PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
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PIE



PIE √rɑh- √orɑh- √erɑh- ‘Grenze, Gebiet, Rand, Region’ (adv.) ‘ringsum, weg(s)’
(IEW. 854-7)
(Pedersen Celtic + Pyysalo Lithuanian)
√ōrēɑh-
(HEG I:55)
Lat. ōrā-
(f.) ‘Rand, Saum, Grenze, Meeresküste, Region’
(WH 2:218)
(Puhvel HED 1/2: 129f. Melchert 1994a: 29, 84)
1. PIE *ōrēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ōrāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ōrāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ōrāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ōrāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. ōrā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Hitt. ārāḫ-
(adv.bs.) ‘ringsum, außerhalb’
(HHand. 20)
(Hitt. a-ra-aḫ-za, HIL. 291)
1. PIE *ōrēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ōrāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ōrāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ōrāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ōrāh-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ārāh-
4. ārāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ārāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
MidCymr. or-
(f.) ‘limit, boundary, coast, margin, brink, brim, bank, edge’
1. PIE *orēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *orāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. orāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. orāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *orā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. orā
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *ora
5. ora
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → MidCymr. or
√orɑho-
(HEG I:55)
Hitt. arḫa-
(c.) ‘Grenze, Gebiet’ (Sum. ZAG)
(HHand. 21)
(Hitt. ar-ḫa, ar-ḫa-an, ar-ḫa-as, ar-ḫi)
1. PIE *orɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arha-
3. arha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. arḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. arḫa
(adv.) ‘weg, abseits’ (prev.) ‘weg-, aus-, heim-’
(HHand. 21)
1. PIE *orɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arha-
3. arha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. arḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. arḫa
(Pstp & Prevb.) ‘ab, wegs’
(CHLu. 1.1.4)
(in ARHA-ha-wa/i la)
1. PIE *orɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arha-
3. arha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. arḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
MidIr. or-
(m.*o) ‘edge, limit’
(EtDiPC 137)
(LEIA O:26)
1. PIE *orɑho
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orho
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orho
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oro
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. oro
*-o → -Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R=o›=0 → MidIr. or
Corn. or-
(n.f.) ‘boundary, border, frontier’
1. PIE *orɑho
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orho
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orho
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oro
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. oro
*-o → -Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R=o›=0 → Corn. or
OLith. ara·ki-
(m.) ‘Grenzstein, Grenze’
(ALiEtWb. A-45)
(LiEtWb. 121f.)
1. PIE *orɑho·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orho·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orho·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oro·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. oro·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OLith. ara·Σ-
√erɑhe/o-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. erḫa-
(c.) ‘Sum. ZAG : Grenze, Gebiet : border, area’
(HHand. 62)
(ir-ḫa, ir-ḫa-as, ir-ḫa-an, er-ḫi, ir-ḫa-az, ir-ḫu-us, HIL. 291)
1. PIE *erɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *erho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. erho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *erha-
3. erha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. erḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. erḫa-
(sb.) ‘frontier’
(CHLu. 1.1.19)
(HLu. (“FINES”)i+ra/i-há-za)
1. PIE *erɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *erho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. erho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *erha-
3. erha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. erḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. erḫa·mu̯a-
(mc.*) (devin; autre)
(NOMS. 461)
(Hitt. ir-ḫa-A.A; ZAG-A.A.)
1. PIE *erɑho·mu̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *erho·mu̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. erho·mu̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *erha·mu̯a
3. erha·mu̯a
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. erḫa·mu̯a
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. erḫa·u̯a-
(.) ‘Reihum·beopfern’
(HHand. 62)
1. PIE *erɑho·u̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *erho·u̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. erho·u̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *erha·u̯a-
3. erha·u̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. erḫa·u̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lith. ere·kỹ-
(m.) ‘Grenzstein, Grenze’
(ALiEtWb. A-45)
1. PIE *erɑhe·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *erhe·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. erhe·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lith. ere·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√orɑhoi-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. arḫai-
(vb.dn.) ‘die Runde machen’
(HHand. 21)
(HIL. 291)
1. PIE *orɑhoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orhoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orhoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arhai-
3. arhai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. arḫai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OLith. arai·ki-
(m.) ‘Grenz·stein, Grenze’
(ALiEtWb. A-45)
1. PIE *orɑhoi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orhoi·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orhoi·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oroi·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. oroi·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OLith. arai·Σ-
Hitt. arḫai̯·an
(adv.) ‘abseits, gesondert’ (EḪS 351, 353)
(HHand. 21)
(HIL. 291)
1. PIE *orɑhoi·on-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orhoi·on-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orhoi·on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arhai·an-
3. arhai·an-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → *arhai̯·an-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. arhai̯·an-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. arḫai̯·an-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√erɑhoi-
Hitt. erḫai-
(vb1.) ‘die Runde machen’ (ḪudA 137)
(HHand. 62)
(Hitt. ir-ḫa-a-iz-zi [3sg])
1. PIE *erɑhoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *erhoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. erhoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *erhai-
3. erhai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. erḫai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√orɑhi-
LycA. eri-
(prevb.) ‘XX’
(XX:XX)
(Laroche: comparaison I:177f.)
1. PIE *erɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *erhi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. erhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → LycA. eri-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OLith. arì·ki-
(m.) ‘Grenzstein, Grenze’
(ALiEtWb. A-45)
1. PIE *orɑhí·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orhí·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orhí·Σ-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *orhì·Σ-
3. orhì·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *orì·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. orì·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OLith. arì·Σ-
OBret. orio-
(.) ‘gl. oram’
(EtDiPC 137)
(OBret. orion [sgA])
1. PIE *orɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orhi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ori̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. ori̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OBret. orio-


PIE √rl- √orl- √erl- (sb.) ‘offspring, man, boy’ (a.) ‘male’
(IEW 326+328)
(+ Pyysalo)
√orolo-
Hitt. arala-
(c.) ‘Im Lande Tarḫuntaša.’
(OGHErg. 9)
(Hitt. a-ra-al-la-aš [N])
1. PIE *orolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. arala-
Hitt. aralai-
(vb1.) ‘beigesellen, verheiraten (?)’
(HHand. 20)
(Hitt. aralait [2sg], Oettinger 1979:32)
1. PIE *oroloi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aralai-
√erlo-
OSax. erl-
(m.) ‘(noble)man, male offspring, boy’
(ASaxD. 254)
‹Helg. erl- not †irl- !›
1. PIE *erlo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *erla
2. erla
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *irla
3. irla
irla -› erla
*a-umlaut of i
Rirla›erla → *erla
4. erla
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OSax. erl
OSax. erl-
(m.) ‘man, nobleman, male offspring’
(ASaxD. 254)
1. PIE *erlo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *erla
2. erla
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *irla
3. irla
irla -› erla
*a-umlaut of i
Rirla›erla → *erla
4. erla
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OSax. erl
√orlo-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ḫud·arla-
(c.) ‘ARAD = Diener, Knecht, Sklave’
(HHand. 57)
(Lit. Hitt. ḫud+arla- ‘dienst=eilend+mann”)
1. PIE *ɦɑud·orlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦud·orlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦud·orlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦud·arla-
3. ɦud·arla-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫud·arla-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Kpd. ḫud·arla-
(Ic.) (cf. above)
(NOMS. 411.1A)
(Kpd. ḫu-da-ar-lá)
1. PIE *ɦɑud·orlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦud·orlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦud·orlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦud·arla-
3. ɦud·arla-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Kpd. ḫud·arla-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. arla-
(a.) ‘‹male (?)›’
(CHLu. 9.1.15)
(HLu. ara/i-la)
1. PIE *orlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. arla-
HLu. arla-
(.) ‘‹man (?)›?
(CHLu. 2.22.19)
(HLu. ara/i-la-´)
1. PIE *orlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. arla-
Hitt. arlanta
(ḪUR.SAG.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGHErg. 12)
(Hitt. a-ar-la-an-ta)
1. PIE *orlonto
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. arlanta
Hitt. arlanta-
(ḪUR.SAG.) “An Ḫulaja -› dU-taša, Arlantuja”;
(OGH. 37-8)
(Hitt. ar-la-an-da, Luwiya 247f.)
1. PIE *orlonto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. arlanta-
Hitt. arlant·ui̯a-
(URU.) ‘In Land Tuwanuwa, s. dort.’
(OGH. 38)
(Hitt. ar-la-an-du-ia-aš [sgN]
1. PIE *orlont·ui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. arlant·ui̯a-
CLu. arla·nu̯a-
(cs.) ‘Kimball 1999:223, CLuwLex. 28, DLL. 31’
(Starke StBoT 31:567)
(CLu. a-ar-la-nu-ua-at-ta
1. PIE *orlo·nu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. arla·nu̯a-
Hitt. arla·u̯izi-
(mc.) ‘if = Hitt. LÚ.UR.MAḪ (?)’
(NOMS. 130a)
(Hitt. ar-la-ui-iz-zi [abs.] = Hitt. LÚ.UR.MAḪ
1. PIE *orlo·u̯idɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orlo·u̯idɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orlo·u̯idɦi-
PIE *dɦi → jɦi
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi›jɦi → *orlo·u̯ijɦi-
3. orlo·u̯ijɦi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arla·u̯ijɦi-
4. arla·u̯ijɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *arla·u̯iji-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arla·u̯iji-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. arla·u̯izi-
√orli-
Hitt. ḫud·arli-
(c.) ‘Diener, Knecht, Sklave’ (Sum. ARAD/ÍR)
(HHand. 57)
1. PIE *ɦɑud·orli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦud·orli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦud·orli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦud·arli-
3. ɦud·arli-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫud·arli-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫud·arli-
(mc.) (prêtre)
(NOMS. 411.2.)
(Hitt. ḫu-u-tar-li [abs.])
1. PIE *ɦɑud·orli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦud·orli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦud·orli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦud·arli-
3. ɦud·arli-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫud·arli-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. arma·ḫud·arli-
(fdc.*)
(NOMS. 132)
(in Hitt. fdSIN-ÍR-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *ormo·ɦɑud·orli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ormo·ɦud·orli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ormo·ɦud·orli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arma·ɦud·arli-
3. arma·ɦud·arli-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. arma·ḫud·arli-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. mašana·ḫud·arli-
(Ic.*) (fille de Muršili II, épouse de Masturi)
(NOMS. 775)
(Hitt. DINGIRMEšÍR-in)
1. PIE *mosono·ɦɑud·orli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mosono·ɦud·orli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mosono·ɦud·orli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *masana·ɦud·arli-
3. masana·ɦud·arli-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *mašana·ɦud·arli-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. mašana·ɦud·arli-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. mašana·ḫud·arli-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. ḫud·arli-
(m*.)
(XX:XX)
(in Hitt. mÌRli-)
1. PIE *ɦɑud·orli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦud·orli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦud·orli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦud·arli-
3. ɦud·arli-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫud·arli-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. ḫud·arlei̯a-
(a.) ‘sklavisch’
(DLL. 49)
(CLu. ḫu-tar-li-ia-an [sgA] = ÌRan [dup.]))
1. PIE *ɦɑud·orlei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦud·orlei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦud·orlei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦud·arlei̯a-
3. ɦud·arlei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫud·arlei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. ḫud·arlaa-
(c.) ‘Sklave, Diener’ (‘serviteur’)
(DLL. 49)
(CLu. ḫu-tar-la-a-an [sgA])
1. PIE *ɦɑud·orloi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦud·orloi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦud·orloi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦud·arlai̯a-
3. ɦud·arlai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *ɦud·arlaa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. ɦud·arlaa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫud·arlaa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√orlibɑɦ-
Hitt. arlib-
(c.) ‘ein Körperteil, Penis (?), Oberschenkel (?)’
(HEG I:61-2)
(EHS 331, Laroche RA 47:40-49)
1. PIE *orlibɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orlibɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orlibɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arlibɦ-
3. arlibɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. arlib-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √rn- √orn-, √ern- (sb.) ‘Schuld’ (vb.) ‘büßen, ersetzen’
(IEW. 501)
(Pyysalo (2013:242)
√rn-
RV. r̥ṇá-
(a.) ‘schuldig, sündig’
(WbRV. 281)
(RV. r̥ṇás [N])
1. PIE *r̥nó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *r̥ná-
2. r̥ná-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. r̥ṇá-
Sogd. 'rn-
(sb.) ‘Schuld’
(KEWA 1:121)
1. PIE *orno
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arna
2. arna
*a → '
Orthographic change of *a into '
Ra›' → Sogd. 'rn'
LAv. arǝnat·čaēša-
(pt.a.) ‘avenging debts (?), EFL 154-5’
(AIWb. 195)
(LAv. arǝnat.čaēša-)
1. PIE *ernet·Σ-
*r → rǝ
Anaptyxis of ǝ (Schwa)
Rr›rǝ → *erǝnet·Σ-
2. erǝnet·Σ-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → LAv. arǝnat·Σ-
Khot. ārra-
(sb.) ‘Schuld’
(KEWA 1:121)
1. PIE *ōrno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōrna-
2. ōrna-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ārna-
3. ārna-
*rn → rr
Assimilation of *rn into rr
Rrn›rr → Khot. ārra-
Hitt. arnu-
(vb.) ‘büßen, ersetzen’
(Tischler 1972:278)
1. PIE *ornu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. arnu-


PIE √rtɑh- √rdɑɦ- ‘ansiedeln, pflanzen, hegen, usw.’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo: OSax. + OEng.)
√ortɑhi-
(HEG A:XX)
Hitt. arša-
(sb.) ‘unbekannter Gegenstand’
(HHand. 24)
1. PIE *ortɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orthi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orthi̯o-
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *orcho-
3. orcho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *archa-
4. archa-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *arca-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arca-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. arša-
Hitt. arša-
(ḪUR.SAG.) ‘Liste von (göttlichen?) Bergen.’
(OGHErg. 12)
(Ḫi. ar-ša-aš [N])
1. PIE *ortɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orthi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orthi̯o-
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *orcho-
3. orcho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *archa-
4. archa-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *arca-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arca-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. arša-
Hitt. aršai-
(vb.) ‘pflanzen, hegen’ (MP.) ‘sich pflegen’
(HHand. 24)
1. PIE *ortɑhi̯oi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orthi̯oi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orthi̯oi-
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *orchoi-
3. orchoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *archai-
4. archai-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *arcai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arcai-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. aršai-
Hitt. aršei-
(c.) ‘Pflanzung, Baumschule (?)’
(HHand. 24)
1. PIE *ortɑhi̯ei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orthi̯ei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orthi̯ei-
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *orchei-
3. orchei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *archei-
4. archei-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *arcei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arcei-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. aršei-
Hitt. aršeike/a-
(vb.) ‘hegen : plant, cultivate’
(HHand. 24)
(Melchert 1994:178)
1. PIE *ortɑhi̯eiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orthi̯eiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orthi̯eiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *orthi̯eisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. orthi̯eisḱe/o-
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *orcheisḱe/o-
4. orcheisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *archeisḱe/a-
5. archeisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *archeiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. archeiske/a-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *arceiske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. arceiske/a-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → *aršeiske/a-
8. aršeiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aršeiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LycC. ἀρσα·λο-
(I.) ‘hegend+ λο-’
(LuPG 117)
(Lyc. Aρσαλος)
1. PIE *ortɑhi̯o·lu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orthi̯o·lu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orthi̯o·lu-
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *orcho·lu-
3. orcho·lu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *archa·lu-
4. archa·lu-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *arca·lu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arca·lu-
*c → s
Change of *c into s
Rc›s → *arsa·lu-
6. arsa·lu-
* u → o
Change of *u into o
Ru›o → *arsa·lo-
7. arsa·lo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LycC. ἀρσα·λο-
Hitt. aršana-
(Éc.) ‘Herberge, Gasthaus’
(HEG 1:75)
(HHand. 25)
1. PIE *ortɑhi̯ono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orthi̯ono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orthi̯ono-
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *orchono-
3. orchono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *archana-
4. archana-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *arcana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arcana-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. aršana-
Hitt. aršaša-
(URUa.gen.) ‘Im Gebiet von Kinara’
(OGH. 40)
(Hitt. ar-ša-a-ša [Stf.])
1. PIE *ortɑhi̯oso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orthi̯oso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orthi̯oso-
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *orchoso-
3. orchoso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *archasa-
4. archasa-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *arcasa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arcasa-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → *aršasa-
6. aršasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aršaša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LycC. ἀρσασι-
(I.) ‘XX’
(LuPG 117)
(Lyc. Aρσασις)
1. PIE *ortɑhi̯osi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orthi̯osi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orthi̯osi-
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *orchosi-
3. orchosi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *archasi-
4. archasi-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *arcasi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arcasi-
*c → s
Change of *c into s
Rc›s → *arsasi-
6. arsasi-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LycC. ἀρσασι-
LycC. τεδι·αρσασι-
(I.) ‘-(?)-’
(LuPG. 149)
Lyc. τεδιαρσασι-)
1. PIE *Π·ortɑhi̯osi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·orthi̯osi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·orthi̯osi-
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *Π·orchosi-
3. Π·orchosi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·archasi-
4. Π·archasi-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *Π·arcasi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. Π·arcasi-
*c → s
Change of *c into s
Rc›s → *Π·arsasi-
6. Π·arsasi-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LycC. Π·αρσασι-
Hitt. aršauna-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGHErg. 13)
(Hitt. ar-ša-u-na [Stf.])
1. PIE *ortɑhi̯ouno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orthi̯ouno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orthi̯ouno-
PIE *thi̯ → ch
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
Rthi̯›ch → *orchouno-
3. orchouno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *archauna-
4. archauna-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *arcauna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arcauna-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → Hitt. aršauna-
√ordɑɦ-
OSax. ard-
(m.) ‘Aufenthaltsort’
(ASächsWb. 3)
1. PIE *ordɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ordo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. ordo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arda
4. arda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OSax. ard
OEng. eard-
(m.) ‘native soil, land, land, residence, etc.’
(ASaxD. 231)
1. PIE *ordɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ordo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. ordo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arda
4. arda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *ard
5. ard
*a → ea
Change of *a into ea
Ra=›ea= → OEng. eard
√ordɑɦi-
(Pyysalo)
OEng. eardia-
(vb.) ‘dwell, live, feed : habitare’
(ASaxD. 232)
1. PIE *ordɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦi̯o-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ordi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. ordi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ardi̯a-
4. ardi̯a-
*a → ea
Change of *a into ea
Ra=›ea= → *eardi̯a-
5. eardi̯a-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OEng. eardia-
Hitt. arzei̯a-
(n.) ‘bestelltes Land, Kornkammer des Landes’
(HEG 1:75)
(Hitt. A.ŠÀ ar-zi-ia-aš, ar-zi-ia-an)
1. PIE *ordɑɦi̯ei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦi̯ei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦi̯ei̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *orjɦei̯o-
3. orjɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arjɦei̯a-
4. arjɦei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *arjei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arjei̯a-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. arzei̯a-
CLu. arzei̯a·ši-
(a.gen.) ‘bezeichnet eine Geländeeigenschaft’
(DLL. 32)
(CLu. ar-zi-ia-aš-ši-iš [sgN], HHand. 25)
1. PIE *ordɑɦi̯ei̯o·si-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦi̯ei̯o·si-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦi̯ei̯o·si-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *orjɦei̯o·si-
3. orjɦei̯o·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arjɦei̯a·si-
4. arjɦei̯a·si-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *arzɦei̯a·si-
5. arzɦei̯a·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *arzɦei̯a·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. arzɦei̯a·ši-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. arzei̯a·ši-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. arzana-
(É.) ‘Gasthaus, Herberge’
(HEG I:75)
(HHand. 24)
1. PIE *ordɑɦi̯ono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦi̯ono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦi̯ono-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *orjɦono-
3. orjɦono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arjɦana-
4. arjɦana-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *arjana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arjana-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. arzana-
Hitt. arzanan-
(n.) ‘Ansiedlung : settlement’
(HHand. 25)
(Hitt. arzanani [sgD], EHS 296)
1. PIE *ordɑɦi̯onon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦi̯onon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦi̯onon-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *orjɦonon-
3. orjɦonon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arjɦanan-
4. arjɦanan-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *arjanan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arjanan-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. arzanan-
Hitt. arzau̯a-
(URUc.) ‘Land Luwija; -› Ašarata OGHErg. 14’
(OGH. 42-5)
(Hitt. ar-za-ua-an, ar-za-u-ua-aš)
1. PIE *ordɑɦi̯ou̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦi̯ou̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦi̯ou̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *orjɦou̯o-
3. orjɦou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arjɦau̯a-
4. arjɦau̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *arjau̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arjau̯a-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. arzau̯a-
√ordɑɦu-
OSax. ardo-
(vb.) ‘bewohnen’
(ASächsWb. 4)
(OSax. ardon [inf.])
1. PIE *ordɑɦu
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ordɦu
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ordɦu
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ordu
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. ordu
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ardu
4. ardu
*-u → -o
Change of root-final -u into -o
R=u›=o → OSax. ardo


PIE √ru- (vb.) ‘sich verneigen, anbeten, huldigen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√oruo-
Hitt. aru̯a-
(vn.) ‘sich verneigen, anbeten, huldigen’
(HIL. 254)
(in Hitt. a-ru-ua-an-zi [1.inf.], (Akd. ŠUKENU))
1. PIE *oru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aru̯a-
Hitt. aru̯a-
(vb.) ‘sich verneigen, anbeten, huldigen’
(HIL. 254)
(Hitt. a-ru-ua-a-zi, a-ru-ua-an-zi, a-ru-ua-a-an-zi)
1. PIE *oru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aru̯a-
√orui-
Hitt. aru̯ai-
(i.) ‘sich verneigen, anbeten, huldigen’ (EḪS 472)
(ḪEG 1:73-4)
(Hitt. a-ru-ua-ez-zi, a-ru-ua-i-ez-zi = Akd. UŠKEN)
1. PIE *oru̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aru̯ai-
Hitt. aru̯aiške/a-
(.) ‘sich verneigen, anbeten, huldigen’
(HIL. 254)
(Hitt. a-ru-ua-iš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *oru̯oiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *oru̯oisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. oru̯oisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aru̯aisḱe/a-
3. aru̯aisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *aru̯aiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. aru̯aiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aru̯aiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aru̯eiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘sich verneigen, anbeten, huldigen’
(ḪEG1:74)
(Hitt. a-ru-ú-iš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *oru̯eiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *oru̯eisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. oru̯eisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aru̯eisḱe/a-
3. aru̯eisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *aru̯eiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. aru̯eiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aru̯eiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√oruoro-
HLu. aru̯ara-
(vb.) ‘bow down (?)’
(CHLu. 5.19.3)
(HLu. á-ru-wa/i+ra/i-tu [3sg])
1. PIE *oru̯oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. aru̯ara-
√oruski-
MidParth. ´rws-
(vb.) ‘to turn towards’
(MPahl. 2:30)
(in MidParth. ´rws-)
1. PIE *oruski-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiIr → *oruški-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. oruški-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *orušć-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. orušć-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arušć-
4. arušć-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *arušs-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. arušs-
*u → w
Orthographic change of *u into w
Ru›w → *arwšs-
6. arwšs-
*a → ´
Orthographic change of *a to ´
Ra›´ → MidParth. ´rwšs-


PIE √ru- √oru- √eru- (vb.) ‘eilen, fliegen (Hitt. petai-)’ (a.) ‘flink, schnell (Hitt. petali-)’ (sb.) ‘Flügel (Hitt. petar-)
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo)
√oru-
(Pyysalo)
Lat. ruo-
(vb.) ‘eilen, stürtzen’
(WH 2:453)
(GEW 2:422, Lat. ruō [1sg])
1. PIE *ru̯o-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. ruo-
HLu. ARHA aru̯a·-
(vb.) ‘come, arrive’
(CHLu. 11.1.fg24)
(HLu. (“PES2”)a+ra/i-wa/i))
1. PIE *Π·oru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·aru̯a-
LAv. aurva-
(a.) ‘schnell’
(AIWb. 200)
1. PIE *oru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aru̯a-
2. aru̯a-
*aru → auru
Anaptyxis of *u
RarU›aurU → *auru̯a-
3. auru̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. aurva-
RV. árva·śa-
(a.) ‘eilend, schnellfahrend’
(WbRV. 117)
1. PIE *óru̯o·ki̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *óru̯o·ćo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. óru̯o·ćo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *óru̯a·ća-
3. óru̯a·ća-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *áru̯a·ća-
4. áru̯a·ća-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *áru̯a·śa-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. áru̯a·śa-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. árva·śa-
OSax. aru-
(a.) ‘schnell’
(ASaxD. XX)
(OSax. aru)
1. PIE *oru̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aru̯a
2. aru̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *aru̯
3. aru̯
*-ru̯ → -ru
Change of root-final -ru̯ into -ru
R=ru̯›=ru → OSax. aru
OEng. earu-
(a.) ‘quick, active, ready’
(ASaxD. 235)
1. PIE *oru̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aru̯a
2. aru̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *aru̯
3. aru̯
*a → ea
Change of *a into ea
Ra=›ea= → *earu̯
4. earu̯
*-ru̯ → -ru
Change of root-final -ru̯ into -ru
R=ru̯›=ru → OEng. earu
√orudɑɦo-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. aruda-
(c.) ‘Flügel, Schwinge’
(HHand. 25)
(CLu. a-ru-ta-ti [sgI], Rieken (1999:440): “Mittel um zu erheben”)
1. PIE *orudɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orudɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orudɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arudɦa-
3. arudɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. aruda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aruta-
(URU.) ‘Am Fluß Šaḫirija, › Zartajawaša’
(OGH. 42)
(Hitt. a-ru-ud-da-aš)
1. PIE *oruto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aruta-
OEng. arod-
(a.) ‘flink, schnell : shift, fleet’
(ASaxD. XX)
(‹IEW. 331, Is OHG. arod a ghostform (?)›)
1. PIE *orudɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orudɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orudɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *orudo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. orudo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aruda
4. aruda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *arud
5. arud
*a → ea
Change of *a into ea
Ra=›ea= → OEng. earud


√ru- (sb.) ‘Horn, Hirsch, cervus’
(HEG R: 681-5)
√ru-
OInd. rúru-
(.) ‘eine Hirschart’
(KEWA 3:69)
(VS. rúru)
TochB. ruru-
(m.sg.) ‘ruru-deer’
(DTochB. 539)
(TochB. ruru-)
RV. rúru·śīrṣan-
(a.) ‘mit hörnerner Spitze versehen’
(WbRV. 1177)
RV. rúru·śīrṣan-
√ruo-
(HEG X:XX)
HLu. ru̯a
(mc.) ‘Rua-, serviteur de Tuwadi du Tabal’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. ru-wa/i-sá [sgN], NOMS. 1069)
1. PIE *ru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ru̯a-
Hitt. naḫi·ru̯a-
(mc.) ‘respecting ‹nahi-› Rua-’
(NOMS. 843)
Hitt. na-ḫi-ru-ua-aš(-ša) [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·ru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·ru̯a-


√r- √or- √er- ‘glänzen’
(IEW –)
√or-
Hitt. ar-
(vb2.) ‘heiß, warm sein : to become hot’
(HIL. 199)
(Hitt. a-ri [3sg])
1. PIE *or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ar-
√oro-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ara·ḫabila-
(ḪUR.SAG.) ‘‹a guess by form›’
(OGH. 29)
(Hitt. a-ra-ḫa-pí-la[)
1. PIE *oro·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ara·Σ-
TochB. era-
(m.sg) ‘appearance, colour: Skt. rūpa’
(DTochB. 93)
(TochB. ere)
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochB. ara-
TochB. ere·patent-
(m.sg.) ‘XX’
(DTochB. 93-4)
(TochB. erepatenta [plA.], LeTokh1:149)
1. PIE *oroi·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arai·Σ-
2. arai·Σ-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *arē·Σ-
3. arē·Σ-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. are·Σ-
√oron-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. aran·ḫabila-
(ḪUR.SAG.) ‘Im Land Ulma’
(OGH. 29)
(Ḫi. a-ra-an-ḫa-pí-la)
1. PIE *oron·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aran·Σ-
Hitt. aran·ḫabilani
(ḪUR.SAG.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGH. 29)
(Ḫi. a-ra-an-ḫa-pí-la-ni )
1. PIE *oron·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aran·Σ-
Hitt. aran·ḫabilizi-
(mc.) ‘général de Muršilis II’
(NOMS. 114)
(Ḫi. a-ra-an-ḫa-pí-li-(iz)-zi-iš/in)
1. PIE *oron·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aran·Σ-
Hitt. aran·ḫabilizi-
(mc.) ‘officier du palais sous Muwatali-’
(NOMS. 114.2)
(in Akd. a-ra-an-ḫa-pí-li-iz-zi)
1. PIE *oron·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aran·Σ-
TochA. arän-
(m.) ‘vultus, frons: aspect, apparence’
(Poucha 9)
(TochA. aräṃ [sgN])
1. PIE *orono
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arana
2. arana
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → TochA. aran
TochA. arän·pāt-
(sb.) ‘statura, figura: Skt. rūpa-’
(Poucha 9)
(TochA. arämpāt [sgObl], arämpātäntu [plA.])
1. PIE *oron·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. aran·Σ-
TochA. arän·pātṣi-
(a.) ‘staturae, figurae’
(Poucha 9)
(TochA. arämpāt ṣi, LeTokh1:149)
1. PIE *oron·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. aran·Σ-
TochA. sne·arän·pātum-
(a.) ‘staturae, figurae’
(Poucha 9-10)
1. PIE *Π·oron·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. Π·aran·Σ-
√oros- √ors-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. arašan-
(a.) ‘weiß’
(Puhvel 1984:206)
(Hitt. arašan- hapax; Melchert 1994:170)
1. PIE *oroson-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arasan-
2. arasan-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. arašan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
TochB. ersna-
(f.pl.tant.) ‘form’
(DTochB. 96)
(TochB. ersna [plNA])
1. PIE *orosneɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *orosnaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. orosnaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orosnah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. orosnah-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arasnah-
4. arasnah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. arasna-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
TochB. ersnāssa-
(a.) ‘well-formed, pleasing, handsome, beautiful’
(DTochB. 96)
(TochB. ersnāsse-)
1. PIE *orsnēɑhsso-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *orsnāɑhsso-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. orsnāɑhsso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orsnāhsso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. orsnāhsso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsnāhssa-
4. arsnāhssa-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. arsnāssa-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
TochB. ersnā·ṣa-
(a.) ‘prtng to form’
(DTochB. 96)
(TochB. ersnāṣṣe)
1. PIE *orsnēɑh·si̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *orsnāɑh·si̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. orsnāɑh·si̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orsnāh·si̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. orsnāh·si̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsnāh·si̯a-
4. arsnāh·si̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *arsnā·si̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. arsnā·si̯a-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
Rsi̯›ṣ → TochB. arsnā·ṣa-
RV. r̥ṣū-
(f?.) ‘Flamme des Agni’
(WbRV. 293)
(RV. ṣūnáam [plG], KEWA 1:125)
1. PIE *r̥suɑ́h-
PIE *uɑ́ → uú
Assimilation of *u and *ɑ́
Ruɑ́›uú → *r̥suúh-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. r̥suúh-
PIE *rs → rš
Ruki-rule for *rs
RRukiOIA → *r̥šuúh-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. r̥šuúh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *r̥šuú-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. r̥šuú-
*uú → ū́
Contraction of u and ú
Ruú›ū́ → *r̥šū́-
5. r̥šū́-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. r̥ṣū́-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)


PIE √r- √or- √er- (a.) ‘hoch, sehr, viel’ (vb.) ‘sich regen, erheben’ (sb.) ‘Berghöhe, Akropolis, Polis’
(IEW XX)
√oro-
Hitt. ara-
(vb2.) ‘to (a)rise, lift, raise’
(ḪEG 1:52)
(Hitt. a-ra-a-i, a-ra-i [3sg])
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ara-
Gr. ὀρό-
(ao.) ‘sich regen/erheben, losstürzen, eilen’
(Gr. ὠρόμην)
1. PIE *oró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὀρό-
Gr. ἐρό-
(ao.) ‘sich regen/erheben, losstürzen, eilen’
(GEW 2:422)
1. PIE *eró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἐρό-
√ori-
RV. ud (…) ā́ri·-
(pf.) ‘sich erheben, sich in bewegung setzen’
(WbRV. 98-101)
(RV. ud (...) ā́rithā [2sg])
1. PIE *Π·ṓri-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → RV. Π·ā́ri-
CLu. ari-
(vb.) ‘erheben, tragen : raise, lift, bear, HHand. 21’
(DLL. 30-1)
(CLu. a-ri-it-t[i] [3sg],
1. PIE *ori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ari-
Hitt. arei̯a-
(vb1.) ‘to (a)rise, lift, raise’
(HIL. 239)
(Hitt. a-ri-ia-an-zi [3pl])
1. PIE *orei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. arei̯a-
√eri-
Gr. ἐρι-
(pref.) ‘hoch, sehr’
(GEW 1:557)
1. PIE *eri-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἐρι-
Gr. ἐρι·ώλη-
(f.) ‘Wirbelwind, Orkan’
(in Gr. ἐριώλη, Lit. ‘high/rising/intense wind’)
1. PIE *eri·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἐρι·Σ-
LycA. erije-
(vb.) ‘to raise, to levy’
(HIL. 240)
(CLu. erije [3sg], erijeine [inf.], erijeina [inf
1. PIE *erii̯e-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → LycA. erije-
√ri-
TochA. ri-
(f.) ‘urbs, oppidum’
(Poucha 258)
(TochA. ri [sgN])
TochA. rī-
(f.) ‘urbs, oppidum’
(Poucha 258)
(TochA. rī [sgN])
1. PIE *rii-
*ii → ī
Contraction of i and i
Rii›ī → TochA. rī-
TochA. rī·päṣe
(.) ‘custos urbis’
(Poucha 258)
(TochA. rīpaṣe)
1. PIE *rii·Σ-
*ii → ī
Contraction of i and i
Rii›ī → TochA. rī·Σ-
LinB. ριjο-
(n.) ‘Berghöhe, Vorgebirge’
(GEW 2:659)
(LinB. ri-jo)
1. PIE *rii̯o-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *rijo-
2. rijo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. ριjο-
Gr. ρίο-
(n.) ‘Berghöhe, Vorgebirge’ (ON.) ‘in Achaia’
(GEW 2:659)
(HEG:1002, Gr. ῥίο-)
1. PIE *ríi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *río-
2. río-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ρίο-
TochA. riy-
(f.) ‘urbs, oppidum’
(Poucha 258)
(TochA. riyis [G], riyā, riyac [sgD.])
1. PIE *rii̯ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *rii̯h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. rii̯h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *rii̯-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. rii̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochA. riy-
√ru-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. aru-
(a.) ‘hoch’
(HEG 1:70)
(HHand. 24)
1. PIE *oru-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aru-
Pal. aru-
(a.) ‘viel, sehr’
(HHand. 24)
1. PIE *oru-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. aru-
CLu. aru-
(a.) ‘hoch’ (adv. = n.)
(HHand. 24)
(HIL. 253)
1. PIE *oru-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. aru-
RV. made·rú-
(a.) ‘sehr erfreuend’ (Sāy.)
(WbRV. 983)
(For segmentation, see RV. máde·raghu-, WbRV. 983)


PIE √r- √or- √er- (a.) ‘lang’ (vb.) ‘verlängern’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√oro-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. ara-
(a.) ‘lang’
(HEG 1:53)
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ara-
HLu. ara-
(a.) ‘lang’
(HEG 1:70)
(Melchert (1994:265): CLu. aara/i- = HLu. á-ra/i-)
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ara-
OInd. arā́ḍa-
(a.) ‘lang-hörnig’
(EWA 1:111)
(For OInd. ·ḍa- cf. Gr. ἄρδι- ‘Pfeilspitze, Stachel, MA 439)
1. PIE *orṓɦɑrdo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orṓɦrdo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orṓɦrdo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arṓɦrda-
3. arṓɦrda-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *arā́ɦrda-
4. arā́ɦrda-
PIE *ɦRd → ḍ
Fortunatov’s Law for *ɦRd
RɦRd›ḍ → OInd. arā́ḍa-
(SPIE §3.3.2)
CLu. aranu-
(cs.) ‘verlängern, HHand. 21’
(DLL. 30)
(CLu. a-ra-an-nu-uḫ-ḫa [1sg])
1. PIE *oronu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. aranu-
Hitt. aranu̯a-
(vb.) ‘verlängern’
(HHand. 21)
(Hitt. a-ra-nu-ua-at-ta [3sg])
1. PIE *oronu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aranu̯a-
√oriu-
CLu. ari-
(a.) ‘long’
(DLL. 30)
(CLu. ari, a-ri-i-in [sgA])
1. PIE *ori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ari-
TochA. aryu-
(a.) ‘longus de tempore = Skt. ciram ‘lang’
(Poucha 10)
(TochA. aryu-, also TochA. māryu = /mā+aryu/)
1. PIE *ori̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ari̯u-
2. ari̯u-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochA. aryu-
√oru-
OPr. arw·arb-
(.) ‘langes Holz, Langwiede’
(Voc. 301)
(OPr. arwarbs [sgN]; for OPr. arb- cf. Lat. arbor)
1. PIE *oru̯·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aru̯·Σ-
2. aru̯·Σ-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *arv·Σ-
3. arv·Σ-
*v → w
Orthographic change of of *v into w
Rv›w → OPr. arw·Σ-


√r- √or- √er- (vb.) ‘eilen, kommen’ (a.) ‘schnell’ (sb.) ‘Zeit’
(IEW XX)
(+ Pyysalo: CLu. + HLu.)
√oro-
HLu. ara-
(vb.) ‘come’
(CHLu. 11.1.a6)
(HLu. (“PES2”)ara/i-ta-’)
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ara-
RV. ará-
(m.) ‘a spoke or radius of the wheel’
(MonWil. 86)
1. PIE *oró-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aró-
2. aró-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. ará-
OInd. ara-
(a.) ‘speedy, swift’
(MonWil. 86)
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. ara-
OInd. ará-
(m.) ‘a spoke of the time wheel’
(MonWil. 86)
1. PIE *oró-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aró-
2. aró-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → OInd. ará-
CLu. ara-
(c.) ‘Zeit’
(HHand. 20)
(Not to Goth. jer vs. Kimball 1999:361)
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ara-
HLu. ara-
(c.) ‘age, time’
(CHLu. 1.1.74)
(HLu. ara/i-zi [pl])
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ara-
RV. sam·ará-
(m.) ‘Zusammenkommen, Zusammenströmen’
(WbRV. 1480)
1. PIE *Π·oró-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·aró-
2. Π·aró-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. Π·ará-
√ori-
CLu. ari-
(c.) ‘Zeit, HHand. 20’
(DLL. 30)
(CLu. a-a-ri-i, a-a-ri-in, a-ri-i[, a-ri-i[n)
1. PIE *ori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ari-
HLu. ari-
(.) ‘time’
(CHLu. 2.45.3)
1. PIE *ori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ari-
OInd. ari-
(m.) ‘wheel, discus’
(MonWil. 86)
1. PIE *ori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. ari-
√ort-
HLu. arta-
(n.) ‘income’
(CHLu. 9.1.10)
(HLu. a+ra/i-tà)
1. PIE *orto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. arta-


PIE √r- √or- √er- (vb.) ‘zu Ende kommen, (nach)lassen’ (sb.) ‘Ende, After, Hinter’ (adv.) ‘nach, hinte(r/n), zurück’
(IEW. 340)
(Pyysalo: TochA+B)
√ōr- √or-
TochA. ār-
(pretA.) ‘finire, desinere : cease, leave, forsake’
(Poucha 9)
(TochA. ār [3sg], ārinträ [opt], TochA. āraṣ [conj.Act])
1. PIE *ōr-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → TochA. ār-
TochB. ār-
(vb.tr.) ‘leave (behind), forsake, LeTokh1:166’
(DTochB. 47)
(TochB. āri [opt], ārtsi [inf.])
1. PIE *ōr-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → TochB. ār-
TochA. ar-
(prM.) ‘finire, desinere’
(Poucha 9)
(TochA. artär [3sg], araträṃ [conj?])
1. PIE *or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. ar-
√ōro- √oro-
(HEG I:51-2)
(HW2 A: 234, HIL. 239f.)
TochB. āra-
(vb.) ‘cease’
(DTochB. 47-8)
(TochB. āratsi, āran, āroy [opt.Act.])
1. PIE *ōro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōra-
2. ōra-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → TochB. āra-
TochA. ara-
(prM.) ‘finire, desinere’
(Poucha 9)
(TochA. aratär [3sg], arantär)
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. ara-
TochB. ara-
(vb.) ‘cease’
(DTochB. 47)
(TochB. aran-me)
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochB. ara-
Hitt. ara-
(UZUc.) ‘After, Gesäß’
(HHand. 20)
(Hitt. ar-ra-an [A], ar-ra-aš [G], ar-ri [L], ar-ru-uš)
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ara-
Hitt. ara·z
(adv.) ‘mit den Beinen voran, vom Hintern her’
(HHand 20)
(Hitt. ar-ra-az)
1. PIE *oro·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ara·Σ
√orɑh-
TochB. arā-
(vb.) ‘come an end; ‹as Hitt. apeia- ‘zu Ende sein›’
(DTochB. 47)
(TochB. arāre)
1. PIE *orēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *orāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. orāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. orāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arāh-
4. arāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. arā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√ori- √ri-
Hitt. ari-
(c.) ‘After, Gesäß; ‹as ModHG. After›’
(HHand. 20)
(Hitt. ar-ri-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *ori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ari-
TochA. ri-
(vb.) ‘relinquere, abicere’
(Poucha 258)
√ors-
(Pyysalo: TochB.)
Ion. ὀρσο·θύρη-
(f.) ‘Hinter-thüre’
(Ion. ὀρσο·θύρη-)
1. PIE *orso·Σ
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion. ὀρσο·Σ
Hitt. arša
(adv.) ‘nach hinten’
(HHand. 25)
1. PIE *orso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsa-
2. arsa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. arša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ·arša teia-
(vb.) ‘abseits stehen’
(HHand. 24)
1. PIE *orso·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsa·Σ
2. arsa·Σ
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. arša·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ·arša teia-
(vb.) ‘zurück treten’
(HHand. 24)
1. PIE *orso·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsa·Σ
2. arsa·Σ
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. arša·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
TochB. ārsa-
(vb.) ‘cease’
(DTochB. 47)
(TochB. ārsen-ne)
1. PIE *ōrso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōrsa-
2. ōrsa-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → TochB. ārsa-
OHG. ars-
(m.) ‘Arsch’
(XX:XX)
(OHG. ars [sgN])
1. PIE *orso
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsa
2. arsa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OHG. ars
OIcl. ars-
(m.) ‘Arsch, After’
(ANEtWb. 14)
(OIcl. ars [sgN])
1. PIE *orso
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arsa
2. arsa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OIcl. ars
Gr. ὄρρο-
(m.) ‘Hinterer, After’
(Gr. ὄρρος)
1. PIE *órso-
*rs → rr
Assimilation of *rs into rr
Rrs›rr → *órro-
2. órro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄρρο-
Arm. oṙ-
(sb.) ‘Hinterbacken, der untere Theil, Boden’
(ArmGr. 1:482)
(Arm. oṙ [sgN], oṙ-k’ [plN])
1. PIE *orsò
*rs → ṙ
Change of *rs into ṙ
Rrs›ṙ → *oṙò
2. oṙò
*o → Ø
Loss of *ò
Rò›0 → Arm. oṙ
√ersēɑh-
OIr. err-
(f.) ‘Schwanz, Ende : tail, end’
(LEIA E-XX)
(OIr. err [sgN], VKG 2:101)
1. PIE *ersēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ersāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ersāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ersāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ersāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ersā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ersā
*rs → rr
Assimilation of *rs into rr
Rrs›rr → *errā
5. errā
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *erra
6. erra
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OIr. err
oru-
Hitt. aru-
(c.) ‘arse, anus’
(HIL. 238)
(Hitt. ar-ru-uš [sgN])
1. PIE *oru-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. aru-


PIE √r- √or- √er- (vb.) ‘fließen, waschen’
(IEW –)
√or-
Hitt. ar-
(vb2.) ‘waschen’
(HEG 1:51)
(Hitt. ar-ri [3sg])
1. PIE *or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ar-
Hitt. ar-
(vb.) ‘fließen : flow’
(HIL. 249)
(MidHitt. a-ar-zi [3sg], KBo 10.45 iv 39)
1. PIE *or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ar-
√oro-
Hitt. ara-
(vb1.) ‘waschen’
(HIL. 237)
(Hitt. ar-ra-an-zi, a-ar-at-te-en [2pl])
1. PIE *oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ara-
Gr. ὀρό-
(m.) ‘die Molke, Käsewasser’
(GEW 1:425)
(No initial h-, not from PIE *soro-)
1. PIE *oró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὀρό-


√r- √or- √er- (vb.) ‘essen’ (sb.) ‘Mund’
√r-
HLu. āra-
(vb.) ‘edere’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. a-ra/i-tu [3sg])
1. PIE *ōro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōra-
2. ōra-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → HLu. āra-
HLu. ARHA āra·-
(vb.) ‘eat up’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. ARHA a+ra/i-tu)
1. PIE *Π·ōro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ōra-
2. Π·ōra-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → HLu. Π·āra-
TochA. kāp·ār-
(m.) ‘plenum ōs’
(Poucha 58)
(TochA. kāpāräs)
1. PIE *Π·ōro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ōra
2. Π·ōra
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·āra
3. Π·āra
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → TochA. Π·ār
TochA. sw·ār-
(a.) ‘dulcis’ (Poucha 389)
(TochA. swār [m.sgN])
TochA. swār
1. PIE *su̯·ōro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su̯·ōra
2. su̯·ōra
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *su̯·āra
3. su̯·āra
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *su̯·ār
4. su̯·ār
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. sw·ār
TochB. sw·āra-
(a.) ‘sweet’ (DTochB. 725-6)
(TochB. swāre)
TochB. swāra-
1. PIE *su̯·ōro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su̯·ōra-
2. su̯·ōra-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *su̯·āra-
3. su̯·āra-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. sw·āra-
TochB. sw·ara-
(a.) ‘sweet’ (DTochB. 726)
(TochB. swareṃ)
TochB. swara-
1. PIE *su̯·oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su̯·ara-
2. su̯·ara-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. sw·ara-
TochB. sw·arauñña-
(sb.) ‘sweetness’ (DTochB. 726)
(TochB. swarauññe)
TochB. swarauñña-
1. PIE *su̯·orōuni̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su̯·arōuni̯a-
2. su̯·arōuni̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *su̯·arāuni̯a-
3. su̯·arāuni̯a-
*ni̯ → ñ
Palatalization of *n before i̯
Rni̯›ñ → *su̯·arāuña-
4. su̯·arāuña-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → *su̯·arauña-
5. su̯·arauña-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. sw·arauña-
√orgi̯ɑɦ-
LAv. xv·arǝzišta-
(sup.) ‘der süsseste, schmackhafteste’
(AIWb. 1874)
1. PIE *su̯·orgi̯ɑɦistɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *su̯·orgi̯ɦistho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. su̯·orgi̯ɦistho-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *su̯·orgi̯ɦištho-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. su̯·orgi̯ɦištho-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *su̯·orj́ɦištho-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. su̯·orj́ɦištho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su̯·arj́ɦištha-
5. su̯·arj́ɦištha-
*r → rǝ
Anaptyxis of ǝ (Schwa)
Rr›rǝ → *su̯·arǝj́ɦištha-
6. su̯·arǝj́ɦištha-
*sth/šth → st/št
Loss of *h after st/št
RSth›St → *su̯·arǝj́ɦišta-
7. su̯·arǝj́ɦišta-
*su̯ → xu̯
Change of *su̯ into xu̯
Rsu̯›xu̯ → *xu̯·arǝj́ɦišta-
8. xu̯·arǝj́ɦišta-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *xu̯·arǝzɦišta-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
9. xu̯·arǝzɦišta-
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → *xu̯·arǝzišta-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
10. xu̯·arǝzišta-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. xv·arǝzišta-
√oru-
HLu. āru-
(vb.) ‘to eat’
(CHLu. 10.11.16)
(HLu. (‘EDERE’)á-ru-na)
1. PIE *ōru-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → HLu. āru-

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