PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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© 2014-2017 University of Helsinki

"Durch zweier Zeugen Mund wird alle Wahrheit kund" — August Fick
(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
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PIE



PIE √s- √os- √es- (vb.) ‘(da) sein, existieren’
(IEW 340-2)
√os-
Hitt. aš-
(pr.) ‘sein’
(HEG E:109-110)
(Hitt. a-ša-an-du [3pl])
1. PIE *os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *as-
2. as-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Pal. aš-
(pr.) ‘sein’
(DPal. 52)
(Pal. a-aš [ipv2sg], a-aš-du [3sg])
1. PIE *os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *as-
2. as-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Pal. aš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. aš-
(pr.) ‘sein’
(DLL. 32-3)
(CLu. aš-ḫa (?), a-aš-ta, a-aš-du)
1. PIE *os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *as-
2. as-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. aš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. aš-
(pr.) ‘sein’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. a-sa-ti, a-sa-ta-ni, a-sa-ha)
1. PIE *os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *as-
2. as-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. aš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OPr. as-
(pr.) ‘sein’
(IEW 341)
(OPr. ast, assai asmai)
1. PIE *os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OPr. as-
Northumbr. ar·u-
(vb.pl) ‘sein’
(IEW 340)
(Northumbr. aron [3pl])
1. PIE *os·ú-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *as·ú-
2. as·ú-
*asú → arú
Verner's law for asu -> aru
Rasú›arú → *ar·ú-
3. ar·ú-
*a → ea
Change of *a into ea
Ra=›ea= → *ear·ú-
4. ear·ú-
*ú → u
Orthographic change of *ú into u
Rú›u → Northumbr. ear·u-
√es-
Hitt. eš-
(pr.) ‘sein’
(HEG A:76)
(Hitt. e-eš-zi [3sg])
1. PIE *es-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. eš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Pal. eš-
(pr.) ‘sein (?)’
(DPal. 52)
(Pal. e-eš-ta[... [3sg])
1. PIE *es-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Pal. eš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lith. es-
(pr.) ‘sein’
(LiEtWb. 124)
Lith. esmì [1sg])
RV. ás-
(pr.A.) ‘da sein, vorhanden sein, existieren’
(WbRV. 146)
(RV. ásti [3sg])
1. PIE *és-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → RV. ás-
Gr. ἐσ-
(pr.) ‘sein’
(Gr. ἐστί [3sg])
1. PIE *es-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἐσ-
Lat. es-
(pr.) ‘sein’
(Lat. est [3sg])
√s-
HLu. š-
(pr.) ‘to be’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. sa-tú [2.34.1, 3sg], sa-ta [10.17.6, 3pl])
1. PIE *s-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. š-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
TochB. s-
(pr.copul.) ‘be’
(DTochB. 344)
(TochB. star [2sg], ste [3sg], star [3sg])
gAv. h-
(pr.) ‘sein, vorhanden sein, existieren’
(AIWb. 266-279)
(gAv. mahī, stā, hvā [1du], zdī)
1. PIE *s-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → gAv. h-


PIE √s- √os- √es- (vb.intr.) ‘(übrig) bleiben’ (vb.tr.) ‘(zurück-, übrig) lassen’ (cf. Lith. lìkti ‘id.’, LiEtWb. 372)
(IEW –)
√ōs-
(Pyysalo)
(HW2 A:366f.; HIL. 256-7; HEG A:75f.,78; HED 1:189ff.; SHV 187)
Hitt. āš-
(vb.1.) ‘übrig bleiben’ (HHand. 25, HIL. 256)
(HEG A:75-6; 78)
(Hitt. a-aš-zi, aš-zi, a-aš-ta, a-aš-še-eš, a-aš-šer, a-aš-ša-an-zi)
1. PIE *ōs-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ās-
2. ās-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. āš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. āh-
(pr.) ‘geblieben sein’
(AIWb. 345)
(LAv. kainīnō åŋhaire [3pl] dǝrǝγǝm aγrvō)
1. PIE *ōs-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ās-
2. ās-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → LAv. āh-
Hitt. āšant-
(pt.) ‘übrig bleiben’
(HIL. 256)
(Hitt. a-aš-ša-an-t-, aš-ša-an-t-)
1. PIE *ōsont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōsant-
2. ōsant-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *āsant-
3. āsant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. āšant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. āške/a-
(pr.iter.) ‘übrig bleiben’
(HHand. 25)
(Hitt. a-aš-ke/a-, HIL. 256)
1. PIE *ōski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ōsḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ōsḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōsḱe/a-
3. ōsḱe/a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *āsḱe/a-
4. āsḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *āske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. āske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. āške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. āšu̯a-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘übrig bleiben’
(HIL. 256)
(Hitt. a-aš-šu-ua-an-zi, [inf.I] : KUB 22.70 obv. 51)
1. PIE *ōsu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōsu̯a-
2. ōsu̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *āsu̯a-
3. āsu̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. āšu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√so-
HLu. ša-
(vb.) ‘leave, let go’
(CHLu. 11.1.b5.)
(HLu. (“*69”)sa-ha-na [1pl])
1. PIE *so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sa-
2. sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LycA. ha-
(vb.) ‘let go, release’
(DLycLg. 21-22)
(Lyc. hadi [3sg])
1. PIE *so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sa-
2. sa-
PIE *s → h
Change of fricative *s into h
Rs›h → LycA. ha-
HLu. ša-
(vb.) ‘to allow’
(CHLu. 4.2.9)
(HLu. sá-ta [3sg])
1. PIE *so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sa-
2. sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. INFRA ša·-
(vb.) ‘go down (??)’
(CHLu. 10.18.12)
(HLu. INFRA(-)sá-tu, cf. Hawkins !)
1. PIE *Π·so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·sa-
2. Π·sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. Π·ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. ARHA ša·-
(vb.) ‘let go’
(CHLu. 11.1.e13)
(HLu. ARHA (“*69”)sa-tu-i )
1. PIE *Π·so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·sa-
2. Π·sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. Π·ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. ša-
(vb.) ‘entlassen, weglassen’
(DLL. 84)
(CLu. ša-an-du [3pl])
1. PIE *so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sa-
2. sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√si-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. šaa-
(vb.) ‘to allow’
(CHLu. 4.2.10)
(HLu. sá-a-ha [1sg])
1. PIE *soi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sai̯a-
2. sai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *saa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. saa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. šaa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. šaa-
(vb.) ‘let go, leave, allow’
(DLL. 84)
(CLu. ša-a-at-ta [3sg], ša-a-an-du [3pl])
1. PIE *soi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sai̯a-
2. sai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *saa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. saa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. šaa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. šaa-
(vb.) ‘entlassen, weglassen’
(DLL. 84)
(CLu. ša-a-i [2sg?])
1. PIE *soi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sai̯a-
2. sai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *saa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. saa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. šaa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lat. sī-
(pf.) ‘zulassen, gestatten’
(WH. 2:545)
(Lat. siī [1sg])
1. PIE *sei-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → Lat. sī-


PIE √s- √os- √es- (vb.) ‘sitzen, setzen’
(IEW 342-343)
√ōs-
(HEG A:77)
Hitt. āš-
(vb.A.) ‘sitzen’
(HHand. 25)
1. PIE *ōs-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ās-
2. ās-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. āš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. āš-
(vb.) ‘to sit’
(CHLu. 2.11.10)
(HLu. (SOLIUM)á-sa-tá [3pl.])
1. PIE *ōs-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ās-
2. ās-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. āš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. SUPER·āš-
(vb.*) ‘sit’
(CHLu. 5.1.4)
(HLu. SUPER SOLIUM-tá [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·ōs-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·ās-
2. Π·ās-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. Π·āš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. ā́s-
(pr.) ‘Sitz haben, sitzen, thronen’ (EWA 1:181)
(WbRV. 188-9)
(RV. ā́sate [3pl])
1. PIE *ṓs-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → RV. ā́s-
Hitt. āš-
(vb.MP.) ‘sich setzen (Sum. TUŠ)’
(HIL. 298)
(Hitt. a-ša-an-ta)
1. PIE *ōs-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ās-
2. ās-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. āš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ēs-
Hitt. ēš-
(vb.MP.) ‘sich setzen (Sum. TUŠ)’
(HIL. 298)
(Hitt. e-ša-an-ta, e-ša-an-ta-ri)
1. PIE *ēs-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ēš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√es-
Hitt. eš-
(vb.MP.) ‘sich setzen (Sum. TUŠ)’
(HIL. 298)
(Hitt. e-ša-an-ta, e-ša-an-ta-ri)
1. PIE *es-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. eš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. κατ·έσ-
(vb.) ‘sitzen’
(GEW 1:633-4)
(Gr. κατ·έαται [3pl])
1. PIE *keɑht·és-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑht·és-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑht·és-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kaht·és-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kaht·és-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kat·és-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kat·és-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. κατ·έσ-
√sēs-
Gr. ἥσ-
(vb.) ‘sitzen’
(GEW 1:633-4)
(Gr. ἧμαι [1sg], ἧσται [3sg], ἧσθαι)
1. PIE *sḗs-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hḗs-
2. hḗs-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἥσ-
√oso-
HLu. aša-
(SOLIUM.MI.c.) ‘seat’
(CHLu. 292)
(HLu. (SOLIUM.MI)á-sa)
1. PIE *oso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asa-
2. asa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. aša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aša-
(n.) ‘Sitz’
(HHand. 25)
(in Hitt. ALAM ašan ‘Sitzbild’)
1. PIE *oso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asa-
2. asa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. aŋha-
(m.) ‘Lager, Lagerstätte’
(AIWb. 106)
(LAv. aŋha)
1. PIE *oso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asa-
2. asa-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *aha-
3. aha-
ahA → aŋhA
Change of h into ŋh
RahA›aŋhA → LAv. aŋha-
Hitt. ašadar-
(N.act.) ‘das Sitzen, Sitz’
(HHand. 26)
(Hitt. a-ša-tar, a-ša-a-tar)
1. PIE *osodɑɦor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *osodɦor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. osodɦor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asadɦar-
3. asadɦar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *asadar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. asadar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ašadar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ēso-
LAv. åŋha-
(pr.) ‘sitzen, da sitzen’
(AIWb. 344-5)
(LAv. aešąm vantåŋhō gātuš paiti åŋhǝntē [3pl])
1. PIE *ēso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēsa-
2. ēsa-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *ēha-
3. ēha-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *āha-
4. āha-
āhA → aŋhA
Change of h into ŋh
RāhA›āŋhA → *āŋha-
5. āŋha-
āŋhA → åŋhA
Change of āŋhA into åŋhA
RāŋhA›åŋhA → LAv. åŋha-
RV. su.āsa·sthá
(m.) ‘auf gutem Sitze sich befinden’
(WbRV. 1638)
1. PIE *suɑH.ēso·stɑhó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *suH.ēso·sthó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. suH.ēso·sthó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *suH.ēsa·sthó-
3. suH.ēsa·sthó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *suH.ēsa·sthá-
4. suH.ēsa·sthá-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → *su..ēsa·sthá-
5. su..ēsa·sthá-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → RV. su..āsa·sthá-
√ēsonu-
HLu. išanu-
(vb.) ‘settle’
(CHLu. 1.1.30)
(HLu. (SOLIUM)i-sà-nú-ha [1sg])
1. PIE *ēsonu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēsanu-
2. ēsanu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ēšanu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. ēšanu-
*ē → i
Change of *ē into i
Rē›i → HLu. išanu-
HLu. išanu̯a-
(vb.) ‘cause/make to sit’
(CHLu. 1.1.16)
(HLu. (“SOLIUM”)i-sà-nu-wa/i-há(-’) [1sg])
1. PIE *ēsonu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēsanu̯a-
2. ēsanu̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ēšanu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. ēšanu̯a-
*ē → i
Change of *ē into i
Rē›i → HLu. išanu̯a-
√ōstor-
CLu. āštarala-
(GIŠ.) ‹if ‘throne, seat’?› (cf. HHand2. 31: ‘?’)
(CHLu. 170n8)
(CLu. a-aš-ta-ra-la-an)
1. PIE *ōstorolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōstarala-
2. ōstarala-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *āstarala-
3. āstarala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. āštarala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ēstor-
HLu. ištara-
(THRONUS.sb.) ‘throne’
(CHLu. 1.1.16)
(HLu. (“THRONUS”)i-sà-tara/i-ti)
1. PIE *ēstoro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēstara-
2. ēstara-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ēštara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. ēštara-
*ē → i
Change of *ē into i
Rē›i → HLu. ištara-
HLu. ištara-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(CHLu. 2.27.17)
(HLu. i-sa-tara/i(URBS))
1. PIE *ēstoro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēstara-
2. ēstara-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ēštara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. ēštara-
*ē → i
Change of *ē into i
Rē›i → HLu. ištara-
HLu. ištarala-
(sb.) ‘seat’
(CHLu. 10.14.30)
(HLu. [i]-sà-[t]ara/i-la-ti-pa-wa/i-ta-’)
1. PIE *ēstorolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēstarala-
2. ēstarala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ēštarala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. ēštarala-
*ē → i
Change of *ē into i
Rē›i → HLu. ištarala-
CLu. ēštardala-
(a.) ‘qualifiziert ‘Sitz’
(HHand. 67)
(KLuN. § 255, CLu. ŠÚ.A iš-tar-da-al-la)
1. PIE *ēstordɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēstordɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēstordɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēstardɦala-
3. ēstardɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ēstardala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ēstardala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. ēštardala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √s- √es- √os- (vb.A.) ‘tun, wirken, schaffen, bemühen’ (vb.P.) ‘(gemacht) werden’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√s-
(Pyysalo)
(HED 2:300ff.)
Hitt. eš-
(vb.2.) ‘wirken, schaffen, (Gelübde erfüllen)’
(HIL. 450-2)
(Hitt. e-eš-šu-u-e-ni [1pl])
1. PIE *es-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. eš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. āh-
(vb.) ‘sich bemühen’
(AIWb. 340)
(in LAv. uxšne xraϑwe yaonǝm āste [inf.]; see AIWb. 1231 for translation)
1. PIE *ēs-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *ēh-
2. ēh-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → LAv. āh-
LAv. āh-
(vb.) ‘in dem Tun dauernd verharren’
(AIWb. 340)
(LAv. čva drāǰō upamaitīm āste [inf.])
1. PIE *ēs-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *ēh-
2. ēh-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → LAv. āh-
Hitt. eša-
(vb.2.) ‘wirken, schaffen, (Gelübde erfüllen)’
(HHand. 33)
(Hitt. e-eš-ša-ah-hi [1sg], e-eš-ša-i [3sg])
1. PIE *eso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *esa-
2. esa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. eša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lith. rem·ẽsa-
(m.) ‘Hand·werker, Zimmermann’
(LiEtWb. 717)
(Lith. remẽsas [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·éso-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → *Π·èso-
2. Π·èso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·èsa-
3. Π·èsa-
èsa -› ẽsa
Circumflex intonation è -› ẽ
Rèsa›ẽsa → Lith. Π·ẽsa-
Latv. rem·es-
(m.) ‘Hand·werker, Zimmermann’
(LiEtWb. 717)
(Latv. remess [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·eso
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·esa
2. Π·esa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Latv. Π·es
√si-
(Pyysalo)
RV. mānav·asyá-
(vb.) ‘nach Art den Menschen handeln, tätig sein’
(WbRV. 1031)
(RV. mānavasyáte [pt.D] manavé)
1. PIE *Π·esi̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·esi̯á-
2. Π·esi̯á-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *Π·asi̯á-
3. Π·asi̯á-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·asyá-
Hitt. ešige/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘behandeln’
(HHand. 33)
(Hitt. eššik-)
1. PIE *esigɑɦe/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *esigɦe/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. esigɦe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *esigɦe/a-
3. esigɦe/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *esige/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. esige/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ešige/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ešiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘behandeln’
(HHand. 33)
1. PIE *esiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *esisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. esisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *esisḱe/a-
3. esisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *esiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. esiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ešiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√eskio-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. eš·ēške/a-
(impf.) ‘machen’
(HIL. 450ff.)
Hitt. eš-e-eš-ke/a-
1. PIE *es·ēski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *es·ēsḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. es·ēsḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *es·ēsḱe/a-
3. es·ēsḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *es·ēske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. es·ēske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. eš·ēške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lat. sān·ēsco-
(vb.) ‘heil machen, heilen’
(Lat. sānēscō)
1. PIE *shɑēn·ēski̯o-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *shɑān·ēski̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. shɑān·ēski̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shān·ēski̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. shān·ēski̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *shān·ēsḱo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. shān·ēsḱo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sān·ēsḱo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sān·ēsḱo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sān·ēsko-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. sān·ēsko-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. sān·ēsco-
Lat. ser·ēsco-
(pr.) ‘zu saurer Milch (Lat. sero-) werden’
(Lat. serēscō)
1. PIE *ser·ēski̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ser·ēsḱo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ser·ēsḱo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *ser·ēsko-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ser·ēsko-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. ser·ēsco-
√esl-
Lith. rem·ẽsla-
(m.) ‘Hand·werk’
(WH. 2:525)
1. PIE *Π·éslo-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → *Π·èslo-
2. Π·èslo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·èsla-
3. Π·èsla-
èsla -> ẽsla
Circumflex intonation è -› ẽ
Rèsla›ẽsla → Lith. Π·ẽsla-
Lith. rem·esla-
(f.) ‘Hand·werk’
(LiEtWb. 717)
1. PIE *Π·eslēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·eslāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·eslāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·eslāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·eslāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·eslā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·eslā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *Π·eslō
(XX:XX)
5. Π·eslō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → Lith. Π·esla
Russ. rem·eslo
(n.) ‘Hand-werk, Gewerbe, Profession’
(LiEtWb. 717)
1. PIE *Π·eslos
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·eslas
2. Π·eslas
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *Π·eslos
3. Π·eslos
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root-final)
Ros=›o= → Russ. Π·eslo
√esu-
Hitt. ešumar-
(n.N.act.) ‘das Wirken, das Schaffen’
(HHand. 33)
1. PIE *esumor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *esumar-
2. esumar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ešumar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ešu̯a-
(sup) ‘wirken, schaffen’
(HHand. 33)
(Hitt. ešuan [sup])
1. PIE *esu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *esu̯a-
2. esu̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ešu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √s- √os- √es- (sb.) ‘Fleisch, Blut, Aas, Haut’
(IEW 288 [Germ.])
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + Pal. + OInd.; (Lith. kárv·iena (f.) ‘Kuh·fleisch’ : Czech. krav·ina (f.) ‘Kuh·haut’)
√os-
(Pyysalo)
Pal. aš·gumau̯a-
(c.) ‘reines Fleisch’ (Hitt. UZUšupa-; HHand. 27)
(DPal. 52)
(Pal. aš-ku(um-)ma-a-u-(ua)-aš [plN])
1. PIE *os·gɑɦumou̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *os·gɦumou̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. os·gɦumou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *as·gɦumau̯a-
3. as·gɦumau̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *as·gumau̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. as·gumau̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Pal. aš·gumau̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Pal. aš·gumau̯aga-
(a.) cf. above
(DPal. 52)
(Pal. aš-ku-ma-a-u-ua-ga [plNA])
1. PIE *os·gɑɦumou̯ogɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *os·gɦumou̯ogɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. os·gɦumou̯ogɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *as·gɦumau̯agɦa-
3. as·gɦumau̯agɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *as·gumau̯aga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. as·gumau̯aga-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Pal. aš·gumau̯aga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OInd. tar·asá-
(n.m.) ‘rohes Fleisch : raw meat’
(KEWA 1:483)
1. PIE *Π·osó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·asó-
2. Π·asó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → OInd. Π·asá-
OInd. tar·asa·maya-
(a.) ‘aus rohes Fleisch bestehend’
(KEWA 1:483)
1. PIE *Π·oso·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. Π·asa·Σ-
√ēso-
(IEW 288 *ēdsom)
OSax. ·ās-
(n.) ‘Fleisch eines toten Körpers, Köder, Aas’
(KLUGE 1-2)
(OSax. ·ās)
1. PIE *Π·ēso
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ēsa
2. Π·ēsa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *Π·ēs
3. Π·ēs
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → OSax. Π·ās
OHG. ·ās-
(n.) ‘Fleisch eines toten Körpers, Köder, Aas’
(KLUGE 1-2)
(OHG. ·ās)
1. PIE *Π·ēso
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ēsa
2. Π·ēsa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *Π·ēs
3. Π·ēs
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → OHG. Π·ās
MidHG. ās-
(n.) ‘Fleisch eines toten Körpers, Köder, Aas’
(KLUGE 1-2)
(MidHG. ās)
1. PIE *ēso
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēsa
2. ēsa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *ēs
3. ēs
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → MidHG. ās
√osɑhi-
√osi- √ēsi-
OEng. ǣs-
(n.) ‘meat, food, carrion, dead carcase’
(ASaxD. 19)
1. PIE *ēsi-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *āsi-
2. āsi-
āsi -> ǣs
Umlaut of āsi into ǣs
Rāsi›ǣs → OEng. ǣs-
Hitt. ḫaui·aši-
(c.) ‘(Brot) mit Schaffleisch’
(HHand. 48)
(Hitt. ḫa-ú-i-aš-ši-in, ḫa-ú-i-ia-aš-ši-in, ḫa-ui5-ia-aš-ši, DLL. 45)
1. PIE *hɑou̯i·osi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hou̯i·osi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hou̯i·osi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hau̯i·asi-
3. hau̯i·asi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hau̯i·aši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hau̯i·aši-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫau̯i·aši-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √s- √os- √es- (sb.) ‘Hass, Kampf, Groll, Krieg’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√so-
Hitt. ša-
(vb.) ‘zornig sein, zürnen, grollen, hassen’
(HHand. 137)
(Hitt. ša-an-zi [3pl])
1. PIE *so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sa-
2. sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. sa·mád-
(f.) ‘Kampflust, dann: Kampf, Schlacht’
(WbRV. 1479)
(RV. samád-)
1. PIE *so·méɑɦd-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *so·máɑɦd-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. so·máɑɦd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *so·máɦd-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. so·máɦd-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sa·máɦd-
4. sa·máɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → RV. sa·mád-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Gr. ὅ·μαδο-
(m.) ‘lärmende Menschenmenge Schlachtgedränge, Getümmel, Getöse’
(Gr. ὅμαδος)
1. PIE *só·meɑɦdo-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *só·maɑɦdo-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. só·maɑɦdo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *só·maɦdo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. só·maɦdo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *só·mado-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. só·mado-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hó·mado-
5. hó·mado-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὅ·μαδο-
RV. sa·mádana-
(n.) ‘Kampflust’
(WbRV. 1479)
(RV. samádana-)
1. PIE *so·méɑɦdono-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *so·máɑɦdono-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. so·máɑɦdono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *so·máɦdono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. so·máɦdono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sa·máɦdana-
4. sa·máɦdana-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → RV. sa·mádana-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
RV. sa·mádvan-
(a.) ‘kampflustig’
(GEW 2:1479)
(RV. samádvan-)
1. PIE *so·méɑɦdu̯on-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *so·máɑɦdu̯on-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. so·máɑɦdu̯on-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *so·máɦdu̯on-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. so·máɦdu̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sa·máɦdu̯an-
4. sa·máɦdu̯an-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *sa·mádu̯an-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sa·mádu̯an-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. sa·mádvan-
√sɑhiu-
Lat. saeuo-
(a.) ‘wütend, tobend, hart, grausam, grimmig’
(WH. 2:462)
1. PIE *seɑhiu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑhiu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑhiu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sahiu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sahiu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *saiu̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. saiu̯o-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → *saeu̯o-
5. saeu̯o-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. saeuo-
OGaul. saiuonio-
(PN.) ‘-(?)-, in Turin’
(ACSS 2:1285)
(OGaul. saeuonio-)
1. PIE *seɑhiu̯onio-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑhiu̯onio-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑhiu̯onio-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sahiu̯onio-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sahiu̯onio-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *saiu̯onio-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. saiu̯onio-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. saiuonio-
√seɑhiuɑh-
OLat. saiuā-
(a.f.) ‘groß’
(WH. 2:463)
(OLat. saeua)
1. PIE *seɑhiu̯ēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑhiu̯ēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑhiu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *saɑhiu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. saɑhiu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sahiu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. sahiu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *saiu̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. saiu̯ā-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OLat. saiuā-
OGaul. saiuāt-
(VN.) ‘norischer Stamm in Pustertale’
(ACSS 2:1285)
(OGaul. saeuat)
1. PIE *seɑhiu̯ēɑht-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑhiu̯ēɑht-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑhiu̯ēɑht-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *saɑhiu̯āɑht-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. saɑhiu̯āɑht-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sahiu̯āht-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. sahiu̯āht-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *saiu̯āt-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. saiu̯āt-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. saiuāt-
√soi-
(CHD S:13ff.)
(Neu & Meid Hitt&Idg.)
Hitt. šai-
(vb.A.) ‘become sullen/sulking/angry, be angry’
(HIL. 799)
(Hitt. ša-a-iz-zi, ša-it, ša-a-iš)
1. PIE *soi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sai-
2. sai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šaa-
(vb.) ‘zornig sein, zürnen, grollen, hassen’
(HHand. 137)
1. PIE *soi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sai̯a-
2. sai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *saa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. saa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šaa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sr- √sor- √ser-
Alb. sharë-
(pl) ‘offense’
(AlbEtD. 408)
1. PIE *sorēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *sorāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. sorāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sorāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sorāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sorā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sorā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sarā
5. sarā
*s → sh
Change of *s into sh
Rs›sh → *sharā
6. sharā
*ā → ë
Change of *ā into Alb. ë
Rā›ë → Alb. sharë
(XX:XX)
Hitt. šarauar-
(n.) ‘Groll, Erregung’
(HHand. 137)
1. PIE *sorou̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sarau̯ar-
2. sarau̯ar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šarau̯ar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √s- √os- √es- (a.) ‘gut, lieb, beliebt, angenehm’ (sb.) ‘Gunst, usw.’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo: RV. + Anat.)
√os-
Hitt. aš-
(vb.M.) ‘gut sein’
(HHand. 25)
(Hitt. a-aš-ša-a-ri [3sg], a-aš-ša-an-ta-ri)
1. PIE *os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *as-
2. as-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√esei-
CLu. ešei-
(MUNUS.c.) ‘Kurtisane?’ (HHand. 33)
(DLL. 37)
(CLu. MUNUSMEŠ e-ši-in-zi)
1. PIE *esei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. ešei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√osei-
Hitt. ašei̯a-
(vb.M.) ‘lieb, beliebt sein’ (HHand. 27)
(HEG A:81)
(Hitt. a-aš-ši-ia-at-ta-ri [3sg])
1. PIE *osei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asei̯a-
2. asei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ašei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ašei̯a-
(vb.A.) ‘to be loved, good’
(HIL. 257)
(Hitt. a-aš-ši-ia-an-du [ipv3pl])
1. PIE *osei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asei̯a-
2. asei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ašei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ašei̯an-
(n.) ‘Liebe’
(HIL. 257)
(Hitt. a-aš-ši-ia-an-na-aš, a-ši-ia-na-aš [G])
1. PIE *osei̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asei̯an-
2. asei̯an-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ašei̯an-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ašei̯ant-
(pt.) ‘geliebt, beliebt’
(HHand. 27)
(Hitt. a-aš-ši-ia-an-t-, aš-ši-ia-an-t-)
1. PIE *osei̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asei̯ant-
2. asei̯ant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ašei̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ašei̯anuške/a-
(cs.iter.) geliebt, beliebt machen’
(HHand. 27)
(Hitt. a-aš-ši-ia-nu-uš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *osei̯onuski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *osei̯onusḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. osei̯onusḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asei̯anusḱe/a-
3. asei̯anusḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *asei̯anuske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. asei̯anuske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ašei̯anuške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√osoio-
Lyd. aśaa-
(c.) ‘Gunst, Wohlwollen(?)’
(LydWb. 66)
(Lyd. aśaaν)
1. PIE *osoi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asai̯a-
2. asai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *asaa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. asaa-
PIE * s → ś
Orthographic change of *s into ś
Rs›ś → Lyd. aśaa-
√si-
RV. sioná-
(n.) ‘angenehm Lage, weiches Lager’
(WbRV. 1616)
(= LAv. yaona- (m.) ‘ein Volk und Land’ (a.) ‘chionitisch’, AIWb. 1858 ?)
1. PIE *siHounó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *siHaunó-
2. siHaunó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *siHauná-
3. siHauná-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → *si.auná-
4. si.auná-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *si.ōná-
5. si.ōná-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → RV. si.oná-
RV. sioná-
(a.) ‘angenehm, erfreulich, freundegewährend’
(WbRV. 1616)
(EWA 2:783; KEWA 3:552)
1. PIE *siHounó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *siHaunó-
2. siHaunó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *siHauná-
3. siHauná-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → *si.auná-
4. si.auná-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *si.ōná-
5. si.ōná-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → RV. si.oná-


PIE √s- √os- √es- (sb.) ‘Vorzeichen, Weissage, Bild, Gestalt’
(IEW –)
√ōs-
Lat. ōs·cen-
(m.) ‘Weissage-vogel’
(WH. 2:226)
(Lat. ōs·cen, ōscinis from PItal. *ōs·kan-)
OLat. ōs·men-
(n.) ‘Vorzeichen’
(WH. 2:208)
(OLat. osmen, Class. ōmen, ōminis)
Lat. ōminā-
(pr.1.M.) ‘wünschen an, weissagen’
(WH. 2:208)
1. PIE *ōsmènēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ōsmènāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ōsmènāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ōsmènāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ōsmènāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. ōsmènā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. ab·ōminā-
(pr.1.M.) ‘verwünschen, verabscheuen’
(WH. 2:208)
(Lat. abōminor [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·ōsmènēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·ōsmènāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·ōsmènāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ōsmènāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·ōsmènāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. Π·ōsmènā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√esri-
Hitt. ešri-
(n.) ‘Bild, Form, Gestalt, Körperbau, Statue’
(HHand. 33)
(Hitt. e-eš-ri [sgNA], e-eš-ri-ia [DL])
1. PIE *esri-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ešri-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √sɑh- (vb.) ‘vollstopfen, usw.’
(IEW 876)
√sɑh-
(HEG S:690ff.)
(CHD S:1)
Hitt. šāḫ-
(vb.2.) ‘vollstopfen: ‘stuff full, clog, fill in’
(SHV 512)
(Hitt. ša-a-ḫi [3sg], ša-a-ḫa-an-zi, ša-aḫ-ta)
1. PIE *sēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *sāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. sāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sāh-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šāh-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. šāḫ-
(vb.2.M.) ‘clog, stuff, fill in, stop, block, plug up’
(HIL. 797)
(Hitt. ša-ḫa-a-ri [3sg])
1. PIE *sēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *sāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. sāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sāh-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šāh-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Gr. ἅ̄-
(vb.M.) ‘= Hes. πληροῦται’
(LSJ. 267)
(Gr. ἇται [3sg])
1. PIE *sḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *sā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. sā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sā́-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hā́-
5. hā́-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἅ̄-


PIE √sɑh- (vb.) ‘singen, blasen (?)’ (sb.) ‘Gesang, Lied’
(IEW –)
√seɑhmɑh
Lith. sóma-
(f.) ‘Blasinstrument’
(LiEtWb. 855-6)
(Lith. sóma [sgN])
1. PIE *sḗɑhmēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *sḗɑhmāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. sḗɑhmāɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *sā́ɑhmāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. sā́ɑhmāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sā́hmāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. sā́hmāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sā́mā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sā́mā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *sā́mō
(XX:XX)
6. sā́mō
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *sṓmō
(XX:XX)
7. sṓmō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *sṓma
8. sṓma
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → Lith. sóma
Lith. somúo-
(vb.) ‘(weltliche Lieder) singen’
(LiEtWb. 855-6)
(Lith. somúoti)
1. PIE *sēɑhmṓɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *sāɑhmṓɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. sāɑhmṓɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sāhmṓh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sāhmṓh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sāmṓ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sāmṓ-
*ṓ → úo
Change of ṓ into úo
Rṓ›úo → *sāmúo-
5. sāmúo-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *sōmúo-
(XX:XX)
6. sōmúo-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → Lith. somúo-
√sɑhōmo-
Hitt. i·šḫāma-
(vb.2.) ‘singen’
(HEG I:379-80)
(Hitt. iš-ḫa-ma-i [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·sɑhōmo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shōmo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·shōmo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shōma
3. Π·shōma
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·shāma
4. Π·shāma
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhāma
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. Π·šhāma
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫāma
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. i·šḫāma-
(c.) ‘Lied, Gesang: SÌR’
(HIL. 456)
(Hitt. iš-ḫa-ma-[uš] [plA])
1. PIE *Π·sɑhōmo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shōmo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·shōmo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shōma
3. Π·shōma
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·shāma
4. Π·shāma
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhāma
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. Π·šhāma
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫāma
(SPIE §4.6.3)
RV. ŕ̥k·ṣāmá-
(n.) ‘Lied und Gesang’
(WbRV. 277)
1. PIE *ŕ̥ku·sɑhōmó
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ŕ̥ku·shōmó
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ŕ̥ku·shōmó
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *ŕ̥ku·šhōmó
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. ŕ̥ku·šhōmó
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *ŕ̥ku·šhōmá
4. ŕ̥ku·šhōmá
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ŕ̥ku·šhāmá
5. ŕ̥ku·šhāmá
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ŕ̥ku·šāmá
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. ŕ̥ku·šāmá
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *ŕ̥k·šāmá
(SPIE §4.8.3)
7. ŕ̥k·šāmá
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. ŕ̥k·ṣāmá
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
RV. sāma·gā́-
(a.) ‘Lieder singend’
(WbRV. 1512)
1. PIE *sɑhōmo·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shōmo·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shōmo·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *shōma·Σ
3. shōma·Σ
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *shāma·Σ
4. shāma·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. sāma·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
RV. sāma·gā́-
(m.) ‘Liedersänger’
(WbRV. 1512)
1. PIE *sɑhōmo·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shōmo·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shōmo·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *shōma·Σ
3. shōma·Σ
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *shāma·Σ
4. shāma·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. sāma·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Hitt. i·šḫāma·dala-
(LÚ.c.) ‘Sänger: singer’
(HHand. 63)
(Hitt. iš-ḫa-ma-tal-le-eš [plN], iš-ḫa-ma-a-tal-lu-uš [plA])
1. PIE *Π·sɑhōmo·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shōmo·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·shōmo·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shōma·Σ
3. Π·shōma·Σ
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·shāma·Σ
4. Π·shāma·Σ
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhāma·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. Π·šhāma·Σ
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫāma·Σ
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√sɑhōmi-
Hitt. i·šḫāmai-
(c.) ‘Lied, Gesang: SÌR’
(HEG I:379-80)
(Hitt. iš-ḫa-ma-in [A])
1. PIE *Π·sɑhōmoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shōmoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·shōmoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shōmai-
3. Π·shōmai-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·shāmai-
4. Π·shāmai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhāmai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. Π·šhāmai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫāmai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. i·šḫāmaiške/a-
(vb.) ‘singen’
(HIL. 456)
(Hitt. iš-ḫa-ma-iš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *Π·sɑhōmoiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shōmoiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·shōmoiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *Π·shōmoisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·shōmoisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shōmaisḱe/a-
4. Π·shōmaisḱe/a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·shāmaisḱe/a-
5. Π·shāmaisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *Π·shāmaiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. Π·shāmaiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhāmaiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. Π·šhāmaiške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫāmaiške/a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. i·šḫāmei-
(c.) ‘sing’
(HIL. 456)
(Hitt. iš-ḫa-mi-en-zi)
1. PIE *Π·sɑhōmei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shōmei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·shōmei-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·shāmei-
3. Π·shāmei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhāmei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·šhāmei-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫāmei-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. i·šḫāmeia-
(vb.1.) ‘singen’
(HHand. 63)
(Hitt. iš-ḫa-mi-an-zi, iš-ḫa-mi-ia-an-zi)
1. PIE *Π·sɑhōmei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shōmei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·shōmei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shōmei̯a-
3. Π·shōmei̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·shāmei̯a-
4. Π·shāmei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhāmei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. Π·šhāmei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫāmei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√sɑhōmen-
RV. sā́man-
(n.) ‘Gesang, Lied, gesungenes Lied’
(WbRV. 1512)
(RV. sā́man-)
1. PIE *sɑhṓmen-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shṓmen-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shṓmen-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *shā́men-
3. shā́men-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sā́men-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sā́men-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. sā́man-
RV. sahá·sāman-
(a.) ‘mit Gesang versehen’
(WbRV. 1499)
1. PIE *Π·sɑhōmen-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shōmen-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·shōmen-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·shāmen-
3. Π·shāmen-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·sāmen-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·sāmen-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. Π·sāman-


PIE √sɑh- (vb.) ‘suchen, spüren, verlangen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo 2013: 83, 311f.)
√sēɑh-
(Pyysalo)
(CHD S:162ff.,171; HIL. 831-2)
Hitt. šāḫ-
(vb.1.) ‘suchen, erstreben, planen, fordern, verlangen’
(HHand. 142)
(HEG S:818, SHV 182, ša-a-aḫ, ša-aḫ-ta, ša-aḫ-ḫu-un)
1. PIE *sēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *sāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. sāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sāh-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šāh-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OHG. fa·sō-
(vb.) ‘nach·spüren, suchen’
(EWAhd. X:XX)
(OHG. fasôn [inf.], Grundr2 1:765, WH. 2:241)
1. PIE *po·sēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *po·sāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. po·sāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po·sāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. po·sāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *po·sā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. po·sā-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *fo·sā-
5. fo·sā-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *fa·sā-
6. fa·sā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → OHG. fa·sō-
(XX:XX)
√seɑhi-
(Pyysalo)
OHitt. šaḫiške/a-
(iter.) ‘suchen, verlangen’
(HHand. 142)
(Hitt. ša-aḫ-ḫi-iš-ke-)
1. PIE *seɑhiski̯e/o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑhiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑhiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sahiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sahiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sahisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sahisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sahisḱe/a-
5. sahisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sahiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. sahiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šahiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. šahiške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → OHitt. šaḫiške/a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Arm. haicʼe-
(vb.) ‘suchen, verlangen, bitten’
(ArmGr. 1:418)
(Arm. haicʼem)
1. PIE *seɑhiski̯e-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑhiski̯e-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑhiski̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sahiski̯e-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sahiski̯e-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *sahisće-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sahisće-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *saisće-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. saisće-
*sć → cʼ
Change of sć into cʼ
Rsć›cʼ → *saicʼe-
6. saicʼe-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → Arm. haicʼe-
√seɑhgi-
(IEW 876-7)
Lat. sāgo-
(a.) ‘prophetic, prosciens’; ‘practicing witchcraft’
(Lat. sāgus [sgN])
1. PIE *sēɑhgi̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *sāɑhgi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. sāɑhgi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sāhgi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sāhgi̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *sāhǵo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sāhǵo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sāǵo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sāǵo-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → Lat. sāgo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
OIr. saigi-
(vb.) ‘seek out : aussuchen’
(DIL. 517)
(OIr. saigim [1sg])
1. PIE *seɑhgi̯e-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑhgi̯e-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑhgi̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sahgi̯e-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sahgi̯e-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *sahǵe-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sahǵe-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *saǵe-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. saǵe-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sage-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. sage-
*age → aigi
Epenthesis of i
Rage›aigi → OIr. saigi-
Lat. sagio-
(pt.) ‘spüren, witteren’
(Lat. sagiō, sagīre [inf.])
1. PIE *seɑhgii̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑhgii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑhgii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sahgii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sahgii̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *sahǵi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sahǵi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *saǵi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. saǵi̯o-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sagi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. sagi̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. sagio-
Goth. sokja-
(vb.) ‘suchen’
(GoEtD. S116.)
1. PIE *sēɑhgii̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *sāɑhgii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. sāɑhgii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sāhgii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sāhgii̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *sāhǵi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sāhǵi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sāǵi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sāǵi̯o-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sāgi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. sāgi̯o-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *sāki̯o-
7. sāki̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sāki̯a-
8. sāki̯a-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *sōki̯a-
(XX:XX)
9. sōki̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *sōkja-
10. sōkja-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → Goth. sokja-


PIE √sɑh- √osɑh- √esɑh (sb.) ‘Herr, Verwalter, Meister’ √sosɑh- √sesɑh- (vb.) ‘anordnen, herrschen, bestimmen’
(IEW 342 [diff.])
(Ribezzo + Oettinger + Pyysalo)
√osɑho-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. udni·ašḫa-
(c.) ‘Bürgermeister’
(HHand. 189)
(Possibly = HLu. REGIO.DOMINUS)
1. PIE *udɑhni·osɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *udhni·osho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. udhni·osho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *udhni·asha-
3. udhni·asha-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *udni·asha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. udni·asha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *udni·ašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. udni·ašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. udni·ašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. tup·ašḫa-
(LÚ.c.) ‘Lager-verwalter (?)’
(HHand. 181)
1. PIE *Π·osɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·osho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·osho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·asha-
3. Π·asha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·ašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·ašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·ašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. šal·ašḫa-
(LÚ.c.) ‘Stallbursche’ ?, ‘Kutscher’ (?)
(HHand. 140)
1. PIE *sol·osɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sol·osho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sol·osho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sal·asha-
3. sal·asha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šal·ašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šal·ašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šal·ašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√esɑho-
(Ribezzo 1920:128)
OHitt. ešḫa-
(c.) ‘Sum. EN : Herr : lord’
(HEG I:376)
(HIL. 452-3, HED 2:385ff.)
1. PIE *esɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *esho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. esho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *esha-
3. esha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ešha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ešha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → OHitt. ešḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lat. ero-
(m.) ‘Herr’
(Lat. erus [sgN], ere [sgV])
1. PIE *esɑho
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *esho
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. esho
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *eso
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. eso
*VsV → VrV
Rhotacism of *s between vowels
RVsV›VrV → Lat. ero
Hitt. ešḫa·šara-
(c.) ‘GAŠAN : Herrin’
(HHand. 63)
(Hitt. iš-ḫa-aš-ša-ri
1. PIE *esɑho·soro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *esho·soro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. esho·soro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *esha·sara-
3. esha·sara-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ešha·šara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ešha·šara-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ešḫa·šara-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ešḫa·šaru̯ai-
(vb.dn.) ‘herrschen’
(HHand. 64)
1. PIE *esɑho·soru̯oi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *esho·soru̯oi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. esho·soru̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *esha·saru̯ai-
3. esha·saru̯ai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ešha·šaru̯ai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ešha·šaru̯ai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ešḫa·šaru̯ai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OLat. esā-
(f.) ‘Herrin’
(WH. 1:419)
(OLat. esa)
1. PIE *esɑhēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *esɑhāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. esɑhāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eshāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. eshāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OLat. esā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√sosɑho-
(SHV 498-9)
Hitt. šašḫa-
(vb.) ‘anordnen, anweisen, bestimmen’
(HHand. 150)
(Hitt. šašḫaten [2pl])
1. PIE *sosɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sosho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sosho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sasha-
3. sasha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√sesɑho-
(SHV 498-9)
Hitt. šešḫa-
(vb.) ‘order, arrange’
(HEG I:375-6)
(HIL. 875-)
1. PIE *sesɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sesho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sesho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sesha-
3. sesha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šešha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šešha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šešḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. šešḫa-
(vb.) ‘anordnen, -weisen, bestimmen, festmachen’
(HHand. 150)
(CLu. šešḫata, SHV 499)
1. PIE *sesɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sesho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sesho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sesha-
3. sesha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šešha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šešha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. šešḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. šešḫai-
(vb.2.) ‘anordnen, anweisen, bestimmen’
(HHand. 150
1. PIE *sesɑhoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seshoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. seshoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *seshai-
3. seshai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šešhai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šešhai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šešḫai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √sɑh- (vb.) ‘binden’
(IEW 476 + 904)
(Or: PIE √shɑ-, cf. Pind. ἅμερο- !)
√sɑhm-
Hitt. i·šḫamen-
(c.) ‘cord’
(HEG I:380)
(Hitt. iš-ḫa-mi-na-an)
1. PIE *Π·sɑhomen-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shomen-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·shomen-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shamen-
3. Π·shamen-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhamen-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·šhamen-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫamen-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. i·šḫamena-
(c.) ‘Schnur, Seil, Strick’
(HIL. 454)
1. PIE *Π·sɑhomeno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shomeno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·shomeno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shamena-
3. Π·shamena-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhamena-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·šhamena-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫamena-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. i·šḫamenaša-
(a.) ‘bandförmig’
(HHand. 63)
1. PIE *Π·sɑhomenoso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shomenoso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·shomenoso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shamenasa-
3. Π·shamenasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhamenaša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·šhamenaša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫamenaša-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
LAv. haŋhāman-
(n.) ‘Verbindung (der Gelenke), Gelenkband’
(AIWb. 1768)
1. PIE *sesɑhōmen-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seshōmen-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. seshōmen-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *seshāmen-
3. seshāmen-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sesāmen-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sesāmen-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hehāmen-
5. hehāmen-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *hahāman-
6. hahāman-
ahA → aŋhA
Change of h into ŋh
RahA›aŋhA → LAv. haŋhāman-
Gr. ὅμηρο-
(m.) ‘hostage, pledge, surety’
(Gr. ὅμηρος)
1. PIE *sɑhómēro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shómēro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shómēro-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sómēro-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. sómēro-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hómēro-
4. hómēro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὅμηρο-
Gr. ἥμερο-
(a.) ‘tame, cultivated, reclaimed, civilized’
(Gr. ἥμερος)
1. PIE *sɑhḗmero-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shḗmero-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shḗmero-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sḗmero-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. sḗmero-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hḗmero-
4. hḗmero-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἥμερο-


PIE √sɑh- √soɑh- √seɑh- (vb.) ‘bringen, führen’
(IEW 906 *sen-)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + Av.)
√seɑh-
Hitt. peda·šaḫ-
(vb.1.A.) ‘an Ort und Stelle bringen, überführen’
(HHand. 130)
(Hitt. pí-e-da-aš-ša-aḫ-ḫa-an-zi [3pl], pí-e-da-aš-ša-aḫ-ḫe-ir)
1. PIE *pedo·seɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *pedo·saɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. pedo·saɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pedo·sah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pedo·sah-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *peda·sah-
4. peda·sah-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *peda·šah-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. peda·šah-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. peda·šaḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√sɑho-
LAv. u·ša-
(a.) ‘der Vieh in seinen Besitz bringt, Viehbesitzer
(AIWb. 1030)
(LAv. fšušō, fšušasča, fšušǝmča [sgA])
1. PIE *pki̯u·seɑh
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *pki̯u·saɑh
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. pki̯u·saɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pki̯u·sah
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pki̯u·sah
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiIr → *pki̯u·šah
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. pki̯u·šah
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *pću·šah
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. pću·šah
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pću·ša
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. pću·ša
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → LAv. psu·ša
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)


PIE √sɑhu- (sb.) ‘Sonne’ (vb.) ‘rösten, dörren, schmoren’
(IEW 881-2+1045)
(Pyysalo 2013:122-3)
√sɑhu-
LAv. hū-
(n.) ‘Sonne, Sonnenball, Sonnenlicht’
(AIWb. 1847)
(LAv. hača hū [sgG] vaxšāt)
1. PIE *sɑ́hu-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *súhu-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. súhu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *súu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. súu-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *sū́-
4. sū́-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hū́-
5. hū́-
*ū́ → ū
Absence of accent
Rū́›ū → LAv. hū-
LAv. hu-
(vb.) ‘schmoren, rösten’
(AIWb. 1782-3)
(LAv. huyārǝš [opt3pl])
1. PIE *sɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *su-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. su-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → LAv. hu-
√seɑhuo-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. sava-
(m.) ‘the Sun’
(MonWil. 1190)
1. PIE *seɑhu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sahu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sahu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sahu̯a-
4. sahu̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sau̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sau̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OInd. sava-
Hitt. šaḫu̯a-
(vb.) ‘rösten, dörren : roast’
(CHD S:172f.)
(Hitt. ša-ḫu-ua-an KUB 29.1 iii 46, HIL. 833)
1. PIE *seɑhu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sahu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sahu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sahu̯a-
4. sahu̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šahu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. šahu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šaḫu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. šaḫu̯a-
(vb.) ‘-(?)-’ (CHD S:12)
(HEG K:700)
(Hitt. (-)]ša-aḫ-ḫu-ua-az-zi na=an=šan])
1. PIE *seɑhu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sahu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sahu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sahu̯a-
4. sahu̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šahu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. šahu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šaḫu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√soɑhueio-
LAv. hāvaya-
(cs.) ‘rösten’
(AIWb. 1782)
(LAv. hāvayeiti [3sg], Brugmann’s Law II)
1. PIE *soɑhu̯ei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sohu̯ei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sohu̯ei̯o-
PIE *oHCV → āHCV
Brugmann’s Law for *ohCV
RoHCV›āHCV → *sāhu̯ei̯o-
(SPIE §2.3.7)
3. sāhu̯ei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sāhu̯ei̯a-
4. sāhu̯ei̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sāu̯ei̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sāu̯ei̯a-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hāu̯ei̯a-
6. hāu̯ei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *hāu̯ai̯a-
7. hāu̯ai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *hāu̯aya-
8. hāu̯aya-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. hāvaya-


PIE √sɑhu- √sɑɦu. (prep.pref.) ‘ober-, auf-’ (sb.) ‘Höhe’ (a.) ‘hoch’
(IEW 1105-1107)
√sɑhu-
Hitt. i·šḫu·na-
(c.) ‘Oberarm : upper arm’
(HHand. 64)
(Hitt. iš-ḫu-na-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·sɑhu·no-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shu·no-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·shu·no-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shu·na-
3. Π·shu·na-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhu·na-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·šhu·na-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫu·na-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. i·šḫu·nau-
(c.) ‘Oberarm’
(HHand. 64)
(Hitt. iš-ḫu-na-ú-uš [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·sɑhu·nou-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shu·nou-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·shu·nou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shu·nau-
3. Π·shu·nau-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhu·nau-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·šhu·nau-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫu·nau-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. i·šḫu·nau-
(n.) ‘Oberarm’
(HHand. 64)
(Hitt. [iš]-ḫu-na-ú, iš-ḫu-na-u-ua, iš-ḫu-na-u-ua-aš, iš-ḫu-na-u-i)
1. PIE *Π·sɑhu·nou-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shu·nou-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·shu·nou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shu·nau-
3. Π·shu·nau-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhu·nau-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·šhu·nau-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫu·nau-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. i·šḫu·nauant-
(c.) ‘Oberarm’
(HHand. 64)
(Hitt. iš-ḫu-na-u-ua-an-za)
1. PIE *Π·sɑhu·nouont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shu·nouont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·shu·nouont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shu·nauant-
3. Π·shu·nauant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhu·nauant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·šhu·nauant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫu·nauant-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lat. su·rgo-
(vb.) ‘aufrichten, aufstehen’
(WH. 2:635)
(Lat. surgō [1sg], also in Lat. sūrsum ‘in die Höhe gerichted, aufwärts’)
1. PIE *sɑhu·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shu·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shu·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. su·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
LAv. hū·kairī-
(n.) ‘N des höchsten gipfels der Harā’
(AIWb. 1818)
(LAv. hū·kairīm [sgA])
1. PIE *sɑ́hu·Σ-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *súhu·Σ-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. súhu·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *súu·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. súu·Σ-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *sū́·Σ-
4. sū́·Σ-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hū́·Σ-
5. hū́·Σ-
*ū́ → ū
Absence of accent
Rū́›ū → LAv. hū·Σ-
√sɑhuo-
LAv. hvō.išta-
(sup.) ‘der Höchste, erste, vertvolleste, beste’
(AIWb. 1856)
(LAv. hvōišta-)
1. PIE *sɑhu̯o.istɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shu̯o.istho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shu̯o.istho-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *shu̯o.ištho-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. shu̯o.ištho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *shu̯a.ištha-
4. shu̯a.ištha-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *su̯a.ištha-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. su̯a.ištha-
*sth/šth → st/št
Loss of *h after st/št
RSth›St → *su̯a.išta-
6. su̯a.išta-
*su̯ → xu̯
Change of *su̯ into xu̯
Rsu̯›xu̯ → *xu̯a.išta-
7. xu̯a.išta-
a. → ō.
Change of a. into ō. in morpheme border
Ra›ō → *xu̯ō.išta-
8. xu̯ō.išta-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. xvō.išta-
√sɑhuper-
Lat. super
(adv.) ‘oben an, auf (zu)’
(WH. 2:613)
1. PIE *sɑhuper
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shuper
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shuper
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. super
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Umbr. super-
(pref.) ‘oben an ...’
(WbOU. 720)
1. PIE *sɑhuper
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shuper
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shuper
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Umbr. super
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√sɑhupr-
Osc. supro-
(a.) ‘oberer’
(WbOU. 722)
(Osc. supru, supruis)
1. PIE *sɑhupro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shupro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shupro-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Osc. supro-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. supr·ā
(adv.) ‘oben darauf, vorher, darüber hinaus’
(WH. 2:613)
1. PIE *sɑhupr·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shupr·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shupr·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. supr·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. supr·ā
(prep.A) ‘oben über, oberhalb, vor, über hinaus’
(WH. 2:613)
1. PIE *sɑhupr·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shupr·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shupr·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. supr·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√sɑɦub-
OGaul. sub·ligniāco-
(ON.m.) ‘-(?)-’
(ACSS 2:1651)
(OGaul. locum, qui nunc dicitur subligniācus)
1. PIE *sɑɦub·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sɦub·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sɦub·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → OGaul. sub·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. sub·līmi-
(a.) ‘in die Höhe gehoben, erhaben, kehr, schwebend’
(WH. 2:618-619)
(Lat. sublīmis, sublīme [adv.])
1. PIE *sɑɦub·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sɦub·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sɦub·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Lat. sub·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. sub·līmitāt-
(f.) ‘Höhe, Erhabenheit, Schwung’
(WH. 2:618-619)
1. PIE *sɑɦub·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sɦub·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sɦub·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Lat. sub·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. sub·tīli-
(a.) ‘fein, feinfühlig, -sinnig; genau, scharfsinnig; schlicht, einfach’
(WH. 2:619-620)
(Lat. subtīlis, subtīle [adv.])
1. PIE *sɑɦub·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sɦub·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sɦub·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Lat. sub·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. sub·tīlitāt-
(f.) ‘Feinheit, Feinfühligkeit, Geschmack; Scharfsinn; Schlichtheit’
(WH. 2:619-620)
1. PIE *sɑɦub·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sɦub·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sɦub·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Lat. sub·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)


PIE √shɑ- √sohɑ- √sehɑ (vb.) ‘heilen’
(IEW 880)
(+ Pyysalo)
√shɑ-
Hitt. šaḫ-
(vb.1.) ‘heilig machen, reinigen, fegen, abwischen’
(HHand. 142)
1. PIE *sohɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *soh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. soh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sah-
3. sah-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šah-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šah-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šaḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. šaḫ-
(vb.) ‘to heal, cure’ (CHLu. 629)
(CHLu. 2.17.7)
(HLu. sá-ha-si [2sg])
1. PIE *sohɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *soh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. soh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sah-
3. sah-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šah-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šah-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. šaḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√shɑn-
(Pyysalo)
Lat. sāno-
(a.) ‘gesund, heil, vernünftig, nüchtern’
(Lat. sānus [sgN])
1. PIE *shɑēno-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *shɑāno-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. shɑāno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shāno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. shāno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. sāno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. sānē
(adv.) ‘healthily, reasonably; truly, indeed’
(WH. 2:476)
1. PIE *shɑēnē
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *shɑānē
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. shɑānē
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shānē
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. shānē
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. sānē
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. sān·ēsco-
(vb.) ‘heil machen, heilen’
(Lat. sān·ēscō)
1. PIE *shɑēn·ēski̯o-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *shɑān·ēski̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. shɑān·ēski̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shān·ēski̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. shān·ēski̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *shān·ēsḱo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. shān·ēsḱo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sān·ēsḱo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sān·ēsḱo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sān·ēsko-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. sān·ēsko-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. sān·ēsco-
TochA. sān·täk-
(sb.) ‘Artz : doctor’ ‹TochA. √täk- ‘urteilen’›
(Poucha 363)
1. PIE *shɑēn·Σ-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *shɑān·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. shɑān·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shān·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. shān·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochA. sān·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√shɑr-
(Pyysalo)
(HEG I:382)
Hitt. i·šḫāra-
(d.) ‘Göttin der Medizin’
(OHP. 1:196-202)
(Hitt. iš-ḫa-ra(-aš) [All-(N)])
1. PIE *Π·shɑēro-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *Π·shɑāro-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·shɑāro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shāro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·shāro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shāra-
4. Π·shāra-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhāra-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. Π·šhāra-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫāra-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Pal. i·šḫāra-
(vb.) ‘-(?)-’ (HHand. 64)
(DPal. 57)
(Pal. iš-ḫa-ra-an-ti)
1. PIE *Π·shɑēro-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *Π·shɑāro-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·shɑāro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shāro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·shāro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shāra-
4. Π·shāra-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhāra-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. Π·šhāra-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Pal. Π·šḫāra-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. i·šḫāra-
(d.) ‘-(?)-’
(OHP. 1:196-202)
(CLu. iš-ḫa-ra-aš [N])
1. PIE *Π·shɑēro-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *Π·shɑāro-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·shɑāro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shāro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·shāro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shāra-
4. Π·shāra-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhāra-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. Π·šhāra-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. Π·šḫāra-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. i·šḫāra
(ḪUR.SAG.) ‘wohl bei ›Niriša.’
(OGH. 145)
(Hitt. iš-ḫa-ra [All])
1. PIE *Π·shɑēro-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *Π·shɑāro-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·shɑāro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shāro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·shāro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shāra-
4. Π·shāra-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhāra-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. Π·šhāra-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫāra-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. i·šḫārali-
(c.) ‘Priesterin der Išḫara-’
(HHand. 64)
1. PIE *Π·shɑēroli-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *Π·shɑāroli-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·shɑāroli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shāroli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·shāroli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shārali-
4. Π·shārali-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhārali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. Π·šhārali-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫārali-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Alb. shëroj-
(pr.) ‘to heal’
(AlbEtD. 413)
1. PIE *shɑērēi̯o
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *shɑārēi̯o
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. shɑārēi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shārēi̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. shārēi̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sārēi̯o
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sārēi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sārēi̯a
5. sārēi̯a
*s → sh
Change of *s into sh
Rs›sh → *shārēi̯a
6. shārēi̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *shārēi̯
7. shārēi̯
*ā → ë
Change of *ā into Alb. ë
Rā›ë → *shërēi̯
(XX:XX)
8. shërēi̯
*ē → o
Change of *ē into o
Rē›o → *shëroi̯
9. shëroi̯
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Alb. shëroj
Hitt. i·šḫārišḫ-
(vb.fient.M.) ‘die Krankheit der Išḫara bekommen’
(HHand. 64)
1. PIE *Π·shɑērish-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *Π·shɑārish-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·shɑārish-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shārish-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·shārish-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhārišh-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·šhārišh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫārišḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. i·šḫāriške/a-
(vb.iter.M) ‘die Krankheit der Išḫara bekommen’
(HHand. 64)
1. PIE *Π·shɑēriski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *Π·shɑāriski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·shɑāriski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shāriski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·shāriski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *Π·shārisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. Π·shārisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shārisḱe/a-
5. Π·shārisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *Π·shāriske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. Π·shāriske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhāriške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. Π·šhāriške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫāriške/a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Alb. shërova-
(ao.) ‘to heal’
(AlbEtD. 413)
1. PIE *shɑērēu̯o-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *shɑārēu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. shɑārēu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shārēu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. shārēu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sārēu̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sārēu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sārēu̯a-
5. sārēu̯a-
*s → sh
Change of *s into sh
Rs›sh → *shārēu̯a-
6. shārēu̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *shārēva-
7. shārēva-
*ā → ë
Change of *ā into Alb. ë
Rā›ë → *shërēva-
(XX:XX)
8. shërēva-
*ē → o
Change of *ē into o
Rē›o → Alb. shërova-


PIE √shɑ- √eshɑ- √ēshɑ- (sb.) ‘Blut(verwandschaft), Saft, Lebenskraft’
(IEW 343)
√oshɑ-
CLu. ašḫa-
(n.) ‘Blut’
(KUB xxxv 113 4-5)
(CLu. asḫa nudusi ‘you thirst for blood’)
1. PIE *oshɑo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *osho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. osho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asha-
3. asha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Gr. ἰχ·όο-
(*n.) ‘Götterblut, Blutwasser’
(GEW 1:747)
(in Gr. ἰχῶ [sgA])
1. PIE *Π·óshɑo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ósho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ósho-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·óso-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·óso-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *Π·óho-
4. Π·óho-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *Π·óo-
5. Π·óo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·όο-
√oshɑer-
Gr. ἰχ·όαρ-
(*m.) ‘Götterblut, Blutwasser’
(GEW 1:747)
(in Gr. ἰχώρ)
1. PIE *Π·óshɑer
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *Π·óshɑar
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. Π·óshɑar
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·óshar
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·óshar
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·ósar
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·ósar
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *Π·óhar
5. Π·óhar
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *Π·óar
6. Π·óar
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·όαρ
CLu. ašḫarša-
(n.) ‘Blut’
(HHand. 26)
(CLu. a-aš-ḫar-ša [sgNA])
1. PIE *oshɑerso-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *oshɑarso-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. oshɑarso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *osharso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. osharso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asharsa-
4. asharsa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ašharša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ašharša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ašḫarša-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√eshɑer-
(HEG E:112-15)
Hitt. ešḫar-
(n.) Blut, Bluttat, Lebenskraft, Blutverwandtschaft’
(HHand. 33)
(Hitt. e-eš-ḫa-ar)
1. PIE *eshɑer-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *eshɑar-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. eshɑar-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eshar-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. eshar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ešhar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ešhar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ešḫar-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Gr. ἔαρ-
(n.) ‘Blut, Saft’
(GEW 1:432)
(Gr. ἔαρ [sgNA])
1. PIE *éshɑer-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *éshɑar-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. éshɑar-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *éshar-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. éshar-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ésar-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ésar-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *éhar-
5. éhar-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *éar-
6. éar-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἔαρ-
TochB. yasar-
(n.) ‘Blut’
(DTochB. 487)
(TochB. yasar [sgNA])
1. PIE *eshɑer-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *eshɑar-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. eshɑar-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eshar-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. eshar-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯ashar-
4. i̯ashar-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *i̯asar-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. i̯asar-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. yasar-
√ēshɑer-
Hitt. ēšḫar-
(n.) Blut, Bluttat, Lebenskraft, Blutverwandtschaft’
(HHand. 33)
(Hitt. iš-ḫar)
1. PIE *ēshɑer-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ēshɑar-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ēshɑar-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēshar-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ēshar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ēšhar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ēšhar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ēšḫar-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Gr. ἤαρ-
(n.) ‘Blut, Saft’
(GEW 1:432)
(Gr. ἦαρ [sgNA])
1. PIE *ḗshɑer-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ḗshɑar-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ḗshɑar-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ḗshar-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ḗshar-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ḗsar-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ḗsar-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *ḗhar-
5. ḗhar-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *ḗar-
6. ḗar-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἤαρ-
√oshɑormi-
HLu. ašḫarmi-
(c.) ‘blood (living)-sacrifice/offering’
(CHLu. 2.11.17)
(HLu. (“*350”)á-sa-ha+ra/i-mi-sa)
1. PIE *oshɑormi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oshormi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. oshormi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asharmi-
3. asharmi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ašharmi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ašharmi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. ašḫarmi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √shɑn- (sb.) ‘Lehen, Lehensdienst’ (vb.) ‘verdienen’
(IEW –)
(+ Pyysalo)
√shɑn-
(Pyysalo)
(HEG S:694-6, HIL. 798f., CHD S:2-7)
HLu. šḫan-
(sb.) ‘feudal service/tax’
(CHLu. 10.43.2)
(HLu. LONGUS?(-)tà-ia(-)sa-ha-na)
1. PIE *shɑon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *shan-
3. shan-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šhan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šhan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. šḫan-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. šḫan-
(n.) ‘Lehen, Lehensdienst : feudal service’
(HHand. 138)
(Hitt. ša-aḫ-ḫa-an, ša-aḫ-ḫa-na-aš, KLuN. §142)
1. PIE *shɑon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *shan-
3. shan-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šhan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šhan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šḫan-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. per·šḫan-
(a.) ‘des Haus-Lehens’ = ‘zum Lehensbesitz gehörig’, of GU4 ‘bus’ and É ‘domus’
(HHand. 126)
(Hitt. pé-er-ša-aḫ-ḫa-an-na-aš, HIL. 750, CHD P:201)
1. PIE *per·shɑon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *per·shon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. per·shon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *per·shan-
3. per·shan-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *per·šhan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. per·šhan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. per·šḫan-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. peri·šḫan-
(a.) ‘des Haus-Lehens’ = ‘zum Lehensbesitz gehörig’ (CHD P:201, HIL. 749)
(HHand. 126)
(Hitt. pé-re-eš-ḫa-an-na-aš, with PIE *shae/on !)
1. PIE *peri·shɑon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *peri·shon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. peri·shon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *peri·shan-
3. peri·shan-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *peri·šhan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. peri·šhan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. peri·šḫan-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
LAv. haŋhān-
(vb.) ‘verdienen’ (bes. Lohn)
(AIWb. 1768)
(LAv. haŋhāna)
1. PIE *seshɑēn-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *seshɑān-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. seshɑān-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seshān-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. seshān-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sesān-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sesān-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hehān-
5. hehān-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *hahān-
6. hahān-
ahA → aŋhA
Change of h into ŋh
RahA›aŋhA → LAv. haŋhān-
LAv. zantu·šān-
(a.) ‘der sich das Land verdient’
(AIWb. 683)
1. PIE *gi̯ɑɦemtu·shɑōn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gi̯ɦemtu·shōn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gi̯ɦemtu·shōn-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiIr → *gi̯ɦemtu·šhōn-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. gi̯ɦemtu·šhōn-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *j́ɦemtu·šhōn-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. j́ɦemtu·šhōn-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *j́ɦemtu·šhān-
5. j́ɦemtu·šhān-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *j́ɦemtu·šān-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. j́ɦemtu·šān-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *zɦemtu·šān-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
7. zɦemtu·šān-
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → *zemtu·šān-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
8. zemtu·šān-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *zamtu·šān-
9. zamtu·šān-
PIE *mt → nt
Assimilation of labial *m with dental T
Rmt›nt → LAv. zantu·šān-
LAv. vaŋhu·šān-
(a.) ‘der sich das Gute verdient’
(AIWb. 1350)
1. PIE *u̯osu·shɑōn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯osu·shōn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯osu·shōn-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiIr → *u̯osu·šhōn-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. u̯osu·šhōn-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯asu·šhōn-
4. u̯asu·šhōn-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *u̯asu·šhān-
5. u̯asu·šhān-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯asu·šān-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. u̯asu·šān-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *u̯ahu·šān-
7. u̯ahu·šān-
ahU → aŋhU
Change of h into ŋh
Rahu›aŋhU → *u̯aŋhu·šān-
8. u̯aŋhu·šān-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. vaŋhu·šān-
√shɑno-
gAv. hana-
(pr.) ‘verdienen’
(AIWb. 1768)
(gAv. hanǝntē [3pl])
1. PIE *shɑeno-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *shɑano-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. shɑano-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shano-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. shano-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *shana-
4. shana-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sana-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sana-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → gAv. hana-
LAv. hana-
(vb.) ‘Lohn erhalten werden’
(AIWb. 1769)
(LAv. hanānī [1sg])
1. PIE *shɑeno-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *shɑano-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. shɑano-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shano-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. shano-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *shana-
4. shana-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sana-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sana-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → LAv. hana-
CLu. part·šḫana·ši-
(a.) (defining cattle)
(HIL. 749)
(CLu. pár-za-ḫ[a]-na-aš-ši-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·shɑono·si-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shono·si-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·shono·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shana·si-
3. Π·shana·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhana·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·šhana·ši-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. Π·šḫana·ši-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√shɑneio-
(Pyysalo)
LAv. hanaya-
(cs.) ‘serve’
(AIWb. 1768)
(LAv. hanayamnō [pt.sgN])
1. PIE *shɑonei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shonei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shonei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *shanei̯a-
3. shanei̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sanei̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sanei̯a-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hanei̯a-
5. hanei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *hanai̯a-
6. hanai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. hanaya-
Hitt. šḫanei̯a-
(n.) ‘Lehen, Lehensdienst’ ( ‘feudal service’)
(HEG S:964)
(Hitt. ša-aḫ-ḫa-ni-i̯a-aš)
1. PIE *shɑonei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shonei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shonei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *shanei̯a-
3. shanei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šhanei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šhanei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šḫanei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. šḫaniša-
(iter.) ‘Lehen übertragen; Lehensdienst auftragen’
(DLL. 83)
(CLu. ša-(aḫ)-ḫa-ni-iš-ša-ta [3sg], ša-ḫa-ni-eš-ša-ta, HHand. 138)
1. PIE *shɑoniso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shoniso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shoniso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *shanisa-
3. shanisa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šhaniša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šhaniša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. šḫaniša-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √sehɑu- (sb.) ‘Urin, Soma’ (vb.) ‘urinieren, Soma pressen, keltern’
(IEW 912)
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sehɑu-
(Pyysalo)
RV. só-
(ao.) ‘Soma pressen, keltern’
(WbRV. 1523)
(RV. sótā [2pl])
1. PIE *sehɑú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sehú-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sehú-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *seú-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. seú-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *saú-
4. saú-
aú → ṓ
Monophthongization of *aú
Raú›ṓ → *sṓ-
5. sṓ-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → RV. só-
Hitt. šeḫu·kani̯au̯ant-
(pt.) ‘mit Urin (šeḫu-) befleckt’
(HEG S:972)
1. PIE *sehɑu·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sehu·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sehu·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šehu·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. šehu·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šeḫu·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
RV. suṣā́v·a
(pf.) ‘Soma pressen, keltern’
(WbRV. 1523)
(RV. suṣā́va [3sg] with Fortunatov’s Law II)
1. PIE *susóhɑu̯·e
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *susóhu̯·e
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. susóhu̯·e
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *sušóhu̯·e
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. sušóhu̯·e
PIE *óhCV → ā́hCV
Brugmann’s Law for *óhCV
RóHCV›ā́HCV → *sušā́hu̯·e
(SPIE §2.3.7)
4. sušā́hu̯·e
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sušā́u̯·e
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sušā́u̯·e
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *sušā́u̯·a
6. sušā́u̯·a
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *sušā́v·a
7. sušā́v·a
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. suṣā́v·a
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
√sohɑum-
RV. sa.ū́ma-
(m.) ‘Soma’
(WbRV. 1579)
(RV. sómam [sgA] = să.ū́mă- (with ˘ ˉ ˘) in RV. 4.26.7)
1. PIE *soHɑ́umo-
PIE *ɑ́u → úu
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́u›úu → *soHúumo-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. soHúumo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saHúuma-
3. saHúuma-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → *sa.úuma-
4. sa.úuma-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → RV. sa.ū́ma-
RV. sóma-
(m.) ‘Soma, Saft der Somapflanze’
(WbRV. 1579-80)
1. PIE *sohɑúmo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sohúmo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sohúmo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sahúma-
3. sahúma-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *saúma-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. saúma-
aú → ṓ
Monophthongization of *aú
Raú›ṓ → *sṓma-
5. sṓma-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → RV. sóma-
LAv. haoma-
(m.) ‘Name eines Getränks’
(AIWb. 1732)
1. PIE *sohɑumo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sohumo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sohumo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sahuma-
3. sahuma-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sauma-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sauma-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hauma-
5. hauma-
*au → ao
Opening of *au
Rau›ao → LAv. haoma-
√sehɑun-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. šeḫun-
(n.obl.) ‘Schmutz, Urin’
(HHand. 148)
1. PIE *sehɑun-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sehun-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sehun-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šehun-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. šehun-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šeḫun-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
LAv. haona-
(m.?) = ‘Haoma’
(AIWb. 1732-4)
(LAv. ǰarōiš haonǝm zaraϑušta [P. 29], Not haoma! – Lectio difficil.)
1. PIE *sehɑuno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sehuno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sehuno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sehuna-
3. sehuna-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *seuna-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. seuna-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *heuna-
5. heuna-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *hauna-
6. hauna-
*au → ao
Opening of *au
Rau›ao → LAv. haona-
Hitt. šeḫunant-
(c.) ‘Urin’
(HHand. 148)
1. PIE *sehɑunont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sehunont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sehunont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sehunant-
3. sehunant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šehunant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šehunant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šeḫunant-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√sehɑur-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. šeḫur-
(n.) ‘Schmutz, Urin’
(HEG S:973-7)
(Hitt. še-e-ḫur [sgNA], HHand. 148)
1. PIE *sehɑur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sehur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sehur-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šehur-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. šehur-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šeḫur-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OIcl. saur-
(m.) ‘Schmutz, feuchte Erde’
(ANEtWb. 464)
(OIcl. saurr [sgN])
1. PIE *sohɑuro
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sohuro
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sohuro
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *souro
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. souro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saura
4. saura
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OIcl. saur
OCS. syrŭ-
(a.) ‘Nass, Feucht : wet’ (m.) ‘Käse’
(Sadnik √923)
(OCS. syrŭ [sgN])
1. PIE *shɑ́uro
PIE *ɑ́u → úu
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́u›úu → *shúuro
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. shúuro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *shúura
3. shúura
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *súura
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. súura
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *sū́ra
5. sū́ra
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *sū́ro
6. sū́ro
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *sū́ru
7. sū́ru
*ū́
ū → y
Rū›y → *syru
Change of ū́ into y
8. syru
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. syrŭ
Hitt. šeḫurei̯a-
(vb.) ‘urinieren’
(HHand. 148)
1. PIE *sehɑurei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sehurei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sehurei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sehurei̯a-
3. sehurei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šehurei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šehurei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šeḫurei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √si- √soi- √sei- (sb.) ‘Spitze, Ahle, Dolch, Nadel, usw.’ (vb.) ‘sticken, schneidern, nähen, usw.’ (a.) ‘sauer’
(IEW 915-6)
√si-
(Melchert 1977:121)
(Melchert 1977 [KZ 91]: 93-130)
gAv. ā (…) hišāy·-
(pf.) ‘bedrücken’
(AIWb. 1800-1)
(gAv. ā hišāyā)
1. PIE *Π·sisēi̯-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *Π·sišēi̯-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. Π·sišēi̯-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *Π·hišēi̯-
3. Π·hišēi̯-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *Π·hišāi̯-
4. Π·hišāi̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → gAv. Π·hišāy-
gAv. ā·hay-
(vb.) ‘unterdrücken’
(AIWb. 345)
(gAv. ā.hōiϑōi [inf.])
1. PIE *Π·sei̯-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *Π·hei̯-
2. Π·hei̯-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *Π·hai̯-
3. Π·hai̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → gAv. Π·hay-
Hitt. šei̯a-
(vb.) ‘festdrücken, einprängen’
(HHand. 138)
(CHD S:15-21, HIL. 801)
1. PIE *sei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sei̯a-
2. sei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. sā́ya·ka-
(m.) ‘Wurfgeschoss, Pfeil’
(EWA 1:725-6)
(WbRV. 1512)
1. PIE *sṓi̯o·ko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sṓi̯a·ka-
2. sṓi̯a·ka-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *sā́i̯a·ka-
3. sā́i̯a·ka-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. sā́ya·ka-
√siɑhu-
(Pyysalo)
Lith. siū́-
(vb.) ‘benähen, besticken, schneidern’
(LiEtWb. 789f.)
(Lith. siū́ti [inf.])
1. PIE *si̯ɑ́hu-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *si̯úhu-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. si̯úhu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *si̯úu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. si̯úu-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *si̯ū́-
4. si̯ū́-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›iRestr → Lith. siū́-
Latv. šũ-
(vb.) ‘nähen, (eine Wand) bekleiden’
(LiEtWb. 789f.)
(Latv. šũt [inf.])
1. PIE *si̯ɑ́hu-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *si̯úhu-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. si̯úhu-
*úHu → uHû
Latvian tone rule for *úHu
RAccLatv5 → *si̯uhû-
3. si̯uhû-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *si̯uû-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. si̯uû-
*uû → û
Contraction of u and û
Ruû›û → *si̯û-
5. si̯û-
* si̯ → š
Change of si̯ into š
Rsi̯›š → Latv. šû-
CLu. šiḫu̯ai-
(a.) ‘sour’
(HIL. 885-6)
(CLu. ši-e-ḫu-ua-en-zi [pl])
1. PIE *siɑhu̯oi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sihu̯oi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sihu̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sihu̯ai-
3. sihu̯ai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šihu̯ai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šihu̯ai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. šiḫu̯ai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. šiḫu̯al-
(n.) ‘Dolch’ = šeual?
(HHand. 148)
(HEG S:1090-1)
1. PIE *siɑhu̯ol-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sihu̯ol-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sihu̯ol-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sihu̯al-
3. sihu̯al-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šihu̯al-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šihu̯al-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. šiḫu̯al-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. šiḫu̯i-
(a.) ‘sour’
(HIL. 885)
1. PIE *siɑhu̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sihu̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sihu̯i-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šihu̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. šihu̯i-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. šiḫu̯i-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OInd. sī́vya-
(pr.) ‘nähen’
(MonWil. 1218)
1. PIE *siɑ́hu̯i̯o-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *siíhu̯i̯o-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. siíhu̯i̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *siíhu̯i̯a-
3. siíhu̯i̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *siíu̯i̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. siíu̯i̯a-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *sī́u̯i̯a-
5. sī́u̯i̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *sī́vi̯a-
6. sī́vi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. sī́vya-
Goth. siuja-
(vb.) ‘nähen’
(GoEtD. S70.)
1. PIE *siɑhui̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sihui̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sihui̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *siui̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. siui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *siui̯a-
4. siui̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Goth. siuja-
√siei-
(Pyysalo)
(HEG S:700-8: Hitt. šai-, šiya- ‘festdrücken, usw.’, Etymology in HEG S:704-5)
Hitt. ši̯ei-
(vb.) ‘sting, etc.’
(HIL. 801)
(Hitt. ši-i-e-ez-zi, ši-i-ez-z[i] [3sg])
1. PIE *si̯ei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ši̯ei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OCS. ši-
(vb.) ‘nähen, sticken’
(Sadnik √942)
(OCS. šiti [inf.])
1. PIE *si̯ei-
* si̯ → š
Change of si̯ into š
Rsi̯›š → *šei-
2. šei-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *šī-
3. šī-
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. ši-
√sieilos-
OCS. šilo-
(n.) ‘Ahle’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *si̯eilos
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *si̯eilas
2. si̯eilas
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *si̯eilos
3. si̯eilos
* si̯ → š
Change of si̯ into š
Rsi̯›š → *šeilos
4. šeilos
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root-final)
Ros=›o= → *šeilo
5. šeilo
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *šīlo
6. šīlo
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. šilo
Russ. šilo-
(n.) ‘Ahle’
(REW 3:398)
1. PIE *si̯eilos
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *si̯eilas
2. si̯eilas
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *si̯eilos
3. si̯eilos
* si̯ → š
Change of si̯ into š
Rsi̯›š → *šeilos
4. šeilos
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root-final)
Ros=›o= → *šeilo
5. šeilo
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *šīlo
6. šīlo
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → Russ. šilo
√sigɑɦ- √soigɑɦ- √seigɑɦ-
(IEW –)
(or √sigɑɦi- ?)
√seigɑɦ-
OIr. sēg-
(.) ‘cerf : stag’
(LEIA S-67)
(OIr. sēg, ség, segh .i. agh)
1. PIE *seigɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seigɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. seigɦo-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *seigo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. seigo-
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → OIr. sēgo-
OIr. sēg·guine-
(.) ‘tueur des cerfs’
(LEIA S-67)
1. PIE *seigɑɦò·gɑɦúni̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seigɦò·gɦúni̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. seigɦò·gɦúni̯o-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *seigò·gúni̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. seigò·gúni̯o-
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → *sēgò·gúni̯o-
4. sēgò·gúni̯o-
*ú → u
Orthographic change of *ú into u
Rú›u → *sēgò·guni̯o-
5. sēgò·guni̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OIr. sēgò·gunio-
√sigɑɦ-
OIcl. siga-
(vb.) ‘aufhetzen’
(ANEtWb. 473)
1. PIE *sigɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sigɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sigɦo-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sigo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. sigo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. siga-
ModIcl. sig-
(.) ‘Hetze’
(ANEtWb. 473)
1. PIE *sigɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sigɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sigɦo-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sigo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. sigo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → ModIcl. siga-
OIcl. sig-
(n.) ‘Kampf’ (poet.)
(ANEtWb. 473)
1. PIE *sigɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sigɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sigɦo-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sigo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. sigo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. siga-
Hitt. šigatališke/a-
(vb.) ‘mit dem Speer jagen, ein Gebiet erjagen’
(HEG S:1036)
1. PIE *sigɑɦotoliski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sigɦotoliski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sigɦotoliski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sigɦotolisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. sigɦotolisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sigɦatalisḱe/a-
4. sigɦatalisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sigɦataliske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sigɦataliske/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *sigataliske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. sigataliske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šigatališke/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√siti-
OInd. prá·siti-
(f.) ‘das Dahinschießen’
(SHV 473, MonWil. 697)
(Hoffmann 1975-76:417)
1. PIE *pró·siti-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → OInd. prá·siti-
√siu-
(Pyysalo)
Tischler (HEG S:1090), Kloekhorst (HIL. 885-6),
CLu. šiu̯a-
(a.) ‘sour’
(HIL. 885)
(še-e-ua [plNA])
1. PIE *siu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *siu̯a-
2. siu̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. šiu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šiu̯ai-
(a.) ‘sauer : sour’
(HEG S:1090)
(HIL. 885-6, ši-ua-e-e[š] [plA] HIL. 885)
1. PIE *siu̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *siu̯ai-
2. siu̯ai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šiu̯ai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šiu̯i-
(a.) ‘sour’
(HIL. 885)
HIL. 885-6, ši-ú-i-n=a [sgA]
1. PIE *siu̯i-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šiu̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OCS. ne·sĭvenŭ-
(pt.) ‘ungenäht, ohne Naht’
(Sadnik √942)
1. PIE *ne·siu̯eno
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ne·siu̯ena
2. ne·siu̯ena
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *ne·siu̯eno
3. ne·siu̯eno
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *ne·siu̯enu
4. ne·siu̯enu
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *ne·sivenu
5. ne·sivenu
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *ne·sĭvenu
6. ne·sĭvenu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. ne·sĭvenŭ
Hitt. šiu̯al-
(a.) ‘Dolch’ (Starke 1987:250n26)
(HEG S:1090-1)
1. PIE *siu̯ol-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *siu̯al-
2. siu̯al-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šiu̯al-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. šiu̯alanza-
(N.) ‘-(?)-’
(HHand. 148)
(Hitt. šiualanzan [sgA?])
1. PIE *siu̯olondɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *siu̯olondɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. siu̯olondɦi̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *siu̯olonjɦo-
3. siu̯olonjɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *siu̯alanjɦa-
4. siu̯alanjɦa-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *siu̯alanzɦa-
5. siu̯alanzɦa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šiu̯alanzɦa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. šiu̯alanzɦa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. šiu̯alanza-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. šiu̯aši-
(c.) ‘Art Haarnadel’
(HHand. 153)
1. PIE *siu̯osi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *siu̯asi-
2. siu̯asi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šiu̯aši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √si- √sei- √soi- (a.) ‘arm’ (sb.) ‘Armer’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√sio-
Hitt. šiši̯ala-
(LÚ.c.) ‘needy one’
(HIL. 876)
(Hitt. ši-iš-ši-ia-la-an [sgA])
1. PIE *sisi̯olo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sisi̯ala-
2. sisi̯ala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šiši̯ala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šiši̯ani-
(n.) ‘need’
(HIL. 876)
(Hitt. ši-iš-ši-ia-ni-it [sgI])
1. PIE *sisi̯oni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sisi̯ani-
2. sisi̯ani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šiši̯ani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√siou-
Hitt. šiši̯au̯ant-
(a.) ‘being in need’
(HIL. 876)
(Hitt. [ši-i]š-ši-ia-u-an-za [sgN])
1. PIE *sisi̯ou̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sisi̯au̯ant-
2. sisi̯au̯ant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šiši̯au̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√siout-
OCS. ašutĭ
(adv.) ‘umsonst, vergeblich’
(Sadnik √11)
1. PIE *ō·si̯outi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ō·si̯auti-
2. ō·si̯auti-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ā·si̯auti-
3. ā·si̯auti-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *ā·si̯outi-
4. ā·si̯outi-
* si̯ → š
Change of si̯ into š
Rsi̯›š → *ā·šouti-
5. ā·šouti-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *ā·šūti-
6. ā·šūti-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *a·šūti-
7. a·šūti-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *a·šūtĭ-
8. a·šūtĭ-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → OCS. a·šutĭ-
RussCS. ašutĭ-
(a.) ‘vergebens’
(REW 3:440)
1. PIE *ō·si̯outi
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ō·si̯auti
2. ō·si̯auti
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ā·si̯auti
3. ā·si̯auti
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *ā·si̯outi
4. ā·si̯outi
* si̯ → š
Change of si̯ into š
Rsi̯›š → *ā·šouti
5. ā·šouti
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *ā·šūti
6. ā·šūti
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *a·šūti
7. a·šūti
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *a·šūtĭ
8. a·šūtĭ
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → RussCS. a·šutĭ
Bulg. šut-
(a.) ‘hornlos, beschäfig von Gewässen’
(REW 3:440)
1. PIE *si̯outo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *si̯auta
2. si̯auta
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *si̯outo
3. si̯outo
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *si̯outu
4. si̯outu
* si̯ → š
Change of si̯ into š
Rsi̯›š → *šoutu
5. šoutu
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *šūtu
6. šūtu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → *šūtŭ
7. šūtŭ
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → Bulg. šutŭ
Russ. šut·ëm-
(m.) ‘Brachfeld’ (dial.)
(REW 3:440)
1. PIE *si̯out·ímo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *si̯aut·íma
2. si̯aut·íma
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *si̯out·ímo
3. si̯out·ímo
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *si̯out·ímu
4. si̯out·ímu
* si̯ → š
Change of si̯ into š
Rsi̯›š → *šout·ímu
5. šout·ímu
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *šūt·ímu
6. šūt·ímu
*-u → Ø
Loss of -u in root-final position
R=u›=0 → *šūt·ím
7. šūt·ím
*í → é
Change of *i into e
Rí›é → *šūt·ém
8. šūt·ém
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → Russ. šut·ém
√siuon-
(HEG A:83)
(HED 1:211f., HIL. 262, KLuN. 448f., EHS 400, DLL. 33)
Hitt. ašiu̯an-
(a.n.) ‘arm’
(HHand. 27)
(Hitt. a-aš-ši-ua-an)
1. PIE *osiu̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asiu̯an-
2. asiu̯an-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ašiu̯an-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ašiu̯ant-
(a.) ‘arm’ (c.) ‘Armer, MÁŠDA’ (HEG A:83)
(HHand. 27)
(Hitt. a-ši-ua-an-za, a-ši-ua-an-ta-an)
1. PIE *osiu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asiu̯ant-
2. asiu̯ant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ašiu̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. ašiu̯antanaši-
(a.gen.) ‘of poverty’
(HIL. 262)
(CLu. a-aš-ši-ua-an-ta-at-ta-na-a-ši-iš)
1. PIE *osiu̯ontonosi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asiu̯antanasi-
2. asiu̯antanasi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. ašiu̯antanaši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. ašiu̯antatar-
(n.) ‘poverty’ (KLuN. 448f.)
(HIL. 262)
(CLu. a-aš-ši-ua-an-ta-at-tar)
1. PIE *osiu̯ontotor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asiu̯antatar-
2. asiu̯antatar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. ašiu̯antatar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ašiu̯antadar-
(n.) ‘poverty’
(HIL. 262)
(Hitt. a-š[i-u]a-an-ta-tar)
1. PIE *osiu̯ontodɑɦor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *osiu̯ontodɦor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. osiu̯ontodɦor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asiu̯antadɦar-
3. asiu̯antadɦar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *asiu̯antadar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. asiu̯antadar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ašiu̯antadar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ašiu̯anteš-
(vb.fient.) ‘arm werden : become poor’
(HIL. 262)
(Hitt. a-ši-ua-an-te-eš-zi, EHS 400)
1. PIE *osiu̯ontes-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asiu̯antes-
2. asiu̯antes-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ašiu̯anteš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ašiu̯anteške/a-
(pr.) ‘arm werden : become poor’
(HIL. 262)
(Hitt. a-ši-ua-an-te-eš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *osiu̯onteski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *osiu̯ontesḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. osiu̯ontesḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asiu̯antesḱe/a-
3. asiu̯antesḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *asiu̯anteske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. asiu̯anteske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ašiu̯anteške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ašiu̯ant-
(a.pt.) ‘arm’ (c.) ‘Armer’
(HEG A:83)
1. PIE *osiu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asiu̯ant-
2. asiu̯ant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ašiu̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. ašiu̯antan-
(n.obl.) ‘Armut’
(DLL. 33)
(CLu. ašiuantana)
1. PIE *osiu̯onton-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asiu̯antan-
2. asiu̯antan-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. ašiu̯antan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. ašiu̯antatanaši-
(a.gen.) ‘of poorness’
(DLL. 33)
(CLu. a-aš-ši-ua-an-ta-at-ta-na-aš-ši-[iš])
1. PIE *osiu̯ontotonosi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asiu̯antatanasi-
2. asiu̯antatanasi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. ašiu̯antatanaši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √si- √soi- √sei- (sb.) ‘Lager, Vorrat, Schatz, Magazin’ (vb.) ‘legen, vorhanden sein’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√seion-
Hitt. šei̯an-
(É.) ‘Schatzhaus, Magazin’
(HHand. 151)
(Hitt. É ši-ia-an-na-aš [sgG], not ‘house of sealing’ vs. Kloekhorst HIL. 868-9)
1. PIE *sei̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sei̯an-
2. sei̯an-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šei̯an-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sino-
RV. sína-
(n.) ‘Habe, Besitz’
(WbRV. 1518)
1. PIE *síno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → RV. sína-
OInd. sína-
(m.pret.pt.) ‘Vorrat, Lager, Verpflegung’
(KEWA 3:466)
1. PIE *síno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. sína-
RV. tát·sina-
(a.) ‘das [= tat] als Vorrat habend’
(WbRV. 513)
1. PIE *Π·sino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → RV. Π·sina-
RV. sína·vat-
(a.) ‘reich an Besitz’ (KEWA 3:466)
(WbRV. 1518)
1. PIE *síno·u̯ot-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sína·u̯at-
2. sína·u̯at-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. sína·vat-
√sito-
Lat. sito-
(pt.a.) ‘gelegen, befindlich’
(Lat. situs)
Lat. po.sitā-
(pr.1.) ‘vorhanden sein’
(WH. 2:335)
1. PIE *po.sitēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *po.sitāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. po.sitāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po.sitāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. po.sitāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. po.sitā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)


PIE √sin- √soin- √sein- (aff.) ‘ohne, -los, un-’ (vb.) ‘XX’
(IEW 318+907)
(+ Pyysalo)
√sein-
(Pyysalo)
OLat. seine
(prep.Abl) ‘ohne’
(WH. 2:542)
OIr. sēna-
(vb.) ‘nier, désavouer, rejeter’
(LEIA S-84)
(OIr. noco sénaim-si ‘je ne nie pas’)
1. PIE *seinēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *seināɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. seināɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seināh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. seināh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *seinā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. seinā-
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → *sēnā-
5. sēnā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OIr. sēna-
OIr. sēna-
(f.) ‘rejeter’
(LEIA S-84)
(OIr. a sēna ‘la r.’)
1. PIE *seinēɑht-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *seināɑht-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. seināɑht-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seināht-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. seināht-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *seināt-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. seināt-
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → *sēnāt-
5. sēnāt-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OIr. sēnat-
OIr. sēnad-
(m.) ‘rejeter’
(LEIA S-84)
1. PIE *seinēɑhto
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *seināɑhto
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. seināɑhto
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seināhto
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. seināhto
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *seināto
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. seināto
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → *sēnāto
5. sēnāto
VtV → VthV
Lenition of voiceless stop *t
Rt›th → *sēnātho
6. sēnātho
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *sēnatho
7. sēnatho
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → *sēnath
8. sēnath
*-th → -d
Change of root-final *t into d
R=th›=d → OIr. sēnad
√sin-
(Pyysalo)
Lat. sine
(prep.Abl) ‘ohne’
(WH. 2:542)
Lat. sin·cēro-
(a.) ‘unvermischt, ohne Fehler, rein, echt’
(WH. 2:541-2)
1. PIE *sin·ki̯ēro-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sin·ḱēro-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. sin·ḱēro-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sin·kēro-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. sin·kēro-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. sin·cēro-
Lat. sin·cēri-
(a.) ‘unvermischt, ohne Fehler, rein, echt’
(WH. 2:541-2)
1. PIE *sin·ki̯ēri-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sin·ḱēri-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. sin·ḱēri-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sin·kēri-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. sin·kēri-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. sin·cēri-
Hitt. šin·ura-
(a.) ‘mittellos, arm’ (Akd. makû)
(HEG S:1053-4)
(With Hitt. √urra- ‘help’)
1. PIE *sin·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sin·ura-
2. sin·ura-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šin·ura-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √sibɑɦ- √soibɑɦ- √seibɑɦ- (sb.) ‘Eiter, Rotz, Speichel’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√seibɑɦo-
Hitt. šeiba-
(c.) ‘Eiter, Augenbutter, Akd. bubu’tu(m)’
(HHand. 149, 151)
(Hitt. šipa-, šepa-, HEG S:1054-5)
1. PIE *seibɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seibɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. seibɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *seibɦa-
3. seibɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *seiba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. seiba-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šeiba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OInd. sebha-
(sb.) ‘Rotz, Speichel’
(KEWA 3:502)
1. PIE *seibɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seibɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. seibɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *seibɦa-
3. seibɦa-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *saibɦa-
4. saibɦa-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *sēbɦa-
5. sēbɦa-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *sēbha-
6. sēbha-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → OInd. sebha-
√seibɑɦl-
MidIr. ro siblo·-
(vb.) ‘laisser couler (urine)’
(LEIA S-108)
(MidIr. co ro ṡiblur; with PIE *lo- *l- *le- ‘lassen’ (IEW 666)
1. PIE *Π·sibɑɦlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·sibɦlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·sibɦlo-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → MidIr. Π·siblo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
MidIr. sibla-
(fut.) ‘couler, laisser couler’
(LEIA S-108)
(MidIr. siblad [3sg])
1. PIE *sibɑɦleɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *sibɑɦlaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. sibɑɦlaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sibɦlah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sibɦlah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sibɦla-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sibɦla-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → MidIr. sibla-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
√seibɑɦu-
OInd. sebhu-
(m.) ‘Rotz, Speichel : mucus, spittle’
(EWA 2:746)
(KEWA 3:503)
1. PIE *seibɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seibɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. seibɦu-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *saibɦu-
3. saibɦu-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *sēbɦu-
4. sēbɦu-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *sēbhu-
5. sēbhu-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → OInd. sebhu-


PIE √siu- (sb.) ‘Wasser, Fluß, Quelle’
(IEW –)
√siue/ol-
OGaul. siuoli-
(FlN.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(ACSS 2:1591)
(OGaul. siuolis [sgN])
1. PIE *siu̯oli-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. siuoli-
OGaul. siuellā-
(PN.f.) ‘-(?)-’
(ACSS 2:1591)
(OGaul. siuella [sgN])
1. PIE *siu̯elnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *siu̯elnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. siu̯elnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *siu̯elnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. siu̯elnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *siu̯elnā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. siu̯elnā-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *siu̯ellā-
5. siu̯ellā-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. siuellā-
√siuono-
Hitt. šiu̯ana-
(PÚ.)
(OGH. 550)
(Hitt. ši-ua-an-na, ši-ua-an-na-aš, ’Kontex: QN Dupša, Kummajani, Ḫašḫannari, Ḫalwanna, FlN Šigašiga’)
1. PIE *siu̯ono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *siu̯ana-
2. siu̯ana-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šiu̯ana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. šiu̯ana-
(sb?.) ‘‹Gewässer, Fluß, Quelle (?)›’
(DLL. 87)
(CLu. ši-ua-an-na, KUB xxxv 8 Vs. i 8; HHand. 153)
1. PIE *siu̯ono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *siu̯ana-
2. siu̯ana-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. šiu̯ana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Kpd. šiuana·la-
(I.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 1162)
(Kpd. ší-ua-na-lá)
1. PIE *siu̯ono·lo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *siu̯ana·la-
2. siu̯ana·la-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Kpd. šiu̯ana·la-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √skɑhu- √sokɑhu- √sekɑhu- (vb.) ‘movere’ (sb.) ‘Fussohle, Oberschenkel’
(IEW 930)
√sokɑhu-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. pa·šku-
(vb.) ‘remove’ (≠ Hitt. pa·sku- ‘neglect’)
(CHD P:208-9)
1. PIE *po·skɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po·skhu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. po·skhu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pa·skhu-
3. pa·skhu-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *pa·sku-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. pa·sku-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. pa·šku-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. haxa-
(n.) ‘Fussohle’
(AIWb. 1744)
1. PIE *sokɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sokhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sokhu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakhu̯a-
3. sakhu̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sakha-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. sakha-
*kh → x
Affricativization of *kh
Rkh›x → *saxa-
5. saxa-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → LAv. haxa-
√sokɑhuiSo-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. šakuiša-
(sb.) ‘a body part onto which red wool was tied’
(CHD S:77)
(Hitt. ša-ku-iš-ša-i [sgDL])
1. PIE *sokɑhuiso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sokhuiso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sokhuiso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakhuisa-
3. sakhuisa-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *sakuisa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. sakuisa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šakuiša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sokɑhut-
LAv. haxt-
(n.) ‘der innere Teil des Oberschenkels’
(AIWb. 1745)
1. PIE *sokɑhut-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sokhut-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sokhut-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakhut-
3. sakhut-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sakht-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. sakht-
*kh → x
Affricativization of *kh
Rkh›x → *saxt-
5. saxt-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → LAv. haxt-
Hitt. šakuta-
(n.) ‘Hüften, Oberschenkel, o.ä.’
(HHand. 139)
1. PIE *sokɑhuto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sokhuto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sokhuto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakhuta-
3. sakhuta-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *sakuta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. sakuta-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šakuta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. sákthi-
(n.) ‘der Schenkel, das Dickbein : thigh’
(KEWA 2:414)
1. PIE *sókɑhuti-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sókhuti-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sókhuti-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *sákhuti-
3. sákhuti-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sákhti-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. sákhti-
*Tht → Tth
Bartholomae’s Law
RTht›Tth → RV. sákthi-
(SPIE §4.6.5.)
gAv. haxti-
(n.) ‘der innere Teil des Oberschenkels’
(AIWb. 1745)
1. PIE *sokɑhuti-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sokhuti-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sokhuti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakhuti-
3. sakhuti-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sakhti-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. sakhti-
*kh → x
Affricativization of *kh
Rkh›x → *saxti-
5. saxti-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → gAv. haxti-
RV. sakthán-
(n.) ‘der Schenkel, das Dickbein’
(WbRV. 1440)
1. PIE *sokɑhutón-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sokhutón-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sokhutón-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakhutón-
3. sakhutón-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *sakhután-
4. sakhután-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sakhtán-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. sakhtán-
*Tht → Tth
Bartholomae’s Law
RTht›Tth → RV. sakthán-
(SPIE §4.6.5.)


PIE √sgɑɦu- √segɑɦu- √sogɑɦu- (vb.) ‘(zu) tragen (vermögen), festhalten, erfassen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + RV.)
√sogɑɦun-
Hitt. šaguni-
(LÚ.c.) ‘Priester = LÚšanguni-’
(HHand. 142)
1. PIE *sogɑɦuni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogɦuni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogɦuni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sagɦuni-
3. sagɦuni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *saguni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. saguni-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šaguni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. saghnó-
(pr.) ‘(zu) tragen (vermögen), festhalten, erfassen’
(WbRV. 1443)
1. PIE *segɑɦuneú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *segɦuneú-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. segɦuneú-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *segɦneú-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
3. segɦneú-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *sagɦnaú-
4. sagɦnaú-
aú → ṓ
Monophthongization of *aú
Raú›ṓ → *sagɦnṓ-
5. sagɦnṓ-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *saghnṓ-
6. saghnṓ-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → RV. saghnó-


PIE √sgɑɦu- √sogɑɦu- √segɑɦu- (vb.) ‘manere, remanere’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + Toch; or PIE *sku- soku- seku-)
√sogɑɦu- √sōgɑɦu-
TochA. sāk-
(pret.) ‘remain : bleiben’
(DTochB. 680)
(TochA. sāk)
1. PIE *sōgɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sōgɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sōgɦu-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *sāgɦu-
3. sāgɦu-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sāgɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. sāgɦ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sāg-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. sāg-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → TochA. sāk-
TochA. saka-
(vb.) ‘manere, remanere’
(Poucha 357)
1. PIE *sogɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sagɦu̯a-
3. sagɦu̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sagɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. sagɦa-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *saga-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. saga-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → TochA. saka-
TochB. sasāka-
(vb.) ‘stay, remain, be’
(DTochB. 679-70)
(TochB. [sa]sākauwa])
1. PIE *sosōgɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sosōgɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sosōgɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sasōgɦu̯a-
3. sasōgɦu̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *sasāgɦu̯a-
4. sasāgɦu̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sasāgɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. sasāgɦa-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sasāga-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. sasāga-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → TochB. sasāka-
TochA. sākä-
(vb.) ‘hold oneself back’
(DTochB. 680)
(TochA. sākässi [inf.])
1. PIE *sōgɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sōgɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sōgɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sōgɦu̯a-
3. sōgɦu̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *sāgɦu̯a-
4. sāgɦu̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sāgɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. sāgɦa-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sāga-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. sāga-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → TochA. sāka-
√sogɑɦuon-
CHD S:58ff.)
(SHV 29, 352; HIL. 815)
Hitt. šagu̯ant-
(a.) [in mng.] ‘unterbrochen, verzögert’
(HHand. 139)
Hitt. šaguant-
1. PIE *sogɑɦu̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogɦu̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogɦu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sagɦu̯ant-
3. sagɦu̯ant-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *sagu̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. sagu̯ant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šagu̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šer (...) šagu̯an·dari̯a-
(vb.) ‘sich oben aufhalten’
(HHand. 139)
Hitt. šer (...) šaguandaria-
1. PIE *Π·sogɑɦu̯on·dɑɦori̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·sogɦu̯on·dɦori̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·sogɦu̯on·dɦori̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·sagɦu̯an·dɦari̯a-
3. Π·sagɦu̯an·dɦari̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *Π·sagu̯an·dari̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·sagu̯an·dari̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. Π·šagu̯an·dari̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šagu̯an·dari̯a-
(vb.) ‘unterbleiben, ungefeiert lassen’
(HHand. 139)
Hitt. ša-ku-ua-an-ta-ri-ia-zi
1. PIE *sogɑɦu̯on·dɑɦori̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogɦu̯on·dɦori̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogɦu̯on·dɦori̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sagɦu̯an·dɦari̯a-
3. sagɦu̯an·dɦari̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *sagu̯an·dari̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. sagu̯an·dari̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šagu̯an·dari̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šagun·dari̯anu-
(cs.) ‘ungefeiert bleiben (Feste)’
(HHand. 139)
Hitt. šagundarianu-
1. PIE *sogɑɦun·dɑɦori̯onu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogɦun·dɦori̯onu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogɦun·dɦori̯onu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sagɦun·dɦari̯anu-
3. sagɦun·dɦari̯anu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *sagun·dari̯anu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. sagun·dari̯anu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šagun·dari̯anu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sogɑɦus-
TochB. sakṣ-
(vb.M.) ‘to hold oneself (back), abide’
(DTochB. 679)
(TochB. s[a]kṣtär)
1. PIE *sogɑɦusi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogɦusi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogɦusi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sagɦusi-
3. sagɦusi-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sagɦsi-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. sagɦsi-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sagsi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. sagsi-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
Rsi›ṣ → *sagṣ-
6. sagṣ-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → TochB. sakṣ-
TochB. sākäsk-
(vb.) ‘leave behind, restrain’
(DTochB. 679)
(TochB. sākäske)
1. PIE *sōgɑɦu̯oski-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sōgɦu̯oski-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sōgɦu̯oski-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sōgɦu̯osḱ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. sōgɦu̯osḱ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sōgɦu̯asḱ-
4. sōgɦu̯asḱ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *sāgɦu̯asḱ-
5. sāgɦu̯asḱ-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sāgɦasḱ-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. sāgɦasḱ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sāgɦask-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. sāgɦask-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sāgask-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
8. sāgask-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → TochB. sākask-


PIE √skhɑl- √skehɑl- √skhɑel- (sb.) ‘Schenkel’ (a.) ‘krümm, improbus’ (sb.) ‘schwanken, fehl gehen’
(IEW 928+929)
√skehɑl-
(IEW 928)
Gr. σκέλο-
(m.) ‘Schenkel’
(GEW 2:723-4)
(Gr. σκέλος)
1. PIE *skéhɑlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *skéhlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. skéhlo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *skélo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. skélo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. σκέλο-
Gr. σκελίδ-
(f.) etwa ‘Rippenfleisch, Keule, Speckseite’
(GEW 2:837-8)
(Gr. σκελίς)
1. PIE *skehɑlíɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *skehlíɦd-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. skehlíɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *skehlíd-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. skehlíd-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *skelíd-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. skelíd-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. σκελίδ-
√skohɑl-
Gr. σκολιό-
(a.) ‘krumm, improbus’
(GEW 2:723)
(Gr. σκολιός)
1. PIE *skohɑlii̯ó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *skohlii̯ó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. skohlii̯ó-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *skolii̯ó-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. skolii̯ó-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *skolió-
4. skolió-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. σκολιό-
Gr. σκελλό-
(a.) ‘krummbeinig’
(GEW 2:723)
(Gr. σκελλός)
1. PIE *skehɑlnó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *skehlnó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. skehlnó-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *skelnó-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. skelnó-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *skelló-
4. skelló-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. σκελλό-
√skhɑel-
(IEW 929)
(WP. 2:599)
OInd. skhála-
(pr.) ‘fehl gehen, stolpern, schwanken’
(KEWA 3:509)
(OInd. skhálate [3sg])
1. PIE *skhɑéLo-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *skhɑáLo-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. skhɑáLo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *skháLo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. skháLo-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *skhálo-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. skhálo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. skhála-
Arm. sxal-
(sb.) ‘Fehler, Irritum, Mangel’
(ArmGr. 1:490-1)
(EtDiArm. 580)
1. PIE *skhɑelò-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *skhɑalò-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. skhɑalò-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *skhalò-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. skhalò-
*kh → x
Affricativization of *kh
Rkh›x → *sxalò-
4. sxalò-
*o → Ø
Loss of *ò
Rò›0 → Arm. sxal-
Arm. sxal-
(a.) ‘fehlerhaft, mangelnd, zu wenig’
(ArmGr. 1:490-1)
1. PIE *skhɑelò-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *skhɑalò-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. skhɑalò-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *skhalò-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. skhalò-
*kh → x
Affricativization of *kh
Rkh›x → *sxalò-
4. sxalò-
*o → Ø
Loss of *ò
Rò›0 → Arm. sxal-
Arm. sxali-
(pr.) ‘straucheln, irren, sündigen, verfehlen’
(ArmGr. 1:490-1)
(Arm. sxalim [1sg])
1. PIE *skhɑelē-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *skhɑalē-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. skhɑalē-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *skhalē-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. skhalē-
*kh → x
Affricativization of *kh
Rkh›x → *sxalē-
4. sxalē-
*ē → i
Change of *ē into i
Rē›i → Arm. sxali-
OInd. skhalitá-
(a.) ‘taumelnd fehlgegangen, woran etwas fehlt, zu wenig’
(KEWA 3:509)
1. PIE *skhɑeLitó-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *skhɑaLitó-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. skhɑaLitó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *skhaLitó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. skhaLitó-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *skhalitó-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. skhalitó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → OInd. skhalitá-
Arm. sxal·ak-
(a.) ‘taumelnd (im Rausch)’
(ArmGr. 1:490)
(EtDiArm. 580-1)
1. PIE *skhɑel·ēɑhgò-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *skhɑal·ēɑhgò-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. skhɑal·ēɑhgò-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *skhɑal·āɑhgò-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. skhɑal·āɑhgò-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *skhal·āhgò-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. skhal·āhgò-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *skhal·āgò-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. skhal·āgò-
*kh → x
Affricativization of *kh
Rkh›x → *sxal·āgò-
6. sxal·āgò-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *sxal·ākò-
7. sxal·ākò-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *sxal·akò-
8. sxal·akò-
*o → Ø
Loss of *ò
Rò›0 → Arm. sxal·ak-
√skhɑelto-
CLu. škalta·ma-
(pt.) ‘-(?)-’, etwas Negatives
(DLL. 84)
(CLu. ša-kal-da-am-ma [nplNA])
1. PIE *skhɑelto·mo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *skhɑalto·mo-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. skhɑalto·mo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *skhalto·mo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. skhalto·mo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *skhalta·ma-
4. skhalta·ma-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *skalta·ma-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. skalta·ma-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. škalta·ma-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √ski- √oski- √eski- (vb.) ‘gehen’ (sb.) ‘Tor, Tür’
(IEW 49 Arm. [diff.])
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + Arm.)
√oski-
Hitt. aš·aška-
(URU.) ‘= URUkaka = URUkaška = URUTor/Tür’
(OGH. 190-2)
(Hitt. aš-aš-qa)
1. PIE *os·oski̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *os·osḱo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. os·osḱo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *as·asḱa-
3. as·asḱa-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *as·aska-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. as·aska-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aš·aška-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aška-
(c.) ‘Tor, Tür: Sum. KA’ (HHand. 27)
(HEG A:84)
1. PIE *oski̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *osḱo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. osḱo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asḱa-
3. asḱa-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *aska-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. aska-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aška-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aška·z
(adv.) ‘von draußen ‹cf. Lat. forīs›’
(HED 1:212ff.)
(Hitt. aškaz)
1. PIE *oski̯o·Σ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *osḱo·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. osḱo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asḱa·Σ-
3. asḱa·Σ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *aska·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. aska·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aška·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aška·šeba-
(d.) cf. Aspects 5,6,16; GhR. 281,299,582,613-4; RDH. 67
(OHP. 1:51-52)
(Hitt. aš-ka-še-pa, aš-ka-ši-pa , a-aš-ga-še-pa, Otten 1971:32+n36, REL. 88-89)
1. PIE *oski̯o·Σ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *osḱo·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. osḱo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asḱa·Σ-
3. asḱa·Σ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *aska·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. aska·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aška·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aška·šeba-
(ḪUR.SAG.) OGH. 47-48, OGHErg. 15; im Land Pala?
(OGH. 47-8)
(Hitt. aš-ga-ši-pa, a-aš-ka-ši-pa-aš, OGHErg. 15)
1. PIE *oski̯o·Σ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *osḱo·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. osḱo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asḱa·Σ-
3. asḱa·Σ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *aska·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. aska·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aška·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aška·iani-
(f.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 169)
(Hitt. aš-qa-ia-ni-iš [sgN]
1. PIE *oski̯o·ii̯oni-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *osḱo·ii̯oni-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. osḱo·ii̯oni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asḱa·ii̯ani-
3. asḱa·ii̯ani-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *asḱa·iani-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. asḱa·iani-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → *asḱa·i̯ani-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
5. asḱa·i̯ani-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *aska·i̯ani-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. aska·i̯ani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aška·i̯ani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Kpd. aška·našu-
(LÚ.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 171)
(Kpd. aš-kà-na-šu)
1. PIE *oski̯o·nosu-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *osḱo·nosu-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. osḱo·nosu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asḱa·nasu-
3. asḱa·nasu-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *aska·nasu-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. aska·nasu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Kpd. aška·našu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ski-
(IEW 49 [diff.])
Arm. an·cʼ-
(ao.) ‘vorübergehen’
(Pedersen 1906 [KZ 39]: 425)
(Arm. ē·ancʼ)
1. PIE *hɑen·ski-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑan·ski-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑan·ski-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *han·ski-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. han·ski-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *han·sć-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. han·sć-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *an·sć-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. an·sć-
*sć → cʼ
Change of sć into cʼ
Rsć›cʼ → Arm. an·cʼ-
Arm. an·cʼ·ane-
(pr.) ‘vorübergehen’
(WP. 1:65-6)
(Arm. ancʼanem [1sg])
1. PIE *hɑen·ski·eɑhne-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑan·ski·eɑhne-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑan·ski·eɑhne-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *hɑan·ski·aɑhne-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
3. hɑan·ski·aɑhne-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *han·ski·ahne-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. han·ski·ahne-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *han·sć·ahne-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. han·sć·ahne-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *an·sć·ane-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. an·sć·ane-
*sć → cʼ
Change of sć into cʼ
Rsć›cʼ → Arm. an·cʼ·ane-


PIE √skiɑh- (vb.) ‘wissen’ (sb.) ‘Zeichen’
(IEW 919 [diff.])
(+ Vaillant + Pyysalo)
√sogiɑɦi-
(HEG S:714ff.)
HIL. 802, CHD S:32-5)
Hitt. šagai-
(c.) ‘Zeichen, Vorzeichen, Omen’ (GISKIM)
(HHand. 138)
(Hitt. ša-ga-a-iš, ša-ga-iš)
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦoi-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦoi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saǵɦai-
4. saǵɦai-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sagɦai-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sagɦai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *sagai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. sagai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šagai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šagei-
(c.obl.) ‘Zeichen, Vorzeichen, Omen’ (GISKIM)
(HHand. 138)
(Hitt. ša-ki-ia-aš, ša-a-ki-ia-az
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦei-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦei-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saǵɦei-
4. saǵɦei-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sagɦei-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sagɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *sagei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. sagei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šagei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√skiɑhi-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. i·ški·tāḫ-
(vb.2.) ‘ein Zeichen geben ‹Hitt. šagi- ‘Zeichen’›’
(HHand. 65)
(Hitt. iš-kit9-ta-aḫ-ḫi [3sg] with Hitt. ·daḫ- ‘geben’)
1. PIE *Π·ski̯ɑhi·tōɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ski̯hi·tōɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ski̯hi·tōɦ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *Π·sḱhi·tōɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·sḱhi·tōɦ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·sḱhi·tāɦ-
4. Π·sḱhi·tāɦ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *Π·skhi·tāɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. Π·skhi·tāɦ-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *Π·ski·tāɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. Π·ski·tāɦ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·ški·tāɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. Π·ški·tāɦ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·ški·tāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lat. scī-
(pf.) ‘in Erfahrung gebracht haben, wissen’
(Lat. sciit [3sg])
1. PIE *ski̯ɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *ski̯íhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. ski̯íhi-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sḱíhi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. sḱíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sḱíi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sḱíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *sḱī́-
5. sḱī́-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *skī́-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. skī́-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *scī́-
7. scī́-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → Lat. scī-
OIcl. skī-
(*-a.n.) ‘Verstellung, Zauberei’
(ANEtWb. 491a)
1. PIE *ski̯ɑ́hi̯o
PIE *i̯ɑ́ → i̯í
Assimilation of *i̯ and *ɑ́
Ri̯ɑ́›i̯í → *ski̯íhi̯o
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. ski̯íhi̯o
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sḱíhi̯o
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. sḱíhi̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sḱíi̯o
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sḱíi̯o
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *skíi̯o
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. skíi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *skíi̯a
6. skíi̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *skíi̯
7. skíi̯
Change of root final íi̯ into ī́
R=íi̯›=ī́ → *skī́
8. skī́
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → OIcl. skī
√skiɑhiu-
(Vaillant BSL 42:84f)
Lat. scīu-
(pf.) ‘in Erfahrung gebracht haben, wissen’
(Lat. scīuit [3sg])
1. PIE *ski̯ɑ́hiu
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *ski̯íhiu
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. ski̯íhiu
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sḱíhiu
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. sḱíhiu
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sḱíiu
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sḱíiu
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *sḱī́u
5. sḱī́u
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *skī́u
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. skī́u
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *scī́u
7. scī́u
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → Lat. scīu
Lat. scaeuā-
(f.) ‘ein Anzeichen (glücklich oder unglücklich)’
(WH. 2:485)
1. PIE *ski̯eɑhiu̯ēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *ski̯aɑhiu̯ēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. ski̯aɑhiu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ski̯aɑhiu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. ski̯aɑhiu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ski̯ahiu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. ski̯ahiu̯āh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sḱahiu̯āh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sḱahiu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sḱaiu̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. sḱaiu̯ā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *skaiu̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. skaiu̯ā-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → *skaeu̯ā-
8. skaeu̯ā-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *scaeu̯ā-
9. scaeu̯ā-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. scaeuā-
√sogiɑɦot-
√sogiɑɦt-
Goth. fri·sahto-
(f.) ‘αἴνιγμα, εἰκών, τύπος, ὑπόδειγμα, ὑποτύπωσις’
(GoEtD. F96.)
(Goth. frisahtai Joh 13,15 CA)
1. PIE *pre·sogi̯ɑɦtēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pre·sogi̯ɑɦtāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pre·sogi̯ɑɦtāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pre·sogi̯ɦtāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pre·sogi̯ɦtāh-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *pre·soǵɦtāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. pre·soǵɦtāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pre·soǵɦtā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. pre·soǵɦtā-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *pre·sogɦtā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. pre·sogɦtā-
gɦt -› gt
Deaspiration of ǥɦ before t
Rǥɦt›gt → *pre·sogtā-
7. pre·sogtā-
*g → k
Devoicing of *g before *t
Rgt›kt → *pre·soktā-
8. pre·soktā-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *pre·soxtā-
9. pre·soxtā-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *fre·soxtā-
10. fre·soxtā-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *fre·saxtā-
11. fre·saxtā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *fre·saxtō-
(XX:XX)
12. fre·saxtō-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *fri·saxtō-
13. fri·saxtō-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *fri·sahtō-
14. fri·sahtō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → Goth. fri·sahto-
Goth. fri·sahti-
(f.) ‘Bild, Beispiel Rätsel: exemplum, forma, imago’
(GoEtD. F96.)
(Goth. frisahts 2Kr 4,4 A B, frisaht 1Kr 15,49 A B,
1. PIE *pre·sogi̯ɑɦti-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pre·sogi̯ɦti-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pre·sogi̯ɦti-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *pre·soǵɦti-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. pre·soǵɦti-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *pre·sogɦti-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. pre·sogɦti-
gɦt -› gt
Deaspiration of ǥɦ before t
Rǥɦt›gt → *pre·sogti-
5. pre·sogti-
*g → k
Devoicing of *g before *t
Rgt›kt → *pre·sokti-
6. pre·sokti-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *pre·soxti-
7. pre·soxti-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *fre·soxti-
8. fre·soxti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *fre·saxti-
9. fre·saxti-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *fri·saxti-
10. fri·saxti-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → Goth. fri·sahti-
Goth. ga·fri·sahtja-
(pr.) ‘abbilden: shape, form: ἐντυποῦν: deformare’
(GoEtD. F96.)
(Goth. gafrisahtiþ [3sg] 2Kr 3,7 A B)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·pre·sogi̯ɑɦti̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·pre·sogi̯ɦti̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦo·pre·sogi̯ɦti̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *gɦo·pre·soǵɦti̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. gɦo·pre·soǵɦti̯o-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *gɦo·pre·sogɦti̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. gɦo·pre·sogɦti̯o-
gɦt -› gt
Deaspiration of ǥɦ before t
Rǥɦt›gt → *gɦo·pre·sogti̯o-
5. gɦo·pre·sogti̯o-
*g → k
Devoicing of *g before *t
Rgt›kt → *gɦo·pre·sokti̯o-
6. gɦo·pre·sokti̯o-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *gɦo·pre·soxti̯o-
7. gɦo·pre·soxti̯o-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *gɦo·fre·soxti̯o-
8. gɦo·fre·soxti̯o-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *go·fre·soxti̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
9. go·fre·soxti̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ga·fre·saxti̯a-
10. ga·fre·saxti̯a-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *ga·fri·saxti̯a-
11. ga·fri·saxti̯a-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *ga·fri·sahti̯a-
12. ga·fri·sahti̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Goth. ga·fri·sahtja-
Goth. ga·fri·sahtna-
(pr.) ‘dargestellt werden: μορφοῦσθαι; formari’
(GoEtD. F96.)
(Goth. dgafrisahtnai [opt3sg] Gal 4,19 GlA, HbGo. 246,2)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·pre·sogi̯ɑɦtno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·pre·sogi̯ɦtno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦo·pre·sogi̯ɦtno-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *gɦo·pre·soǵɦtno-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. gɦo·pre·soǵɦtno-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *gɦo·pre·sogɦtno-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. gɦo·pre·sogɦtno-
gɦt -› gt
Deaspiration of ǥɦ before t
Rǥɦt›gt → *gɦo·pre·sogtno-
5. gɦo·pre·sogtno-
*g → k
Devoicing of *g before *t
Rgt›kt → *gɦo·pre·soktno-
6. gɦo·pre·soktno-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *gɦo·pre·soxtno-
7. gɦo·pre·soxtno-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *gɦo·fre·soxtno-
8. gɦo·fre·soxtno-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *go·fre·soxtno-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
9. go·fre·soxtno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ga·fre·saxtna-
10. ga·fre·saxtna-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *ga·fri·saxtna-
11. ga·fri·saxtna-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → Goth. ga·fri·sahtna-
Kpd. šaktuman-
(LÚ.c.a.ethn.)
(NOMS. 1084)
(Kpd. ša-ak-du-ma!-an!)
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦtumon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦtumon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦtumon-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦtumon-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦtumon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saǵɦtuman-
4. saǵɦtuman-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sagɦtuman-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sagɦtuman-
gɦt -› gt
Deaspiration of ǥɦ before t
Rǥɦt›gt → *sagtuman-
6. sagtuman-
*g → k
Devoicing of *g before *t
Rgt›kt → *saktuman-
7. saktuman-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Kpd. šaktuman-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Kpd. šaktunua-
(LÚ.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 1085)
(Kpd. ša-ak-du-nu-a)
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦtunu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦtunu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦtunu̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦtunu̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦtunu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saǵɦtunu̯a-
4. saǵɦtunu̯a-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sagɦtunu̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sagɦtunu̯a-
gɦt -› gt
Deaspiration of ǥɦ before t
Rǥɦt›gt → *sagtunu̯a-
6. sagtunu̯a-
*g → k
Devoicing of *g before *t
Rgt›kt → *saktunu̯a-
7. saktunu̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Kpd. šaktunu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sogiɑɦut


PIE √sgiɑɦ- √sogiɑɦ- √segiɑh- (vb.) ‘sagen, mitteilen, reden’
(IEW 897f.)
(+ Pyysalo)
√sogiɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013:421-2)
(IEW 897f. [diff.])
Far. siga-
(vb.) ‘sagen, mitteilen’
(ANEtWb. 459)
1. PIE *segi̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *segi̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. segi̯ɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *seǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. seǵɦo-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *segɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. segɦo-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sego-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. sego-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sega-
6. sega-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → Far. siga-
HLu. a·šaza-
(vb.) ‘sprechen : speak’
(Tischler 1990:87)
1. PIE *o·sogi̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·sogi̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·sogi̯ɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *o·soj́ɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. o·soj́ɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·saj́ɦa-
4. a·saj́ɦa-
*j́ɦ → zɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to zɦ
Rj́ɦ›zɦ → *a·sazɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. a·sazɦa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *a·šazɦa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. a·šazɦa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. a·šaza-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OIcl. saga·n-
(f.) ‘Erzählung, Bericht, Saga’
(ANEtWb. 459)
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦēɑh·n-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *sogi̯ɑɦāɑh·n-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. sogi̯ɑɦāɑh·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦāh·n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sogi̯ɦāh·n-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦāh·n-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. soǵɦāh·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *soǵɦā·n-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. soǵɦā·n-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *soǵɦa·n-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
6. soǵɦa·n-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sogɦa·n-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. sogɦa·n-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *soga·n-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
8. soga·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. saga·n-
OMed. hazāna-
(sb.) ‘tongue’
(OldP. 214-5)
(OPers. hazānam [sgA])
1. PIE *sosgi̯ɑɦēɑhno-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *sosgi̯ɑɦāɑhno-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. sosgi̯ɑɦāɑhno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sosgi̯ɦāhno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sosgi̯ɦāhno-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *sosj́ɦāhno-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sosj́ɦāhno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sasj́ɦāhna-
5. sasj́ɦāhna-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sasj́ɦāna-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. sasj́ɦāna-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hasj́ɦāna-
7. hasj́ɦāna-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *haszɦāna-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
8. haszɦāna-
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → OMed. haszāna-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
OIcl. segja-
(vb.) ‘sagen, mitteilen’
(ANEtWb. 467)
(Oicl. segjan [inf.])
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦei̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦei̯o-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sogɦei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sogɦei̯o-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sogei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. sogei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sagei̯a-
6. sagei̯a-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *sagii̯a-
7. sagii̯a-
*a – i i̯ → e – i̯
Umlaut for *a – ii̯
Ragii̯›egi̯ → *segi̯a-
8. segi̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → OIcl. segja-
√sogiɑɦul-
OIcl. sǫgul-
(a.) ‘redselig’
(ANEtWb. 578)
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦúlo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦúlo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦúlo
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦúlo
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦúlo
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sogɦúlo
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sogɦúlo
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sogúlo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. sogúlo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sagúla
6. sagúla
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *sagúl
7. sagúl
*a — ú → ǫ — ú
Umlaut for a — ú
Ragú›ǫgú → *sǫgúl
8. sǫgúl
*ú → u
Orthographic change of *ú into u
Rú›u → OIcl. sǫgul
√sogiɑɦun-
OEng. ge·sagun-
(f.) ‘narration’
(ASaxD. 434)
(gesagun, gesagune)
1. PIE *Π·sogi̯ɑɦun-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·sogi̯ɦun-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·sogi̯ɦun-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *Π·soǵɦun-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·soǵɦun-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *Π·sogɦun-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. Π·sogɦun-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *Π·sogun-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. Π·sogun-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OEng. Π·sagun-
OIcl. sǫgn-
(f.) ‘Sage, Aussage’
(ANEtWb. 578)
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦun-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦun-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦun-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦun-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦun-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sogɦun-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sogɦun-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sogun-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. sogun-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sagun-
6. sagun-
*a — u → ǫ — Ø
Umlaut for a — u
Ragu›ǫg → OIcl. sǫgn-
√sgiɑɦ-
Gr. ὑπο·σχο-
(ao.) ‘versprechen’
(Gr. ὑπο·σχέσθαι)
1. PIE *upo·sgi̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *upo·sgi̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. upo·sgi̯ɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *upo·sǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. upo·sǵɦo-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *upo·sḱho-
4. upo·sḱho-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *upo·skho-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. upo·skho-
u- → hu
Crescence of h before u-
Ru=›hu= → *hupo·skho-
6. hupo·skho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὑπο·σχο-
Ion.-Att. ὑπ.έσχη-
(pf.) ‘versprechen’
(GEW 2:970)
(Gr. ὑπέσχημαι = *sesgiaḫ-)
1. PIE *up.sésgiɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *up.sésgiɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. up.sésgiɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *up.sésgiɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. up.sésgiɦāh-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *up.sésǵɦāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. up.sésǵɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *up.sésǵɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. up.sésǵɦā-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *up.sésḱhā-
6. up.sésḱhā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *up.séskhā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. up.séskhā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
Rā›ē → *up.séskhē-
8. up.séskhē-
u- → hu
Crescence of h before u-
Ru=›hu= → *hup.séskhē-
9. hup.séskhē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. ὑπ.σέσχη-
Ion.-Att. ὑπο.σχεσίη-
(f.) ‘das Versprechen’
(GEW 2:970)
1. PIE *upo.sgiɑɦetsíēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *upo.sgiɑɦetsíāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. upo.sgiɑɦetsíāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *upo.sgiɦetsíāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. upo.sgiɦetsíāh-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *upo.sǵɦetsíāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. upo.sǵɦetsíāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *upo.sǵɦetsíā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. upo.sǵɦetsíā-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *upo.sḱhetsíā-
6. upo.sḱhetsíā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *upo.skhetsíā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. upo.skhetsíā-
*ts → s
Loss of dental in *ts
Rts›s → *upo.skhesíā-
8. upo.skhesíā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
Rā›ē → *upo.skhesíē-
9. upo.skhesíē-
u- → hu
Crescence of h before u-
Ru=›hu= → *hupo.skhesíē-
10. hupo.skhesíē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. ὑπο.σχεσίη-
Ion.-Att. ὑπο.σχήσο-
(fut.) ‘versprechen’
(Gr. ὑποσχήσομαι)
1. PIE *upo. sgiɑɦḗɑhtso-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *upo. sgiɑɦā́ɑhtso-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. upo. sgiɑɦā́ɑhtso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *upo. sgiɦā́htso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. upo. sgiɦā́htso-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *upo. sǵɦā́htso-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. upo. sǵɦā́htso-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *upo. sǵɦā́tso-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. upo. sǵɦā́tso-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *upo. sḱhā́tso-
6. upo. sḱhā́tso-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *upo. skhā́tso-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. upo. skhā́tso-
*ts → s
Loss of dental in *ts
Rts›s → *upo. skhā́so-
8. upo. skhā́so-
*ā́ → ḗ
Ion-Att. change of *ā́ into ḗ
Rā́›ḗ → *upo. skhḗso-
9. upo. skhḗso-
u- → hu
Crescence of h before u-
Ru=›hu= → *hupo. skhḗso-
10. hupo. skhḗso-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. ὑπο. σχήσο-
√sisgiɑɦ-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. ὑπ.ίσχο-
(vb.) ‘versprechen’
(GEW 1:970)
(Gr. ὑπ·ίσχομαι = *sisgiaḫ-)
1. PIE *up.sísgiɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *up.sísgiɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. up.sísgiɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *up.sísǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. up.sísǵɦo-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *up.sísḱho-
4. up.sísḱho-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *up.sískho-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. up.sískho-
u- → hu
Crescence of h before u-
Ru=›hu= → *hup.sískho-
6. hup.sískho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὑπ.σίσχο-
Gr. ὑπ.ισχνέο-
(vb.M.) ‘versprechen’
(Gr. ὑπ·ισχνέομαι)
1. PIE *up.sisgiɑɦnéi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *up.sisgiɦnéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. up.sisgiɦnéi̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *up.sisǵɦnéi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. up.sisǵɦnéi̯o-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *up.sisḱhnéi̯o-
4. up.sisḱhnéi̯o-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *up.siskhnéi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. up.siskhnéi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *up.siskhnéo-
6. up.siskhnéo-
u- → hu
Crescence of h before u-
Ru=›hu= → *hup.siskhnéo-
7. hup.siskhnéo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὑπ.σισχνέο-
gAv. hizu-
(m.) ‘Zunge : ‘tongue’
(AIWb. 1815)
(gAv. hizvā [sgI], hizvō [sgG], hizubīš [plI])
1. PIE *sisgi̯ɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sisgi̯ɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sisgi̯ɦu-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *sišgi̯ɦu-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. sišgi̯ɦu-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *sišj́ɦu-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sišj́ɦu-
*sj́ → j́
Change of sj́ into j́
Rsj́›j́ → *sij́ɦu-
5. sij́ɦu-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hij́ɦu-
6. hij́ɦu-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *hizɦu-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
7. hizɦu-
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → gAv. hizu-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
LAv. hizvā-
(f.) ‘Zunge’
(AIWb. 1816)
1. PIE *sisgi̯ɑɦu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *sisgi̯ɑɦu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. sisgi̯ɑɦu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sisgi̯ɦu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sisgi̯ɦu̯āh-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *sišgi̯ɦu̯āh-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. sišgi̯ɦu̯āh-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *sišj́ɦu̯āh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sišj́ɦu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sišj́ɦu̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. sišj́ɦu̯ā-
*sj́ → j́
Change of sj́ into j́
Rsj́›j́ → *sij́ɦu̯ā-
7. sij́ɦu̯ā-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hij́ɦu̯ā-
8. hij́ɦu̯ā-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *hizɦu̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
9. hizɦu̯ā-
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → *hizu̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
10. hizu̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. hizvā-
LAv. hizvah-
(n.) ‘Zunge : tongue’
(AIWb. 1816)
1. PIE *sisgi̯ɑɦu̯os-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sisgi̯ɦu̯os-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sisgi̯ɦu̯os-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *sišgi̯ɦu̯os-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. sišgi̯ɦu̯os-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *sišj́ɦu̯os-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sišj́ɦu̯os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sišj́ɦu̯as-
5. sišj́ɦu̯as-
*sj́ → j́
Change of sj́ into j́
Rsj́›j́ → *sij́ɦu̯as-
6. sij́ɦu̯as-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hij́ɦu̯ah-
7. hij́ɦu̯ah-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *hizɦu̯ah-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
8. hizɦu̯ah-
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → *hizu̯ah-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
9. hizu̯ah-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. hizvah-


PIE √sgiɑɦ- √sogiɑɦ- √segiɑɦ- (vb.) ‘ergreifen, halten, haben, siegen’ (a.) ‘fest, sicher’
(IEW 889 [seǵh-])
(Or PIE √sgɑɦi- ?)
√segiɑɦo-
Gr. χο-
(pr.) ‘besitzen, halten, haben’
(GEW 1:602f.)
(Gr. ἔχω)
1. PIE *ségi̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ségi̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ségi̯ɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *séǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. séǵɦo-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *séḱho-
4. séḱho-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sékho-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sékho-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hékho-
6. hékho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. χο-
OGaul. sego-
(m.) ‘Gewalt, Sieg’
(ACSS 2:1444)
(OGaul. sego-)
1. PIE *segi̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *segi̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. segi̯ɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *seǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. seǵɦo-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *segɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. segɦo-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → OGaul. sego-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
√sogiɑɦ-
OGaul. sog-
(PN.?) ‹to sego-, seto-, seio-›
(ACSS 2:1597)
(OGaul. sog. [sgN?])
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦ-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦ-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sogɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sogɦ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → OGaul. sog-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
RV. prā·sáh-
(a.) ‘gewaltig, siegreich’
(WbRV. 889)
1. PIE *prō·sógi̯ɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *prō·sógi̯ɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. prō·sógi̯ɦ-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *prō·sój́ɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. prō·sój́ɦ-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *prō·sáj́ɦ-
4. prō·sáj́ɦ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *prā·sáj́ɦ-
5. prā·sáj́ɦ-
*j́ɦ → ɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to ɦ
Rj́ɦ›ɦ → *prā·sáɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. prā·sáɦ-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. prā·sáh-
RV. prā·sáh-
(f.) ‘Gewalt’
(WbRV. 889)
1. PIE *prō·sógi̯ɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *prō·sógi̯ɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. prō·sógi̯ɦ-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *prō·sój́ɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. prō·sój́ɦ-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *prō·sáj́ɦ-
4. prō·sáj́ɦ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *prā·sáj́ɦ-
5. prā·sáj́ɦ-
*j́ɦ → ɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to ɦ
Rj́ɦ›ɦ → *prā·sáɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. prā·sáɦ-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. prā·sáh-
Gr. χό-
(a.) ‘fest, sicher’
(GEW 1:603)
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦó-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦó-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦó-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *soḱhó-
4. soḱhó-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sokhó-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sokhó-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hokhó-
6. hokhó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. χό-
√sogiɑɦli-
(HEG S:724)
(CHD S:44ff.)
Hitt. šaglai-
(c.) ‘Brauch, Sitte, Ritus, Zeremonie, Amtspflicht, traditionelle Aufwendung’
(HHand. 139)
(Hitt. ša-ak-la-iš [N], ša-ak-la-in [A], ša-ak-la-a-ia-aš [G], ša-ak-la-ia-za [Abl])
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦloi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦloi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦloi-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦloi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦloi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saǵɦlai-
4. saǵɦlai-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sagɦlai-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sagɦlai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *saglai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. saglai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šaglai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šaglei-
(c.) ‘Brauch, Sitte, Ritus, Zeremonie, Amtspflicht, traditionelle Aufwendung’
(HIL. 808)
(Hitt. ša-ak-li-in [sgA], ša-ak-li-ia [sgDL])
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦlei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦlei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦlei-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦlei-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦlei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saǵɦlei-
4. saǵɦlei-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sagɦlei-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sagɦlei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *saglei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. saglei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šaglei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Kpd. šaglei̯a-
(I.c.) ‹cf. above (?)›
(NOMS. 1080)
(in Kpd. sá-ak-li-a)
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦleio-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦleio-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦleio-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦleio-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦleio-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saǵɦleia-
4. saǵɦleia-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sagɦleia-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sagɦleia-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *sagleia-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. sagleia-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Kpd. šagleia-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√segiɑɦur-
Gr. χυρό-
(a.) ‘haltbar, fest, sicher’
(GEW 1:602)
(Gr. ἐχυρός)
1. PIE *segiɑɦuró-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *segiɦuró-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. segiɦuró-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *seǵɦuró-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. seǵɦuró-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *seḱhuró-
4. seḱhuró-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sekhuró-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sekhuró-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hekhuró-
6. hekhuró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. χυρό-
RV. sáhuri-
(a.) ‘siegreich, sieggewohnt’ ‹or *o(?)›
(WbRV. 1505)
(RV. sáhuris)
1. PIE *ségiɑɦuri-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ségiɦuri-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ségiɦuri-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *séj́ɦuri-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. séj́ɦuri-
*j́ɦ → ɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to ɦ
Rj́ɦ›ɦ → *séɦuri-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. séɦuri-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *sáɦuri-
5. sáɦuri-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. sáhuri-
√sogiɑɦur-
(HEG S:741)
Gr. χυρό-
(a.) ‘haltbar, fest, sicher’
(GEW 1:602)
(Gr. ὀχυρός)
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦuró-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦuró-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦuró-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦuró-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦuró-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *soḱhuró-
4. soḱhuró-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sokhuró-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sokhuró-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hokhuró-
6. hokhuró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. χυρό-
Hitt. šagurei̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘niederstrecken, vergewaltigen, überwältigen’
(HEG S:741)
(Hitt. šakuriatari, šakuriata)
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦurei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦurei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦurei̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦurei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦurei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saǵɦurei̯a-
4. saǵɦurei̯a-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sagɦurei̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sagɦurei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *sagurei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. sagurei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šagurei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šaguriške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘niederstrecken, vergewaltigen, überwältigen’
(HHand. 139)
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦureiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦureiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦureiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sogi̯ɦureisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. sogi̯ɦureisḱe/o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦureisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. soǵɦureisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saǵɦureisḱe/a-
5. saǵɦureisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *saǵɦureiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. saǵɦureiske/a-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sagɦureiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. sagɦureiske/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *sagureiske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
8. sagureiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šagureiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √sku- √soku- √seku- (vb.) ‘sehen, behüten; zeigen’ (sb.) ‘Auge(n)’
(IEW 897-8)
(+ Pyysalo)
√soku-
(HEG S:731-8)
Goth. saƕ-
(pret.sg.) ‘sehen: see: look: observe: spicere, videre’
(GoEtD. S8.)
(Goth. saƕ [3sg] Joh 6,46 CA, etc. saƕt [2sg] Joh 8,57 CA, GoElB. 208)
1. PIE *soku̯-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *soxu̯-
2. soxu̯-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saxu̯-
3. saxu̯-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *sahu̯-
4. sahu̯-
hw → ƕ
Monophonemization of hw into ƕ
Rhu̯›ƕ → Goth. saƕ-
Hitt. šaku·mila-
(f.c.) ‘-(?)-’ ‹uncertain›
(NOMS. 1086)
(Hitt. ša-ak-kum-mil-la [abs.])
1. PIE *soku·milo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saku·mila-
2. saku·mila-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šaku·mila-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šakua-
(n.) ‘Auge(n) = Sum. IGI(ḪI.A)’
(HHand. 139)
1. PIE *soku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saku̯a-
2. saku̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šaku̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. šakua-
(GKL.n.) ‘yeux’
(DLL. 84)
1. PIE *soku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saku̯a-
2. saku̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. šaku̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OCS. sokŭ-
(m.) ‘Anzeiger’
(IEW 897-898)
1. PIE *soku̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saku̯a
2. saku̯a
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *saka
(SPIE §4.8.3)
3. saka
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *soko
4. soko
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *soku
5. soku
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. sokŭ
Hitt. šakuant-
(pt.) ‘gesehen, sichtbar, behütet, aufbewahrt’
(HHand. 139)
1. PIE *soku̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saku̯ant-
2. saku̯ant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šaku̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sokui-
Hitt. šakuai-
(vb.1.) ‘schauen, beobachten, behüten’
(HHand. 139)
1. PIE *soku̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saku̯ai-
2. saku̯ai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šaku̯ai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OCS. soči-
(vb.) ‘anzeigen’
(IEW 897-898)
(OCS. sočiti [inf.])
1. PIE *soku̯iɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *soku̯iíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. soku̯iíh-
PIE *ku̯ → ču̯
2nd palatalization of *ku̯
Rku̯›ču̯ → *soču̯iíh-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. soču̯iíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saču̯iíh-
4. saču̯iíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *saču̯ií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. saču̯ií-
*ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RČU›Č → *sačií-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. sačií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *sačī́-
7. sačī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *sočī́-
8. sočī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *sočí-
9. sočí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → OCS. soči-
√sēku-
Goth. seƕ-
(pret.) ‘ἰδεῖν εἰδέναι ὁρᾶν, ὁρᾶσθαι’
(GoEtD. S8.)
(Goth. seƕi Joh 6,46 CA; Luk 2,26 CA)
1. PIE *sēku̯-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *sēxu̯-
2. sēxu̯-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *sēhu̯-
3. sēhu̯-
hw → ƕ
Monophonemization of hw into ƕ
Rhu̯›ƕ → *sēƕ-
4. sēƕ-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → Goth. seƕ-
√sekuo-
Goth. saiƕa-
(pr.) ‘ἰδεῖν εἰδέναι ὁρᾶν, ὁρᾶσθαι’
(GoEtD. S8.)
(Goth. saiƕ Mat 8,4 CA, saiƕa Joh 9,15 CA, saiƕan Mat 6,1 CA, saiƕiþ Mat 5,28 CA)
1. PIE *seku̯o-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *sexu̯o-
2. sexu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sexu̯a-
3. sexu̯a-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *sixu̯a-
4. sixu̯a-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *sihu̯a-
5. sihu̯a-
hw → ƕ
Monophonemization of hw into ƕ
Rhu̯›ƕ → *siƕa-
6. siƕa-
i → ai
Opening of i into ai
Ri›ai → Goth. saiƕa-
√sku-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. pa·šku-
(vb.1.) ‘zurückweisen, vernachlässigen, vergessen’
(HHand. 127)
(CHD P:208-9; HEG P:523-4)
1. PIE *po·sku-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pa·sku-
2. pa·sku-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. pa·šku-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. ARHA pa·šku-
(vb.) ‘overlook, neglect’
(KLuN. 334f.)
(HLu. ARHA pa-sà-REL-i)
1. PIE *Π·po·sku-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·pa·sku-
2. Π·pa·sku-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. Π·pa·šku-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OIr. ro·sc-
(m.) ‘Auge, Blick’
(DIL. 512)
1. PIE *Π·sku̯o
* ku/u̯ → q
Emergence of labiovelar q
RkU›q → *Π·sqo
2. Π·sqo
*q → k
Delabialization of labiovelar *q
Rq›k → *Π·sko
3. Π·sko
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → *Π·sk
4. Π·sk
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OIr. Π·sc
OIr. tā·sc-
(m.) ‘Anzeige’
(DIL. 580)
1. PIE *Π·sku̯o
* ku/u̯ → q
Emergence of labiovelar q
RkU›q → *Π·sqo
2. Π·sqo
*q → k
Delabialization of labiovelar *q
Rq›k → *Π·sko
3. Π·sko
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → *Π·sk
4. Π·sk
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OIr. Π·sc
OInd. vi·ṣkaya-
(pr.A.) ‘sehen’
(KEWA 3:229)
(Dhatup. viṣkayati [3sg])
1. PIE *u̯i·sku̯oi̯o-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *u̯i·šku̯oi̯o-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. u̯i·šku̯oi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯i·šku̯ai̯a-
3. u̯i·šku̯ai̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *u̯i·škai̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. u̯i·škai̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vi·škai̯a-
5. vi·škai̯a-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *vi·ṣkai̯a-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
6. vi·ṣkai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. vi·ṣkaya-
OIcl. skoða-
(vb.) schauen, untersuchen’
(ANEtWb. 497a)
(OIcl. skoða)
1. PIE *skuto-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *skuþo-
2. skuþo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *skuþa-
3. skuþa-
*þ → ð
Change of þ into ð
R=þ›=ð → OIcl. skuða-


PIE √sku- √soku- √seku- (sb.) ‘Quelle, Spring’ (vb.) ‘hervorsprudeln’
(IEW 894 [diff.])
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + RV.)
√sokui-
(HEG S:738ff.)
Hitt. šaku̯i-
(c.) ‘Quelle, Sprudel, Quellteich : spring, well’
(HHand. 139)
(Hitt. ša-ku-iš, Not “ša-ku‹-ni›-iš” vs. HIL. 810 !)
1. PIE *soku̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saku̯i-
2. saku̯i-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šaku̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šaku̯iši-
(vb.) ‘heraussprüdeln : sprinkle(?)’
(CHD S:77)
(Hitt. ša-ku-iš-ši-it [3sg], KUB 17. 28 i 15)
1. PIE *soku̯isi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saku̯isi-
2. saku̯isi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šaku̯iši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sokuni-
Hitt. šaku̯ani-
(c.) ‘Quelle, Sprudel, Quellteich’
(HHand. 139)
1. PIE *soku̯oni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saku̯ani-
2. saku̯ani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šaku̯ani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šakuni-
(c.) ‘Quelle, Sprudel, Quellteich’
(HHand. 139)
1. PIE *sokuni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakuni-
2. sakuni-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šakuni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šakunei̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘heraussprudeln’
(HHand. 139)
1. PIE *sokunei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakunei̯a-
2. sakunei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šakunei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šakuniške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘heraussprudeln’
(HIL. 810)
1. PIE *sokuniski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sokunisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. sokunisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakunisḱe/a-
3. sakunisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sakuniske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sakuniske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šakuniške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sokur-
Hitt. šakura-
(URU.) ‘bei ›Kartapaha’ (DKašk. 104)
(OGH.331)
(Hitt. ša-ak-ku-ra)
1. PIE *sokuro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakura-
2. sakura-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šakura-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šakuru̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘tränken (Pferde)’
(HHand. 139)
1. PIE *sokuru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakuru̯a-
2. sakuru̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šakuru̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. šakuru̯ani-
(ÍD.) ‘-(?)-’
(CHLu. 2.11.25)
(HLu. (“FLUMEN+MINUS”)sá-ku+ra/i-wa/i-ni-i-zi-ha)
1. PIE *sokuru̯oni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakuru̯ani-
2. sakuru̯ani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. šakuru̯ani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šakuru̯au̯a-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘tränken’
(HHand. 139)
(Hitt. šaguruauanzi [inf.])
1. PIE *sokuru̯ou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakuru̯au̯a-
2. sakuru̯au̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šakuru̯au̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šakuru̯au̯ar-
(N.act.) ‘tränken’
(HHand. 139)
(Hitt. šakuruauar-)
1. PIE *sokuru̯ou̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakuru̯au̯ar-
2. sakuru̯au̯ar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šakuru̯au̯ar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sokut-
RV. vi·ṣaktā-
(f.) ‘eine nicht mehr Milch gebende Kuh’
(KEWA 3:227)
1. PIE *u̯i·sokutēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯i·sokutāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯i·sokutāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯i·sokutāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯i·sokutāh-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *u̯i·šokutāh-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. u̯i·šokutāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯i·šakutāh-
5. u̯i·šakutāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯i·šakutā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. u̯i·šakutā-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *u̯i·šaktā-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
7. u̯i·šaktā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vi·šaktā-
8. vi·šaktā-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. vi·ṣaktā-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)


PIE √sl- √sol- √sel- (a.) ‘erwachsen, hoch, groß, wichtig, zahlreich’ (sb.) ‘Wachstum’ (vb.) ‘überheben, zunehmen’
(IEW 899)
(+ Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√solo-
Hitt. šala·garda-
(n.) ‘Hochmut’
(HHand. 14)
1. PIE *solo·gi̯ɑɦordo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *solo·gi̯ɦordo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. solo·gi̯ɦordo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *solo·ǵɦordo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. solo·ǵɦordo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sala·ǵɦarda-
4. sala·ǵɦarda-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sala·gɦarda-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sala·gɦarda-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *sala·garda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. sala·garda-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šala·garda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√solēɑh-
Latv. sala-
(f.) ‘Höhe (im Morast)’
(LiEtWb. 758)
1. PIE *solēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *solāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. solāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *solāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. solāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *solā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. solā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *salā
5. salā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → Latv. sala
Lith. salà-
(f.) ‘Bodenerhebung (im Morast)’
(LiEtWb. 758)
1. PIE *solḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *solā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. solā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *solā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. solā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *solā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. solā́
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *salā́
5. salā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *salṓ
(XX:XX)
6. salṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → Lith. salà
√solɑho-
HLu. šalḫa-
(.) ‘power’
(CHLu. 3.2.3)
(HLu. LIGNUM-la-ha)
1. PIE *solɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *solho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. solho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *salha-
3. salha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šalha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šalha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. šalḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. šalḫantei
(c.) ‘Wachstum, Gedeihen’ (?)
(HHand. 140)
1. PIE *solɑhontei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *solhontei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. solhontei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *salhantei-
3. salhantei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šalhantei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šalhantei-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šalḫantei-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. šalḫadi-
(?.) ‹to Hitt. šalḫanti-›
(DLL. 85)
(CLu. ša-al-ḫa-a-ti)
1. PIE *solɑhodɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *solhodɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. solhodɦi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *salhadɦi-
3. salhadɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *salhadi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. salhadi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šalhadi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. šalhadi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. šalḫadi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. šalḫaza-
(.) ‘greatness, succession’
(CHLu. 2.5.3)
(HLu. (LIGNUM)sá-la-ha-za)
1. PIE *solɑhodɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *solhodɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. solhodɦi̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *solhojɦo-
3. solhojɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *salhajɦa-
4. salhajɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *salhaja-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. salhaja-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *salhaza-
6. salhaza-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šalhaza-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. šalhaza-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. šalḫaza-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√soli-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. šali-
(a.) ‘groß, wichtig, erwachsen, zahlreich’
(HEG S:767-775)
(CHD S:82)
1. PIE *soli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sali-
2. sali-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šali-
(c.) ‘Erwachsener’
(HHand. 140)
1. PIE *soli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sali-
2. sali-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šalei̯a-
(vb.) ‘groß machen, großziehen’
(HHand. 140)
1. PIE *solei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *salei̯a-
2. salei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šalei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lat. īn·solent-
(pt.) ‘überheblich, übermäßig, unverschämt’
(WH. 1:704)
1. PIE *Π·solei̯ent-
*ei̯e → ee
Loss *i̯ between e and e
Rei̯e›ee → *Π·soleent-
2. Π·soleent-
*ee → ē
Contraction of *ee into ē
Ree›ē → *Π·solēnt-
3. Π·solēnt-
*ēnt → ent
Shortening of *ē in ēnt
Rēnt›ent → Lat. Π·solent-
Lat. īn·solēsco-
(vb.) ‘zunehmen, überheben’
(Lat. īn·solēscō)
1. PIE *Π·solēski̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *Π·solēsḱo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. Π·solēsḱo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *Π·solēsko-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·solēsko-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. Π·solēsco-
Lat. īn·solentiā-
(f.) ‘Überhebung, Übertreibung, Verschwendung’
(WH. 1:704)
1. PIE *Π·solei̯enti̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·solei̯enti̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·solei̯enti̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·solei̯enti̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·solei̯enti̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·solei̯enti̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·solei̯enti̯ā-
*ei̯e → ee
Loss *i̯ between e and e
Rei̯e›ee → *Π·soleenti̯ā-
5. Π·soleenti̯ā-
*ee → ē
Contraction of *ee into ē
Ree›ē → *Π·solēnti̯ā-
6. Π·solēnti̯ā-
*ēnt → ent
Shortening of *ē in ēnt
Rēnt›ent → *Π·solenti̯ā-
7. Π·solenti̯ā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. Π·solentiā-
Lat. ob·solēto-
(pt.) ‘veraltet, abgetragen, abgenutz, gewöhnlich’
(WH. 1:427-8)
1. PIE *Π·solei̯eto-
*ei̯e → ee
Loss *i̯ between e and e
Rei̯e›ee → *Π·soleeto-
2. Π·soleeto-
*ee → ē
Contraction of *ee into ē
Ree›ē → Lat. Π·solēto-
Lat. ob·solēu-
(pf.) ‘veralten, sich abnutzen, verkümmern’
(WH. 1:427-8)


PIE √sl- √sol- √sel- (vb.tr.) ‘strecken, dehnen’ (vb.intr.) ‘breit/platt werden’
(IEW –)
√sel-
RV. sí.sar-
(pr.2.A.) ‘ausstrecken, dehnen : stretch, extend’
(KEWA 3:470)
(RV. sísarti [3sg])
1. PIE *sí.sel-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *sí.ser-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. sí.ser-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. sí.sar-
RV. prá (...) sí.sar-
(pr.2.A.) ‘(Arme) vorstrecken’
(WbRV. 1570)
(RV. prá (...) sísarti [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·sí.sel-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *Π·sí.ser-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. Π·sí.ser-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. Π·sí.sar-
√sl-
RV. sísr-
(vb.) ‘ausstrecken, dehnen : stretch, extend’
(KEWA 3:470)
(RV. sísrate [3pl])
1. PIE *sísl-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → RV. sísr-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
√soloi-
Hitt. šalai-
(vb.) ‘breit werden/laufen, platt werden’
(HHand. 140)
1. PIE *soloi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *salai-
2. salai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šalai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. prá (…) sāraya·-
(cs.M.) ‘breiten sich aus’
(KEWA 3:471)
1. PIE *Π·sōlei̯o-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *Π·sōrei̯o-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. Π·sōrei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·sōrei̯a-
3. Π·sōrei̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·sārei̯a-
4. Π·sārei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *Π·sārai̯a-
5. Π·sārai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·sāraya-


PIE √sel- √sol- √sl- (vb.) ‘fliegen, eilen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√sol-
(Pyysalo)
(HEG S:762-XX)
TochA. säl-
(pr.) ‘fliegen’
(DTochB. 686)
(in TochA. sälmāṃ [pt.])
1. PIE *sol-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. sal-
Hitt. šal·ašḫa-
(LÚ.c.) ‘Kutscher, Stallbursche (?)’
(HHand. 140)
1. PIE *sol·osɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sol·osho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sol·osho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sal·asha-
3. sal·asha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šal·ašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šal·ašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šal·ašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√solo-
(Pyysalo)
RV. sára-
(pr.) ‘eilen, hineilen zu’
(WbRV. 1570)
(RV. sárat [3sg])
1. PIE *sélo-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *séro-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. séro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *séra-
3. séra-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → RV. sára-
Hitt. šalau̯ana-
(GN.pl) ‘Götter des Tores = dšatauana-’
(HHand. 140)
1. PIE *solou̯ono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *salau̯ana-
2. salau̯ana-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šalau̯ana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √sl- √sol- √sel- (vb.) ‘binden’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√solo-
(HEG Š:752)
Hitt. šala-
(KUŠ.) (Teil des Zaumzeugs)
(HHand. 140)
(Hitt. ša-a-la-aš)
1. PIE *solo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sala-
2. sala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. šala-
(KUŠ.n.) ‘-(?)-’ (Teil des Zaumzeugs)
(DLL. 84)
(CLu. ša-a-la(-pa) [plNA])
1. PIE *solo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sala-
2. sala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. šala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√selɑh-
OIr. selan-
(sb.) ‘corde, laisse de chien’
(LEIA S-79)
1. PIE *selēɑhno-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *selāɑhno-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. selāɑhno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *selāhno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. selāhno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *selāno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. selāno-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OIr. selano-
√ɦɑd·selo-
MidIr. aisel-
(f.) ‘joint’
(EtDiPC. 44)
(LEIA A-94, MidIr. asil, aisil, aisel)
1. PIE *ɦɑedselo
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑadselo
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑadselo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦadselo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦadselo
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *adselo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. adselo
*ds → s
Change of ds into s
Rds›s → *aselo
5. aselo
*ase → aise
Epenthesis of i
Rase›aise → *aiselo
6. aiselo
*-o → -Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R=o›=0 → MidIr. aisel
MidBret. esel
(m.) ‘joint’
(EtDiPC. 44)
(DIL. 31)
1. PIE *ɦɑedselo
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑadselo
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑadselo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦadselo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦadselo
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *adselo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. adselo
*ds → s
Change of ds into s
Rds›s → *aselo
5. aselo
*-o → -Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R=o›=0 → *asel
6. asel
*ase → ese
Umlaut of aCe to eCe
Rase›ese → MidBret. esel
Corn. esel-
(sb.) ‘joint’
(EtDiPC. 44)
1. PIE *ɦɑedselo
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑadselo
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑadselo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦadselo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦadselo
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *adselo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. adselo
*ds → s
Change of ds into s
Rds›s → *aselo
5. aselo
*-o → -Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R=o›=0 → *asel
6. asel
*ase → ese
Umlaut of aCe to eCe
Rase›ese → Corn. esel
√soli-
OIcl. seli·n-
(m.) ‘Geschirr, Seil’
(ANEtWb. 469)
1. PIE *soli·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sali·n-
2. sali·n-
ali -> eli
Umlaut of ali into eli
Rali›eli → OIcl. seli·n-
OIcl. sili·n-
(m.) ‘Geschirr, Seil’
(ANEtWb. 469)
1. PIE *seli·n-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → OIcl. sili·n-


PIE √sēli- (a.) ‘gut, verliebt, selig’ (sb.) ‘Seligkeit’
(IEW 900)
√sēli-
(HEG S:987-988)
Hitt. šēli-
(a.) ‘verliebt, einander zugetan’
(HHand. 148)
(Hitt. ši-e-li-eš [plN], “oder lies ua-e-li-eš” ?)
1. PIE *sēli-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šēli-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Goth. seli-
(a.) ‘good, kind, useful’ (Gr. ἀγαθός, χρηστός)
(GoEtD. S43.)
(Goth. sels [sgN])
1. PIE *sēli-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → Goth. seli-
OEng. sǣl-
(m.) ‘happiness, good fortune, prosperity’
(ASaxD. 810)
(OEng. sǣl [sgN])
1. PIE *sēli-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → OEng. sāli-


PIE √slbɑɦ- √solbɑɦ- √selbɑɦ- (sb.) ‘Flüßigkeit, Salbe, Excrement’ (vb.) ‘salben, beschmieren’
(IEW 901)
(Petersen 1937 [AO 9]: 209 apud Tischler)
√solbɑɦo-
(HEG S:781f.)
(CHD S:107)
Hitt. šalba-
(c.) ‘Exkrement, (Hunde)Kot’
(HHand. 141)
(Hitt. šal-pa-an [sgA], šalpaš [plA])
1. PIE *solbɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *solbɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. solbɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *salbɦa-
3. salbɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *salba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. salba-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šalba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šalba-
(KUR URU.) ‘Dasselbe wie ›Šalapa?’
(OGH. 336)
(Hitt. šal-pa [Stf.]; Kontext: ‘Madduwattas (…) die Fürsten des Landes Pitašša’; OGHErg. 136)
1. PIE *solbɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *solbɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. solbɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *salbɦa-
3. salbɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *salba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. salba-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šalba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šalba·ša-
(URU.) ‘Neben Kaziura erwähnt’
(OGH. 336)
(Hitt. šal-pa-aš-ša [Stf.])
1. PIE *solbɑɦo·so-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *solbɦo·so-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. solbɦo·so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *salbɦa·sa-
3. salbɦa·sa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *salba·sa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. salba·sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šalba·ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Goth. salbo-
(vb.) ‘salben’
(GoEtD. S16.)
(Goth. salbōn [inf.])
1. PIE *solbɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *solbɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. solbɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *solbɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. solbɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *solbɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. solbɦā-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *solbā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. solbā-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *salbā-
6. salbā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *