‹Lit. ‘*cum·Veda-’›
(WbRV. 716)
1. PIE *nó·Σ-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. ná·Σ-
RV. ná·vedas-
(a.) ‘mit bhav + [G] = aufmerken, vernehmen’
(WbRV. 716)
1. PIE *nó·Σ-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. ná·Σ-
RV. ná·vedas-
(m.) ‘vertraut, bekannt’ (m.) ‘Vertrauer[G]’
(WbRV. 716)
1. PIE *nó·Σ-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. ná·Σ-
CLu. na·šarta-
(GKLc.) ‘Konkubine, HHand. 111’
(HEG 2:278-9)
(Hitt. 1 NINDA.SIG A-NA dNIN.É.GAL na-šar-ta-aš-ša [plD] ŠA dIM)
1. PIE *no·sorto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *na·sarta-
2. na·sarta-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. na·šarta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. na·šarta-
(d.) ‘cult of Tešup & Hepat of Aleppo’
(HEG 2:278)
(HLu. na-sá+ra-tá)
1. PIE *no·sorto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *na·sarta-
2. na·sarta-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. na·šarta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. na·šartei-
(GKLc.) ‘Konkubine’ (?)
(HEG 2:278)
(Hitt. 1 NINDA.SIG A-NA dNIN.É.GAL na-šar-ti-ia [sgD] ŠA dU)
1. PIE *no·sortei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *na·sartei-
2. na·sartei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. na·šartei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√oni-
HLu. ani
(prep.) ‘with, for’
(CHLu. 2.6.18)
(HLu. CUM-ni, CUM-ní)
1. PIE *oni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ani-


PIE √ni- ‘Getreide durch Schwingen reinigen, worfeln, schwingen’
(IEW 761)
(+ Pyysalo 2014:XX)
√ni-
CLu. nani-
(GKLvb.?) ‹‘winnow’› (HHand. 110, HEG 2, 273)
(DLL. 74)
(CLu. [na]m-ma DINGIRLUM fdu-ut-tari-ia-ti-iš GKLna-ni-ti [3sg] gán-ga-ti-ti)
1. PIE *noni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. nani-
√neihɑk-
(IEW. 761)
Lith. niekó-
(vb.) ‘(Getreide) schwingen, worfeln’
(LiEtWb. 502)
1. PIE *neihɑkḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *neihɑkā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. neihɑkā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *neihkā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. neihkā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *neikā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. neikā́-
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *neikṓ-
(XX:XX)
5. neikṓ-
*ei -> ie
Change of *ei into ie
Rei›ie → *niekṓ-
6. niekṓ-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → Lith. niekó-
Latv. nikâ-
(vb.) ‘Grütze in einer Mulde schwingen’
(GEW 2:123)
(‹Latv. ẽ! -› eha!›)
1. PIE *neihɑkḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *neihɑkā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. neihɑkā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *neihkā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. neihkā́h-
*ā́H → âH
Latvian tone rule for *ā́h
RAccLatv3 → *neihkâh-
4. neihkâh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *neikâ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. neikâ-
*ei -> ie
Change of *ei into ie
Rei›ie → Latv. niekâ-
Gr. νείκλο-
(n.) ‘Getreideschwinge’
(GEW 2:123)
(Gr. νεῖκλο-)
1. PIE *neíhɑklo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *neíhklo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. neíhklo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *neíklo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. neíklo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. νείκλο-
√nihɑk-
Gr. νικάο-
(pr.) ‘Getreide schwingen, worfeln’
(Gr. νικάω)
1. PIE *nihɑkéɑhi̯o-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *nihɑkáɑhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. nihɑkáɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nihkáhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nihkáhi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nikái̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. nikái̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *nikáo-
5. nikáo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. νικάο-
Gr. νίκλο-
(n.) ‘Getreideschwinge’
(GEW 2:123)
(Gr. νίκλο-)
1. PIE *níhɑklo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *níhklo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. níhklo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *níklo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. níklo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. νίκλο-
OIr. cruith·necht-
(.) ‘wheat : Weizen’
(DIL. 162)
(LEIA C, 254-5)
1. PIE *Π·nihɑkto
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·nihkto
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·nihkto
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·nikto
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·nikto
kt → kht
Lenition of voiceless stop *k
Rkt›kht → *Π·nikhto
4. Π·nikhto
*iCo → eCo
Lowering of *i into e
Rikhto›ekhto → *Π·nekhto
5. Π·nekhto
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → *Π·nekht
6. Π·nekht
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OIr. Π·necht
Cymr. gwe·nith-
(.) ‘wheat: Weizen’
1. PIE *Π·nihɑkto
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·nihkto
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·nihkto
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·nikto
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·nikto
*-o → -Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R=o›=0 → *Π·nikt
4. Π·nikt
*kt → th
Loss of k before t and lenition
Rkt›th → Cymr. Π·nith
Corn. gwa·neth-
(.) ‘froment : Weizen’
(LEIA C, 255)
1. PIE *Π·nihɑkto
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·nihkto
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·nihkto
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·nikto
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·nikto
ikto -› ekto
Umlaut of ikto into ekto
Rikto›ekto → *Π·nekto
4. Π·nekto
*-o → -Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R=o›=0 → *Π·nekt
5. Π·nekt
*kt → th
Loss of k before t and lenition
Rkt›th → Corn. Π·neth
Cymr. nithi-
(.) ‘winnow, sift’
Cymr. nithiaf
1. PIE *nihɑkti-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nihkti-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. nihkti-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nikti-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. nikti-
*kt → th
Loss of k before t and lenition
Rkt›th → Cymr. nithi-
Bret. niza-
(.) ‘worfeln : vanner le grain’
(LEIA C, 255).
1. PIE *nihɑktēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *nihɑktāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. nihɑktāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nihktāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nihktāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *niktā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. niktā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *nikta-
5. nikta-
*kt → z
Loss of k before t and lenition
Rkt›z → Bret. niza-


PIE √nik- (vb.) ‘ergreifen, erheben, entstehen, keimen’
(IEW 761 [diff.])
(LIV 2:451)
√nik-
(CHD LN:438f.)
(Benveniste BSL 50:40)
Hitt. ni·nik-
(vb.) ‘(auf)heben (Truppen); aufbrechen (Siegel)’
(HIL. 700)
(Hitt. ni-ni-kán-zi [3pl])
OCS. vŭz·niko-
(pr.) ‘sich aufrichten : raise oneself’
(Sadnik √577)
(OCS. vŭznikǫ [1sg])
1. PIE *Π·neiko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·neika-
2. Π·neika-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *Π·neiko-
3. Π·neiko-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *Π·nīko-
4. Π·nīko-
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. Π·niko-
OCS. vŭz·niknǫ-
(vb.) ‘emporspriessen, sich emporrichten, nüchtern’
(Sadnik √577)
(OCS. vŭzniknǫti [inf.])
1. PIE *Π·neiknun
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *Π·nīknun
2. Π·nīknun
*-un → -ǫ
Emergence of nasal vowel ǫ
Run›ǫ → *Π·nīknǫ
3. Π·nīknǫ
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. Π·niknǫ
Pol. wz·nikną-
(vb.) ‘zum Vorschein kommen, sich erheben’
(LiEtWb. 503)
1. PIE *Π·neiknun
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *Π·nīknun
2. Π·nīknun
*-un → -ǫ
Emergence of nasal vowel ǫ
Run›ǫ → *Π·nīknǫ
3. Π·nīknǫ
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → *Π·niknǫ
4. Π·niknǫ
*ǫ → ą
Change of *ǫ into ą
Rǫ›ą → Pol. Π·nikną
√nink-
(IEW XX)
(LIV2:451 + AC 53)
Umbr. ninc-
(vb.) ‘ergreifen’
(Meiser Lautg 85-87)
(Umbr. ninctu [ipv3sg])
1. PIE *nink-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Umbr. ninc-
Hitt. ni·nink-
(vb.A.) ‘in Bewegung setzen, antreiben, bewegen’
(HEG 2:328)
(Hitt. ni-ni-ik-[ta], ni-ni-in-kán-[du], ni-ni-in-ku-un)
Hitt. ni·nink-
(vb.M.) ‘sich aufrüherisch benehmen, sich erheben’
(HEG 2:328)
(Hitt. ni-ni-ik-ta-ri)
Hitt. ni·nink-
(vb.1.A.) ‘(Truppen, auf)heben; Siegel aufbrechen’
(HHand. 113)
(Hitt. ni-ni-ik-mi, ni-ni-in-kán-zi)
Hitt. ni·nink-
(vb.1.M.) ‘sich aufheben’
(HHand. 113)
Hitt. pedi ni·nink-
(vb.1.M.) ‘vow Ort wegnehmen’
(HHand. 113)
Hitt. ser arha ni·nink-
(vb.1.M.) ‘(Totengeister) aufstören’
(HHand. 113)
Hitt. ni·ninkant-
(pt.) ‘ausgerissen, ausgefranst’
(HHand. 113)
(Hitt. ni-ni-in-kán-t-)
1. PIE *ni·ninkont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ni·ninkant-
Hitt. ni·ninkant-
(a.) ‘schwierig ?, with MU.KAM-HI.A’
(HHand. 113)
1. PIE *ni·ninkont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ni·ninkant-
Hitt. ni·ninkant-
(pt.) ‘erhöht’
(HEG 2:330)
(Hitt. ni-ni-in-kán)
1. PIE *ni·ninkont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ni·ninkant-
Hitt. ni·ninkiška-
(iter.) ‘(Truppen) aufbieten’
(HEG 2:330)
(Hitt. nu-uš-ši 1 ME ÉRINMEŠ ni-ni-in-ki-iš-kán-du)
1. PIE *ni·ninkeiski̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ni·ninkeisḱo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ni·ninkeisḱo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ni·ninkeisḱa-
3. ni·ninkeisḱa-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *ni·ninkeiska-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. ni·ninkeiska-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ni·ninkeiška-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ni·ninkišar-
(n.) ‘Erhöhung, Erhebung; HIL. 700’
(HEG 2:230)
(Hitt. ni-ni-in-ke-eš-šar-za [in a broken context])
1. PIE *ni·ninkeisor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ni·ninkeisar-
2. ni·ninkeisar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ni·ninkeišar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ni·ninku̯a-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘(Truppen) aufbieten’
(HEG 2:330)
(Hitt. na-an-kán A-NA ÉRIN ŠA KU[(R) UGUTI)] [ni]-ni-in-ku-u-an-zi ú-e-ri-at)
1. PIE *ni·ninku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ni·ninku̯a-
Hitt. ni·ninku̯a-
(n.) ‘Aushebung; HIL. 700’
(HEG 2:330)
(Hitt. ŠA ANŠE.KU]R.RAMEŠ ni-ni-in-ku-ua-aš[(-)... [vn.sgG])
1. PIE *ni·ninku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ni·ninku̯a-


PIE √ni- √oni- √eni- ‘dem.pron.3.pers.’
(IEW 281)
(Pyysalo)
√oni-
(HEG I:29)
(HW2 A: 81, HIL. 209-10)
Hitt. a·ni-
(dem.pron.) ‘jener, [IŠ-TU AN-NI-I]Š, GÚ.R[I.TA]’
(HEG 1:29-30)
(Hitt. an-ni-iš KBo 1.42 iii 33)
1. PIE *o·ni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a·ni-
Hitt. a·ni·šan
(adv.) ‘früher, einst’
(HEG A:31)
1. PIE *o·ni·son
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·ni·san
2. a·ni·san
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. a·ni·šan
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√eni-
Hitt. e·ni-
(dem.pron.) ‘that one’
(ḪEG I:106-7)
(HiuA §54, e-ni-iš, e-ni, e-ni-uš)
Hitt. e·ni·šan
(adv.) ‘thus, as stated’
(HIL. 260-1)
(Hitt. e-ni-iš-ša-an)
1. PIE *e·ni·son
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *e·ni·san
2. e·ni·san
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. e·ni·šan
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ni-
Gr. νί-
(dem.pron.) ‘eum, eam, id; se’
(Gr. νίν [sgA])
1. PIE *ní-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. νί-


PIE √neiol-, √neiel- ‘hängen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√nei-
Hitt. nei-
(vb.) ‘wenden, lenken, leiten, richten, schicken’
(HEG N:253-7)
√neio/el-
(Pyysalo)
(CHD L-N:437-8, HEG 2:309, Neumann (1961a: 85) to Hitt. nei·ari)
Hitt. ninei̯al-
(GIS.) ‘Wiege : cradle’
(HEG N:327-8)
(Hitt. ni-ni-ia-al, ni-ni-ia-al-li, ni-ni-ia-la-aš)
1. PIE *ni·nei̯ol-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ni·nei̯al-
OLat. no·neolā-
(f.) ‘papillae (…) ex faucibus caprārum dēpendent’
(‘papillae, quae ex faucibus caprārum dēpendent’)
1. PIE *no·nei̯olēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *no·nei̯olāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. no·nei̯olāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *no·nei̯olāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. no·nei̯olāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *no·nei̯olā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. no·nei̯olā
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
Rei̯o›eo → OLat. no·neolā
Hitt. nei̯elant-
(a.) ‘angehängt (um des Hals)’
(HEG N:309)
(Hitt. ne-e-la-an [NA]; vs. Eichner 1975:XX, Die Sprache 21: 157-161)
1. PIE *nei̯elont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. nei̯elant-


PIE √nin- ‘liquid’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√nin-
(Pyysalo 2014:XX)
Hitt. nin-
(vb.) ‘quench one’s thirst, to drink full, get drunk’
(HIL. 701)
(Hitt. ni-in-zi [3sg])
OIr. nin-
(sb.) ‘cloud, wave’
(DIL. 477-478)
(OIr. nin, LEIA N:4)
1. PIE *nino
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → OIr. nin
√ninɑh-
OIr. ninach-
(a.) ‘cloudy’
(DIL. 478)
(LEIA N:4)
1. PIE *ninēɑhko
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *nināɑhko
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. nināɑhko
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nināhko
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nināhko
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nināko
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. nināko
VkV → VkhV
Lenition of voiceless stop *k
Rk›kh → *ninākho
5. ninākho
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *ninakho
6. ninakho
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → *ninakh
7. ninakh
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OIr. ninach
√ningɑɦ-
[CHD LN:443f.]
Hitt. ning-
(vb.1.A.) ‘sich satt trinken, sich betrinken’
(HHand. 113)
(Hitt. ni-ik, ni-ik-zi, ni-in-kán-zi)
1. PIE *ningɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ningɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ningɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ning-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ninga-
(d.) GhR. 295, Riemschneider (1970:44 n. 43)
(OHP. 1:340)
(Hitt. ni-in-ga-aš, nin-ga-aš [sgN], ŠUR-za)
1. PIE *ningɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ningɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ningɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ningɦa-
3. ningɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ninga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ningant-
(pt.) ‘XX’ (Oettinger 1979a:143 ‹ HIL. 702)
(HIL. 701)
(Hitt. ni-in-kán-t-)
1. PIE *ningɑɦont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ningɦont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ningɦont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ningɦant-
3. ningɦant-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ningant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ninganu-
(cs.) ‘make drink to satisfaction, drench’
(HIL. 701)
(Hitt. ni-in-ga-nu-ua-an-zi, [n]i-in-ga-nu-nu-u[n] [1sg])
1. PIE *ningɑɦonu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ningɦonu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ningɦonu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ningɦanu-
3. ningɦanu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ninganu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ešpi·ningadar-
(n.) ‘satiation of hunger and thirst’
(HIL. 468)
(Hitt. išpi·ningadar-)
1. PIE *espɑhi·ningɑɦodɑɦor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *esphi·ningɦodɦor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. esphi·ningɦodɦor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *esphi·ningɦadɦar-
3. esphi·ningɦadɦar-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *espi·ningɦadɦar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. espi·ningɦadɦar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *espi·ningadar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. espi·ningadar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ešpi·ningadar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ningɑhi-
Hitt. ningei-
(vb.) ‘quench one’s thirst, to drink full, get drunk’
(HIL. 701)
(Hitt. ni-in-ki [ipv2sg], ni-in-ki-iḫ-ḫ[u-ut] [2sg])
1. PIE *ningɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ningɦei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ningɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ningei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ningeišar-
(n.) ‘Erhöhung, Erhebung’
(HEG N:330)
1. PIE *ningɑɦeisor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ningɦeisor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ningɦeisor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ningɦeisar-
3. ningɦeisar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ningeisar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ningeisar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ningeišar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ninbɑɦ-
(IEW 316 [diff.])
OIr. nimb-
(sb.) ‘cloud, a drop’
(DIL. 478)
(LEIA N:17)
1. PIE *ninbɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ninbɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ninbɦo
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *ninbo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. ninbo
*nb → mb
Change of *n into m before b
Rnb›mb → *nimbo
4. nimbo
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → OIr. nimb
Lat. nimbo-
(m.) ‘Sturz-, Sturmregen, Regenwolke’
(WH. 2:168)
(cf. Lat. membra for preservation of *e in Cemb-)
1. PIE *ninbɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ninbɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ninbɦo-
*bɦ → f
Affricativization of labial *bɦ
Rbɦ›f → *ninfo-
3. ninfo-
*nf → mf
Labialization of *n before f
Rnf›mf → *nimfo-
4. nimfo-
*f → b
Change of *f into b
Rf›b → Lat. nimbo-


PIE √neki-, √noki- (a.) ‘wichtig, wert, lieb (cf. Hitt. dašu-)’ (sb.) ‘Ehre, Bedeutung, Kraft, Gott’ (cf. Gr. theos)
(IEW –)
(van Windekens + Pyysalo)
√nokii-
(HEG N:257-61)
(CHD LN:364f.)
Hitt. naki-
(n.) ‘Ehre, Bedeutung, Kraft’
(HHand. 110)
(Hitt. na-ak-ki [NA], na-ak-ki-it [sgI])
1. PIE *noki̯i-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *noḱi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. noḱi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *naḱi-
3. naḱi-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → Hitt. naki-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
Hitt. naki-
(vb.) ‘to be honoured/important/difficult/obstacle’
(HIL. 686)
(Hitt. na-ak-ke-ez-zi, HIL. 685-6)
1. PIE *noki̯i-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *noḱi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. noḱi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *naḱi-
3. naḱi-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → Hitt. naki-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
Hitt. naki-
(a.) ‘wichtig, schwerwiegend, wert, lieb’
(HHand. 110)
(Hitt. na-ak-ki-iš, DUGUD, na-ak-ki-ia)
1. PIE *noki̯i-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *noḱi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. noḱi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *naḱi-
3. naḱi-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → Hitt. naki-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
Hitt. naki̯an-
(n.) ‘Schwere, Wichtigkeit, Ansehen’
(HIL. 685)
(Hitt. na-ak-ki-ia-an-ni
1. PIE *nokii̯on-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *noḱi̯on-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. noḱi̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *naḱi̯an-
3. naḱi̯an-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → Hitt. naki̯an-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
√nekit-
(v. Windekens)
(apud GEW 2:301)
TochB. ñäkta-
(.) ‘= Skt. deva-’
(DTochB. 263)
(TochB. ñäktetsä = Skt. devānām)
1. PIE *nekito-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *neḱto-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. neḱto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *neḱta-
3. neḱta-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *ni̯aḱta-
4. ni̯aḱta-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *ni̯akta-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. ni̯akta-
*ni̯ → ñ
Palatalization of *n before i̯
Rni̯›ñ → TochB. ñakta-
TochA. ñkät-
(m.) ‘Deus’ (f.) ‘Dea’
(Poucha 113)
(TochA. ñkät)
1. PIE *nèkito
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *nèḱto
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. nèḱto
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nèḱta
3. nèḱta
PIE *è → i̯ à
 Change of *è into i̯à
Rè›i̯à → *ni̯àḱta
4. ni̯àḱta
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *ni̯àkta
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. ni̯àkta
*ni̯ → ñ
Palatalization of *n before i̯
Rni̯›ñ → *ñàkta
6. ñàkta
*a → Ø
Metathesis of kta- into kät-
R=kta›=kät → *ñàkät
7. ñàkät
*a → Ø
Loss of unaccented *a
Rà›0 → TochA. ñkät
TochA. ma·ñkät-
(f.) ‘Dea Luna’
(Poucha 113)
1. PIE *Π·nèkito
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *Π·nèḱto
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. Π·nèḱto
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·nèḱta
3. Π·nèḱta
PIE *è → i̯ à
 Change of *è into i̯à
Rè›i̯à → *Π·ni̯àḱta
4. Π·ni̯àḱta
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *Π·ni̯àkta
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. Π·ni̯àkta
*ni̯ → ñ
Palatalization of *n before i̯
Rni̯›ñ → *Π·ñàkta
6. Π·ñàkta
*a → Ø
Metathesis of kta- into kät-
R=kta›=kät → *Π·ñàkät
7. Π·ñàkät
*a → Ø
Loss of unaccented *a
Rà›0 → TochA. Π·ñkät
Gr. νέκτ.αρ-
(n.) ‘Göttertränk’
(Gr. νέκταρ, νέκταρος)
1. PIE *nékit.hɑer-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *nékit.hɑar-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. nékit.hɑar-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nékit.har-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nékit.har-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *néḱt.har-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. néḱt.har-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *néḱt.ar-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. néḱt.ar-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *nékt.ar-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. nékt.ar-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. νέκτ.αρ-
Gr. νεκτ.άρεο-
(a.) ‘aus N., wie N. duftend’
(Gr. νεκτάρεος)
1. PIE *nekit.hɑérei̯o-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *nekit.hɑárei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. nekit.hɑárei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nekit.hárei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nekit.hárei̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *neḱt.hárei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. neḱt.hárei̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *neḱt.árei̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. neḱt.árei̯o-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *nekt.árei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. nekt.árei̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *nekt.áreo-
7. nekt.áreo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. νεκτ.άρεο-
Gr. νεκτ.άριο-
(n.) ‘Pflanzenname, ἑλέενιον’
(Gr. νεκτάριον)
1. PIE *nekit.hɑérii̯o-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *nekit.hɑárii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. nekit.hɑárii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nekit.hárii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nekit.hárii̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *neḱt.hárii̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. neḱt.hárii̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *neḱt.árii̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. neḱt.árii̯o-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *nekt.árii̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. nekt.árii̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *nekt.ário-
7. nekt.ário-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. νεκτ.άριο-


PIE √nki- √noki- √neki- (sb.) ‘Untergang’
(IEW 762)
(LIV2:451-2
√neki-
Lat. nec-
(f.) ‘gewaltsame Tod, Mord’
(Lat. nex, necis)
1. PIE *neki-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *neḱ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. neḱ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *nek-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. nek-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. nec-
Gr. νέκ-
(m.) ‘corpse’
(GEW 2:299-300)
(Hes. νέκες · νεκροί [plN])
1. PIE *néki-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *néḱ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. néḱ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *nék-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. nék-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. νέκ-
OInd. naś-
(f.) ‘Verderben; AiGr. II/2:14’
(KEWA 2:146)
(Gaṇaratnamahodadhi naś-)
1. PIE *neki-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *neć-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. neć-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *neś-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. neś-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → OInd. naś-
OInd. jīva·naś-
(a.) ‘(Opfer) wobei lebende Wesen getötet werden’
(KEWA 2:146)
(Pāṇ. jīva·naś-)
1. PIE *Π·neki-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *Π·neć-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. Π·neć-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *Π·neś-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·neś-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → OInd. Π·naś-
Gr. νεκ·άδ-
(f.) ‘Leichen-haufe; vgl. δεκάδ-, νιφάδ-’
(GEW 2:300)
1. PIE *neki·Σ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *neḱ·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. neḱ·Σ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *nek·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. nek·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. νεκ·Σ-
OInd. vi (...) naś-
(vb.) ‘verlorengehen’
(EWA 2:29)
(Ved. vyanaśat [conj3sg])
1. PIE *Π·neki-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *Π·neć-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. Π·neć-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *Π·neś-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·neś-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → OInd. Π·naś-
√noki-
RV. nanāś-
(pf.) ‘verschwinden, sich davon machen’
(WbRV. 717-8)
(RV. nanāśa [3sg])
1. PIE *nenēki-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *nenēć-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. nenēć-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *nenēś-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. nenēś-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *nanēś-
4. nanēś-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → RV. nanāś-
gAv. vi·nǝnās-
(pf.) ‘dem Untergang verfallen sein’
(AIWb. 1055-6)
(gAv. vi.nǝnāsā [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·nenēki-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *Π·nenēć-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. Π·nenēć-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *Π·nenēs-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
3. Π·nenēs-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *Π·nanēs-
4. Π·nanēs-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → gAv. Π·nanās-
Gr. νώκ.αρ-
(n.) ‘Totenschlaf’
(GEW 2:299-300)
(Gr. νῶκαρ, νῶκαρος)
1. PIE *nṓki.hɑer-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *nṓki.hɑar-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. nṓki.hɑar-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nṓki.har-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nṓki.har-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *nṓḱ.har-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. nṓḱ.har-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nṓḱ.ar-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. nṓḱ.ar-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *nṓk.ar-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. nṓk.ar-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. νώκ.αρ-
√nokii- √nekii-
Pyysalo (2013:123)
Hitt. nakiu-
(GN.c.) ‘Art Unterweltsgottheit’
(HEG 2:261-2)
1. PIE *noki̯iu-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *noḱiu-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. noḱiu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *naḱiu-
3. naḱiu-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → Hitt. nakiu-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
Lat. nocīuo-
(a.) ‘schädlich’
(WH. 2:153)
1. PIE *noki̯eiuo-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *noḱeiuo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. noḱeiuo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *nokeiuo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. nokeiuo-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *nokīuo-
4. nokīuo-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. nocīuo-
Lat. inter·necīuo-
(a.) ‘mörderisch, tödlich’
(WH. 2:153)
1. PIE *Π·neki̯eiuo-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *Π·neḱeiuo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. Π·neḱeiuo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *Π·nekeiuo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·nekeiuo-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *Π·nekīuo-
4. Π·nekīuo-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. Π·necīuo-


PIE √negiɑɦ- √nogiɑɦ- (sb.) ‘Heimat’ (vb.) ‘heimkehren, gerettet werden, genesen’
(IEW 776-7)
(Pyysalo)
√nogiɑɦo-
(Pyysalo)
Pal. pa·naga-
(vb.) ‘zurück·kommen(d) (?)’
(HHand. 118)
(Pal. pa-na-a-ga-an-zi [3pl] or [pt.?], see BPal. 7, DPal. 66)
1. PIE *po·nogi̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po·nogi̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. po·nogi̯ɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *po·noǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. po·noǵɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pa·naǵɦa-
4. pa·naǵɦa-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *pa·nagɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. pa·nagɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Pal. pa·naga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Kpd. pa·naga-
(LÚ.c.) ‘‹zurück·kommend i.e. Nestor (?)›’
(NOMS. 926)
(Kpd. pá-na-ga)
1. PIE *po·nogi̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po·nogi̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. po·nogi̯ɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *po·noǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. po·noǵɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pa·naǵɦa-
4. pa·naǵɦa-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *pa·nagɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. pa·nagɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Kpd. pa·naga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√nogiɑhiɑh-
OCS. go·nozi-
(vb.) ‘retten’
(Sadnik √239)
(REW 1:292)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·nogi̯ɑɦiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *gɑɦo·nogi̯ɑɦiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. gɑɦo·nogi̯ɑɦiíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·nogi̯ɦiíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦo·nogi̯ɦiíh-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *gɦo·noj́ɦiíh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. gɦo·noj́ɦiíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦa·naj́ɦiíh-
5. gɦa·naj́ɦiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦa·naj́ɦií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. gɦa·naj́ɦií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *gɦa·naj́ɦī́-
7. gɦa·naj́ɦī́-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *gɦa·nazɦī́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
8. gɦa·nazɦī́-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *ga·nazɦī́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
9. ga·nazɦī́-
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → *ga·nazī́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
10. ga·nazī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *go·nozī́-
11. go·nozī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *go·nozí-
12. go·nozí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → OCS. go·nozi-
OCS. go·naža-
(vb.) ‘erlösen, befreien’
(Sadnik √239)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·nōgi̯ɑɦi̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gɑɦo·nōgi̯ɑɦi̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gɑɦo·nōgi̯ɑɦi̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·nōgi̯ɦi̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦo·nōgi̯ɦi̯āh-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *gɦo·nōj́ɦi̯āh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. gɦo·nōj́ɦi̯āh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦa·nōj́ɦi̯āh-
5. gɦa·nōj́ɦi̯āh-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *gɦa·nāj́ɦi̯āh-
6. gɦa·nāj́ɦi̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦa·nāj́ɦi̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. gɦa·nāj́ɦi̯ā-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *gɦa·nāzɦi̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
8. gɦa·nāzɦi̯ā-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *ga·nāzɦi̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
9. ga·nāzɦi̯ā-
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → *ga·nāzi̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
10. ga·nāzi̯ā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *go·nāzi̯ā-
11. go·nāzi̯ā-
* zi̯ → ž
Change of zi̯ into ž
Rzi̯›ž → *go·nāžā-
12. go·nāžā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OCS. go·naža-
√negiɑh-
OCS. go·neznǫ-
(vb.) ‘genesen, entgehen, sich retten, verborgen sein’
(Sadnik √239)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·negi̯ɑɦnun
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·negi̯ɦnun
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦo·negi̯ɦnun
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *gɦo·nej́ɦnun
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. gɦo·nej́ɦnun
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦa·nej́ɦnun
4. gɦa·nej́ɦnun
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *gɦa·nezɦnun
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. gɦa·nezɦnun
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *ga·nezɦnun
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. ga·nezɦnun
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → *ga·neznun
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. ga·neznun
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *go·neznun
8. go·neznun
*-un → -ǫ
Emergence of nasal vowel ǫ
Run›ǫ → OCS. go·neznǫ


PIE √nku- √noku-, √neku- ‘Schaden, Beschädigung, Verlust, Schuld, Sündenbock’ (vb.) ‘zu Grunde gehen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√noku-
Hitt. naku-
(c.) ‘Substitut, Stellvertreter, ritueller Sündenbock’
(HEG 2:262-4)
(HIL. 686-, CHD L-N:374f.)
1. PIE *noku-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. naku-
√no/ekus-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. nakuš-
(n.) ‘Verlust, Schaden, Beschädigung, Schuld’
(HEG 2:262-4)
(Hitt. na-ak-ku-uš)
1. PIE *nokus-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nakus-
2. nakus-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. nakuš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lat. nexo-
(n.) ‘Schuldhörigkeit’
(Lat. nexum)
1. PIE *nekuso-
* ku/u̯ → q
Emergence of labiovelar q
RkU›q → *neqso-
2. neqso-
*qs → ks
Delabialization of *q before s
Rqs›ks → *nekso-
3. nekso-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *necso-
4. necso-
*cs → x
Orthographic change of cs into x
Rks›x → Lat. nexo-
Lat. nexo-
(m.) ‘der in Schuldhaft Befindliche’
(Lat. nexus)
1. PIE *nekuso-
* ku/u̯ → q
Emergence of labiovelar q
RkU›q → *neqso-
2. neqso-
*qs → ks
Delabialization of *q before s
Rqs›ks → *nekso-
3. nekso-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *necso-
4. necso-
*cs → x
Orthographic change of cs into x
Rks›x → Lat. nexo-
CLu. nakušaḫid-
(n.) ‘Funktion des Sündenträgers’
(DLL. 73)
1. PIE *nokusohɑid-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nokusohid-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. nokusohid-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nakusahid-
3. nakusahid-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *nakušahid-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. nakušahid-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. nakušaḫid-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. nakuši-
(c.) ‘Substitut, Stellvertreter, Sündenbock’
(HEG X:X)
1. PIE *nokusi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nakusi-
2. nakusi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. nakuši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. nakušei̯a-
(vb.) ‘Schuld übernehmen (?)’
(HEG. 2:266)
1. PIE *nokusei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nakusei̯a-
2. nakusei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. nakušei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lat. nexū-
(m.) ‘Verschlingung, Schuldhörigkeit’
(WH. 2:155)
1. PIE *nekusou-
* ku/u̯ → q
Emergence of labiovelar q
RkU›q → *neqsou-
2. neqsou-
*qs → ks
Delabialization of *q before s
Rqs›ks → *neksou-
3. neksou-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *neksū-
4. neksū-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *necsū-
5. necsū-
*cs → x
Orthographic change of cs into x
Rks›x → Lat. nexū-
√nokus-
LAv. a·nāxšta-
(a.) ‘der nicht zu Grunde geht’
(AIWb. 122-3)
(LAv. mąϑrō spǝntō anāxštō anādruxtō)
1. PIE *Π·nēkusto-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiIr → *Π·nēkušto-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. Π·nēkušto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·nēkušta-
3. Π·nēkušta-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *Π·nēkšta-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. Π·nēkšta-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *Π·nākšta-
5. Π·nākšta-
PIE *kš → xš
Change of *k into x before *š
Rkš›xš → LAv. Π·nāxšta-


PIE √nbɑh- √nobɑɦ- √nebɑɦ- (vb.) ‘zerspalten’ (sb.) ‘Axt’
(IEW 758, LIV2:448)
√nebɑɦ-
(EWA 2:12-13, KEWA 2:133-4)
RV. nábh-
(f.) ‘Zerspalter, Zerbrecher; Sāy: hiṅsā’
(WbRV. 708)
1. PIE *nébɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nébɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. nébɦ-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *nábɦ-
3. nábɦ-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. nábh-
RV. nábha-
(pr.) ‘bersten, zerspringen, enzweigehen’
(WbRV. 708)
1. PIE *nébɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nébɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. nébɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nébɦa-
3. nébɦa-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *nábɦa-
4. nábɦa-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. nábha-
√nobɑɦ-
Hitt. nab·[...
(NA4.) ‘‹Hitt. na-ap[... = HLu. napari- (?)›’
(HEG 2::275)
(Hitt. [2 MÁ.URU.U]RU5 Ga-aš-ga ŠÀ.BA 99 GIG.GAG.TAG 2 a-šu-ša-aš KÙ.BABBAR 1 NA4na-ap[...])
1. PIE *nobɑɦ·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nobɦ·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. nobɦ·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nabɦ·Σ-
3. nabɦ·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. nab·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. nabari-
(sb.) ‘axe’
(CHLu. 2.6.3)
(HLu. ASCIA(-)na-pa-[ri]+i)
1. PIE *nobɑɦori-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nobɦori-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. nobɦori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nabɦari-
3. nabɦari-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. nabari-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√nbɑɦ-
OInd. nambhaya-
(csA.) ‘bersten lassen’
(LIV2:448)
(OInd. nambhayati)
1. PIE *nombɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nombɦei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. nombɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nambɦei̯a-
3. nambɦei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *nambɦai̯a-
4. nambɦai̯a-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *nambhai̯a-
5. nambhai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. nambhaya-


PIE √ns- √ons-, √ens- (vb.) ‘abwischen’ (cf. Hitt. u̯arš- ‘reap, harvest, wipe’) (sb.) ‘Schwert’
(IEW 771)
(+ Pyysalo 2013:305)
√ons-
(HED A:74)
(Oettinger 1979:436-7, HIL. 219-20, HEG I:33)
Hitt. ānš-
(vb.) ‘abwischen’
(HEG 1:33)
(Hitt. a-an-ši [3sg], a-an-aš-ta-at [3sg])
1. PIE *ōns-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *āns-
2. āns-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ānš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ānšant-
(pt.) ‘verwischt, abgewischt, glatt’
(HHand. 17)
(Hitt. a-an-ša-an-t-, an-ša-an-t-)
1. PIE *ōnsont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōnsant-
2. ōnsant-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ānsant-
3. ānsant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ānšant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ānša·šibi-
(c.) ‘Leichnam’
(HEG 2:33)
(‹suffix unclear !›)
1. PIE *ōnso·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōnsa·Σ-
2. ōnsa·Σ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ānsa·Σ-
3. ānsa·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ānša·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√onsi-
(Pyysalo)
Lat. ēnsi-
(m.) ‘Schwert’
(Lat. ēnsis, ēnsis)
1. PIE *ēnsi-
*ēRC → eRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ēRC
RēRC›eRC → *ensi-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
2. ensi-
*ens → ēns
Lengthening of ens into ēns
Rens›ēns → Lat. ēnsi-
Hitt. ānšei̯a-
(vb.) ‘abwischen’
(EHS 507)
(Hitt. a-an-ši-an-zi, a-a[n]-ši-ia-an-zi)
1. PIE *ōnsei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōnsei̯a-
2. ōnsei̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ānsei̯a-
3. ānsei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ānšei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ānšige/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘(ab)wischen’
(HHand. 16)
(Hitt. a-an-ši-ke/a-)
1. PIE *ōnsigɑɦe/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ōnsigɦe/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ōnsigɦe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōnsigɦe/a-
3. ōnsigɦe/a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ānsigɦe/a-
4. ānsigɦe/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ānsige/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ānsige/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ānšige/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lat. ēnsi·culo-
(m.dim.) ‘Schwertlein’
(Lat. ēnsiculus [sgN])
1. PIE *ēnsi·Σ-
*ēRC → eRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ēRC
RēRC›eRC → *ensi·Σ-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
2. ensi·Σ-
*ens → ēns
Lengthening of ens into ēns
Rens›ēns → Lat. ēnsi·Σ-
Hitt. ānši·ške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘(ab)wischen’
(HHand. 16)
1. PIE *ōnsi·ski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ōnsi·sḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ōnsi·sḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōnsi·sḱe/a-
3. ōnsi·sḱe/a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ānsi·sḱe/a-
4. ānsi·sḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *ānsi·ske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. ānsi·ske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ānši·ške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√onski-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. āñcha-
(vb.A.) ‘zurechtzerren’
(AiGr. 1:15)
(OInd. āñchati [3sg])
1. PIE *ōnski̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *ōnsćo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ōnsćo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōnsća-
3. ōnsća-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ānsća-
4. ānsća-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *ānsśa-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. ānsśa-
*sś → ch
Change of sś to ch
Rsś›ch → *āncha-
6. āncha-
*nch → ñch
Palatalization of nasal
Rnch›ñch → OInd. āñcha-
Hitt. ānške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘(ab)wischen’
(HHand. 16)
(Hitt. a-an-aš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *ōnski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ōnsḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ōnsḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōnsḱe/a-
3. ōnsḱe/a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ānsḱe/a-
4. ānsḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *ānske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. ānske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ānške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √ns- √nes- √nos- (sb.) ‘URU neša- = Heimat’ (vb.) ‘heimkehren, gerettet werden, genesen, usw.’
(IEW 766-7)
(+Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√nes-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ga·neš-
(URU.) ‘= URU neša- .i. Heimat : Homeland’
(OGH. 169-70)
(Hitt. ka-ni-eš, ka-ni-iš [All])
1. PIE *gɑɦo·nes-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·nes-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦo·nes-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦa·nes-
3. gɦa·nes-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ga·nes-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ga·nes-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ga·neš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. νέο-
(pr.M.) ‘(glücklich) gelangen, zurück-, heimkehren’
(Gr. νέο-)
1. PIE *néso-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *ného-
2. ného-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *néo-
3. néo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. νέο-
Hitt. neša-
(URU.) ‘=URU Ka-ni-eš, OGHErg. 62-3’
(HEG 2:315-9)
(Hitt. ne-ša-)
1. PIE *neso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nesa-
2. nesa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. neša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Goth. ga·nisa-
(vb.) ‘gerettet werden, genesen’
(GoEtD. 146)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·neso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·neso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦo·neso-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *go·neso-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. go·neso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ga·nesa-
4. ga·nesa-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → Goth. ga·nisa-
Hitt. nešili
(URUadv.) ‘hethitisch’
(HEG 2:318)
(Hitt. ni-ši-li)
1. PIE *nesili-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. nešili-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Goth. ga·nisti-
(f.) ‘Genesung, Heil’ (: σωτηρία)
(GoEtD. 146)
(Goth. ganists)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·nesti-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·nesti-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦo·nesti-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *go·nesti-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. go·nesti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ga·nesti-
4. ga·nesti-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → Goth. ga·nisti-
Gr. νέστωρ-
(Im.) “der (glücklich wohin) gelangt”
(GEW 2:305)
1. PIE *néstōr
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. νέστωρ
√nos-
(Pyysalo)
Goth. ga·nasja-
(vb.) ‘ἰᾶσθαι, σῶσαι, διασώσειν’
(GoEtD. 263)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·nosi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·nosi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦo·nosi̯o-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *go·nosi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. go·nosi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ga·nasi̯a-
4. ga·nasi̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Goth. ga·nasja-
Hitt. našili
(adv.) ‘hethitisch’
(HEG 2:318)
(Hitt. na-a-ši-li
1. PIE *nosili
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nasili
2. nasili
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. našili
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. νόστο-
(m.) ‘Rück-, Heimkehr, Fahrt, Ertrag’
(GEW 2:305)
1. PIE *nósto-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. νόστο-
√ns-
Gr. νί̄σο-
(pr.) ‘fahren, gehen, kommen’
(Gr. νίσομαι, νίσσομαι, Gr. ī)
1. PIE *nínsso-
*ínss → ī́ss
Loss of nasal with lengthening
Rinss›īss → *nī́sso-
2. nī́sso-
*ss → s
Degemination of *ss
Rss›s → *nī́so-
3. nī́so-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. νί̄σο-
Gr. νί̄σα-
(ao.) ‘fahren, gehen, kommen’
(Gr. νίσασθαι, νίσσασθαι)
1. PIE *nínsseɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *nínssaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. nínssaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nínssah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nínssah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nínssa-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. nínssa-
*ínss → ī́ss
Loss of nasal with lengthening
Rinss›īss → *nī́ssa-
5. nī́ssa-
*ss → s
Degemination of *ss
Rss›s → *nī́sa-
6. nī́sa-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. νί̄σα-

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