PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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"Durch zweier Zeugen Mund wird alle Wahrheit kund" — August Fick
(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
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PIE



PIE √p- √po- √pe- (vb.) ‘gehen, fliegen, eilen’ (sb.) ‘Fuß, Flügel’ (prep.adv.) ‘vor(ne)’
(IEW: in extensions)
(Pyysalo)
√po-, √pe-
(SPIE 47)
(IEW –)
HLu. pa-
(PES2vb.) ‘go’
(CHLu. 11.1.e24)
(HLu. (“PES2”)pa-tu)
1. PIE *po-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. pa-
Hitt. pa-
(vb.) ‘go, pass, flow’
(CHD P:18ff.)
(Hitt. pa-an-zi [3pl])
1. PIE *po-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pa-
Gr. τρί·πο-
(m.) ‘tripod’
(Gr. τρίπος, τρίπον, τρίπου)
1. PIE *trí·po-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. τρί·πο-
Gr. οἰδί·πο-
(m.) ‘Oidipus’
(GEW 2:358-9)
(Gr. οἰδίπος [N], οἰδίπου [G])
1. PIE *ɦɑoidí·po-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦoidí·po-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦoidí·po-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *oidí·po-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. oidí·po-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. οἰδί·πο-
Gr. ἀερό·πο-
(a.) ‘κοχλίας: aereis pedibus praeditus’
(GEW 1:25)
(Hes. ἀερόπος · κοχλίας)
1. PIE *hɑei̯eró·po-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑai̯eró·po-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑai̯eró·po-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hai̯eró·po-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hai̯eró·po-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ai̯eró·po-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ai̯eró·po-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *aeró·po-
5. aeró·po-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀερό·πο-
Gr. ἀπο·πέ-
(ao.?) ‘ἀποπεῖν’
(LSJ. 212)
(Hes. ἀποπεῖν · ἀπελθεῖν)
1. PIE *hɑepo·pé-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑapo·pé-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapo·pé-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hapo·pé-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hapo·pé-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *apo·pé-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. apo·pé-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀπο·πέ-
√poi-, √pei-
(SPIE 36, 47)
Hitt. pai-
(vb.1.) ‘gehen, fließen, fliegen’
(CHD P:19f.)
(Hitt. paizi, HIL. 712)
1. PIE *poi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pai-
TochA. pe-
(m.) ‘pes’
(Poucha 186)
(TochA. pe [sgN])
1. PIE *poi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pai̯a
2. pai̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *pai̯
3. pai̯
*a y → ē
Change of ay into ē in root-final
R=ay›=ē → *pē
4. pē
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochA. pe
TochA. pai-
(PN.?) ‘-(?)-’
(Poucha 188)
(from *pāyi-?, cf. OInd. pāyika- ‘footman, footsoldier’)
1. PIE *pōi
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *pāi
2. pāi
*āiC → aiC
Osthoff’s Law for āiC
RāiC›aiC → *pai
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
3. pai
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *pē
4. pē
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochA. pe
OInd. paya-
(vb.M.) ‘go, move’
(MonWil. 585)
(Dhātup. payate [3sg])
1. PIE *pei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pei̯a-
2. pei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *pai̯a-
3. pai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. paya-
√pi-
Hitt. pi
(adv.) ‘vor, vorne’
(HEG N:170)
(Hitt. pí, EHS 67)
Arm. arci·v-
(sb.) ‘Adler: eagle’
(EtDiArm. 139)
1. PIE *ɦɑergii·pì-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑargii·pì-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑargii·pì-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦargii·pì-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦargii·pì-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦarj́i·pì-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. ɦarj́i·pì-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *arj́i·pì-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. arj́i·pì-
*j́ → j
From Satem *j́ to j
Rj́›j → *arji·pì-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. arji·pì-
*j → c
Loss of voice of media *j
Rj›c → *arci·pì-
7. arci·pì-
ipì -> ivì
Affricativization of p between i _ i
Ripì›ivì → *arci·vì-
8. arci·vì-
*i → Ø
Loss of unaccented *i
Rì›0 → Arm. arci·v-
Arm. arc·ui-
(sb.) ‘Adler: eagle’
(EtDiArm. 139)
1. PIE *ɦɑergiì·pi-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑargiì·pi-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑargiì·pi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦargiì·pi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦargiì·pi-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦarj́ì·pi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. ɦarj́ì·pi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *arj́ì·pi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. arj́ì·pi-
*j́ → j
From Satem *j́ to j
Rj́›j → *arjì·pi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. arjì·pi-
*j → c
Loss of voice of media *j
Rj›c → *arcì·pi-
7. arcì·pi-
ìpi -> ìui
Affricativization of p between ì _ i
Rìpi›ìvi → *arcì·ui-
8. arcì·ui-
*i → Ø
Loss of unaccented *i
Rì›0 → Arm. arc·ui-
OInd. r̥ji·pya-
(a.) ‘(BW von śyená- ‘Adler, Falke’)’
(Beitr. 2:827)
(PIE *arǵ- ‘Adler’, IEW 854-5, Brugmann Grundr2 1:462)
1. PIE *ɦɑrgii·pi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦrgii·pi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦrgii·pi̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦrj́i·pi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦrj́i·pi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦrj́i·pi̯a-
4. ɦrj́i·pi̯a-
CrC → Cr̥C
Syllabification of *r in CrC
Rr›r̥ → *ɦr̥j́i·pi̯a-
5. ɦr̥j́i·pi̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *r̥j́i·pi̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. r̥j́i·pi̯a-
*j́ → j
From Satem *j́ to j
Rj́›j → *r̥ji·pi̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. r̥ji·pi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. r̥ji·pya-
LAv. ǝrǝzi·fya-
(m.) ‘Adler’
(AIWb. 354)
1. PIE *ɦɑrgii·pi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦrgii·pi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦrgii·pi̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦrj́i·pi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦrj́i·pi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦrj́i·pi̯a-
4. ɦrj́i·pi̯a-
CrC → Cr̥C
Syllabification of *r in CrC
Rr›r̥ → *ɦr̥j́i·pi̯a-
5. ɦr̥j́i·pi̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *r̥j́i·pi̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. r̥j́i·pi̯a-
*r̥ → ǝr
Change of *r̥ into ǝr
Rr̥›ǝr → *ǝrj́i·pi̯a-
7. ǝrj́i·pi̯a-
*r → rǝ
Anaptyxis of ǝ (Schwa)
Rr›rǝ → *ǝrǝj́i·pi̯a-
8. ǝrǝj́i·pi̯a-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *ǝrǝzi·pi̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
9. ǝrǝzi·pi̯a-
*pR → fR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
RpR›fR → *ǝrǝzi·fi̯a-
10. ǝrǝzi·fi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. ǝrǝzi·fya-
Hitt. pi̯an
(adv.) ‘vor, vorne’
(HEG N:170)
(Hitt. pí-an, EHS 67)
1. PIE *pi̯on
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pi̯an
√pim-
(IEW 795)
(Pyysalo: TochA. ‹uncertain›)
OIcl. fim-
(a.) ‘behende, gewandt’
(ANEtWb. 120)
(OIcl. fimr [sgN])
1. PIE *pimo-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›fRestr → *fimo-
2. fimo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. fima-
OIr. ēim-
(a.) ‘prompt, ready, timely’ (adv.) ‘quickly’
(DIL. 268)
(IEW 795)
1. PIE *peimi-
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → *pēmi-
2. pēmi-
*ēmi → ēimi
Epenthesis of i
Rēmi›ēimi → OIr. pēimi-
OIcl. fima-
(vb.) ‘sich eilen’
(ANEtWb. 120)
(OIcl. fimast [inf.])
1. PIE *pimo-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›fRestr → *fimo-
2. fimo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. fima-
TochA. pim-
(PNm.) ‘‹cf. above?›’
(Poucha 180)
1. PIE *pimo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. pima-
OIcl. orð·fimi-
(f.) ‘Gewandtheit in Worten’
(ANEtWb. 120)
1. PIE *Π·pimiɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·pimih-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·pimih-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·pimi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·pimi-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›fRestr → OIcl. Π·fimi-
OIr. ēim-
(a.) ‘rasch, flink’
(IEW 795)
1. PIE *peimi-
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → *pēmi-
2. pēmi-
*ēmi → ēimi
Epenthesis of i
Rēmi›ēimi → OIr. pēimi-
√pir-
Hitt. piran
(adv.) ‘vor, vorne’
(HEG N:170)
(Hitt. pí-ra-an, EHS 67)
1. PIE *piron
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. piran
√pis-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. paiške/a-
(vb.1.M.iter.) ‘gehen’
(HIL. 712)
(Hitt. pa-iš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *poiskie/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *poisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. poisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *paisḱe/a-
3. paisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *paiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. paiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. paiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lith. pisnó-
(vb.) ‘mit schüttelnder Bewegung laufen’
(LiEtWb. 599)
1. PIE *pisnḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *pisnā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pisnā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pisnā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pisnā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pisnā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pisnā́-
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *pisnṓ-
(XX:XX)
5. pisnṓ-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → Lith. pisnó-
Lith. pìst
(intj.) ‘(bez. ein schüttelndes Laufen)’
(LiEtWb. 599)
1. PIE *píst
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → Lith. pìst
√pit-
(Pyysalo)
RV. pet-
(pf.) ‘fliegen’
(WbRV. 762)
(RV. petathus, petátus)
1. PIE *poit-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pait-
2. pait-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *pēt-
3. pēt-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → RV. pet-
Gr. πίτνο-
(vb.) ‘fallen’
(Gr. πίτνω)
1. PIE *pítno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πίτνο-
Lat. pinnā-
(f.) ‘Flügel, Feder’
(WH. 2:306)
1. PIE *pitnēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pitnāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pitnāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pitnāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pitnāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pitnā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pitnā
*tn → nn
Assimilation of *tn into *nn
Rtn›nn → Lat. pinnā
Gr. πίτυλο-
(m.) ‘Ruderschlag, heftigen Schlag’
(GEW 2:545)
1. PIE *pítulo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πίτυλο-
Gr. πίτ·υρο-
(n.) ‘Kleieähnlicher Ausschlag, Niederschlag’
(GEW 2:545)
1. PIE *pít·Σ
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πίτ·Σ
√piu-
TochB. snai·pewa-
(a.) ‘without feet: dépourvu de pieds’
(DTochB. 399)
(TochB. snaipewaṃ [plA], LeTokh. 1:373)
1. PIE *Π·poiu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·paiu̯a-
2. Π·paiu̯a-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *Π·pēu̯a-
3. Π·pēu̯a-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *Π·peu̯a-
4. Π·peu̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. Π·pewa-
TochB. wi·pewa-
(a.) ‘two-footed: bipède’
(DTochB. 399)
(TochB. wipewaṃ [plA], LeTokh. 1:373)
1. PIE *Π·poiu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·paiu̯a-
2. Π·paiu̯a-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *Π·pēu̯a-
3. Π·pēu̯a-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *Π·peu̯a-
4. Π·peu̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. Π·pewa-
√pol- √pel- √pl-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. pala-
(vb.1.) ‘go’
(MonWil. 609)
(Dhātup. palati [3sg])
1. PIE *peLo-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *pelo-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. pelo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pela-
3. pela-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → OInd. pala-
Gr. πέλο-
(pr.M.) ‘sich regen, sich bewegen’
(Gr. πέλομαι, Not from *ku̯el- → Gr. †τελ-)
1. PIE *pélo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πέλο-
Arm. hol-
(sb.) ‘Kreisel’
(HEG H:278)
(Arm. hol; stem uncertain)
1. PIE *pól-
*p- → h-
Change of *p- into h-
Rp=›h= → *hól-
2. hól-
*ó → o
Loss/Absence of accent
Ró›o → Arm. hol-
Arm. hole-
(vb.) ‘drehen’
(HEG H:278)
(Arm. holel [inf.])
1. PIE *póle-
*p- → h-
Change of *p- into h-
Rp=›h= → *hóle-
2. hóle-
*ó → o
Loss/Absence of accent
Ró›o → Arm. hole-
√pols-
(HIL. 719-720)
(CHD P:69ff.)
Hitt. palš-
(c.) ‘Weg, Pfad, Feldzug, Gelegenheit, Mal’
(HHand. 117)
(Hitt. pal-ši [L])
1. PIE *pols-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pals-
2. pals-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. palš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. palša-
(sb.) ‘way?’
(CHLu. 2.14.22)
(Hawkins 2000:112: KARKAMIŠ A2-3: wa-i-sa-’ ku-ma-na-sa-ti-’ pa-la-sa-ti-i)
1. PIE *polso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palsa-
2. palsa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. palša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. palši-
(KASKALc.*) ‘Weg, Pfad, Feldzug’
(HHand. 117)
(Hitt. KASKAL-ši-iš)
1. PIE *polsi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palsi-
2. palsi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. palši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. palšiāḫ-
(KASKALvb.*) ‘auf den Weg bringen, befördern’
(HHand. 117)
(Hitt. KASKAL-ši-aḫ-mi)
1. PIE *polsiēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *polsiāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. polsiāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *polsiāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. polsiāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palsiāh-
4. palsiāh-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *palšiāh-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. palšiāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. palšiāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√por- √per- √pr-
(Hrozný 1919:110, IEW 816-7)
(see SPIE 47, 83)
CLu. par-
(vb.1.) ‘treiben, jagen?’
(DLL. 77)
(CLu. pár-du [3sg], HIL. 734, CHD P:143ff., HEG P:451ff.)
1. PIE *por-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. par-
RV. pípar-
(pr.) ‘hinüberführen’
(WbRV. 777-8)
(RV. píparti [3sg])
1. PIE *píper-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. pípar-
√poro-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. para-
(vb.) ‘chase, hunt: jagen’
(DLL. 77)
(CLu. pa-ra-ad-du [3sg])
1. PIE *poro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. para-
HLu. ARHA para·-
(PES2vb.) ‘hunt’
(CHLu. 7.2.1.fr6)
(HLu. ARHA (PES2)*501+RA/I-ha)
1. PIE *Π·poro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·para-
HLu. para-
(PESsb.) ‘foot’
(CHLu. 10.14.9)
(HLu. (“PES”)pa+ra/i-za)
1. PIE *poro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. para-
RV. pūrvā·pará-
(a.) ‘nachfolgend’
(WbRV. 846-7)
1. PIE *Π·poró-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·paró-
2. Π·paró-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. Π·pará-
√porɑh-
(CHD P:143ff.)
(Hrozný 1919:110)
Gr. περάο-
(pr.) ‘durchschreiten, -fahren’
(Gr. περάω)
1. PIE *peréɑhi̯o-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *peráɑhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. peráɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *peráhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. peráhi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *perái̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. perái̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *peráo-
5. peráo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. περάο-
Hitt. parḫa-
(vb.intr.) ‘eilen, jagen’
(HHand. 121)
(CHD P:143ff.)
1. PIE *porɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *porho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. porho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parha-
3. parha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. parḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. parḫa-
(vb.2.) ‘treiben, jagen’
(HHand. 121)
(Hitt. pár-ḫa-i [3sg])
1. PIE *porɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *porho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. porho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parha-
3. parha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. parḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. parḫa-
(vb.) ‘treiben, jagen’
(DLL. 78)
(CLu. pár-ḫa-ad-du [3sg])
1. PIE *porɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *porho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. porho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parha-
3. parha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. parḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√pors-
(HIL. 740, HEG P:490)
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. parša-
(vb.1.) ‘fliehen’
(CHD P:179f.)
(Hitt. pár-ša, pár-ša[-at-tén?] HHand. 124)
1. PIE *porso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parsa-
2. parsa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. parša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. parša·nu-
(cs.) ‘make flee, chase away’
(HIL. 740)
(Hitt. pár-ša-nu-ir)
1. PIE *porso·nu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parsa·nu-
2. parsa·nu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. parša·nu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. parṣáṇi-
(a.) ‘übersetzend, hinüberfahrend’
(WbRV. 793)
1. PIE *persóni-
PIE *rs → rš
Ruki-rule for *rs
RRukiOIA → *peršóni-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. peršóni-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *peršáni-
3. peršáni-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *paršáni-
4. paršáni-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *parṣáni-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
5. parṣáni-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. parṣáṇi-
√porto-
Hitt. parta-
(c.) ‘Fuß, Klaue’
(HHand. 125)
1. PIE *porto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parta-
CLu. parta-
(c./n.?) ‘Fuß’
(DLL. 80)
(CLu. pa-(a)-ar-ta-(a-)-ti [sgI])
1. PIE *porto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. parta-
Hitt. parta·ḫu̯ina-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGH. 308)
(in: Arzawa, Maša, Kuntara, Ura, Laḫma, pár-ta-ḫu-i-na-az, Kašüla’; OGHErg. 122 ‹for the suffix cf. Pal. ḫuina- ‘eilen’›)
1. PIE *porto·hɑu̯ino-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *porto·hu̯ino-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. porto·hu̯ino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parta·hu̯ina-
3. parta·hu̯ina-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. parta·ḫu̯ina-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√ports- √perts-
(Pyysalo)
Umbr. pers-
(m.) ‘Fuß’
(WbOU. 522-3)
(Umbr. persi [sgAbl])
1. PIE *perts-
*ts → s
Loss of dental in *ts
Rts›s → Umbr. pers-
Umbr. du·porso-
(a.) ‘Zweifüßler’
(WbOU. 192)
(Umbr. duporsus)
1. PIE *duɑɦ·portso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *duɦ·portso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. duɦ·portso-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *du·portso-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. du·portso-
*ts → s
Loss of dental in *ts
Rts›s → Umbr. du·porso-
Umbr. petur·porso-
(a.) ‘Vierfüßler’
(WbOU. 551)
(Umbr. peturporsus [plD])
1. PIE *kuetur·portso-
*ku/u̯ → p
Bilabialization of labiovelar q into p
RkU›p → *petur·portso-
2. petur·portso-
*ts → s
Loss of dental in *ts
Rts›s → Umbr. petur·porso-
√pordɑɦ-
Arm. hord-
(a.pt.) ‘begangen, betreten’
(EtDiArm. –)
(IEW 816)
1. PIE *pórdɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pórdɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pórdɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *pórd-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. pórd-
*p- → h-
Change of *p- into h-
Rp=›h= → *hórd-
4. hórd-
*ó → o
Loss/Absence of accent
Ró›o → Arm. hord-
√pordɑɦi-
CLu. parza-
(pret.) ‘‹≈ jagen?›’
(HHand. 126)
(CLu. parzata [3sg], KBo xxx 167 Rs. iii)
1. PIE *pordɑɦi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pordɦi̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pordɦi̯o
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *porjɦo
3. porjɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parjɦa
4. parjɦa
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *parzɦa
5. parzɦa
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. parza
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. parzaša-
(a.) ‘-(?)- (Epith. de ‘flèches’ ou ‘carquois’)’
(DLL. 40)
(CLu. pár-za-aš-ša, Kimball (1999:428) ‘epithet of an arrow’)
1. PIE *pordɑɦi̯oso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pordɦi̯oso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pordɦi̯oso-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *porjɦoso-
3. porjɦoso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parjɦasa-
4. parjɦasa-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *parzɦasa-
5. parzɦasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *parzɦaša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. parzɦaša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. parzaša-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. parza·liu̯a-
(URU.) ‘(Kultlieferungen für Pirwa)’
(OGH. 309)
(Hitt. pár-za-li-u-ua[(-)) [Stf.])
1. PIE *pordɑɦi̯o·liu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pordɦi̯o·liu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pordɦi̯o·liu̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *porjɦo·liu̯o-
3. porjɦo·liu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parjɦa·liu̯a-
4. parjɦa·liu̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *parja·liu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. parja·liu̯a-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. parza·liu̯a-
Hitt. parzai-
(vb.) ‘-(?)-’
(HHand. 126)
1. PIE *pordɑɦi̯oi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pordɦi̯oi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pordɦi̯oi-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *porjɦoi-
3. porjɦoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parjɦai-
4. parjɦai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *parjai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. parjai-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. parzai-
Hitt. pa·parzina-
(mc.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 934)
(Hitt. pa-ap-pár-zi-na [Abs])
1. PIE *po·pordɑɦi̯ino-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po·pordɦi̯ino-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. po·pordɦi̯ino-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *po·porjɦino-
3. po·porjɦino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pa·parjɦina-
4. pa·parjɦina-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *pa·parjina-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. pa·parjina-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. pa·parzina-
Hitt. par·parzina-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGH. 306)
(Hitt. pár-pár-zi-na-an [sgA])
1. PIE *por·pordɑɦi̯ino-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *por·pordɦi̯ino-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. por·pordɦi̯ino-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *por·porjɦino-
3. por·porjɦino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *par·parjɦina-
4. par·parjɦina-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *par·parjina-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. par·parjina-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. par·parzina-
Hitt. parz·u̯eni-
(mc.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 952)
(Hitt. pár-zu-u-e-ni [Abs])
1. PIE *pordɑɦi·u̯eni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pordɦi·u̯eni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pordɦi·u̯eni-
PIE *dɦi → jɦi
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi›jɦi → *porjɦi·u̯eni-
3. porjɦi·u̯eni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parjɦi·u̯eni-
4. parjɦi·u̯eni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *parji·u̯eni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. parji·u̯eni-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. parzi·u̯eni-
HLu. parz·uda-
(URBS.) ‘city’
(CHLu. 10.12.3)
(HLu. pa+ra/i-zu?-tax(URBS))
1. PIE *pordɑɦi̯·udɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pordɦi̯·udɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pordɦi̯·udɦo-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *porjɦ·udɦo-
3. porjɦ·udɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parjɦ·udɦa-
4. parjɦ·udɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *parj·uda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. parj·uda-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → HLu. parz·uda-
HLu. parz·uda·ši-
(a.gen.) ‘of Parzuda’
(CHLu. 10.12.7)
(HLu. pa+ra/i-zu?-tax-sí-sa6-[x]-wa/i-mu-tax)
1. PIE *pordɑɦi̯·udɑɦo·si-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pordɦi̯·udɦo·si-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pordɦi̯·udɦo·si-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *porjɦ·udɦo·si-
3. porjɦ·udɦo·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parjɦ·udɦa·si-
4. parjɦ·udɦa·si-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *parj·uda·si-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. parj·uda·si-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *parz·uda·si-
6. parz·uda·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. parz·uda·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. parz·uda·u̯ani-
(URBSa.ethn.) ‘-(?)-’
(CHLu. 10.12.13)
(HLu. pa+ra/i-zu?-tax-wa/i-nix(URBS))
1. PIE *pordɑɦi̯·udɑɦo·u̯oni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pordɦi̯·udɦo·u̯oni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pordɦi̯·udɦo·u̯oni-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *porjɦ·udɦo·u̯oni-
3. porjɦ·udɦo·u̯oni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parjɦ·udɦa·u̯ani-
4. parjɦ·udɦa·u̯ani-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *parj·uda·u̯ani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. parj·uda·u̯ani-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → HLu. parz·uda·u̯ani-
√pordɑɦti-
OInd. pāparddhi-
(f.) ‘Jagd’
(EWA 3:314)
(Graßmann: *pā-pardh-ti-)
1. PIE *pēpordɑɦti-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pēpordɦti-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pēpordɦti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pēpardɦti-
3. pēpardɦti-
*Dɦt → Ddɦ
Bartholomae’s Law
RDɦt›Ddɦ → *pēparddɦi-
(SPIE §4.6.5.)
4. pēparddɦi-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *pāparddɦi-
5. pāparddɦi-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → OInd. pāparddhi-
OInd. pāparddhin-
(m.) ‘Jäger’
(EWA 3:314)
1. PIE *pēpordɑɦtin-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pēpordɦtin-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pēpordɦtin-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pēpardɦtin-
3. pēpardɦtin-
*Dɦt → Ddɦ
Bartholomae’s Law
RDɦt›Ddɦ → *pēparddɦin-
(SPIE §4.6.5.)
4. pēparddɦin-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *pāparddɦin-
5. pāparddɦin-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → OInd. pāparddhin-
√pes-
Lat. quadru·pes-
(a.n.) ‘vierfüssig’
(OxLatD. 1532)
(Lat. quadrupes [n.sg])
√pou-
(SPIE 47)
Hitt. pau-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘das Hinausgehen, Ausgang’
(HHand. 128)
(in Hitt. pa-a-u-ar, pa-a-u-ua-ar, pa-a-u-ua-aš, pa-ú-ua-a-an-zi [inf.]; or from PIE *poi̯ou̯-?)
1. PIE *pou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pau-
Gr. τρί·που-
(n.) ‘tripod’
(Gr. τρίπουν [NA])
1. PIE *trí·pou-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. τρί·που-
√peuo-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. pava-
(vb.M.) ‘go’
(MonWil. 610)
(Dhatup. pavate [3sg])
1. PIE *peu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *peu̯a-
2. peu̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *pau̯a-
3. pau̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OInd. pava-
√pu-
CLu. pu̯a
(adv.) ‘früher ≈ Hitt. garu’
(HHand. 137)
(CLu. pu-ú-u̯a)
1. PIE *pu̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. pu̯a
CLu. pu̯a·dil-
(a.) ‘passé: früher, vergangen’ (HHand. 137)
(DLL. 83)
(CLu. pu-u-ua-ti-i-il [sgNA])
1. PIE *pu̯o·dɑɦil-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pu̯o·dɦil-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pu̯o·dɦil-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pu̯a·dɦil-
3. pu̯a·dɦil-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. pu̯a·dil-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. pu̯·alei̯a-
(n.) ‘a garment for the leg or foot?’
(CHD P:369)
(CLu. pu-ua-li-ia-an-za [sgNA], HIL. 791)
1. PIE *pu̯·olei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. pu̯·alei̯a-
Hitt. pu̯·alei̯a-
(n.) ‘a garment for the leg or foot?’
(CHD P:369)
(Hitt. pu-ua-li-ia [sgNA], HIL. 791)
1. PIE *pu̯·olei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pu̯·alei̯a-
√puɑh-
CLu. puḫ-
(vb.) ‘campaign, fight, hunt?’
(CHD P:402)
(CLu. pu-u-uḫ-ti)
1. PIE *puɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *puh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. puh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. puḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√pun-
Hitt. pau̯an-
(n.obl.) ‘das Hinausgehen, Ausgang’
(HHand. 128)
(Hitt. pa-ú-ua-a-an-zi; or from PIE *poi̯ou̯-?)
1. PIE *pou̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pau̯an-
Hitt. pau̯an·kipa-
(URU.) ‘‹here if ‘Ausgang + kipa’›’
(OGH. 311)
(or from PIE *poi̯ou̯-?)
1. PIE *pou̯on·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pau̯an·Σ
Arm. hun-
(sb.) ‘Furt, Übergang’
(ArmGr. 1:468-9)
(Arm. hun [sgN])
1. PIE *puno-
*p- → h-
Change of *p- into h-
Rp=›h= → Arm. huno-
OSax. fundō-
(pr.) ‘strive’
(ASaxD. 349)
1. PIE *pundɑɦēɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pundɑɦāɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pundɑɦāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pundɦāɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pundɦāɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *pundɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pundɦā-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *fundɦā-
5. fundɦā-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *fundā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. fundā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → OSax. fundō-
(XX:XX)
OEng. fundia-
(pr.) ‘sich aufmachen nach, streben, gehen, eilen’
(ASaxD. 348-9)
1. PIE *pundɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pundɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pundɦi̯o-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *fundɦi̯o-
3. fundɦi̯o-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *fundi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. fundi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *fundi̯a-
5. fundi̯a-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OEng. fundia-
OHG. fundja-
(pr.) ‘subire’
(ASaxD. 349)
1. PIE *puntɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *punthi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. punthi̯o-
*t h → þ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›þ → *punþi̯o-
3. punþi̯o-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *funþi̯o-
4. funþi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *funþi̯a-
5. funþi̯a-
*þ → d
OHG sound shift of *þ
Rþ›d → *fundi̯a-
6. fundi̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → OHG. fundja-
√pur-
(IEW 810)
Hitt. pau̯ar-
(n.N.act.) ‘das Hinausgehen; Ausgang’
(HHand. 128)
(or from PIE *poi̯ou̯-?)
1. PIE *pou̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pau̯ar-
OInd. pura-
(pr.A.) ‘go before, precede, lead’
(MonWil. 634)
(OInd. purati [3sg])
1. PIE *puro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. pura-
OIcl. for-
(a.) ‘hastig, eilig’
(ANEtWb. 139)
(OIcl. forr: but cf. *furha- in Beitr. 2:960)
1. PIE *puro-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›fRestr → *furo-
2. furo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. fura-
Goth. faur
(adv.prep.) ‘vor, für’
(GoEtD. F29)
1. PIE *puro
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *furo
2. furo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *fura
3. fura
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *fur
4. fur
*u → au
Allophonic change of *u into au
Ru›au → Goth. faur
ModPersL. pul-
(sb.) ‘Brücke’
(Güntert 1916:95)
1. PIE *puro-
r -› l
Change of r to l
Rr›l → *pulo-
2. pulo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → ModPersL. pula-
RV. ·purā́
(adv.) ‘früher, zuvor, von Alters her’
(WbRV. 826)
RV. pur·āṇá-
(a.) ‘vormalig, uralt, seit lange bestehend’
(WbRV. 827)
1. PIE *pur·ōnó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *pur·ōná-
2. pur·ōná-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *pur·āná-
3. pur·āná-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. pur·āṇá-
RV. purás
(prep.A) ‘vor’
(WbRV. 825-6)
1. PIE *purós
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. purás
LAv. paoirya
(adv.) ‘zu Anfang (der ersten Welt)’
(AIWb. 874)
1. PIE *pouri̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pauri̯a-
2. pauri̯a-
*au → ao
Opening of *au
Rau›ao → *paori̯a-
3. paori̯a-
*aori → aoiri
Anaptyxis of *i
RaorI›aoirI → *paoiri̯a-
4. paoiri̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. paoirya-
Goth. faurþis
(adv.) ‘πρῶτον, πρότερον: before, earlier’
(GoEtD. F36)
1. PIE *purtis
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *furtis
2. furtis
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *furþis
3. furþis
*u → au
Allophonic change of *u into au
Ru›au → Goth. faurþis
TochA. purcomo-
(a.) ‘primus, optimus’
(Poucha 201)
1. PIE *purti̯oumou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *purti̯aumau-
2. purti̯aumau-
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›c → *purcaumau-
3. purcaumau-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *purcōmō-
4. purcōmō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. purcomo-
RV. pū́rva-
(a.) ‘vorder, voran seiend/gehend usw.’
(WbRV. 844-5)
1. PIE *púru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *púru̯a-
2. púru̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *púrva-
3. púrva-
urv → ūrv
Lengthening of *u before rv
Rurv›ūrv → RV. pū́rva-
LAv. paourva-
(a.) ‘der vordere, vorn, vornan befindlich’
(AIWb. 870)
1. PIE *pouru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pauru̯a-
2. pauru̯a-
*au → ao
Opening of *au
Rau›ao → *paoru̯a-
3. paoru̯a-
*aoru → aouru
Anaptyxis of *u
RaorU›aourU → *paouru̯a-
4. paouru̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. paourva-
gAv. paourvīm
(adv.) ‘zuerst, vor allem, bei Beginn’
(AIWb. 873-4)
1. PIE *pouru̯ɑ́him
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *pouru̯íhim
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. pouru̯íhim
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pauru̯íhim
3. pauru̯íhim
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pauru̯íim
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pauru̯íim
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *pauru̯ī́m
5. pauru̯ī́m
*au → ao
Opening of *au
Rau›ao → *paoru̯ī́m
6. paoru̯ī́m
*aoru → aouru
Anaptyxis of *u
RaorU›aourU → *paouru̯ī́m
7. paouru̯ī́m
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *paourvī́m
8. paourvī́m
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → gAv. paourvīm
√pusko-
Arm. husk-
(a.) ‘dernier’
(Meillet 1894:296)
1. PIE *pusko-
*k → kʼ
Glottalization of *k
Rk›k' → *pusk'o-
2. pusk'o-
*p- → h-
Change of *p- into h-
Rp=›h= → Arm. husk'o-
√pud-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. πούδ-
(m.) ‘foot’
(Gr. πούς [sgN])
1. PIE *poúd-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πούδ-
Maced. ἀργιό·πουδ-
(m.) ‘ἀετός’
(LSJ. 235)
1. PIE *hɑergi̯ió·poud-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑargi̯ió·poud-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑargi̯ió·poud-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hargi̯ió·poud-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hargi̯ió·poud-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *harǵió·poud-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. harǵió·poud-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *arǵió·poud-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. arǵió·poud-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *argió·poud-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. argió·poud-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Maced. ἀργιό·πουδ-
Parth. pwd
(sb.) ‘Lauf’
(IEW 998 [diff.])
1. PIE *poudo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pauda-
2. pauda-
*a → 0
Orthographic absence of *a
Ra›0 → *pud-
3. pud-
*u → w
Orthographic change of *u into w
Ru›w → Parth. pwd-
MAv. puda-
(EN.) ‘Name einer iranischen Familie’
(AIWb. 909)
(MAv. puda-)
1. PIE *pudo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → MAv. puda-
Gr. πυδ.αρίζο-
(pr.) ‘mit dem Fuß/Huf ausschlagen’
(Gr. πυδαρίζω)
1. PIE *pud.hɑeríhɑdi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *pud.hɑaríhɑdi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. pud.hɑaríhɑdi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pud.haríhdi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pud.haríhdi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pud.arídi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pud.arídi̯o-
PIE *di̯ → j
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
Rdi̯›j → *pud.aríjo-
5. pud.aríjo-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *pud.arízo-
6. pud.arízo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πυδ.αρίζο-
Gr. πυδ.αλίζο-
(pr.) ‘mit dem Fuß/Huf ausschlagen’
(GEW 2:620)
(Gr. πυδαλίζω)
1. PIE *pud.hɑelíhɑdi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *pud.hɑalíhɑdi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. pud.hɑalíhɑdi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pud.halíhdi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pud.halíhdi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pud.alídi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pud.alídi̯o-
PIE *di̯ → j
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
Rdi̯›j → *pud.alíjo-
5. pud.alíjo-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *pud.alízo-
6. pud.alízo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πυδ.αλίζο-


PIE √p- √op- √ep- (aff.) ‘nach, zurück’ (sb.) ‘Abend(land)’ (a.) ‘unterländisch’ (vb.) ‘fertig sein, zu Ende sein/machen’
(IEW 323-5)
(Kretschmer apud Hrozný 1917:21; Hrozný 1917:180f.; Pyysalo)
√po-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. pa·gnu-
(vb.2.) ‘anzeigen, verleumden’
(HHand. 117)
(Hitt. pa-ak-nu-ir, pa-ak-nu-e-ir)
1. PIE *po·giɦɑnu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po·giɦnu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. po·giɦnu-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *po·ǵɦnu-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. po·ǵɦnu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pa·ǵɦnu-
4. pa·ǵɦnu-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *pa·gɦnu-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. pa·gɦnu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. pa·gnu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Pal. pa·naga-
(vb.) ‘zurückkommen(d)?’
(HHand. 118)
(Pal. pa-na-a-ga-an-zi [3pl] or [pt.], see BPal. 7, DPal. 66)
1. PIE *po·nogi̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po·nogi̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. po·nogi̯ɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *po·noǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. po·noǵɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pa·naǵɦa-
4. pa·naǵɦa-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *pa·nagɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. pa·nagɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Pal. pa·naga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Kpd. pa·naga-
(LÚc.) ‘‹zurückkommend?›’
(NOMS. 926)
(Kpd. pá-na-ga ‹for the semantics cf. Nestor›)
1. PIE *po·nogi̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po·nogi̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. po·nogi̯ɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *po·noǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. po·noǵɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pa·naǵɦa-
4. pa·naǵɦa-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *pa·nagɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. pa·nagɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Kpd. pa·naga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. pa·šku-
(vb.1.) ‘zurückweisen, vernachlässigen, vergessen’
(HHand. 127)
(CHD P:208-9; HEG P:523-4)
1. PIE *po·sku-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pa·sku-
2. pa·sku-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. pa·šku-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. ARHA pa·šku-
(vb.) ‘overlook, neglect’
(KLuN. 334f.)
(HLu. ARHA pa-sà-REL-i)
1. PIE *Π·po·sku-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·pa·sku-
2. Π·pa·sku-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. Π·pa·šku-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OHG. fa·sō-
(vb.) ‘nachspüren, suchen’
(Gl. NGl.)
(OHG. fasôn [inf.], Grundr2 1:765, WH. 2:241, insequi Gl, quaerere NGl, vestigare Gl)
1. PIE *po·sēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *po·sāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. po·sāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po·sāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. po·sāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *po·sā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. po·sā-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *fo·sā-
5. fo·sā-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *fa·sā-
6. fa·sā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → OHG. fa·sō-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. ·pa
(encl.ptcl.) etwa ‘wieder, zuruck’
(HHand. 18)
(HEG P:1)
1. PIE *·po
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ·pa
√opo-
(Hrozný 1917:180f.)
(Kronasser EHS 574)
Hitt. apa
(adv.) ‘wieder, zurück’ (postp.GD) ‘nach, hinter’
(HHand. 18)
(Hitt. ap-pa, EGIR-pa)
1. PIE *opo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. apa
CLu. apa
(pref.) ‘wieder, zurück’
(HHand. 18)
1. PIE *opo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. apa
Hitt. ·apa
(encl.ptcl.) etwa ‘wieder, zuruck’
(HHand. 18)
(HEG A:41f.)
1. PIE *·opo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ·apa
HLu. apa·zidi-
(OCCIDENSa.) ‘western, unterländisch?’
(CHLu. 4.17.A)
(HLu. (‘OCCIDENS’)á-pa-zi-i-ti)
1. PIE *opo·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. apa·Σ
OHitt. ap·ai-
(vb.2.) ‘fertig sein, zu Ende sein, be finished/done’
(HHand. 18)
(OHitt. a-ap-pa-i [3sg], ap-pa-i, HIL. 231)
1. PIE *op·oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OHitt. ap·ai-
Hitt. ap·ai-
(vb.M.) ‘be finished, be done’
(HIL. 231)
(Hitt. ap-pa-a-ru [3sg])
1. PIE *op·oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ap·ai-
Hitt. apai̯a-
(KUR.URU.) ‘‹≈ Border city?›’
(OGH. 26)
(Hitt. ab-ba-ia, ]ap-pa-ia [Stf.])
1. PIE *op·oii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ap·aii̯a-
2. ap·aii̯a-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *ap·aia-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. ap·aia-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → Hitt. ap·ai̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
√ēpo-
CLu. ēpa·dariša-
(vb.) ‘‹≈ hold behind/away?›’
(DLL. 52)
(CLu. (i)-ip-pa-tar-re-(eš)-ša-(at)-ta [3sg], obj. [malḫašš]aššin EN)
1. PIE *ēpo·dɑɦoriso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēpo·dɦoriso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēpo·dɦoriso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēpa·dɦarisa-
3. ēpa·dɦarisa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ēpa·darisa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ēpa·darisa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. ēpa·dariša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√opeio-
(Pyysalo)
(SHV 472)
OHitt. ap·ei̯a-
(vb.1.A.) ‘fertig/zu Ende sein: be finished/done’
(HHand. 18, HIL. 231)
(Hitt. ap-pi-ia-zi [3sg], ap-pi-ia-an-zi [3pl])
1. PIE *op·ei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OHitt. ap·ei̯a-
LAv. ap·aya-
(pr.) ‘(Gebot) nachkommen, es erfüllen, befolgen’
(AIWb. 70-1)
(LAv. apayantahe [them.pt.sgG])
1. PIE *op·ei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ap·ei̯a-
2. ap·ei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *ap·ai̯a-
3. ap·ai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. ap·aya-
LAv. frāpaya-
(a.) ‘nach Sonnenuntergang zu gelegen, westlich’
(AIWb. 1015-6)
(LAv. frāpayå [f.plA])
1. PIE *prōpei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *prōpei̯a-
2. prōpei̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *prāpei̯a-
3. prāpei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *prāpai̯a-
4. prāpai̯a-
*pR → fR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
RpR›fR → *frāpai̯a-
5. frāpai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. frāpaya-
LAv. frāpayah-
(m.) ‘Name eines Bergs oder Gebirgs’
(AIWb. 1016)
1. PIE *prōpei̯os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *prōpei̯as-
2. prōpei̯as-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *prāpei̯as-
3. prāpei̯as-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *prāpei̯ah-
4. prāpei̯ah-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *prāpai̯ah-
5. prāpai̯ah-
*pR → fR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
RpR›fR → *frāpai̯ah-
6. frāpai̯ah-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. frāpayah-
√opi-
LinB. ὀπι
(prep.D) ‘after, around, upon’
(DMycGr. 402)
(LinB. o-pi)
1. PIE *opi
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. ὀπι
HLu. api
(adv.conj.) ‘wieder, zurück; außerdem, ferner’
(CHLu. 11.5.4)
(HLu. á-pi [adv.] 11.5.4 etc., á-pi [conj.?] 11.6.28 etc.)
1. PIE *opi
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. api
CLu. ·api
(postp.) ‘after, again’
(DLL. 29)
(CLu. duwayai kuis·ti·appi wassa lalluyawa tapala)
1. PIE *Π·opi
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. Π·api
√opidɑɦi-
Gr. ὀπίσσω
(adv.) ‘nach hinten, hernach’
(GEW 2:404)
(Gr. ὀπίσσω)
1. PIE *opídɑɦi̯ō-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *opídɦi̯ō-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. opídɦi̯ō-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *opíjɦō-
3. opíjɦō-
*jɦ → ch
Loss of voice of media aspirata *jɦ
Rjɦ›ch → *opíchō-
4. opíchō-
*c → s
Change of *c into s
Rc›s → *opíshō-
5. opíshō-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὀπίσhω-
Hitt. apizei̯a
(adv.) ‘hinterer, letzter, geringer’
(HEG A:46)
1. PIE *opidɑɦi̯ei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *opidɦi̯ei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. opidɦi̯ei̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *opijɦei̯o-
3. opijɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *apijɦei̯a-
4. apijɦei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *apijei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. apijei̯a-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. apizei̯a-
√ēpomi-
(AHPh. 254)
HLu. ipami-
(OCCIDENSpt.) ‘occidens: west’
(CHLu. 1.1.5)
(HLu. (“OCCIDENS”)i-pa-mi, “OCCIDENS”-pa-mi [1.1.32])
1. PIE *ēpomi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēpami-
2. ēpami-
*ē → i
Change of *ē into i
Rē›i → HLu. ipami-
√opon-
Hitt. apan
(adv.) ‘dahinter, hinten’
(HHand. 18)
(Hitt. ap-pa-an, EGIR-an)
1. PIE *opon
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. apan
CLu. apan
(pref.) ‘zurück’ (postp.) ‘hinter’
(HHand. 18)
1. PIE *opon
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. apan
HLu. apan
(POSTadv.) ‘after’
(CHLu. 4.3.2)
(HLu. (‘POST’)á-pa-pa-wa/i-mu-ta)
1. PIE *opon
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. apan
√ēpon-
OHG. āband-
(m.) ‘Abend, Vorabend, Westen’
(EWAhd. 1:9)
(OHG. âband-; Lat. sero N, suprema Gl, vesper Gl, vespera B, N)
1. PIE *ēponto
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *ēfonto
2. ēfonto
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *ēfonþo
3. ēfonþo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēfanþa
4. ēfanþa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *ēfanþ
5. ēfanþ
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *āfanþ
6. āfanþ
*þ → d
OHG sound shift of *þ
Rþ›d → *āfand
7. āfand
*f → b
OHG sound shift of *f
Rāfa›āba → OHG. āband
OSax. āvand-
(m.) ‘Abend’
(ASaxD. 4)
1. PIE *ēpondɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēpondɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēpondɦ-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *ēfondɦ-
3. ēfondɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ēfond-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. ēfond-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēfand-
5. ēfand-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *āfand-
6. āfand-
*āfa → -āva
Change of f into v between vowels
Rāfa›āva → OSax. āvand-
OLFrank. āvandi
(adv.) ‘vesperem’
(MNPs 9)
(OLFrank. avandi [sgD]: vesperem 58, 7 Berlin, 58, 15)
1. PIE *ēpondɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēpondɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēpondɦi-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *ēfondɦi-
3. ēfondɦi-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ēfondi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. ēfondi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēfandi-
5. ēfandi-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *āfandi-
6. āfandi-
*āfa → -āva
Change of f into v between vowels
Rāfa›āva → OLFrank. āvandi-
√op·oro-
(IEW 53-54)
Goth. af·ar-
(m.) ‘Nachkomme: ἐφημερία: vicis’
(GoEtD. A10)
(Goth. afaram [plD] Luk 1,5 CA)
1. PIE *op·oro-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *of·oro-
2. of·oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. af·ara-
RV. ap·ará-
(adv.) ‘später, künftig’
(WbRV. 73)
1. PIE *op·oró-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ap·aró-
2. ap·aró-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. ap·ará-
RV. áp·ara-
(a.) ‘hintere, spätere, westliche, zurückstehende’
(WbRV. 72-3)
1. PIE *óp·oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *óp·ara-
2. óp·ara-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. áp·ara-
HLu. ap·ara
(adv.) ‘thereafter, afterwards?’
(CHLu. 4.2.15)
(HLu. á-pa-ara/i)
1. PIE *op·oro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ap·ara
Goth. af·ar
(pref.) ‘nach, hinter, hernach, zufolge, an’
(GoEtD. A9)
1. PIE *op·oro
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *of·oro
2. of·oro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *af·ara
3. af·ara
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Goth. af·ar
Goth. af·ar
(prep.) ‘διά, εἰς, ἐπί, κατά, μετά, ὀπίσω: post’
(GoEtD. A9)
(Goth. afar Mat 8,1 CA; Mat 8,22 CA; Mat 9,9 CA2, etc., HbGo. 199,2a, 200,1)
1. PIE *op·oro
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *of·oro
2. of·oro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *af·ara
3. af·ara
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Goth. af·ar
HLu. ap·ara
(POSTadv.) ‘afterwards’
(CHLu. 10.12.16)
(HLu. POST+ra/i(-ti?))
1. PIE *op·oro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ap·ara
HLu. ap·ara-
(POSTa.) ‘later, lesser’
(CHLu. 10.12.37)
(HLu. POST+ra/i-sa, POST+ra/i-zi/a [CHLu. 10.12.3])
1. PIE *op·oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ap·ara-
√oporoi-
HLu. ap·arai-
(POSTa.) ‘-(?)-’
(CHLu. 6.3.20)
(HLu. POST+ra/i-i-sá [sgN])
1. PIE *op·oroi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ap·arai-
CLu. ap·arai-
(vb.) ‘‹go after/ forth?›’
(HHand. 18)
(CLu. apparaindu [3pl])
1. PIE *op·oroi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ap·arai-
√oporont-
HLu. ap·aranta
(POSTsb.) ‘future’
(CHLu. 2.27.5)
(HLu. POST+ra/i-tá [sgAll] ‘in the future’)
1. PIE *op·oronto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ap·aranta-
CLu. ap·aranti-
(a.) ‘zukünftig, folgend: future’ (HHand. 18)
(DLL. 29)
(CLu. aparanti, ap-pa-ra-an-ti-in)
1. PIE *op·oronti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ap·aranti-
√opt-
OIcl. aptan-
(m.) ‘Abend’
(ANEtWb. 11)
(OIcl. aptann [sgN])
1. PIE *opton-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *opþon-
2. opþon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *apþan-
3. apþan-
*þ → ð
Change of þ into ð
R=þ›=ð → OIcl. apðan-
OIcl. aptr
(adv.) ‘zurück, wiederum’
(ANEtWb. 11)
1. PIE *optro
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *opþro
2. opþro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *apþra
3. apþra
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *apþr
4. apþr
*þ → ð
Change of þ into ð
R=þ›=ð → OIcl. apðr
√pu-
(IEW 55)
Gr. πύ·ματο-
(sup.) ‘hindermost, last’
(Gr. πύματος)
1. PIE *pú·meɑhto-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *pú·maɑhto-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. pú·maɑhto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pú·mahto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pú·mahto-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pú·mato-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pú·mato-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πύ·ματο-
RV. pú·nar
(adv.) ‘zurück, wieder, ferner’
(KEWA 2:305)
(‹suffix unclear›)
1. PIE *pú·nor
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → RV. pú·nar
Lat. pu·ppi-
(f.) ‘Hinterdeck (des Schiffs)’
(for Lat. ·ppi-, see √pɑhpɑh- √bɑɦbɑɦ- ‘Deck, Tisch usw.’)
1. PIE *pu·pɑhpɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pu·phphi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pu·phphi-
*ph → p
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *ph
Rph›p → Lat. pu·ppi-
√opundɑɦ-
OLFrank. avond-
(adv.) ‘Abend’
(MNPs)
(OLFrank. avont [sgD]: vespere 54, 18 Berlin; Son.)
1. PIE *opundɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *opundɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. opundɦ-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *ofundɦ-
3. ofundɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ofund-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. ofund-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *afund-
5. afund-
*afu → -avu
Change of f into v between vowels
Rafu›avu → OLFrank. avund-
√ēbɑɦ-
√ēbɑɦolo-
(Note the semantic difficulty)
CLu. ēbala-
(a.) ‘links: gauche’ (Hitt. GUB-la-, HHand. 62)
(DLL. 51-2)
(CLu. i-pa-la-(a)-ti [sgAbl])
1. PIE *ēbɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēbɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēbɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēbɦala-
3. ēbɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. ēbala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. ēbala·dei-
(c.) ‘linkisches Verhalten, Ungeschicklichkeit’
(HHand. 62)
(CLu. i-pa-la-a-ti-en [sgA], DLL. 51-2)
1. PIE *ēbɑɦolo·dɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēbɦolo·dɦei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēbɦolo·dɦei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēbɦala·dɦei-
3. ēbɦala·dɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. ēbala·dei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ēbɑɦoruos-
(Suffix not confirmed)
CLu. ēbaru̯aša-
(a.) ‘zu linker Hand, links befindlich ‹or ‘western’, see CLuLex. 90›’
(HHand. 62)
1. PIE *ēbɑɦoru̯oso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēbɦoru̯oso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēbɦoru̯oso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēbɦaru̯asa-
3. ēbɦaru̯asa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ēbaru̯asa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ēbaru̯asa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. ēbaru̯aša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. ēbaru̯aši-
(a.) ‘zu linker Hand, links befindlich’
(HHand. 62)
1. PIE *ēbɑɦoru̯osi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēbɦoru̯osi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēbɦoru̯osi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēbɦaru̯asi-
3. ēbɦaru̯asi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ēbaru̯asi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ēbaru̯asi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. ēbaru̯aši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. ēbaru̯ašḫa-
(GKL.) ‘links/Süden ‹or ‘west’, see CLuLex. 91›’
(DLL. 52)
(CLu. [i]-pár-ua-aš-ḫa-aš, i-pár-ua-aš-ḫa-an)
1. PIE *ēbɑɦoru̯osɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēbɦoru̯osho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēbɦoru̯osho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēbɦaru̯asha-
3. ēbɦaru̯asha-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ēbaru̯asha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ēbaru̯asha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ēbaru̯ašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ēbaru̯ašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ēbaru̯ašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √p- √po- √pe- (vb.) ‘schützen’ (sb.) ‘Hirt’
(IEW 839)
(WP. 2:72; Pyysalo: CLu. + gAv.)
√pe/o-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. pa-
(vb.) ‘schützen: protect’
(KBo IV 11 Vs. 55)
(CLu. wašu paddu [3sg])
1. PIE *po-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. pa-
gAv. pa-
(vb.) ‘hüten, schirmen’
(AIWb. 898)
(gAv. pōi [inf.])
1. PIE *po-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → gAv. pa-


PIE √pɑh- (vb.) ‘schädigen’
(IEW 827 *pau-)
(SPIE 387: Anat. + Gr. + Toch.)
√pɑhi-
(Pyysalo)
(CHD P:1f.)
Hitt. paḫi-
(c.) ‘(something harmful)’
(CHD P:1)
(HEG P:361; Hitt. nu anduḫši pa-aḫ-ḫi-in ša-an-aḫ-ḫi-iš-k[i-zi])
1. PIE *peɑhi-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhi-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. paḫi-
(vb.M.) ‘-(?)-’ ‹negative concepts in the context›
(DLL. 77)
(Hitt. pa-aḫ-ḫi-it-ta-ru [3sg])
1. PIE *peɑhi-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhi-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. paḫi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√pɑhil-
(MA. 650)
TochB. pīla-
(m.sg) ‘Wunde’
(DTochB. 387)
(TochB. pīle)
1. PIE *pɑ́hilo-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *píhilo-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. píhilo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *píhila-
3. píhila-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *píila-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. píila-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *pī́la-
5. pī́la-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → TochB. pīla-
TochB. pila-
(m.sg) ‘wound’ (LeTokh. 1:356)
(DTochB. 387)
(TochB. pilenta, pile[n]e, pilentse)
1. PIE *pɑhilo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *philo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. philo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *phila-
3. phila-
*ph → p
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *ph
Rph›p → TochB. pila-
TochB. ·pilentatstse-
(a.) ‘having wounds, wounded’
(DTochB. 387)
1. PIE *pɑhilointo·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *philointo·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. philointo·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *philainta·Σ
3. philainta·Σ
*ph → p
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *ph
Rph›p → *pilainta·Σ
4. pilainta·Σ
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *pilēnta·Σ
5. pilēnta·Σ
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. pilenta·Σ
√pɑhis-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. παίο-
(pr.) ‘schlagen, hauen, stoßen’
(Gr. παίω [1sg])
1. PIE *peɑhíso-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhíso-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhíso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahíso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahíso-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *paíso-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. paíso-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *paího-
5. paího-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *paío-
6. paío-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. παίο-
Hitt. paḫiškeu̯ar-
(n.) ‘(eine feindselige Handlung)’
(HEG P:360-1)
(HHand. 115, Hitt. pa-aḫ-ḫi-eš-ke-u-ua-ar)
1. PIE *peɑhiski̯eu̯or-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhiski̯eu̯or-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhiski̯eu̯or-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahiski̯eu̯or-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahiski̯eu̯or-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *pahisḱeu̯or-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. pahisḱeu̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pahisḱeu̯ar-
5. pahisḱeu̯ar-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *pahiskeu̯ar-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. pahiskeu̯ar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *pahiškeu̯ar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. pahiškeu̯ar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫiškeu̯ar-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Gr. παίσ-
(s.ao.) ‘schlagen, hauen, stoßen’
(Gr. ἔπαισα [1sg])
1. PIE *peɑhíss-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhíss-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhíss-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahíss-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahíss-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *paíss-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. paíss-
*ss → s
Degemination of *ss
Rss›s → *país-
5. país-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. παίσ-
√pɑhu-
Lat. pauio-
(pr.4.) ‘schlagen, stampfen’
(Lat. pauiō [1sg])
1. PIE *peɑhui̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhui̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhui̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahui̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahui̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *paui̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. paui̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. pauio-


PIE √pɑh- √bɑɦ- (vb.) ‘schlucken, trinken, kauen’ (sb.) ‘Tränke, Schmaus, Mal, Beere’
(IEW 145-6, 839-40)
(Schmitt-Brandt 1967:117: Hitt.; Pyysalo: Germ.)
√pɑh-
(IEW 839-40)
(Kuryłowicz 1935:56f.; Pyysalo: Lat.)
Lat. cup·pā-
(f.) ‘Trinkgefäß, Becher’
(WH. 1:311)
(Lat. cuppa [sgN])
1. PIE *kúp·pēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kúp·pāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kúp·pāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kúp·pāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kúp·pāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kúp·pā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kúp·pā-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *cúp·pā-
5. cúp·pā-
*ú → u
Orthographic change of *ú into u
Rú›u → Lat. cup·pā-
RV. pra·pā́-
(f.) ‘Tränke’
(WbRV. 876)
(RV. prapā́ [sgN])
1. PIE *pro·pḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *pro·pā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pro·pā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pro·pā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pro·pā́h-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pra·pā́h-
4. pra·pā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. pra·pā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
RV. agre·pā́-
(a.) ‘zuerst trinkend’
(WbRV. 12)
1. PIE *ɑɦegurei·pḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *ɑɦegurei·pā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ɑɦegurei·pā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦegurei·pā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦegurei·pā́h-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *egurei·pā́h-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. egurei·pā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *egurei·pā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. egurei·pā́-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *egrei·pā́-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. egrei·pā́-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *agrai·pā́-
7. agrai·pā́-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *agrē·pā́-
8. agrē·pā́-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → RV. agre·pā́-
Aeol. πώ-
(√pr.) ‘trinken’
(GEW 2:540)
(Aeol. πῶθι [2sg], LSJ. 1406)
1. PIE *pṓɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pṓh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pṓh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pṓ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. pṓ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Aeol. πώ-
RV. pā́-
(√pr.) ‘trinken’
(WbRV. 800-1)
(RV. pāhí [2sg], ápām, ápās)
1. PIE *pṓɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pṓh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pṓh-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *pā́h-
3. pā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. pā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
RV. papā-
(pf.) ‘trinken’
(WbRV. 802)
(RV. papātha [2sg], papā́u [3sg])
1. PIE *pepōɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pepōh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pepōh-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *pepāh-
3. pepāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pepā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pepā-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. papā-
RV. pā́·ma
(√pr.) ‘trinken’
(WbRV. 800-1)
(RV. apāma, with Brugmann’s law II, see SPIE 121ff.)
1. PIE *póɑh·me
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *póh·me
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. póh·me
PIE *óhCV → ā́hCV
Brugmann’s Law for *óhCV
RóHCV›ā́HCV → *pā́h·me
(SPIE §2.3.7)
3. pā́h·me
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pā́·me
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pā́·me
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. pā́·ma
Fal. pipa-
(vb.) ‘trinken’
(WH. 2:103)
(Fal. pipafo [fut1sg]; or from PItal. *piba-?)
1. PIE *pipeɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *pipaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. pipaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pipah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pipah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Fal. pipa-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√pɑhi-
Gr. πί̄-
(ao.) ‘trinken’
(Gr. πῖθι [2sg])
1. PIE *pɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *píhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. píhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *píi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. píi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *pī́-
4. pī́-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πί̄-
OCS. pi-
(vb.) ‘trinken’
(Sadnik √655)
(OCS. piti [inf.])
1. PIE *pɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *píhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. píhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *píi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. píi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *pī́-
4. pī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *pí-
5. pí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → OCS. pi-
RV. papī-
(pf.) ‘trinken’
(WbRV. 802)
(RV. papīyāt [opt3sg])
1. PIE *pepɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *pepíhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. pepíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pepíi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. pepíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *pepī́-
4. pepī́-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. papī́-
√pɑhk-
(Delamarre, Pyysalo)
Gr. πέ·πωκ-
(pf.) ‘trinken’
(Gr. πέπωκα [1sg])
1. PIE *pé·pōɑhk-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pé·pōhk-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pé·pōhk-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pé·pōk-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. pé·pōk-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πέ·πωκ-
OInd. taila·paka-
(m.) ‘tailapā- = oil-drinker’
(MonWil. 455)
1. PIE *Π·peɑhko-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *Π·paɑhko-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. Π·paɑhko-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·pahko-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·pahko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·pahka-
4. Π·pahka-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OInd. Π·paka-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OGaul. oclo-
(m.?) ‘boisso[n]’
(DLG. 237)
(in OGaul. ocl[…])
1. PIE *poɑhklo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pohklo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pohklo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *poklo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. poklo-
*p → h
Change of *p into h
Rp›h → *hoklo-
4. hoklo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oklo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. oklo-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OGaul. oclo-
OIr. ōl-
(m.) ‘boisson, fait de boire’
(DLG. 237)
(OIr. ól)
1. PIE *poɑhklo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pohklo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pohklo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *poklo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. poklo
okl → ōl
Loss of *k with lengthening of *o
Rokl›ōl → *pōlo
4. pōlo
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → OIr. pōl
Lat. pōclo-
(n.) ‘Becher’
(Lat. pōcla)
1. PIE *pōɑhklo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pōhklo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pōhklo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pōklo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. pōklo-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. pōclo-
√pɑhs-
RV. pās-
(ao.) ‘trinken’
(WbRV. 802)
(RV. ápās [3sg])
1. PIE *pōɑhs-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pōhs-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pōhs-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *pāhs-
3. pāhs-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. pās-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
RV. pípāsa-
(des.) ‘trinken wollen’
(WbRV. 802)
(RV. pípāsati)
1. PIE *pípōɑhseɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *pípōɑhsaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. pípōɑhsaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pípōhsah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pípōhsah-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *pípāhsah-
4. pípāhsah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. pípāsa-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OInd. pāsyá-
(fut.) ‘trinken werden’
(MonWIl. 612)
(OInd. pāsyáti, -te)
1. PIE *pōɑhsi̯ó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pōhsi̯ó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pōhsi̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *pōhsi̯á-
3. pōhsi̯á-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *pāhsi̯á-
4. pāhsi̯á-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pāsi̯á-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. pāsi̯á-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. pāsyá-
Gr. πώσκο-
(pr.) ‘trinken’
(GEW 2:540)
(Gr. πώσκω)
1. PIE *pṓɑhski̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pṓhski̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pṓhski̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *pṓhsḱo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. pṓhsḱo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pṓsḱo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pṓsḱo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *pṓsko-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. pṓsko-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πώσκο-
Lat. pōscā-
(f.) ‘Wasser mit Essig gemischt als Getränk’
(Lat. pōsca)
1. PIE *pōɑhski̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pōɑhski̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pōɑhski̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pōhski̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pōhski̯āh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *pōhsḱāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. pōhsḱāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pōsḱā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. pōsḱā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *pōskā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. pōskā-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. pōscā-
√bɑɦos-
(Schmitt-Brandt 1967:117)
(IEW 145-6)
Hitt. baš-
(vb.2.) ‘schlucken, verschlucken: swallow, gulp’
(HHand. 126)
(HIL. 750-1, Hitt. pa-a-ši [3sg], pa-a-šu [3sg])
1. PIE *bɑɦos-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦos-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦas-
3. bɦas-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *bas-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. bas-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. baš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. baš-
(vb.1.) ‘sclucken, verschluken’
(HHand. 126)
(Hitt. pa-aš-zi, pa-aš-ta [3sg])
1. PIE *bɑɦos-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦos-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦas-
3. bɦas-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *bas-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. bas-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. baš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. baš-
(GKLvb.) ‘schlucken, verschlucken’
(HHand. 126)
(CLu. pa-aš-ta [3sg])
1. PIE *bɑɦos-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦos-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦas-
3. bɦas-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *bas-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. bas-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. baš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. prá (...) babhas-
(pr.) ‘zerkauen’
(WbRV. 930)
(RV. prá (...) babhasat [conj])
1. PIE *Π·bɑɦebɑɦos-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·bɦebɦos-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·bɦebɦos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·bɦebɦas-
3. Π·bɦebɦas-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmann → *Π·bebɦas-
(SPIE §4.6.4)
4. Π·bebɦas-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *Π·babɦas-
5. Π·babɦas-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. Π·babhas-
√bɑɦoso-
(CHD P:203f.)
(HIL. 726f.; Pyysalo: Av.)
Hitt. baša-
(vb.1.) ‘schlucken, verschlucken’
(HHand. 126)
(Hitt. pa-ša?-a[n-zi] [3pl])
1. PIE *bɑɦoso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦoso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦoso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦasa-
3. bɦasa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *basa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. basa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. baša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. arḫa (…) babaša·-
(vb.2.) ‘verschlucken: swallow’
(HIL. 726)
(CLu. pa-ap-pa-ša-i [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·bɑɦobɑɦoso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·bɦobɦoso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·bɦobɦoso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·bɦabɦasa-
3. Π·bɦabɦasa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *Π·babasa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·babasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. Π·babaša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. baŋha-
(m.) ‘N. einer Pflanze und deren Saft’
(AIWb. 925)
(LAv. baŋhǝm)
1. PIE *bɑɦoso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦoso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦoso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦasa-
3. bɦasa-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *bɦaha-
4. bɦaha-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *baha-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. baha-
ahA → aŋhA
Change of h into ŋh
RahA›aŋhA → LAv. baŋha-
LAv. baŋha-
(a.) ‘trunken, narkotisirt’
(AIWb. 925)
(LAv. baŋhǝm)
1. PIE *bɑɦoso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦoso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦoso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦasa-
3. bɦasa-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *bɦaha-
4. bɦaha-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *baha-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. baha-
ahA → aŋhA
Change of h into ŋh
RahA›aŋhA → LAv. baŋha-
LAv. a·baŋha-
(a.) ‘frei von dem baŋha-’
(AIWb. 87)
(LAv. abaŋhō [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑe·bɑɦoso-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑa·bɑɦoso-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑa·bɑɦoso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ha·bɦoso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ha·bɦoso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ha·bɦasa-
4. ha·bɦasa-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *a·bɦasa-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. a·bɦasa-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *a·bɦaha-
6. a·bɦaha-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *a·baha-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. a·baha-
ahA → aŋhA
Change of h into ŋh
RahA›aŋhA → LAv. a·baŋha-
RV. bhása-
(pr.) ‘kauen’
(WbRV. 930)
(RV. bhásat [3sg])
1. PIE *bɑɦóso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦóso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦóso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦósa-
3. bɦósa-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *bɦása-
4. bɦása-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. bhása-
RV. bhasá-
(pr.) ‘zerkauen, verzehren’
(WbRV. 930)
(RV. bhasáthas [3du])
1. PIE *bɑɦosó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦosó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦosó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦasó-
3. bɦasó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *bɦasá-
4. bɦasá-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. bhasá-
RV. prá (…) bhása·-
(pr.) ‘zerkauen, zerbeissen’
(WbRV. 930)
(RV. prá (...) bhásat [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·bɑɦóso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·bɦóso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·bɦóso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·bɦósa-
3. Π·bɦósa-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·bɦása-
4. Π·bɦása-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. Π·bhása-
√bɑɦosi-
(Pyysalo: Germ.)
(IEW 105 [diff.])
Goth. weina·basi-
(n.) ‘Weinbeere’
(IEW 105)
(Pokorny “Unsicher ist, ob (…) eigentlich ‘rote Beere’?”)
1. PIE *Π·bɑɦosio
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·bɦosio
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·bɦosio
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *Π·bosio
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. Π·bosio
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·basia
4. Π·basia
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Goth. Π·basi
OSax. beri-
(n.) ‘Beere’
(ASächsWb. 6)
1. PIE *bɑɦosío
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦosío
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦosío
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *bosío
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. bosío
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *basía
4. basía
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *basí
5. basí
*asi → esi
Umlaut *asi- to esi
Rasí›esí → *besí
6. besí
*esí → -erí
Verner's Law
Resí›erí → *berí
7. berí
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → OSax. beri
OHG. beri-
(n.) ‘Beere, Traube: berry, grape’
(EWAhd. 1, 560)
(IEW 105; Lat. baca Gl, fructus Gl, uva Gl, N, NGl)
1. PIE *bɑɦosío
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦosío
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦosío
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *bosío
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. bosío
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *basía
4. basía
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *basí
5. basí
*asi → esi
Umlaut *asi- to esi
Rasí›esí → *besí
6. besí
*esí → -erí
Verner's Law
Resí›erí → *berí
7. berí
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → OHG. beri
Hitt. bašiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘swallow, gulp down’
(HIL. 750)
(Hitt. pa-a-ši-iš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *bɑɦosiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦosiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦosiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *bɦosisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. bɦosisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦasisḱe/a-
4. bɦasisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *bɦasiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. bɦasiske/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *basiske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. basiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. bašiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√bɑɦosol-
(CHD P:100)
CLu. babašal-
(n.) ‘Speiseröhre: throat, esophagus’
(HHand. 119)
(CLu. [pa-]pa-ša-a-la [plNA], HuIdg. 206)
1. PIE *bɑɦobɑɦosol-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦobɦosol-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦobɦosol-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦabɦasal-
3. bɦabɦasal-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *babasal-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. babasal-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. babašal-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. babašala-
(UZUc.) ‘Speiseröhre’
(HHand. 119)
(Hitt. pa-ap-pa-aš-ša-la-an [sgA], pa-pa-aš-ša-la-an [sgA])
1. PIE *bɑɦobɑɦosolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦobɦosolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦobɦosolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦabɦasala-
3. bɦabɦasala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *babasala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. babasala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. babašala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. babašali-
(UZUc.) ‘Speiseröhre: esophagus’
(HHand. 119)
(Hitt. pa-ap-pa-aš-ša-li-in [sgA])
1. PIE *bɑɦobɑɦosoli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦobɦosoli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦobɦosoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦabɦasali-
3. bɦabɦasali-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *babasali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. babasali-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. babašali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√bɑɦoske/o-
Hitt. baške/a-
(vb.) ‘schlucken’
(HHand. 126)
(Hitt. pa-aš-ke/a-, pa-aš-ga-mi)
1. PIE *bɑɦoske/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦoske/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦoske/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦaske/a-
3. bɦaske/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *baske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. baske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. baške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. baške/a-
(GKLvb.) ‘schlucken’
(DLL. 80)
(CLu. pa-aš-ki-[...)
1. PIE *bɑɦoske/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦoske/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦoske/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦaske/a-
3. bɦaske/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *baske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. baske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. baške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√bɑɦosm-
RV. bhásman-
(a.) ‘kauend, verzehrend’
(WbRV. 930)
1. PIE *bɑɦósmen-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦósmen-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦósmen-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *bɦásmen-
3. bɦásmen-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *bɦásman-
4. bɦásman-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. bhásman-
√bɑɦosn-
TochA. päsnā-
(pr.M.) ‘devouring’ (DTochB. 400)
(Poucha 179)
(TochA. ///mäl ṣeṣ camyo talke ypamāṃ kosmāṃ päsnāmāṃ [pt.sgN] tämyo.)
1. PIE *bɑɦosnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *bɑɦosnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. bɑɦosnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦosnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. bɦosnāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦasnāh-
4. bɦasnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *bɦasnā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. bɦasnā-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *basnā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. basnā-
*b → p
Loss of voice of media *b
Rb›p → TochA. pasnā-
Hitt. bašandala-
(LÚc.) ‘a servant in the palace kitchen, taster?’
(HIL. 751)
1. PIE *bɑɦosondɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦosondɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦosondɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦasandɦala-
3. bɦasandɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *basandala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. basandala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. bašandala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√bɑɦosu-
CLu. bašu-
(vb.) ‘schlucken: swallow’
(DLL. 80)
(CLu. pa-aš-šu-ú-na [inf.], KLuN. 310f.)
1. PIE *bɑɦosu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦosu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦosu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦasu-
3. bɦasu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *basu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. basu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. bašu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. bašu̯a-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘swallow, gulp down’
(HIL. 750)
(Hitt. pa-a-aš-šu-an-zi [inf.])
1. PIE *bɑɦosu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦosu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦosu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦasu̯a-
3. bɦasu̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *basu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. basu̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. bašu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√bɑɦs-
RV. baps-
(vb.) ‘zerkauen, verzehren’
(WbRV. 930)
(RV. bapsati [3pl])
1. PIE *bɑɦobɑɦs-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦobɦs-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦobɦs-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦabɦs-
3. bɦabɦs-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmann → *babɦs-
(SPIE §4.6.4)
4. babɦs-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → RV. baps-
√bɑɦso-
Gr. ὄ·ψο-
(n.) ‘Zukost, Zubrot, bes. Fleisch’
(GEW 2:459)
1. PIE *ó·bɑɦso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ó·bɦso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ó·bɦso-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *ó·phso-
3. ó·phso-
*phs → ps
Loss of *h between *p and *s
Rphs›ps → *ó·pso-
4. ó·pso-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄ·ψο-
RV. bapsa-
(pr.) ‘zerkauen, verzehren’
(WbRV. 930)
(RV. bapsati [3sg])
1. PIE *bɑɦobɑɦso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦobɦso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦobɦso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦabɦsa-
3. bɦabɦsa-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmann → *babɦsa-
(SPIE §4.6.4)
4. babɦsa-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → RV. bapsa-
RV. bápsat-
(pt.) ‘kauend, zerkauend, verzehrend’
(WbRV. 930)
1. PIE *bɑɦóbɑɦsot-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦóbɦsot-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦóbɦsot-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦóbɦsat-
3. bɦóbɦsat-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *bɦábɦsat-
4. bɦábɦsat-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmann → *bábɦsat-
(SPIE §4.6.4)
5. bábɦsat-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → RV. bápsat-
√bɑɦsɑh-
AV. psā-
(vb.) ‘verzehren’
(WbRV. 895)
(AV. psātas [3du], psāhi [2sg])
1. PIE *bɑɦsēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *bɑɦsāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. bɑɦsāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦsāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. bɦsāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *bɦsā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. bɦsā-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → AV. psā-
√bɑɦsɑhi-
OInd. psīyá-
(pr.P.) ‘swallow, chew, devour, eat’
(MonWil. 715)
(OInd. ápsīyata; EWA –)
1. PIE *bɑɦsɑ́hii̯ó-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *bɑɦsíhii̯ó-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. bɑɦsíhii̯ó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦsíhii̯ó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. bɦsíhii̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *bɦsíhii̯á-
4. bɦsíhii̯á-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *bɦsíii̯á-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. bɦsíii̯á-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *bɦsī́i̯á-
6. bɦsī́i̯á-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → *psī́i̯á-
7. psī́i̯á-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. psī́yá-
Gr. ψί̄ο-
(pr.A.) ‘mit Bröckchen, Milch füttern, zerkauen’
(Gr. ψίω)
1. PIE *bɑɦsɑ́hii̯o-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *bɑɦsíhii̯o-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. bɑɦsíhii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦsíhii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. bɦsíhii̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *bɦsíii̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. bɦsíii̯o-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *phsíii̯o-
5. phsíii̯o-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *phsī́i̯o-
6. phsī́i̯o-
*phs → ps
Loss of *h between *p and *s
Rphs›ps → *psī́i̯o-
7. psī́i̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *psī́o-
8. psī́o-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ψί̄ο-
√bɑɦsɑht-
OInd. psātá-
(pt.) ‘chewed, eaten, devoured; hungry’
(MonWil. 715)
(OInd. psātá-)
1. PIE *bɑɦsēɑhtó-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *bɑɦsāɑhtó-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. bɑɦsāɑhtó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦsāhtó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. bɦsāhtó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *bɦsāhtá-
4. bɦsāhtá-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *bɦsātá-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. bɦsātá-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → OInd. psātá-
√bɑɦsniɑh-
RV. viśvá·psni.a-
(a.) ‘alle Nahrung erhaltend, allnährend’
(WbRV. 1302)
1. PIE *Π·bɑɦsniɑHo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·bɦsniHo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·bɦsniHo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·bɦsniHa-
3. Π·bɦsniHa-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → *Π·bɦsni.a-
4. Π·bɦsni.a-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → RV. Π·psni.a-
√bɑɦsor-
RV. sa·psará-
(a.) ‘gleiches genießend’
(WbRV. 1477)
(RV. sapsará-)
1. PIE *seɑh·bɑɦsoró-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑh·bɑɦsoró-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑh·bɑɦsoró-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sah·bɦsoró-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sah·bɦsoró-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sah·bɦsaró-
4. sah·bɦsaró-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *sah·bɦsará-
5. sah·bɦsará-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sa·bɦsará-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. sa·bɦsará-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → RV. sa·psará-
RV. psáras-
(n.) ‘Schmaus, Mahl’
(WbRV. 895)
(RV. psáras-)
1. PIE *bɑɦséros-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦséros-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦséros-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦséras-
3. bɦséras-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *bɦsáras-
4. bɦsáras-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → RV. psáras-
RV. su·psáras-
(a.) ‘schönes Mahl genießend, schön schmausend’
(WbRV. 1542)
1. PIE *su·bɑɦséros-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *su·bɦséros-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. su·bɦséros-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su·bɦséras-
3. su·bɦséras-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *su·bɦsáras-
4. su·bɦsáras-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → RV. su·psáras-
RV. madhu·psáras-
(a.) ‘Süßigkeit, süße Soma schmausend’
(WbRV. 986)
1. PIE *Π·bɑɦséros-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·bɦséros-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·bɦséros-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·bɦséras-
3. Π·bɦséras-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *Π·bɦsáras-
4. Π·bɦsáras-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → RV. Π·psáras-
√bɑɦsu-
RV. á·psu-
(a.) ‘ohne Speise’
(WbRV. 80)
1. PIE *hɑé·bɑɦsu-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *hɑá·bɑɦsu-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑá·bɑɦsu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *há·bɦsu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. há·bɦsu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *á·bɦsu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. á·bɦsu-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → RV. á·psu-
RV. psúr-
(f.) ‘Nahrung’
(WbRV. 395)
(RV. psúras [plA])
1. PIE *bɑɦsúr-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦsúr-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦsúr-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → RV. psúr-


PIE √pɑhl- √bɑɦl- (vb.) ‘fallen, in eine Falle locken, täuschen’ (sb.) ‘Fall, Falle, Verlust, Tod’ (a.) ‘falsch, irrig’
(IEW 851)
(Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√poɑhlo-
Lith. púola-
(pr.) ‘fallen’
(LiEtWb. 666)
(Lith. púola [3pers])
1. PIE *pṓɑhlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pṓhlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pṓhlo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pṓlo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. pṓlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pṓla-
4. pṓla-
*ṓ → úo
Change of ṓ into úo
Rṓ›úo → Lith. púola-
Lith. púola-
(pr.) ‘über jmd. [A] herfallen, ihn [A] angreifen’
(LiEtWb. 666)
(Lith. púola [3pers])
1. PIE *pṓɑhlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pṓhlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pṓhlo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pṓlo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. pṓlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pṓla-
4. pṓla-
*ṓ → úo
Change of ṓ into úo
Rṓ›úo → Lith. púola-
Latv. puola-
(vb.) ‘fallen’
(LiEtWb. 666)
(Latv. puolu [1sg])
1. PIE *pōɑhlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pōhlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pōhlo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pōlo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. pōlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pōla-
4. pōla-
*ō → uo
Change of ō into uo
Rō›uo → Latv. puola-
Lith. pra·puolìma-
(m.2.) ‘Abhandenkommen, Veschwinden usw.’
(LiEtWb. 666)
1. PIE *Π·pōɑhlímo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·pōhlímo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·pōhlímo-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *Π·pōhlìmo-
3. Π·pōhlìmo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·pōlìmo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·pōlìmo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·pōlìma-
5. Π·pōlìma-
*ō → uo
Change of ō into uo
Rō›uo → Lith. Π·puolìma-
√pɑhlo-
(HEG A:43)
(HED 1:95f., HIL. 234f.)
Hitt. a·pala-
(c.) ‘Falle, Hinterhalt’
(HHand. 18)
(Hitt. a-ap-pa-li [DL], ap-pa-al-li)
1. PIE *o·pɑholo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·pholo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·pholo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·phala-
3. a·phala-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. a·pala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. a·pala-
(vb.) ‘in eine Falle locken: entrap’
(HIL. 234)
(Hitt. a-ap-pa-la-a-u-e-ni [1pl])
1. PIE *o·pɑholo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·pholo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·pholo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·phala-
3. a·phala-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. a·pala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√pɑhlɑhni-
Arm. la-
(ao.) ‘einfallen: collapse’
(ArmGr. 1:501)
(Arm. pʼlay)
1. PIE *pɑhlēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pɑhlāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pɑhlāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *phlāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. phlāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *phlā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. phlā-
*ph → pʼ
Glottalization of *ph
Rph›p' → *p'lā-
5. p'lā-
*p- → h-
Change of *p- into h-
Rp=›h= → *h'lā-
6. h'lā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Arm. h'la-
Arm. la·ni-
(pr.) ‘einfallen: collapse’
(ArmGr. 1:501)
(Arm. pʼlanim [1sg])
1. PIE *pɑhlēɑh·Σ
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pɑhlāɑh·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pɑhlāɑh·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *phlāh·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. phlāh·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *phlā·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. phlā·Σ
*ph → pʼ
Glottalization of *ph
Rph›p' → *p'lā·Σ
5. p'lā·Σ
*p- → h-
Change of *p- into h-
Rp=›h= → *h'lā·Σ
6. h'lā·Σ
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Arm. h'la·Σ
√pɑhli-
Hitt. a·palai-
(vb.) ‘in eine Falle locken’
(HHand. 18)
(Hitt. a-ap-pa-la-a-iz-zi)
1. PIE *o·pɑholoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·pholoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·pholoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·phalai-
3. a·phalai-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. a·palai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. a·pali ta-
(vb.) ‘mislead’ (KLuN. 317f.: “take into a trap”)
(HIL. 234)
1. PIE *o·pɑholi·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·pholi·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·pholi·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·phali·Σ
3. a·phali·Σ
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. a·pali·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. a·paleiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘in eine Falle locken’
(HHand. 18)
(Hitt. ap-pa-li-eš-ke/a-, ap-pa-li-iš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *o·pɑholeiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·pholeiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·pholeiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *o·pholeisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. o·pholeisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·phaleisḱe/a-
4. a·phaleisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *a·phaleiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. a·phaleiske/a-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *a·paleiske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. a·paleiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. a·paleiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. a·palei̯ala-
(N.ag.c.) ‘Fallensteller; Betrüger, Gegner, Feind’
(HHand. 18)
(Hitt. ap-pa-li-ia-al-la-ša)
1. PIE *o·pɑholei̯olo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·pholei̯olo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·pholei̯olo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·phalei̯ala-
3. a·phalei̯ala-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. a·palei̯ala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√pɑhln-
OHG. fall-
(m.) ‘Fall, Untergang, Sturz, Verderben, Raub’
(EWAhd. F-2)
1. PIE *poɑhlno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pohlno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pohlno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *polno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. polno-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *folno-
4. folno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *falna-
5. falna-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → OHG. falla-
OIcl. fall-
(n.) ‘Fall, Tod, Verlust’
(ANEtWb. 110)
1. PIE *poɑhlno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pohlno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pohlno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *polno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. polno-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›fRestr → *folno-
4. folno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *falna-
5. falna-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → OIcl. falla-
OHG. falla-
(vb.) ‘fallen, (herab)stürzen, zu Fall kommen usw.’
(EWAhd. F-3)
1. PIE *poɑhlno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pohlno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pohlno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *polno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. polno-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *folno-
4. folno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *falna-
5. falna-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → OHG. falla-
OHG. falla·n-
(f.) ‘Falle, Fallstrick, Netz: decipula’
(EWAhd. F-3)
1. PIE *poɑhlno·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pohlno·n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pohlno·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *polno·n-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. polno·n-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *folno·n-
4. folno·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *falna·n-
5. falna·n-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → OHG. falla·n-
OEng. fealla-
(vb.) ‘fall (down), fail’
(ASaxD. 271)
1. PIE *poɑhlno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pohlno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pohlno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *polno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. polno-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *folno-
4. folno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *falna-
5. falna-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → OEng. falla-
√pɑhlns-
MidHG. vals-
(a.) ‘falsch’
(EWAhd. F-4)
1. PIE *poɑhlnso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pohlnso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pohlnso-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *polnso-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. polnso-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *folnso-
4. folnso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *falnsa-
5. falnsa-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *fallsa-
6. fallsa-
*lls → ls
Simplification of *lls to ls
Rlls›ls → *falsa-
7. falsa-
*f- → v-
Orthographic change of f- into v-
Rf›v → MidHG. valsa-
OHG. falscō-
(vb.) ‘widerlegen’
(EWAhd. F-4)
1. PIE *poɑhlnski̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *poɑhlnski̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. poɑhlnski̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pohlnski̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pohlnski̯āh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *pohlnsḱāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. pohlnsḱāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *polnsḱā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. polnsḱā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *polnskā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. polnskā-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *folnskā-
7. folnskā-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *falnskā-
8. falnskā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *falnskō-
(XX:XX)
9. falnskō-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *fallskō-
10. fallskō-
*lls → ls
Simplification of *lls to ls
Rlls›ls → *falskō-
11. falskō-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OHG. falscō-
OHG. falsc·heit-
(f.) ‘Falschheit’
(EWAhd. F-4)
1. PIE *poɑhlnski·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pohlnski·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pohlnski·Σ
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *pohlnsḱ·Σ
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. pohlnsḱ·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *polnsḱ·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. polnsḱ·Σ
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *polnsk·Σ
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. polnsk·Σ
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *folnsk·Σ
6. folnsk·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *falnsk·Σ
7. falnsk·Σ
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *fallsk·Σ
8. fallsk·Σ
*lls → ls
Simplification of *lls to ls
Rlls›ls → *falsk·Σ
9. falsk·Σ
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OHG. falsc·Σ


PIE √pɑhn- √bɑɦn- (a.) ‘ganz, all, jeder, voll’
(IEW 593)
(Pyysalo: Gr. + Germ. + Anat.)
√peɑhn-
(Pyysalo: OHG. + Gr.)
Gr. πάν
(adv.) ‘ganz, all, jeder’
(GEW 2:476-7)
1. PIE *péɑhn-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *páɑhn-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. páɑhn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *páhn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. páhn-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pán-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pán-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πάν-
OHG. gou·fan-
(a.) ‘Handvoll’
(Gl. 8th cent.)
(OHG. goufana; cf. OHG. gou·sana ‘id.’)
1. PIE *gɑɦou·peɑhno
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *gɑɦou·paɑhno
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. gɑɦou·paɑhno
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦou·pahno
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦou·pahno
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦou·pano
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. gɦou·pano
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *gɦou·fano
5. gɦou·fano
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gou·fano
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. gou·fano
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gau·fana
7. gau·fana
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *gau·fan
8. gau·fan
*au → ou
Change of au into ou
Rau›ou → OHG. gou·fan
Gr. πάν·χυ
(adv.) ‘ganz und gar’
(GEW 2:460)
1. PIE *péɑhn·giɑɦu-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *páɑhn·giɑɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. páɑhn·giɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *páhn·giɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. páhn·giɦu-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *páhn·ǵɦu-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. páhn·ǵɦu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pán·ǵɦu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. pán·ǵɦu-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *pán·ḱhu-
6. pán·ḱhu-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *pán·khu-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. pán·khu-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πάν·χυ-
Gr. πάντ-
(a.) ‘ganz, all, jeder’
(GEW 2:476-7)
1. PIE *péɑhnt-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *páɑhnt-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. páɑhnt-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *páhnt-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. páhnt-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pánt-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pánt-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πάντ-
Gr. πάνυ
(adv.) ‘ganz und gar, gar sehr’
(GEW 2:476)
1. PIE *péɑhnu-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *páɑhnu-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. páɑhnu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *páhnu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. páhnu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pánu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pánu-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πάνυ-
√bɑɦn-
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + CLu.)
(HEG P:409)
Hitt. ban
(adv.) ‘gänzlich, zur Gänze’
(HHand. 118)
1. PIE *bɑɦon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦan-
3. bɦan-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ban-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. bana·muu̯atei-
(Ic.) ‘-(?)-’
(CHLu. 6.1.1)
(HLu. pa-na-mu-wa/i-ti-sa)
1. PIE *bɑɦono·muu̯otei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦono·muu̯otei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦono·muu̯otei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦana·muu̯atei-
3. bɦana·muu̯atei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. bana·muu̯atei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. bani
(adv.) ‘gänzlich, zur Gänze’
(HHand. 118)
1. PIE *bɑɦoni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦoni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦani-
3. bɦani-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. bani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. u̯id·bani-
(c.) ‘testicles’
(KUB ix 6+ Rs. iii 28)
(CLu. uitpanim-pa-an uidāindu ‹for CLu. u̯id- see PIE √u̯idɑɦ-‘Mann, Hoden, Penis’›)
1. PIE *u̯idɑɦ·bɑɦoni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯idɦ·bɦoni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯idɦ·bɦoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯idɦ·bɦani-
3. u̯idɦ·bɦani-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. u̯id·bani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √pɑhpɑh- √bɑɦbɑɦ- (sb.) ‘Tisch, Deck, Tablett usw.’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√ppi-
Lat. pu·ppi-
(f.) ‘Hinterdeck (des Schiffs)’
1. PIE *pu·pɑhpɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pu·phphi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pu·phphi-
*ph → p
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *ph
Rph›p → Lat. pu·ppi-
√bɑɦobɑɦ-
(CHD P:96)
Hitt. bab-
(vb.) ‘make loaves out of dough’
(HIL. 725)
(Hitt. pa-a-pa?-an-zi [3pl])
1. PIE *bɑɦobɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦobɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦobɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦabɦ-
3. bɦabɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. bab-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√bɑɦobɑɦu-
(CHD P:108)
Hitt. babu-
(GIŠc.) ‘Tisch?; Gestell?’
(HHand. 119)
(Hitt. pa-pu-u-un [sgA], [p]a?-a-p[u]-u-un?-na, “hölzernes Gerät, das in der Beckerei verwendet wird”.)
1. PIE *bɑɦobɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦobɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦobɦu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦabɦu-
3. bɦabɦu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. babu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. babu̯a-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘(Teig) formen, kneten?’
(HHand. 119)
(in Hitt. pa-a-pu-u-ua-an-zi [inf.], pa-a-pu-ua-an-zi [id.])
1. PIE *bɑɦobɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦobɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦobɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦabɦu̯a-
3. bɦabɦu̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. babu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√bɑɦobɑɦul-
(CHD P:108)
Hitt. babul-
(GIŠn.) ‘Backbrett?; Tablett?’
(HHand. 119)
(Hitt. pa-a-pu-li [DL or NA, cf. below], “hölzernes Gerät zum Transportieren von Broten”)
1. PIE *bɑɦobɑɦul-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦobɦul-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦobɦul-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦabɦul-
3. bɦabɦul-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. babul-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. babuli-
(GIŠn.) ‘Backbrett?’; Tablett?’
(HHand. 119)
(“hölzernes Gerät zum Transportieren von Broten”)
1. PIE *bɑɦobɑɦuli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦobɦuli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦobɦuli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦabɦuli-
3. bɦabɦuli-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. babuli-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √pɑhr- √bɑɦr- (vb.) ‘erscheinen’
(IEW 789, CHD P:134)
(Pyysalo: √pɑhr- + √bɑɦr-)
√pɑhr-
(IEW 789)
(WP. 2:6)
Gr. πεπαρό-
(ao.red.) ‘vorzeigen’
(Gr. πεπαρεῖν)
1. PIE *pepeɑhrό-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *pepaɑhrό-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. pepaɑhrό-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pepahrό-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pepahrό-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *peparό-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. peparό-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πεπαρό-
Lat. pāreo-
(pr.2.) ‘sichtbar sein, erscheinen, sich zeigen’
(Lat. pāreō)
1. PIE *pēɑhrei̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pāɑhrei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pāɑhrei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pāhrei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pāhrei̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pārei̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pārei̯o-
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
Rei̯o›eo → Lat. pāreo-
Lat. pāru-
(pf.) ‘sichtbar sein, erscheinen, sich zeigen’
(Lat. pāruit)
1. PIE *pēɑhru-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pāɑhru-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pāɑhru-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pāhru-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pāhru-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. pāru-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Dor. πεπᾱρεύ·σιμο-
(a.) ‘εὔφραστον, σαφές’
(GEW 2:508)
(Hes. πεπαρεύσιμον · εὔφραστον, σαφές)
1. PIE *pepēɑhreú·Σ
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pepāɑhreú·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pepāɑhreú·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pepāhreú·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pepāhreú·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pepāreú·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pepāreú·Σ
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. πεπᾱρεύ·Σ
√bɑɦro-
(CHD P:134)
(HIL. 729f.; HEG P:439f.; SHV 472; AHPh. 220, 222; Pyysalo: Hitt. + Celt. + IIr.)
Hitt. bara-
(vb.2.) ‘erscheinen, auftreten, vorkommen’
(HHand. 120)
(Hitt. pa-ra-a-i [3sg]
1. PIE *bɑɦoro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦoro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦoro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦara-
3. bɦara-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. bara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. bawra-
(m.) ‘Biber’
(AIWb. 925)
1. PIE *bɑɦebɑɦro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦebɦro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦebɦro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦebɦra-
3. bɦebɦra-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *bebra-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. bebra-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *babra-
5. babra-
abr → awr
Change of *b into w
Rabr›awr → LAv. bawra-
√bɑɦrɑhk-
(Pyysalo)
OIr. bārach-
(m*o?) ‘morrow’
(EtDiPC. 50)
(LEIA B-16, i mbárach ‘tomorrow’)
1. PIE *bɑɦṓrēɑhko
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *bɑɦṓrāɑhko
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. bɑɦṓrāɑhko
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦṓrāhko
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. bɦṓrāhko
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *bɦṓrāko
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. bɦṓrāko
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *bṓrāko
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. bṓrāko
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *bā́rāko
6. bā́rāko
VkV → VkhV
Lenition of voiceless stop *k
Rk›kh → *bā́rākho
7. bā́rākho
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *bā́rakho
8. bā́rakho
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → *bā́rakh
9. bā́rakh
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *bā́rach
10. bā́rach
Rā́›ā → OIr. bārach
√bɑɦri-
Pal. barai-
(vb.) ‘zum Vorschein kommen, erscheinen’
(HHand. 120)
(Pal. pa-ra-i-it, DPal. 67: ‘er blies’, evtl. ‘er jagte’)
1. PIE *bɑɦoroi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦoroi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦoroi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦarai-
3. bɦarai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Pal. barai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. bawri-
(m.) ‘Biber’ (f.) ‘Biberweibchen’
(AIWb. 925)
1. PIE *bɑɦebɑɦri-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦebɦri-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦebɦri-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *bebri-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. bebri-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *babri-
4. babri-
abr → awr
Change of *b into w
Rabr›awr → LAv. bawri-
√bɑɦorm-
OInd. bharmaṇ-
(n.) ‘Gold, Münze, Lohn’
(EWA 3:365)
(KEWA 2:365)
1. PIE *bɑɦormen-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦormen-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦormen-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦarmen-
3. bɦarmen-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *bɦarman-
4. bɦarman-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → *bɦarmaṇ-
5. bɦarmaṇ-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → OInd. bharmaṇ-
√bɑɦron-
Hitt. baran-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘appear, emerge’
(HIL. 729)
(Hitt. pa-ra-an-na-aš [sgG], HEG P:440)
1. PIE *bɑɦoron-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦoron-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦoron-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦaran-
3. bɦaran-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. baran-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. bawraini-
(a.) ‘von Biber stammend, biber-’
(AIWb. 925)
1. PIE *bɑɦebɑɦroni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦebɦroni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦebɦroni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦebɦrani-
3. bɦebɦrani-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *bebrani-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. bebrani-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *babrani-
5. babrani-
*ani → aini
Anaptyxis of *i
RanI›ainI → *babraini-
6. babraini-
abr → awr
Change of *b into w
Rabr›awr → LAv. bawraini-
√bɑɦrosɑh-
(CHD P:139)
Hitt. barašḫa-
(NA4c.) ‘Bergkristall, Jaspis, Chlorit, Steatit?’
(HHand. 121)
(Hitt. pa-ra-aš-ḫa-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *bɑɦorosɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦorosho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦorosho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦarasha-
3. bɦarasha-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *barasha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. barasha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *barašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. barašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. barašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. barašḫi-
(NA4n.) ‘(ein Halbedelstein)’
(HHand. 121)
(Hitt. pa-ra-aš-ḫi, ba-ra-aš-ḫi)
1. PIE *bɑɦorosɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦoroshi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦoroshi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦarashi-
3. bɦarashi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *barashi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. barashi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *barašhi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. barašhi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. barašḫi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√bɑɦorosu-
Hitt. barašu-
(NA4.) ‘(ein Edelstein)’
(HEG P:444)
(HHand. 121 ‹cf. HLu. ašu- ‘stein’?›)
1. PIE *bɑɦorosu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦorosu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦorosu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦarasu-
3. bɦarasu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *barasu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. barasu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. barašu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. barašu̯ant-
(a.) ‘(qualifiziert Gegenstand aus Elfenbein)’
(HEG P:444)
(HHand. 121)
1. PIE *bɑɦorosu̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦorosu̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦorosu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦarasu̯ant-
3. bɦarasu̯ant-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *barasu̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. barasu̯ant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. barašu̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√bɑɦru-
(Pyysalo)
(CHD P:139)
OInd. bharu-
(n.) ‘Gold’
(EWA 3:365)
1. PIE *bɑɦoru-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦoru-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦoru-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦaru-
3. bɦaru-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → OInd. bharu-
Hitt. barušḫa-
(NA4c.) ‘(ein Halbedelstein)’
(HEG P:444)
(HHand. 121, Hitt. [p]a-r[u]-uš-ḫa-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *bɑɦorusɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦorusho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦorusho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦarusha-
3. bɦarusha-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *barusha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. barusha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *barušha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. barušha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. barušḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
RV. babhrú-
(a.) ‘rotbraun, braun’ (ENm.) ‘Biber’
(WbRV. 899)
(RV. babhrú-)
1. PIE *bɑɦebɑɦrú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦebɦrú-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦebɦrú-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmann → *bebɦrú-
(SPIE §4.6.4)
3. bebɦrú-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *babɦrú-
4. babɦrú-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. babhrú-
RV. babhrú·dhūta-
(a.) ‘von Babhru (im Wasser) durchgeschüttelt’
(WbRV. 899)
1. PIE *bɑɦebɑɦrú·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦebɦrú·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦebɦrú·Σ
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmann → *bebɦrú·Σ
(SPIE §4.6.4)
3. bebɦrú·Σ
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *babɦrú·Σ
4. babɦrú·Σ
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. babhrú·Σ


PIE √pɑhu- √poɑhu- √peɑhu- (sb.) ‘Feuer’
(IEW 828)
(Hrozný 1917:69; Pyysalo: IIr.)
√poɑhu-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. paḫu̯a-
(URUc.) ‘(mit Išuwa, Kumaḫa und Timija)’
(OGH. 296)
(Hitt. pa-aḫ-ḫu-ua [All], pa-aḫ-ḫu-ua-an, OGHErg. 118)
1. PIE *poɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pohu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pohu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pahu̯a-
3. pahu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
RV. hiraṇya·pāvá-
(a.) ‘von Gold glänzend’
(WbRV. 1667)
1. PIE *Π·poɑhu̯ó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·pohu̯ó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·pohu̯ó-
PIE *oHCV → āHCV
Brugmann’s Law for *ohCV
RoHCV›āHCV → *Π·pāhu̯ó-
(SPIE §2.3.7)
3. Π·pāhu̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·pāhu̯á-
4. Π·pāhu̯á-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·pāu̯á-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·pāu̯á-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. Π·pāvá-
RV. pāva·ká-
(a.) ‘hell, hellstrahlend, flammend’
(WbRV. 808-9)
(cf. Grassmann for RV. pavaká- (metre))
1. PIE *poɑhu̯o·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pohu̯o·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pohu̯o·Σ
PIE *oHCV → āHCV
Brugmann’s Law for *ohCV
RoHCV›āHCV → *pāhu̯o·Σ
(SPIE §2.3.7)
3. pāhu̯o·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pāhu̯a·Σ
4. pāhu̯a·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pāu̯a·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. pāu̯a·Σ
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. pāva·Σ
Gr. πού·λῑμο-
(m.) ‘Heißhunger’
(GEW 2: 124-5)
(Gr. πούλιμος)
1. PIE *poɑhú·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pohú·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pohú·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *poú·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. poú·Σ
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πού·Σ
√pɑhun-
Hitt. paḫu̯en-
(n.obl.) ‘Feuer’
(HHand. 115)
1. PIE *peɑhu̯en-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhu̯en-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhu̯en-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahu̯en-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahu̯en-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫu̯en-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. paḫu̯ena-
(LÚc.) ‘Mann des Feuers?’
(HHand. 115)
1. PIE *peɑhu̯eno-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhu̯eno-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhu̯eno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahu̯eno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahu̯eno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pahu̯ena-
4. pahu̯ena-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫu̯ena-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. paḫu̯enali-
(NA4/DUGn.) ‘Kohlenpfanne, Feuerbecken’
(HHand. 115)
(‹suffix uncertain!›)
1. PIE *peɑhu̯enoli-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhu̯enoli-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhu̯enoli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahu̯enoli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahu̯enoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pahu̯enali-
4. pahu̯enali-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫu̯enali-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√pɑhur-
(IEW 828)
(Hrozný 1917:69: Hitt.)
Hitt. paḫu̯ar-
(n.) ‘Feuer: Sum. IZI: Akd. IŠATI’
(HHand. 115)
(Hitt. pa-aḫ-ḫu-ua-ar)
1. PIE *peɑhu̯or-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhu̯or-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhu̯or-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahu̯or-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahu̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pahu̯ar-
4. pahu̯ar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫu̯ar-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. paḫur-
(n.) ‘Feuer, Feuerasche, glühende Asche’
(CHD P:12ff.)
(HHand. 115)
1. PIE *peɑhur-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhur-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahur-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫur-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. paḫur-
(n.) ‘Feuer’ (KLuN. 570f.)
(DLL. 77)
(In broken context)
1. PIE *peɑhur-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhur-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahur-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. paḫur-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
TochA. por-
(n.) ‘ignis’
(Poucha 189-90)
(TochA. por [sgN])
1. PIE *peɑhur-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhur-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahur-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *paur-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. paur-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *pōr-
5. pōr-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. por-
TochB. puwar-
(n.) ‘= Skt. agnim’
(DTochB. 393)
1. PIE *pɑ́hu̯or-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu̯ → úḫu̯
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u̯
Rɑ́Hu̯›úHu̯ → *púhu̯or-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. púhu̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *púhu̯ar-
3. púhu̯ar-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *púu̯ar-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. púu̯ar-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → *púwar-
5. púwar-
*ú → u
Orthographic change of *ú into u
Rú›u → TochB. puwar-
Gr. πρ-
(n.) ‘Feuer’
(Gr. πῦρ [sgNA])
1. PIE *pɑ́hur
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *púhur
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. púhur
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *púur
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. púur
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *pū́r
4. pū́r
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πύ̄ρ
Hitt. paḫurei̯a-
(vb.) ‘wie Feuer brennen’
(HHand. 115)
1. PIE *peɑhurei̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhurei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhurei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahurei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahurei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pahurei̯a-
4. pahurei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫurei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √pɑhur- √bɑɦur- (vb.) ‘essen, kauen’ (sb.) ‘Brot, Mund, Essen’
(IEW 133-135)
(Pyysalo)
√bɑɦur-
(HEG P:657ff.)
Hitt. buri-
(c.) ‘Lippe, Rand, Kopf’
(HHand. 136)
1. PIE *bɑɦuri-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦuri-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦuri-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. buri-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. buri-
(c.) ‘Lippe, Rand?’
(HHand. 136)
1. PIE *bɑɦuri-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦuri-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦuri-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. buri-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√bɑɦurio-
(IEW 133-135)
(Pyysalo: Av. + Hitt. + CLu. + Goth.)
LAv. baoirya-
(a.) ‘was gekaut werden muss, fest’
(AIWb. 946)
1. PIE *bɑɦouri̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦouri̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦouri̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦauri̯a-
3. bɦauri̯a-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *bauri̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. bauri̯a-
*au → ao
Opening of *au
Rau›ao → *baori̯a-
5. baori̯a-
*aori → aoiri
Anaptyxis of *i
RaorI›aoirI → *baoiri̯a-
6. baoiri̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. baoirya-
Hitt. buri̯ali-
(n.) ‘Maulkorb, Trense, Halfter?’
(HHand. 136)
1. PIE *bɑɦuri̯oli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦuri̯oli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦuri̯oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦuri̯ali-
3. bɦuri̯ali-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. buri̯ali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. buri̯ali-
(GKLn.) ‘Maulkorb, Trense, Halfter?’
(HHand. 136)
1. PIE *bɑɦuri̯oli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦuri̯oli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦuri̯oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦuri̯ali-
3. bɦuri̯ali-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. buri̯ali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Goth. ga·baurjaba
(adv.) ‘gern: ἡδέως, κατὰ ἑκούσιον: libenter’
(GoEtD. G3)
(Goth. gabaurjaba Mrk 6,20 CA, GoElB. 191A1)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·bɑɦouri̯obɑɦō
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·bɦouri̯obɦō
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦo·bɦouri̯obɦō
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *gɦo·bouri̯obō
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. gɦo·bouri̯obō
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *go·bouri̯obō
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. go·bouri̯obō
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ga·bauri̯abō
5. ga·bauri̯abō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *ga·bauri̯aba
6. ga·bauri̯aba
*u → au
Allophonic change of *u into au
Ru›au → *ga·baauri̯aba
7. ga·baauri̯aba
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Goth. ga·baaurjaba
Goth. filu·ga·baurjaba
(adv.) ‘ἥδιστα’
(GoEtD. G3)
1. PIE *pilu·gɑɦo·bɑɦiuri̯obɑɦō
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pilu·gɦo·bɦiuri̯obɦō
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pilu·gɦo·bɦiuri̯obɦō
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *filu·gɦo·bɦiuri̯obɦō
3. filu·gɦo·bɦiuri̯obɦō
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *filu·gɦo·biuri̯obō
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. filu·gɦo·biuri̯obō
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *filu·go·biuri̯obō
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. filu·go·biuri̯obō
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *filu·ga·biuri̯abō
6. filu·ga·biuri̯abō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *filu·ga·biuri̯aba
7. filu·ga·biuri̯aba
*u → au
Allophonic change of *u into au
Ru›au → *filu·ga·biauri̯aba
8. filu·ga·biauri̯aba
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Goth. filu·ga·biaurjaba
Goth. ga·baurjoþu-
(m.) ‘Lust, Vergnügen: ἡδονή: voluptas’
(HbGo. 108,2)
(Goth. gabaurjoþum [plD] Luk 8,14 CA)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·bɑɦouri̯ēɑhtu-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gɑɦo·bɑɦouri̯āɑhtu-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gɑɦo·bɑɦouri̯āɑhtu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·bɦouri̯āhtu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦo·bɦouri̯āhtu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦo·bɦouri̯ātu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. gɦo·bɦouri̯ātu-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *gɦo·bɦouri̯āþu-
5. gɦo·bɦouri̯āþu-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *gɦo·bouri̯āþu-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. gɦo·bouri̯āþu-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *go·bouri̯āþu-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. go·bouri̯āþu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ga·bauri̯āþu-
8. ga·bauri̯āþu-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *ga·bauri̯ōþu-
(XX:XX)
9. ga·bauri̯ōþu-
*u → au
Allophonic change of *u into au
Ru›au → *ga·baauri̯ōþu-
10. ga·baauri̯ōþu-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *ga·baaurjōþu-
11. ga·baaurjōþu-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → Goth. ga·baaurjoþu-
√bɑɦurn-
(IEW 133-135)
Lith. burnà-
(f.3.) ‘Mund, Gesicht: mouth, face’
(Senn 2:191)
(Lith. burnà [sgN])
1. PIE *bɑɦurnḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *bɑɦurnā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. bɑɦurnā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦurnā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. bɦurnā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *bɦurnā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. bɦurnā́
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *burnā́
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. burnā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *burnṓ
(XX:XX)
6. burnṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → Lith. burnà
Lith. burnẽlė-
(f.2.dim.) ‘Mund; Gesicht’
(Senn 2:191)
(Lith. burnẽlė [sgN])
1. PIE *bɑɦurnélēhɑ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦurnélēh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦurnélēh
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → *bɦurnèlēh
3. bɦurnèlēh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *bɦurnèlē
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. bɦurnèlē
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *burnèlē
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. burnèlē
èlē -› ẽlē
Circumflex intonation è -› ẽ
Rèlē›ẽlē → *burnẽlē
6. burnẽlē
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → Lith. burnẽlė
√bɑɦuruo-
LAv. baourva-
(a.) ‘kauend’
(AIWb. 946)
1. PIE *bɑɦouru̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦouru̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦouru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦauru̯a-
3. bɦauru̯a-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *bauru̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. bauru̯a-
*au → ao
Opening of *au
Rau›ao → *baoru̯a-
5. baoru̯a-
*aoru → aouru
Anaptyxis of *u
RaorU›aourU → *baouru̯a-
6. baouru̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. baourva-
LAv. aš.baourva·-
(a.) ‘wo es viel zu kauen/essen gibt’
(AIWb. 263)
1. PIE *Π.bɑɦouru̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π.bɦouru̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π.bɦouru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π.bɦauru̯a-
3. Π.bɦauru̯a-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *Π.bauru̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. Π.bauru̯a-
*au → ao
Opening of *au
Rau›ao → *Π.baoru̯a-
5. Π.baoru̯a-
*aoru → aouru
Anaptyxis of *u
RaorU›aourU → *Π.baouru̯a-
6. Π.baouru̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. Π.baourva·-


PIE √pɑhur- √pɑhuer- √pɑhuor- (sb.) ‘frumenta quae de vagina non bene exibant’ (m.) ‘Bastard’ (f.) ‘Nebenfrau’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√pɑhuer-
(Pyysalo)
OLat. pauero-
(m.) ‘frumenta (…) quae de vagina non bene exibant’
(PFest. p. 250/3, OLat. pauerī [plN])
1. PIE *peɑhu̯ero-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhu̯ero-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhu̯ero-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahu̯ero-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahu̯ero-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pau̯ero-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pau̯ero-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OLat. pauero-
√pɑhuor-
(HEG P:370, CHD P:17)
Hitt. paḫu̯arši-
(LÚc.) ‘Bastard’ (MUNUS.) ‘Nebenfrau’
(HHand. 115)
(HIL. –, HHand. 115: “Nicht regierunsfähiges Mitglied der Königsfamilie”)
1. PIE *peɑhu̯ortɑhi-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhu̯ortɑhi-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhu̯ortɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahu̯orthi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahu̯orthi-
PIE *thi → chi
Assibilation of *th before *i
Rthi›chi → *pahu̯orchi-
4. pahu̯orchi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pahu̯archi-
5. pahu̯archi-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *pahu̯arci-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. pahu̯arci-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → *pahu̯arši-
7. pahu̯arši-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫu̯arši-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√pɑhur-
Hitt. paḫurši-
(LÚc.) ‘Bastard’ (MUNUS.) ‘Nebenfrau’
(HHand. 115)
1. PIE *peɑhurtɑhi-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhurtɑhi-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhurtɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahurthi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahurthi-
PIE *thi → chi
Assibilation of *th before *i
Rthi›chi → *pahurchi-
4. pahurchi-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *pahurci-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. pahurci-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → *pahurši-
6. pahurši-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫurši-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. paḫurzi-
(LÚc.) ‘Bastard’ (MUNUS.) ‘Nebenfrau’
(HHand. 115)
1. PIE *peɑhurdɑɦi-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhurdɑɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhurdɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahurdɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahurdɦi-
PIE *dɦi → jɦi
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi›jɦi → *pahurjɦi-
4. pahurjɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *pahurji-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. pahurji-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *pahurzi-
6. pahurzi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫurzi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √pil- (a.) ‘fest’ (sb.) ‘Festung, Burg, Schloß, Stadt’
(IEW 799)
(Pyysalo: Hitt.; or PIE √pɑhil-?)
√pili-
(Pyysalo)
(Rieken 1999:361)
Hitt. šuḫ·pili-
(a.) ‘sehr fest: very firm’
(HIL. 893-7)
(Hitt. šu-uḫ-pí-li-in [sgA])
1. PIE *suɑh·pili-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *suh·pili-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. suh·pili-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šuh·pili-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. šuh·pili-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šuḫ·pili-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lith. pilì-
(f.4.) ‘Burg, Schloss, Stadt’
(LiEtWb. 590-1)
(Lith. pilìs, piliẽs [G])
1. PIE *pilí-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → Lith. pilì-
Lith. pìli-
(f.) ‘Burg, Schloss, Stadt’
(LiEtWb. 590-1)
(Lith. pìlis, pìlies [G])
1. PIE *píli-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → Lith. pìli-
Lith. piliẽti-
(m.2.) ‘Bürger: citizen’
(LiEtWb. 590-1)
(Lith. piliẽtis)
1. PIE *pileíti
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *pileìti
2. pileìti
eì → eĩ
Circumflex intonation for eì
RLiAcc14 → *pileĩti
3. pileĩti
eí -› iẽ
Change of eí to iẽ
Reĩ›iẽ → Lith. piliẽti
Latv. pil-
(f.) ‘Burg, Schloss’
(LiEtWb. 591)
(Latv. pils)
√pilēhɑ-
Lith. pìlė-
(f.2.) ‘Burg, Schloß, Stadt’
(LiEtWb. 591)
(Lith. pìlė)
1. PIE *pílēhɑ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pílēh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pílēh
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *pìlēh
3. pìlēh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pìlē
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pìlē
ìlē -› ĩlē
Circumflex intonation ì -› ĩ
Rìlē›ĩlē → *pĩlē
5. pĩlē
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → Lith. pĩ
Lith. pĩlė-
(f.) ‘arx, oppidum, urbs’
(LiEtWb. 590)
(Lith. pĩle)
1. PIE *pílēhɑ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pílēh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pílēh
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *pìlēh
3. pìlēh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pìlē
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pìlē
ìlē -› ĩlē
Circumflex intonation ì -› ĩ
Rìlē›ĩlē → *pĩlē
5. pĩlē
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → Lith. pĩlė


PIE √pibɑɦ- (vb.) ‘niederschlagen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo, for Meillet and Magnusson's root constraint, see SPIE 348f., 401f.)
√pibɑɦo-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. piba-
(vb.) ‘niederschlagen usw.’
(HHand. 131)
(CLu. pi-pa-at-ti [2sg] HKM 1.edge 6)
1. PIE *pibo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. piba-
OInd. úd·piba-
(vb.) ‘attack’
(Burrow 1973:81-108)
1. PIE *ɦɑúd·pibo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦúd·pibo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦúd·pibo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦúd·piba-
3. ɦúd·piba-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → OInd. úd·piba-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OInd. anūd·piba-
(vb.) ‘assail’
(Burrow 1973:81-108)
1. PIE *Π·pibo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. Π·piba-


PIE √pl- √pol- √pel- (vb.) ‘schlagen, stoßen, treiben’
(IEW 801f.)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + IE)
√pel- √pol-
Lat. pepul-
(pf.) ‘drive, shoot, move, exile, strike’
(Lat. pepulit [3sg])
1. PIE *pepòl-
*ò → u
Change of second-syllable ò into u
Rò›u → Lat. pepul-
Umbr. ař·pel-
(vb.) ‘appellitāre, admouēre’
(WbOU. 52)
(Umbr. ařpeltu)
√polɑh-
(Kloekhorst HIL. 717)
Hitt. palḫ-
(pr.A.) ‘‹stoßen/schlagen/in Bewegung setzen?›’
(HIL. 717)
(Hitt. [ÉR]INMEŠ-an pa-a[l?]-ḫe-er [3pl] = KBo 3.1.i.34)
1. PIE *polɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *polh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. polh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palh-
3. palh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. palḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√peln-
Lat. pello-
(vb.) ‘stoßend in Bewegung setzen, forttreiben’
(Lat. pellō, pellĕre)
1. PIE *pelno-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → Lat. pello-
√pels-


PIE √pl- √pol- √pel- (vb.) ‘extingui’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√polɑhi-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. palāya-
(vb.) ‘cease, vanish; verschwinden’
(EWA 2:102)
1. PIE *poLoɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *poLohi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. poLohi̯o-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *polohi̯o-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. polohi̯o-
PIE *oHCV → āHCV
Brugmann’s Law for *ohCV
RoHCV›āHCV → *polāhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.3.7)
4. polāhi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palāhi̯a-
5. palāhi̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *palāi̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. palāi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. palāya-
TochA. palyäṣ-
(pret.A.) ‘extingui’
(Poucha 175)
(TochA. palyäṣt)
1. PIE *polɑhi̯osi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *polhi̯osi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. polhi̯osi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palhi̯asi-
3. palhi̯asi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pali̯asi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pali̯asi-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
Rsi›ṣ → *pali̯aṣ-
5. pali̯aṣ-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochA. palyaṣ-
√polos-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. palaš-
(vb.) ‘die?’
(CHLu. 2.13.22)
(HLu. pa-la-sa-ti-i [3sg])
1. PIE *polos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palas-
2. palas-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. palaš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. palaš·urimi-
(c.) ‘gemeiner Mensch’
(HHand. 117)
(LuPG 21 ‹cf. PNurimi- NOMS. 1445›)
1. PIE *polos·urimi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palas·urimi-
2. palas·urimi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. palaš·urimi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√pels-
OInd. parṣa-
(pr.A.) ‘beschädigen, verletzen’ (KEWA 2:230)
(EWA 3:308)
(Dhātup. parṣati)
1. PIE *pelso-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *perso-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. perso-
PIE *rs → rš
Ruki-rule for *rs
RRukiOIA → *peršo-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. peršo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *perša-
4. perša-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *parša-
5. parša-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → OInd. parṣa-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)


PIE √pl- √pel- √pol- (sb.) ‘Haut, Mantel, Schild, Schutz, Schirm’
(IEW 803-4)
(Tischler HEG P:389: Hitt. + Gr.)
√peleɑhs-
Gr. ἐρυσί·πελασ-
(n.) ‘(N. einer Hautkrankheit)’
(GEW 2:499)
(Gr. ἐρυσίπελας)
1. PIE *Π·peleɑhs-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *Π·pelaɑhs-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. Π·pelaɑhs-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·pelahs-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·pelahs-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·pelas-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·pelas-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·πελασ-
√poleɑhso-
Hitt. palaḫša-
(TÚGc.) ‘Umhang, Mantel?’ (HEG P:389)
(HHand. 117)
(“ein Kleidungsstück, das für die Göttin Ištar und ihre Beiden Dienerinnen Ninatta und Kulitta charakteristich ist”)
1. PIE *poleɑhso-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *polaɑhso-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. polaɑhso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *polahso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. polahso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palahsa-
4. palahsa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *palahša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. palahša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. palaḫša-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. palaḫša-
(c.) ‘Schutz, Schirm, Schild’
(HHand. 117)
(Hitt. pa-la-aḫ-ša-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *poleɑhso-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *polaɑhso-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. polaɑhso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *polahso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. polahso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palahsa-
4. palahsa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *palahša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. palahša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. palaḫša-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. palaḫša-
(GKLc.) ‘Umhang, Mantel?’ (HHand. 117)
(DLL. 77)
(CLu. pa-la-aḫ-ša-an [sgA])
1. PIE *poleɑhso-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *polaɑhso-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. polaɑhso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *polahso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. polahso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palahsa-
4. palahsa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *palahša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. palahša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. palaḫša-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. palaḫša-
(vb.) ‘(mit einem palaḫša-) bedecken’
(HHand. 117)
(Hitt. pa-la-aḫ-ša-an-zi)
1. PIE *poleɑhso-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *polaɑhso-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. polaɑhso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *polahso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. polahso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palahsa-
4. palahsa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *palahša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. palahša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. palaḫša-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √plɑh- (vb.) ‘rufen, anrufen’
(IEW 844 [diff.])
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + IE)
√plēɑh-
(HIL. 716)
(CHD P:60)
Hitt. plāḫ-
(vb.) ‘rufen, anrufen’
(HEG P:388)
(Hitt. pa-la-a-aḫ-t[a])
1. PIE *plēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *plāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. plāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *plāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. plāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. plāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. u̯ari plāḫ·-
(vb.) ‘um/zu Hilfe rufen: call for help’
(HHand. 117)
(Hitt. nu ua-ar-ri pa-la-aḫ-ḫe-ir [3pl], cf. CHD P:60)
1. PIE *Π plēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π plāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π plāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π plāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π plāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π plāḫ·-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
RV. carṣaṇi·prā́-
(a.) ‘die Menschen segnend’
(WbRV. 442)
(RV. carṣaṇiprā́s [N], carṣaṇiprā́m [A])
1. PIE *Π·plḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *Π·plā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·plā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·plā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·plā́h-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *Π·prā́h-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. Π·prā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. Π·prā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√plɑhi-
LAv. frī-
(f.) ‘Flehen, Gebet’
(AIWb. 1025)
(LAv. fryō [plN])
1. PIE *plɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *plíhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. plíhi-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *príhi-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. príhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *príi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. príi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *prī́-
5. prī́-
*pR → fR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
RpR›fR → *frī́-
6. frī́-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → LAv. frī-
AV. ā·prī́-
(f.) ‘(Bez. bestimmter Anrufungen)’
(EWA 1:169)
1. PIE *Π·plɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *Π·plíhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·plíhi-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *Π·príhi-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. Π·príhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·príi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·príi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → AV. Π·prī́-
LAv. ā·frīna-
(n.) ‘Segenswunsch, -spruch’
(AIWb. 331)
(LAv. āfrīnǝm)
1. PIE *Π·plɑ́hino-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *Π·plíhino-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·plíhino-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *Π·príhino-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. Π·príhino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·príhina-
4. Π·príhina-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·príina-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·príina-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *Π·prī́na-
6. Π·prī́na-
*pR → fR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
RpR›fR → *Π·frī́na-
7. Π·frī́na-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → LAv. Π·frīna-
LAv. ā·frīti-
(f.) ‘Anwünschen, Segnung, Segenspruch’
(AIWb. 330)
1. PIE *Π·plɑ́hiti-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *Π·plíhiti-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·plíhiti-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *Π·príhiti-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. Π·príhiti-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·príiti-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·príiti-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *Π·prī́ti-
5. Π·prī́ti-
*pR → fR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
RpR›fR → *Π·frī́ti-
6. Π·frī́ti-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → LAv. Π·frīti-
√plɑhS-
OLat. plōrā-
(vb.) ‘clamare, laut weinen’
(WH. 2:232-3)
1. PIE *plōɑhrēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *plōɑhrāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. plōɑhrāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *plōhrāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. plōhrāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OLat. plōrā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. im·plōrā-
(vb.) ‘anrufen’
(WH. 2:232-3)
1. PIE *Π·plōɑhrēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·plōɑhrāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·plōɑhrāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·plōhrāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·plōhrāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. Π·plōrā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)


PIE √plɑh- √polɑh- √pelɑh- (sb.) ‘Fläche, Ebene’ (a.) ‘weit, breit’
(IEW 639, 806)
(Sturtevant CGr. 106f.)
√polēɑh-
Dor. ἐπι·πολᾱ-
(m.pl) ‘Ben. der Hochebene bei Syrakus’
(GEW 1:541)
1. PIE *epi·polēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *epi·polāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. epi·polāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *epi·polāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. epi·polāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *epi·polā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. epi·polā
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. ἐπι·πολᾱ
Ion.-Att. ἐπι·πολή-
(f.) ‘Oberfläche’
(GEW 1:540)
1. PIE *epi·polḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *epi·polā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. epi·polā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *epi·polā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. epi·polā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *epi·polā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. epi·polā́
*ā́ → ḗ
Ion-Att. change of *ā́ into ḗ
Rā́›ḗ → *epi·polḗ
5. epi·polḗ
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. ἐπι·πολή
OSwed. fala·n-
(f.) ‘(baumlose) Ebene, Heide’
(IEW 806)
(GEW 1:541)
1. PIE *polēɑh·n-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *polāɑh·n-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. polāɑh·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *polāh·n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. polāh·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *polā·n-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. polā·n-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *pola·n-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. pola·n-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *fola·n-
6. fola·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OSwed. fala·n-
√polɑho-
(CHD P:63f., HIL. 717-8)
(also PIE *plɑho- → Anat. plḫ- is possible)
CLu. palḫ-
(GKLvb.) ‘breit machen?’
(HHand. 117)
(CLu. pal-ḫu-na)
1. PIE *polɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *polho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. polho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palha-
3. palha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. palḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. palḫa-
(a.) ‘wide, broad?’
(KLuN. 257)
(CLu. pal-ḫa-an[-za] [plNA])
1. PIE *polɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *polho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. polho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palha-
3. palha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. palḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. palḫa-
(DUG.) ‘= DUGpalḫi-: Kessel’
(HHand. 117)
(Hitt. pal-ḫa, pal-ḫa-aš [G])
1. PIE *polɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *polho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. polho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palha-
3. palha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. palḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √plt- pltɑh- pldɑɦ- (sb.) ‘Erde’ (a.) ‘irdisch’ (a.) ‘breit, weit’ (vb.) ‘ausstrecken’
(IEW 833-834)
(Haas 1955:132f.)
√pelt-
Gr. πέλτο-
(pt.n.) ‘Basis eines Altars; Grabmal’ (LSJ. 1358)
(GEW 2:501)
(Gr. πέλτο-)
1. PIE *pélto-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πέλτο-
√poltɑhi-
RV. pŕ̥thi-
(PNm.) ‘Eigenname eines Mannes’
(WbRV. 855)
1. PIE *pĺ̥tɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pĺ̥thi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pĺ̥thi-
PIE *ĺ̥ → ŕ̥
Change of *ĺ̥ into ŕ̥
Rĺ̥›ŕ̥ → RV. pŕ̥thi-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
RV. pr̥thī-
(PNm.) ‘Eigenname eines Sängers’
(WbRV. 855)
1. PIE *pl̥tɑhiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *pl̥tɑhiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. pl̥tɑhiíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pl̥thiíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pl̥thiíh-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
Rl̥›r̥ → *pr̥thiíh-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. pr̥thiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pr̥thií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. pr̥thií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → RV. pr̥thī́-
RV. pārthiá-
(m.) ‘Nachkomme des pr̥thi-’
(WbRV. 807)
(cf. Parth. παρθία- (f.) ‘Parthia’, OldP. 196?)
1. PIE *pōltɑhiɑHó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pōlthiHó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pōlthiHó-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *pōrthiHó-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. pōrthiHó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *pōrthiHá-
4. pōrthiHá-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *pārthiHá-
5. pārthiHá-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → RV. pārthi.á-
√poltɑhiu-
RV. pā́rthiva-
(a.) ‘auf der Erde befindlich, irdisch’
(WbRV. 807)
1. PIE *pṓltɑhiu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pṓlthiu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pṓlthiu̯o-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *pṓrthiu̯o-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. pṓrthiu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pṓrthiu̯a-
4. pṓrthiu̯a-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *pā́rthiu̯a-
5. pā́rthiu̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. pā́rthiva-
RV. pā́rthiva-
(m.) ‘Erdbewohner’
(WbRV. 807)
1. PIE *pṓltɑhiu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pṓlthiu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pṓlthiu̯o-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *pṓrthiu̯o-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. pṓrthiu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pṓrthiu̯a-
4. pṓrthiu̯a-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *pā́rthiu̯a-
5. pā́rthiu̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. pā́rthiva-
RV. pā́rthiva-
(a.) ‘von Erdbewohnern entsprungen’
(WbRV. 807)
1. PIE *pṓltɑhiu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pṓlthiu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pṓlthiu̯o-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *pṓrthiu̯o-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. pṓrthiu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pṓrthiu̯a-
4. pṓrthiu̯a-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *pā́rthiu̯a-
5. pā́rthiu̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. pā́rthiva-
RV. pā́rthiva-
(n.) ‘Raum der Erde, irdischer Raum’
(WbRV. 807)
1. PIE *pṓltɑhiu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pṓlthiu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pṓlthiu̯o-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *pṓrthiu̯o-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. pṓrthiu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pṓrthiu̯a-
4. pṓrthiu̯a-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *pā́rthiu̯a-
5. pā́rthiu̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. pā́rthiva-
RV. pr̥thivi·ṣṭhā́-
(a.) ‘den Erdboden betretend, fest auftretend’
(WbRV. 855)
1. PIE *pl̥tɑhiu̯i·stɑhḗhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pl̥thiu̯i·sthḗh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pl̥thiu̯i·sthḗh-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
Rl̥›r̥ → *pr̥thiu̯i·sthḗh-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. pr̥thiu̯i·sthḗh-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *pr̥thiu̯i·šthḗh-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. pr̥thiu̯i·šthḗh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pr̥thiu̯i·šthḗ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. pr̥thiu̯i·šthḗ-
*ḗ → ā́
Change of *ḗ into ā́
Rḗ›ā́ → *pr̥thiu̯i·šthā́-
6. pr̥thiu̯i·šthā́-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *pr̥thivi·šthā́-
7. pr̥thivi·šthā́-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *pr̥thivi·ṣthā́-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
8. pr̥thivi·ṣthā́-
*ṣt → ṣṭ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rṣt›ṣṭ → RV. pr̥thivi·ṣṭhā́-
RV. pr̥thivī́-
(f.) ‘die Erde’
(WbRV. 855-6)
1. PIE *pltɑhiu̯iɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *pltɑhiu̯iíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. pltɑhiu̯iíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *plthiu̯iíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. plthiu̯iíh-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *prthiu̯iíh-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. prthiu̯iíh-
CrC → Cr̥C
Syllabification of *r in CrC
Rr›r̥ → *pr̥thiu̯iíh-
5. pr̥thiu̯iíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pr̥thiu̯ií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. pr̥thiu̯ií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *pr̥thiu̯ī́-
7. pr̥thiu̯ī́-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. pr̥thivī́-
√poltɑhu-
RV. pr̥thú-
(a.) ‘breit, weit sich austreckend, geräumig’
(WbRV. 857)
1. PIE *pl̥tɑhú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pl̥thú-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pl̥thú-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
Rl̥›r̥ → RV. pr̥thú-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
RV. pr̥thú-
(n.adv.) ‘weit, über eine grosse Fläche’
(WbRV. 857)
1. PIE *pl̥tɑhú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pl̥thú-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pl̥thú-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
Rl̥›r̥ → RV. pr̥thú-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
RV. pārthavá-
(m.) ‘Nachkomme des pr̥thu-’
(WbRV. 807)
1. PIE *pōltɑhou̯ó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pōlthou̯ó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pōlthou̯ó-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *pōrthou̯ó-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. pōrthou̯ó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pōrthau̯ó-
4. pōrthau̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *pōrthau̯á-
5. pōrthau̯á-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *pārthau̯á-
6. pārthau̯á-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. pārthavá-
OPers. parϑava-
(ON.) ‘Parthia’ (a.) ‘Parthian’
(OldP. 196)
(parϑava- = Akd. pa-ar-tu-ú)
1. PIE *poltɑhou̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *polthou̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. polthou̯o-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *porthou̯o-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. porthou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parthau̯a-
4. parthau̯a-
*th → ϑ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›ϑ → *parϑau̯a-
5. parϑau̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OPers. parϑava-
RV. pŕ̥thavāna-
(PNm.) Eigenname eines Mannes
(WbRV. 855)
(‹suffix unclear›)
1. PIE *pĺ̥tɑhou̯ōno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pĺ̥thou̯ōno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pĺ̥thou̯ōno-
PIE *ĺ̥ → ŕ̥
Change of *ĺ̥ into ŕ̥
Rĺ̥›ŕ̥ → *pŕ̥thou̯ōno-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. pŕ̥thou̯ōno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pŕ̥thau̯ōna-
4. pŕ̥thau̯ōna-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *pŕ̥thau̯āna-
5. pŕ̥thau̯āna-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. pŕ̥thavāna-
√poldɑɦio-
(HEG P:407f.)
Hitt. palza-
(sb.) ‘Unterteil, Sockel?’
(HHand. 118)
(But mind Tischler: “die Bedeutung … ist kontextuell nicht zu sichern”)
1. PIE *poldɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *poldɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. poldɦi̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *poljɦo-
3. poljɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *paljɦa-
4. paljɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *palja-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. palja-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. palza-
CLu. palza-
(vb.) ‘-(?)-’ (HHand. 118)
(DLL. 77)
(CLu. pal-za [ipv2sg])
1. PIE *poldɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *poldɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. poldɦi̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *poljɦo-
3. poljɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *paljɦa-
4. paljɦa-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *palzɦa-
5. palzɦa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. palza-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. palzaḫa-
(GIŠc.) ‘Sockel, Grundfläche, Basis’ (CHD P:86)
(HHand. 118)
(Hitt. pal-za-ḫa-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *poldɑɦi̯oɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *poldɦi̯oho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. poldɦi̯oho-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *poljɦoho-
3. poljɦoho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *paljɦaha-
4. paljɦaha-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *paljaha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. paljaha-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *palzaha-
6. palzaha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. palzaḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. palzaḫa-
(vb.) ‘niederstrecken, hinstrecken’
(HIL. 721)
(Hitt. pal-za-ḫa-an-zi [3pl])
1. PIE *poldɑɦi̯oɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *poldɦi̯oho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. poldɦi̯oho-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *poljɦoho-
3. poljɦoho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *paljɦaha-
4. paljɦaha-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *paljaha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. paljaha-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *palzaha-
6. palzaha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. palzaḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. arḫa palzaḫai·-
(vb.1.) ‘niederstrecken, hinstrecken’
(HHand. 118)
(Hitt. [pal]-za-ḫa-a-iz-zi, pal-za-ḫa-[iz-]-zi)
1. PIE *Π·poldɑɦi̯oɑhoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·poldɦi̯ohoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·poldɦi̯ohoi-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *Π·poljɦohoi-
3. Π·poljɦohoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·paljɦahai-
4. Π·paljɦahai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *Π·paljahai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. Π·paljahai-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *Π·palzahai-
6. Π·palzahai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·palzaḫai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. palzašḫa-
(GIŠc.) ‘Sockel, Grundfläche, Basis’ (CHD P:86)
(HHand. 118)
(Hitt. pal-za-aš-ḫa-aš [N], pal-za-aš-ḫa)
1. PIE *poldɑɦi̯osɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *poldɦi̯osho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. poldɦi̯osho-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *poljɦosho-
3. poljɦosho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *paljɦasha-
4. paljɦasha-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *palzɦasha-
5. palzɦasha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *palzɦašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. palzɦašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. palzašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√poldɑɦu-
Hitt. paldu·badeita-
(mc.) ‘-(?)-’
(DKašk. 92)
(Hitt. pa-al-du-ú-ba?-a?-ti-it-ta-aš [N]; NOMS. 917)
1. PIE *poldɑɦu·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *poldɦu·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. poldɦu·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *paldɦu·Σ
3. paldɦu·Σ
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. paldu·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √pn- √pon- √pen- (sb.) ‘Haus, Heim, Innere (= Hitt. parna-)’ (adv.) ‘bei, in, apud, cōram’
(IEW 807)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + IE; or PIE √pehɑn- √bɦɑen-?)
√pono-
Hitt. pana·ša-
(URUa.) ‘= URUparna·ša-’
(OGH. 306)
(Hitt. pa-na-aš-ša)
1. PIE *pono·so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pana·sa-
2. pana·sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. pana·ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. pana·ba-
(a.) ‘(spezifiert ‘Stadt’)’
(HHand. 118)
1. PIE *pono·bɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pono·bɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pono·bɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pana·bɦa-
3. pana·bɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. pana·ba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√peno-
Lat. peno-
(n.) ‘Innere des Hauses/Vestatempels’
(WH. 2:281)
Lat. penos-
(n.) ‘das Innere des Hauses’
(WH. 2:280)
√pene-
Lat. pene·trā-
(pr.1.) ‘eindringen, durchdringen’
(WH. 2:281)
1. PIE *pene·trēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pene·trāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pene·trāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pene·trāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pene·trāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. pene·trā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. pene·s
(prep.A) ‘bei, in: cōram, apud’
(WH. 2:280)
Dor. πενέ·στᾱ-
(m.) ‘Hörige, Knechte, arme Landarbeiter’
1. PIE *pené·stēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pené·stāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pené·stāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pené·stāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pené·stāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pené·stā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pené·stā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. πενέ·στᾱ-
Dor. πενέ·στᾱ-
(m.) ‘N. der leibeigenen Bevölkerung Thessaliens’
(Gr. πενέσται)
1. PIE *pené·stēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pené·stāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pené·stāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pené·stāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pené·stāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pené·stā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pené·stā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. πενέ·στᾱ-
Illyr. pene·stā-
(VN.) ‘penestai’
(GEW 2:504)
(Illyr. penestae [plN])
1. PIE *pene·stēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pene·stāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pene·stāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pene·stāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pene·stāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Illyr. pene·stā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Gr. πενε·στικό-
(a.) ‘zu den πενέσται gehörig’
(GEW 2:504)
1. PIE *pene·stikó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πενε·στικό-
√penēhɑ-
Latv. penê-
(vb.) ‘verwöhnen’
(IEW 807)
(Latv. penêt [inf.])
1. PIE *penḗhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *penḗh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. penḗh-
*ḗH → êH
Latvian tone rule for ḗH
RAccLatv6 → *penêh-
3. penêh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Latv. penê-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√peni-
Lat. penitus
(adv.) ‘(von) innen, tief, gründlich’
(IEW 807)
1. PIE *penitos
*-os → us
Change of root-final -os into -us
R=os›=us → Lat. penitus


PIE √pn- √pon- √pen- (adv.) ‘über’ (vb.) ‘loben, rühmen, bewundern’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + RV. + Gr.; for the semantics cf. Hitt. u̯ala- ‘rühmen, preisen’ and CLu. u̯alunaša- ‘auf das Heben bezüglich’)
√pon- √pen- √pn-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. pan
(adv.) ‘= pariauan: drüben, jenseits: over, beyond’
(HHand. 118)
1. PIE *pon
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pan
Gr. δια·πον·δαρίζο-
(vb.) Hes. ‘διαναβάλλεται, διαναρρίπτεται’
(LSJ. 408)
(Hes. διαπονδαρίζει)
1. PIE *Π·pon·Σ
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·πον·Σ
RV. ā́ (...) papan-
(pf.A.) ‘bewundern, rühmen’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. ā́ papana [1sg])
1. PIE *Π·pepon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·pepan-
2. Π·pepan-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. Π·papan-
RV. papn-
(pf.M.) ‘bewundernswert sein’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. papné [3sg])
1. PIE *pepn-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. papn-
√pono- √peno- √pno-
RV. pana-
(pr.M.) ‘bewundern, anstaunen, preisen’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. pananta)
1. PIE *peno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pena-
2. pena-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. pana-
RV. ā́ (...) pána-
(pr.M.) ‘bewundern, rühmen’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. ā́ (...) pánanta)
1. PIE *Π·péno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·péna-
2. Π·péna-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → RV. Π·pána-
RV. páni·pna-
(vb.int.A.) ‘sich wunderbar beweisen’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. pánipnatam [pt.])
1. PIE *péni·pno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *péni·pna-
2. péni·pna-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → RV. páni·pna-
√ponɑh- √penɑh-
RV. panāya-
(vb.M.) ‘[A] zur Bewunderung sehen lassen’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. panāyata [3sg])
1. PIE *ponēɑhi̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ponāɑhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ponāɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ponāhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ponāhi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *panāhi̯a-
4. panāhi̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *panāi̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. panāi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. panāya-
RV. panā́yia-
(a.) ‘staunenswert’
(WbRV. 772)
1. PIE *ponḗɑhi̯iHo-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *ponā́ɑhi̯iHo-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ponā́ɑhi̯iHo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ponā́hi̯iHo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ponā́hi̯iHo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *panā́hi̯iHa-
4. panā́hi̯iHa-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → *panā́hi̯i.a-
5. panā́hi̯i.a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *panā́i̯i.a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. panā́i̯i.a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. panā́yi.a-
√poni- √peni-
RV. panáya-
(cs.A.M.) ‘bewundern, rühmen, loben [A]’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. panáyanti, panayanta)
1. PIE *ponéi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *panéi̯a-
2. panéi̯a-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *panái̯a-
3. panái̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. panáya-
RV. panáya-
(cs.M.) ‘sich freuen über [A, G]’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. panayanta [3pl])
1. PIE *ponéi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *panéi̯a-
2. panéi̯a-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *panái̯a-
3. panái̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. panáya-
RV. páni·pna-
(vb.int.) ‘sich wunderbar beweisen’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. pánipnatam [pt.])
1. PIE *péni·pno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *péni·pna-
2. péni·pna-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → RV. páni·pna-
RV. pánya-
(a.) ‘bewundernswerth’
(WbRV. 773)
1. PIE *póni̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *póni̯a-
2. póni̯a-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *páni̯a-
3. páni̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. pánya-
RV. vi panyá·-
(pr.MP.) ‘rühmen [A]’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. vi panyā́mahe)
1. PIE *Π·poni̯ó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·pani̯ó-
2. Π·pani̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·pani̯á-
3. Π·pani̯á-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·panyá-
RV. vi·panyáyā
(adv.) ‘mit Bewunderung, in bewundernswerther Weise’
(WbRV. 1283)
1. PIE *Π·poni̯éɑhi̯ē
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *Π·poni̯áɑhi̯ē
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. Π·poni̯áɑhi̯ē
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·poni̯áhi̯ē
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·poni̯áhi̯ē
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·pani̯áhi̯ē
4. Π·pani̯áhi̯ē
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·pani̯ái̯ē
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·pani̯ái̯ē
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *Π·pani̯ái̯ā
6. Π·pani̯ái̯ā
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·panyáyā
RV. pányas-
(a.comp.) ‘wunderbarer, herrlicher’
(WbRV. 773)
1. PIE *péni̯os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *péni̯as-
2. péni̯as-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *páni̯as-
3. páni̯as-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. pányas-
RV. paniṣ-
(s.ao.M.) ‘bewundernswerth sein’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. paniṣṭa [3sg])
1. PIE *penis-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *peniš-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. peniš-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *paniš-
3. paniš-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. paniṣ-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
RV. pániṣṭha-
(a.sup.) ‘sehr wunderbar, sehr herrlich’
(WbRV. 773)
1. PIE *pénistɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pénistho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pénistho-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *péništho-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. péništho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *péništha-
4. péništha-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *páništha-
5. páništha-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *pániṣtha-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
6. pániṣtha-
*ṣt → ṣṭ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rṣt›ṣṭ → RV. pániṣṭha-
OInd. pániṣṭi-
(f.) ‘Lob, Bewunderung’
(WbRV. 773)
(SV. pániṣṭi-)
1. PIE *pénisti-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *péništi-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. péništi-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *páništi-
3. páništi-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *pániṣti-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. pániṣti-
*ṣt → ṣṭ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rṣt›ṣṭ → OInd. pániṣṭi-
RV. panitá-
(pt.a.) ‘gepriesen’
(WbRV. 772)
1. PIE *ponitó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *panitó-
2. panitó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. panitá-
RV. panitár-
(a.) ‘anerkennend, lobend’
(WbRV. 773)
1. PIE *penitór-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *penitár-
2. penitár-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. panitár-
RV. vi·panyú-
(a.) ‘rühmend, bewundernd, rühmenswert’
(WbRV. 1283)
1. PIE *Π·poni̯ú-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·pani̯ú-
2. Π·pani̯ú-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·panyú-
√penosi-
RV. panasya-
(pr.) ‘sich bewundernswerth zeigen’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. panasyate)
1. PIE *penosi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *penasi̯a-
2. penasi̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *panasi̯a-
3. panasi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. panasya-
RV. panasyá-
(pr.) ‘bei jemand [L] Anerkennung/Beifall finden’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. panasyáte)
1. PIE *penosi̯ó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *penasi̯ó-
2. penasi̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *penasi̯á-
3. penasi̯á-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *panasi̯á-
4. panasi̯á-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. panasyá-
RV. panasyú-
(a.) ‘sich bewundernswerth zeigend, bewundernswerth’
(WbRV. 772)
1. PIE *penosi̯ú-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *penasi̯ú-
2. penasi̯ú-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *panasi̯ú-
3. panasi̯ú-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. panasyú-
√ponu-
RV. panu-
(f.) ‘Bewunderung, Lob’
(WbRV. 773)
(RV. panvā́ [sgI])
1. PIE *ponu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → RV. panu-


PIE √pr- √por- √per- (sb.) ‘Erde, Ton’ (a.) ‘irden’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + Ital.)
√por-
(HEG P:448)
Hitt. par·duḫa-
(sb.) ‘(ein Gefäß bzw. Material zur Gefäßherstellung)’
(HHand. 125)
1. PIE *por·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. par·Σ
√pors- √pers-
(Pyysalo)
(CHD P:191, HEG P:510)
Hitt. parš·tuḫa-
(c./n.) ‘irdener Becher: DUGGAL.GIR4’
(HHand. 121)
(Hitt. pár-aš-du-uḫ-ḫa-an, pár-aš-tu-uḫ-ḫi-it)
1. PIE *pors·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pars·Σ
2. pars·Σ
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. parš·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Umbr. perso-
(sb.) ‘Erdboden, Grund’
(WbOU. 524)
(Umbr. persom)


PIE √pr- √por- √per- (vb.) ‘bespritzen, besprengen, waschen’
(IEW 823)
(Sturtevant CGr. 75, 215; Pyysalo: CS.)
√por-
(HEG P:422-424)
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. papar-
(vb.) ‘verspritzen’
(SHV 213)
(Hitt. pa-ap-pár-zi [3sg])
1. PIE *popor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. papar-
CS. pero-
(vb.) ‘waschen’
(LIV2:473)
(CS. perǫ [1sg])
1. PIE *pero-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pera-
2. pera-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → CS. pero-
√pori-
Hitt. papariške/a-
(pr.) ‘bespritzen, besprengen’
(HIL. 726)
(Hitt. pa-ap-par-iš-ke/a-, pa-ap-pár-iš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *poporiske/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *papariske/a-
2. papariske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. papariške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√poros-
(CHD P:98ff.)
Hitt. paparaš-
(pr.1.) ‘bespritzen, besprengen: sprinkle’
(HIL. 726)
(Hitt. pa-ap-pa-ar-aš-zi [3sg], pa-ap-pa-ar-aš-ša-an-zi)
1. PIE *poporos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *paparas-
2. paparas-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. paparaš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. paparašant-
(pt.) ‘bespritzen, besprengen’
(HIL. 726)
(Hitt. pa-ap-pár-aš-ša-an-t-)
1. PIE *poporosont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *paparasant-
2. paparasant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. paparašant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. paparaške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘bespritzen, besprengen’
(HHand. 119)
(Hitt. pa-ap-pár-aš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *poporoske/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *paparaske/a-
2. paparaske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. paparaške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√pors-
(Sturtevant CGr. 75, 215, CHD P:98ff.)
(IEW 823)
Hitt. paparš-
(vb.2.) ‘besprizen, besprengen’
(HHand. 119)
(Hitt. pa-ap-pár-ši [3sg], pa-pár-ša-an-zi [3pl])
1. PIE *popors-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *papars-
2. papars-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. paparš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
TochA. papärs-
(pret.A.) ‘adspergere, spargere’
(Poucha 174)
(TochA. papärss [3sg], papärsār [3pl])
1. PIE *popors-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. papars-
TochA. pam·pärs-
(pret.A.) ‘adspergere, spargere’
(Poucha 174)
(TochA. paṃpärs [3sg])
1. PIE *pompors-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. pampars-
√porso-
OInd. párṣa-
(vb.) ‘besprengen’ (EWA 3:308)
(KEWA 2:230)
(OInd. párṣati)
1. PIE *pérso-
PIE *rs → rš
Ruki-rule for *rs
RRukiOIA → *péršo-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. péršo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pérša-
3. pérša-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *párša-
4. párša-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → OInd. párṣa-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
Hitt. paparšant-
(pt.) ‘= Hitt. papašant-’
(HHand. 119)
(Hitt. pa-ap-pár-ša-an-t-)
1. PIE *poporsont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *paparsant-
2. paparsant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. paparšant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. pŕ̥ṣant-
(a.) ‘gesprenkelt, schecklig, bunt’
(WbRV. 860)
(RV. pŕ̥ṣantam [sgA] “von der Wolke”)
1. PIE *pŕ̥sont-
PIE *rs → rš
Ruki-rule for *rs
RRukiOIA → *pŕ̥šont-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. pŕ̥šont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pŕ̥šant-
3. pŕ̥šant-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. pŕ̥ṣant-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)


PIE √pr- √por- √per- (sb.) ‘Hauch, Atem, Luft, Himmelsraum?’ (vb.) ‘blasen’
(IEW 809-10)
(Petersen 1937:208)
√por-
(HEG P:437, 438f.)
Hitt. para-
(c.) ‘Luft, Atem, Hauch’
(CHD P:130)
(Hitt. pa-ra-a-aš [N], pa-ra-a-an [A])
1. PIE *poro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. para-
Hitt. para-
(vb.2.) ‘blow (horn, on a fire, up), inflate’
(HHand. 120)
(Hitt. pa-ra-a-i [3sg], pa-ra-an-zi [3pl])
1. PIE *poro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. para-
√per-
Gr. πέρπερο-
(m.) ‘eitel Windbeutel, Geck, Prahler’
(GEW 2:517)
1. PIE *pérpero-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πέρπερο-
Gr. πέρπερο-
(a.) ‘eitel, prahlerisch’
(GEW 2:517)
1. PIE *pérpero-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πέρπερο-
Gr. ἀμφι·πήρο-
(a.) ‘μηδὲν λέγοντας’
(LSJ. 93)
(Hes. ἀμφιπήρους · μηδὲν λέγοντας)
1. PIE *Π·pḗro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·πήρο-
√pori-
Pal. pari·parai-
(vb.) ‘blasen’ (CHD P:133f.)
(HHand. 122)
(Pal. pa-ri-pa-ra-a-i [3sg] ‹but note -p- instead of -pp- against Sturtevant’s law›)
1. PIE *poriporoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. pariparai-
Hitt. pari·parai-
(vb.) ‘blasen’
(HIL. 730)
(Hitt. pa-ri-pa-ra-a-i, pa-ri-pa-ra-an-zi ‹but note -p- instead of -pp- against Sturtevant’s law›)
1. PIE *poriporoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pariparai-


PIE √pr- √por- √per- (prep.) ‘vor(wärts), nach, weiter, zu, bei, an usw.’
(IEW 810)
(Pyysalo)
√pri-
(HEG P:431ff.)
(Pyysalo)
CLu. pri
(prep.) ‘forth, away’
(HIL. 729)
(CLu. pa-ri-i)
HLu. pri
(PRAEadv.) ‘forth, away’
(CHLu. 2.6.16)
(HLu. pa+ra/i-i-’, PRAE-i)
LycA. pri
(prep.) ‘forth, in front’
(DLycLg. 51)
(LycA. pri=de; HIL. 728-9)
OLat. pri
(prep.) ‘prae’
(APrS. 410)
(OLat. pri)
√prei-
OPr. prei
(prep.) ‘vor, hinzu, zu, bei, an’
(APrS. 410)
(OPr. prei)
Lith. priẽ
(prep.) ‘bei, an, zu’
(LiEtWb. 652f.)
(Lith. priẽ)
OCS. pri
(prep.L) ‘bei, an, neben, zur Zeit von’
(Sadnik √715)
(OCS. pri)
1. PIE *prei
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *prī
2. prī
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. pri


PIE √prɑhu- √perɑhu- √porɑhu- (sb.) ‘Knoten, Gelenk’
(IEW 804, 811)
(Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√perɑhuo- √porɑhuo-
(Pyysalo; HEG P:458)
RV. párva-
(n.) ‘die Stengelröhre der Pflanzen’
(WbRV. 792)
1. PIE *pérɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pérhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pérhu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pérhu̯a-
3. pérhu̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *péru̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. péru̯a-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *páru̯a-
5. páru̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. párva-
RV. parva·śás
(adv.) ‘gliedweise, stückweise’
(WbRV. 792)
1. PIE *perɑhu̯o·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *perhu̯o·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. perhu̯o·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *perhu̯a·Σ
3. perhu̯a·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *peru̯a·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. peru̯a·Σ
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *paru̯a·Σ
5. paru̯a·Σ
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. parva·Σ
√perɑhuɑhn-
RV. párvaṇ-
(n.) ‘Knoten der Pflanzen’
(WbRV. 792)
1. PIE *pérɑhu̯eɑhn-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *pérɑhu̯aɑhn-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. pérɑhu̯aɑhn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pérhu̯ahn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pérhu̯ahn-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *péru̯an-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. péru̯an-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *páru̯an-
5. páru̯an-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *párvan-
6. párvan-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. párvaṇ-
RV. párvaṇ-
(n.) ‘Knotenpunkt eines Zeitraumes, Zeitpunkt’
(WbRV. 792)
1. PIE *pérɑhu̯eɑhn-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *pérɑhu̯aɑhn-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. pérɑhu̯aɑhn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pérhu̯ahn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pérhu̯ahn-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *péru̯an-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. péru̯an-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *páru̯an-
5. páru̯an-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *párvan-
6. párvan-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. párvaṇ-
Ion. πειρήν·αντ-
(pt.A.) ‘knotend, knüpfend, befestigende’
(GEW 2:490)
1. PIE *perɑhu̯ḗɑhn·Σ
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *perɑhu̯ā́ɑhn·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. perɑhu̯ā́ɑhn·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *perhu̯ā́hn·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. perhu̯ā́hn·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *peru̯ā́n·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. peru̯ā́n·Σ
*eru̯ -> eir
Compensatory lengthening of eru̯ into eir
Reru̯›eir → *peirā́n·Σ
5. peirā́n·Σ
*ā́ → ḗ
Ion-Att. change of *ā́ into ḗ
Rā́›ḗ → *peirḗn·Σ
6. peirḗn·Σ
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion. πειρήν·Σ
√perɑhuɑhr-
Gr. πείραρ-
(n.) ‘Knoten’
(Hom. πεῖραρ)
1. PIE *pérɑhu̯eɑhr-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *pérɑhu̯aɑhr-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. pérɑhu̯aɑhr-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pérhu̯ahr-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pérhu̯ahr-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *péru̯ar-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. péru̯ar-
*éru̯ -> eír
Compensatory lengthening of éru̯ into eír
Réru̯›eír → *peírar-
5. peírar-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πείραρ-
√perɑhur-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. parḫur-
(GIŠn.) ‘Knospe, Ast? (Pflanzenteil)’
(HHand. 122)
1. PIE *porɑhur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *porhur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. porhur-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parhur-
3. parhur-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. parḫur-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
RV. párur-
(n.) ‘Gelenk zwischen den Gliedern des Leibes’
(WbRV. 789)
1. PIE *pórɑhur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pórhur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pórhur-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *párhur-
3. párhur-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. párur-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√porɑhus-
RV. páruṣ-
(n.) ‘Gelenk zwischen den Gliedern des Leibes’
(WbRV. 789)
1. PIE *pórɑhus-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pórhus-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pórhus-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *pórhuš-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. pórhuš-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *párhuš-
4. párhuš-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *páruš-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. páruš-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. páruṣ-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
AV. yathā·paruṣ
(adv.) ‘joint after joint’
(EWA 2:99)
(AV. yathāparuṣ)
1. PIE *Π·porɑhus
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·porhus
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·porhus
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *Π·porhuš
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. Π·porhuš
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·parhuš
4. Π·parhuš
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·paruš
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·paruš
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → AV. Π·paruṣ
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)


PIE √prku- √porku- √perku- (a.) ‘rein, sauber’ (sb.) ‘Welt’ (vb.) ‘reinigen’
(IEW 822)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + Pal. + CLu.; or PIE √pharku-?; for the semantics, cf. Lat. mundus ‘id.’)
√porku-
(CHD P:163ff.)
Hitt. parku-
(a.) ‘rein, sauber, unschuldig’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku, pár-ku-un [sgA], pár-ku-ua-aš [G] ‹cf. Lat. mundus ‘id.’›)
1. PIE *porku-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku-
Hitt. parku-
(É.) ‘a building’
(HIL. 738)
(Hitt. pár-ku-ua-aš [plG])
1. PIE *porku-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku-
√porkuo-
Hitt. parku̯a-
(vb.) ‘reinigen, säubern’
(HIL. 738)
(Hitt. pár-ku-ua-an-zi [3pl], pár-ku-ua-at-ta)
1. PIE *porku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku̯a-
CLu. paparku̯a-
(vb.) ‘reinigen, säubern’
(HHand. 119)
(CLu. pa-ap-pár-ku-ua-at-ti ‹cf. Lat. mundare ‘id.’›)
1. PIE *poporku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. paparku̯a-
Hitt. parku̯ai-
(vb.1.) ‘sich reinigen, entsühnen’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-ua-ia-aš [G])
1. PIE *porku̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku̯ai-
Hitt. parku̯ai-
(a.) ‘rein usw.’
(HIL. 737)
1. PIE *porku̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku̯ai-
Hitt. parku̯ai̯a-
(É.) ‘a building’
(HIL. 738)
(Hitt. pár-ku-ua-ia-aš [plDL])
1. PIE *porku̯oii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parku̯aii̯a-
2. parku̯aii̯a-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *parku̯aia-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. parku̯aia-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → Hitt. parku̯ai̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
CLu. parku̯aimi-
(pt.) ‘gereinigt?’
(HHand. 123)
(CLu. pár-ku-ua-i-mi-in-zi)
1. PIE *porku̯oimi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. parku̯aimi-
Hitt. parku̯ala-
(a.) ‘rein?’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-ua-al-la)
1. PIE *porku̯olo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku̯ala-
Hitt. parku̯an·darei̯a-
(vb.) ‘rein sein/werden?’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-ua-an-ta-ri-i[a-mi?] [1sg])
1. PIE *porku̯on·dɑɦorei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *porku̯on·dɦorei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. porku̯on·dɦorei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parku̯an·dɦarei̯a-
3. parku̯an·dɦarei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. parku̯an·darei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. parku̯·aštanani-
(NINDA.) ‘(ein Gebäck)’
(HHand. 123)
1. PIE *porku̯o·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku̯a·Σ
Goth. fairƕau-
(m.) ‘κόσμος: mundus, saeculum: Welt: world’
(GoEtD. F12)
(Goth. fairƕau, fairƕaus)
1. PIE *perku̯ou-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *perxu̯ou-
2. perxu̯ou-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *ferxu̯ou-
3. ferxu̯ou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ferxu̯au-
4. ferxu̯au-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *firxu̯au-
5. firxu̯au-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *firhu̯au-
6. firhu̯au-
hw → ƕ
Monophonemization of hw into ƕ
Rhu̯›ƕ → *firƕau-
7. firƕau-
i → ai
Opening of i into ai
Ri›ai → Goth. fairƕau-
√porkui-
Pal. parku̯i-
(vb.) ‘reinigen, säubern?’ (HHand. 123)
(DPal. 67)
(Pal. pa-ar-ku-i-ti, pár-ku-i-ti [3sg])
1. PIE *porku̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. parku̯i-
Hitt. parku̯i-
(sb.) ‘das Reine (Metall), Bronze: ZABAR’
(HHand. 123)
1. PIE *porku̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku̯i-
Hitt. ·parku̯i ḫaštai
(UZU.) ‘(a body part or cut of meat, ‘pure-bone’)’
(HIL. 738)
(Hitt. UZUpár-ku-i ḫa-aš-ta-i [sgNA])
1. PIE *porku̯i·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku̯i·Σ
Hitt. parku̯i-
(a.) ‘rein, sauber, unschuldig’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-iš, pár-ku-in [A])
1. PIE *porku̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku̯i-
Hitt. parku̯i-
(vb.1.) ‘sich reinigen, entsühnen’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-i-ed-d[a-at])
1. PIE *porku̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku̯i-
Hitt. parkui̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘sich reinigen, entsühnen’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-ia-ta-at)
1. PIE *porkui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parkui̯a-
Kpd. parkui̯a-
(LÚc.) ‘rein, sauber, unschuldig’
(NOMS. 943)
(Kpd. pá-ar-ku-i-a)
1. PIE *porkui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Kpd. parkui̯a-
Hitt. parku̯imar-
(n.) ‘Reinigung’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-e-m[ar?] ‹cf. Lat. mundatio ‘id.’›)
1. PIE *porku̯imor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku̯imar-
Hitt. parku̯iš-
(vb.) ‘rein werden, sich als unschuldig erweisen’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-e-eš-zi, pár-ku-eš-zi, pár-ku-iš-zi)
1. PIE *porku̯is-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parku̯is-
2. parku̯is-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. parku̯iš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. parkui̯an-
(n.) ‘(rituelle) Reinigung, Entsühnung’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-e-ia-an-na-aš [G])
1. PIE *porkui̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parkui̯an-
Hitt. parkui̯adar-
(n.) ‘(rituelle) Reinigung, Entsühnung’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-ia-a-tar)
1. PIE *porkui̯odɑɦor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *porkui̯odɦor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. porkui̯odɦor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parkui̯adɦar-
3. parkui̯adɦar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. parkui̯adar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√porkuli-
Hitt. parkuli-
(sb.) ‘(ein hurr. Kult- bzw. Tempelgerät)’
(HHand. 123)
(‹or Hitt.?›)
1. PIE *porkuli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parkuli-
√porkunu-
Hitt. parkunu-
(cs.) ‘reinigen, jmd. für rein erklären, freisprechen’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-nu-mi)
1. PIE *porkunu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parkunu-
Hitt. parkunu̯ant-
(pt.) ‘gereinigt, sauber’ (HHand. 123)
(HIL. 738)
1. PIE *porkunu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parkunu̯ant-
Hitt. parkunumar-
(n.N.act.) ‘Reinigung’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-nu-mar, par-ku-nu-um-ma-aš)
1. PIE *porkunumor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parkunumar-
Hitt. parkunuške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘reinigen’
(HIL. 738)
(Hitt. pár-ku-nu-uš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *porkunuski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *porkunusḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. porkunusḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parkunusḱe/a-
3. parkunusḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *parkunuske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. parkunuske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. parkunuške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√porkus-
Hitt. parkuš-
(vb.) ‘rein werden’
(HHand. 123)
1. PIE *porkus-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parkus-
2. parkus-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. parkuš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√perkuu-
Goth. fairƕu-
(m.) ‘κόσμος: mundus, saeculum: Welt’
(GoEtD. F12)
(Goth. fairƕus [sgN], fairƕu [sgA])
1. PIE *perku̯u-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *perxu̯u-
2. perxu̯u-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *ferxu̯u-
3. ferxu̯u-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *firxu̯u-
4. firxu̯u-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *firhu̯u-
5. firhu̯u-
hw → ƕ
Monophonemization of hw into ƕ
Rhu̯›ƕ → *firƕu-
6. firƕu-
i → ai
Opening of i into ai
Ri›ai → Goth. fairƕu-
Goth. ·fairƕu haban-
(pt.) ‘κοσμοκράρωρ: Weltherrscher’
(GoEtD. F12)
(Goth. fairƕu habans)
1. PIE *perku̯u·Σ
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *perxu̯u·Σ
2. perxu̯u·Σ
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *ferxu̯u·Σ
3. ferxu̯u·Σ
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *firxu̯u·Σ
4. firxu̯u·Σ
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *firhu̯u·Σ
5. firhu̯u·Σ
hw → ƕ
Monophonemization of hw into ƕ
Rhu̯›ƕ → *firƕu·Σ
6. firƕu·Σ
i → ai
Opening of i into ai
Ri›ai → Goth. fairƕu·Σ
Goth. sa·fairƕu haban-
(pt.) ‘κοσμοκράρωρ: mundi rector’
(GoEtD. F12)
1. PIE *so·perku̯u·Σ
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *so·perxu̯u·Σ
2. so·perxu̯u·Σ
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *so·ferxu̯u·Σ
3. so·ferxu̯u·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sa·ferxu̯u·Σ
4. sa·ferxu̯u·Σ
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *sa·firxu̯u·Σ
5. sa·firxu̯u·Σ
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *sa·firhu̯u·Σ
6. sa·firhu̯u·Σ
hw → ƕ
Monophonemization of hw into ƕ
Rhu̯›ƕ → *sa·firƕu·Σ
7. sa·firƕu·Σ
i → ai
Opening of i into ai
Ri›ai → Goth. sa·fairƕu·Σ


PIE √ps- √pos- √pes- (sb.) ‘Stein, Kieselstein, Steinbrocken, Sand, Kies’
(IEW 145-146)
(Sturtevant CGr. 131)
√pos-
Hitt. paš·ila-
(c.) ‘Steinbrocken, Kieselstein, Stein’
(HHand. 126)
(Hitt. pa-aš-ši-la-aš, pa-aš-ši-la-an)
1. PIE *pos·ilo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pas·ila-
2. pas·ila-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. paš·ila-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√pes-
OCS. pĕsŭkŭ-
(m.) ‘Sand, feiner Kies’
(Sadnik √646)
(OCS. pĕsŭkŭ)
1. PIE *pēsuko
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pēsuka
2. pēsuka
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *pēsuko
3. pēsuko
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *pēsuku
4. pēsuku
*ē → ĕ
Change of *ē into ĕ
Rē›ĕ → *pĕsuku
5. pĕsuku
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. pĕsŭkŭ
√psɑhbɑɦ-
Dor. ψᾱ́φο-
(f.) ‘Kiesel(stein), Steinchen: pebble’
(GEW 2:1136-1137)
(Dor. ψα̃φος)
1. PIE *psḗɑhbɑɦo-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *psā́ɑhbɑɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. psā́ɑhbɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *psā́hbɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. psā́hbɦo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *psā́bɦo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. psā́bɦo-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *psā́pho-
5. psā́pho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. ψᾱ́φο-
Ion.-Att. ψήφο-
(f.) ‘Kiesel(stein), Steinchen: pebble’
(GEW 2:1136-1137)
(Gr. ψῆφος)
1. PIE *psḗɑhbɑɦo-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *psā́ɑhbɑɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. psā́ɑhbɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *psā́hbɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. psā́hbɦo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *psā́bɦo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. psā́bɦo-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *psā́pho-
5. psā́pho-
*ā́ → ḗ
Ion-Att. change of *ā́ into ḗ
Rā́›ḗ → *psḗpho-
6. psḗpho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. ψήφο-
Lat. sabulo-
(n.) ‘Sand, Kies’
(WH. 2:458)
(Lat. sabulum)
1. PIE *pseɑhbɑɦulo-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *psaɑhbɑɦulo-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. psaɑhbɑɦulo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *psahbɦulo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. psahbɦulo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *psabɦulo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. psabɦulo-
*bɦ → f
Affricativization of labial *bɦ
Rbɦ›f → *psafulo-
5. psafulo-
*f → b
Change of *f into b
Rf›b → Lat. psabulo-


PIE √ps- √pos- √pes- (vb.) ‘besprengen, ausgießen’ (sb.) ‘Tropfen’
(IEW 146, 980)
(Pyysalo)
√pos-
(IEW 146)
TochA. päs-
(pr.pt.M.) ‘fundere, spargere’
(Poucha 179)
(TochA. päsmāṃ)
1. PIE *pos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. pas-
TochA. päs-
(pr.A.) ‘fundere, spargere: ausgießen, besprengen’
(Poucha 179)
(TochA. (w)rä päṣ SSS 6)
1. PIE *pos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. pas-
√poso-
Hitt. papaša-
(vb.) ‘(politisch) vereinnahmen, korrumpieren’
(HEG P:424-5)
1. PIE *poposo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *papasa-
2. papasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. papaša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. papašant-
(pt.) ‘= Hitt. paparšant-’
(HHand. 119)
1. PIE *poposont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *papasant-
2. papasant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. papašant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ps-
TochA. psäl-
(sb.) ‘das Ausgießen, das Besprengen ‹or ‘husk, chaff’, see →›’
(DTochB. 389)
(TochA. psäl, SSS 6)
1. PIE *psolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. psala-