PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
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PIE



PIE √po-, √pe-, √p- (vb.) ‘gehen, fliegen, eilen’ (sb.) ‘Fuß, Flügel’ (prep.adv.) ‘vor(ne)’
(IEW: see below)
(Pyysalo)
√po-, √pe-
(Pyysalo 2013:47)
(IEW –)
HLu. pa-
(vb.) ‘go’
(CHLu. 11.1.e24)
(HLu. (“PES2”)pa-tu)
1. PIE *po-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. pa-
Hitt. pa-
(vb.) ‘go, pass, flow’
(CHD P:18f.)
(Hitt. pa-an-zi [3pl])
1. PIE *po-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pa-
Gr. τρί·πο-
(m.) ‘tripod’
(Gr. τρίπος, τρίπον, τρίπου)
1. PIE *trí·po-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. τρί·πο-
Gr. οἰδί·πο-
(Im.) ‘Oidipus’
(GEW 2:358-9)
(Gr. οἰδίπος [N], οἰδίπου [G])
1. PIE *ɦɑoidí·po-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦoidí·po-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦoidí·po-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *oidí·po-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. oidí·po-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. οἰδί·πο-
Gr. ἀερό·πο-
(a.) ‘κοχλίας; aereis pedibus praeditus’
(GEW 1:259)
1. PIE *hɑei̯eró·po-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑai̯eró·po-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑai̯eró·po-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hai̯eró·po-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hai̯eró·po-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ai̯eró·po-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ai̯eró·po-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *aeró·po-
5. aeró·po-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀερό·πο-
Gr. ἀπο·πέ-
(ao.?) Hes. ἀποπεῖν · ἀπελθεῖν
(LSJ. 212)
1. PIE *hɑepo·pé-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑapo·pé-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapo·pé-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hapo·pé-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hapo·pé-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *apo·pé-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. apo·pé-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀπο·πέ-
√poi-, √pei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 36,47)
Hitt. pai-
(vb.1.) ‘gehen, fließen, fliegen’
(CHD P:19f.)
(Hitt. paizi, HIL. 712)
1. PIE *poi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pai-
TochA. pe-
(m.) ‘pes’
(Poucha 186)
(TochA. pe [sgN])
1. PIE *poi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pai̯a
2. pai̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *pai̯
3. pai̯
*a y → ē
Change of ay into ē in root-final
R=ay›=ē → *pē
4. pē
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochA. pe
TochA. pai-
(PN?) ‘Nomen proprium personae’
(Poucha 188)
‹from *pa:yi- (?), cf. OInd. Pa:yika- ‘footman, footsoldier’)
1. PIE *pōi
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *pāi
2. pāi
*āiC → aiC
Osthoff’s Law for āiC
RāiC›aiC → *pai
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
3. pai
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *pē
4. pē
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochA. pe
OInd. paya-
(vb.M.) ‘to go, move’
(MonWil. 585)
(Dhātup. payate [3sg])
1. PIE *pei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pei̯a-
2. pei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *pai̯a-
3. pai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. paya-
√pi-
Hitt. pi
(adv.) ‘vor, vorne’
(HEG 2:170)
(Hitt. pí, EHS 67)
Arm. arci·v-
(sb.) ‘Adler : eagle’
(EtDiArm. 139)
1. PIE *ɦɑergii·pì-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑargii·pì-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑargii·pì-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦargii·pì-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦargii·pì-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦarj́i·pì-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. ɦarj́i·pì-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *arj́i·pì-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. arj́i·pì-
*j́ → j
From Satem *j́ to j
Rj́›j → *arji·pì-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. arji·pì-
*j → c
Loss of voice of media *j
Rj›c → *arci·pì-
7. arci·pì-
ipì -> ivì
Affricativization of p between i _ i
Ripì›ivì → *arci·vì-
8. arci·vì-
*i → Ø
Loss of unaccented *i
Rì›0 → Arm. arci·v-
Arm. arc·ui-
(sb.) ‘Adler : eagle’
(EtDiArm. 139)
1. PIE *ɦɑergiì·pi-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑargiì·pi-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑargiì·pi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦargiì·pi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦargiì·pi-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦarj́ì·pi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. ɦarj́ì·pi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *arj́ì·pi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. arj́ì·pi-
*j́ → j
From Satem *j́ to j
Rj́›j → *arjì·pi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. arjì·pi-
*j → c
Loss of voice of media *j
Rj›c → *arcì·pi-
7. arcì·pi-
ìpi -> ìui
Affricativization of p between ì _ i
Rìpi›ìvi → *arcì·ui-
8. arcì·ui-
*i → Ø
Loss of unaccented *i
Rì›0 → Arm. arc·ui-
OInd. r̥ji·pya-
(a.) ‘BW von śyená- Adler, Falke.’
(Beitr. 2:827)
(PIE *arǵ- ‘Adler’, IEW. 854-5, Brugmann Grundr2 1:462)
1. PIE *ɦɑrgii·pi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦrgii·pi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦrgii·pi̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦrj́i·pi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦrj́i·pi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦrj́i·pi̯a-
4. ɦrj́i·pi̯a-
CrC → Cr̥C
Syllabification of *r in CrC
Rr›r̥ → *ɦr̥j́i·pi̯a-
5. ɦr̥j́i·pi̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *r̥j́i·pi̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. r̥j́i·pi̯a-
*j́ → j
From Satem *j́ to j
Rj́›j → *r̥ji·pi̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. r̥ji·pi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. r̥ji·pya-
LAv. ǝrǝzi·fya-
(m.) ‘Adler’
(AIWb. 354)
1. PIE *ɦɑrgii·pi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦrgii·pi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦrgii·pi̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦrj́i·pi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦrj́i·pi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦrj́i·pi̯a-
4. ɦrj́i·pi̯a-
CrC → Cr̥C
Syllabification of *r in CrC
Rr›r̥ → *ɦr̥j́i·pi̯a-
5. ɦr̥j́i·pi̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *r̥j́i·pi̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. r̥j́i·pi̯a-
*r̥ → ǝr
Change of *r̥ into ǝr
Rr̥›ǝr → *ǝrj́i·pi̯a-
7. ǝrj́i·pi̯a-
*r → rǝ
Anaptyxis of ǝ (Schwa)
Rr›rǝ → *ǝrǝj́i·pi̯a-
8. ǝrǝj́i·pi̯a-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *ǝrǝzi·pi̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
9. ǝrǝzi·pi̯a-
*pR → fR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
RpR›fR → *ǝrǝzi·fi̯a-
10. ǝrǝzi·fi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. ǝrǝzi·fya-
Hitt. pi̯an
(adv.) ‘vor, vorne’
(HEG 2:170)
(Hitt. pí-an, EHS 67)
1. PIE *pi̯on
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pi̯an
√pim-
(IEW 795)
OIcl. fim-
(a.) ‘behende, gewandt’
(ANEtWb. 120)
(OIcl. fimr [sgN])
1. PIE *pimo-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›fRestr → *fimo-
2. fimo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. fima-
OIr. ēm-
(a.) ‘rasch, flink’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *peimi-
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → *pēmi-
2. pēmi-
*ēmi → ēimi
Epenthesis of i
Rēmi›ēimi → OIr. pēimi-
OIcl. fima-
(vb.) ‘sich eilen’
(ANEtWb. 120)
OIcl. fimast [inf.])
1. PIE *pimo-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›fRestr → *fimo-
2. fimo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. fima-
TochA. pim-
(PN.m.) ‘cf. above’
(Poucha 180)
1. PIE *pimo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. pima-
OIcl. orð·fimi-
(f.) ‘Gewandheit in Worten’
(ANEtWb. 120)
1. PIE *Π·pimiɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·pimih-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·pimih-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·pimi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·pimi-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›fRestr → OIcl. Π·fimi-
OIr. ēim-
(a.) ‘rasch, flink’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *peimi-
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → *pēmi-
2. pēmi-
*ēmi → ēimi
Epenthesis of i
Rēmi›ēimi → OIr. pēimi-
√pir
Hitt. piran
(adv.) ‘vor, vorne’
(HEG 2:170)
(Hitt. pí-ra-an, EHS 67)
1. PIE *piron
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. piran
√pis-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. paiške/a-
(vb.1.M.iter.) ‘gehen’
(HIL. 712)
(Hitt. pa-iš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *poiskie/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *poisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. poisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *paisḱe/a-
3. paisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *paiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. paiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. paiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lith. pisnó-
(vb.) ‘mit schüttelnder Bewegung laufen’
(LiEtWb. 599)
1. PIE *pisnḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *pisnā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pisnā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pisnā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pisnā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pisnā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pisnā́-
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *pisnṓ-
(XX:XX)
5. pisnṓ-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → Lith. pisnó-
Lith. pìst
(intj.) (bez. ein schüttelndes Laufen)
(LiEtWb. 599)
1. PIE *píst
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → Lith. pìst
√pit-
(Pyysalo)
RV. pet-
(pf.) ‘fliegen’
(WbRV. 762)
(RV. petathus, petátus)
1. PIE *poit-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pait-
2. pait-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *pēt-
3. pēt-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → RV. pet-
Gr. πίτνο-
(vb.) ‘fallen’
(Gr. πίτνω)
1. PIE *pítno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πίτνο-
Lat. pinnā-
(f.) ‘Flügel, Feder’
(WH. 2:306)
1. PIE *pitnēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pitnāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pitnāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pitnāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pitnāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pitnā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pitnā
*tn → nn
Assimilation of *tn into *nn
Rtn›nn → Lat. pinnā
Gr. πίτυλο-
(m.) ‘Ruderschlag, heftigen Schlag’
(GEW 2:545)
1. PIE *pítulo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πίτυλο-
Gr. πίτ·υρο-
(n.) ‘Kleieähnlicher Ausschlag, Niederschlag’
(GEW 2:545)
1. PIE *pít·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πίτ·Σ-
√piu-
TochB. snai·pewa-
(a.) ‘without feet : dépourvu de pieds’
(DTochB. 399)
(TochB. snaipewaṃ [plA], LeTokh1:373)
1. PIE *Π·poiu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·paiu̯a-
2. Π·paiu̯a-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *Π·pēu̯a-
3. Π·pēu̯a-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *Π·peu̯a-
4. Π·peu̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. Π·pewa-
TochB. wi·pewa-
(a.) ‘two-footed : bipède’
(DTochB. 399)
(TochB. wipewaṃ [plA], LeToch 1:373)
1. PIE *Π·poiu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·paiu̯a-
2. Π·paiu̯a-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *Π·pēu̯a-
3. Π·pēu̯a-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *Π·peu̯a-
4. Π·peu̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. Π·pewa-
√pol-, √pel-, √pl-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. pala-
(vb.1.) ‘to go’
(MonWil. 609)
(Dhātup. palati [3sg]
1. PIE *peLo-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *pelo-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. pelo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pela-
3. pela-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → OInd. pala-
Gr. πέλο-
(pr.M.) ‘sich regen, sich bewegen’
(Gr. πέλομαι, Not from *ku̯el- -› Gr. †τελ-!)
1. PIE *pélo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πέλο-
Arm. hol-
(sb.) ‘Kreisel’
(HEG 1:278)
(Arm. hol; Lit. apud Tischler; stem = ?)
1. PIE *pól-
*p- → h-
Change of *p- into h-
Rp=›h= → *hól-
2. hól-
*ó → o
Loss/Absence of accent
Ró›o → Arm. hol-
Arm. hole-
(vb.) ‘drehen’
(HEG 1:278)
(Arm. holel [inf.])
1. PIE *póle-
*p- → h-
Change of *p- into h-
Rp=›h= → *hóle-
2. hóle-
*ó → o
Loss/Absence of accent
Ró›o → Arm. hole-
√pols-
(HIL. 719-720)
(CHD P: 69f.)
Hitt. palš-
(c.) ‘Weg, Pflad, Feldzug, Gelegenheit, Mal’
(HHand. 117)
(Hitt. pal-ši [L]
1. PIE *pols-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pals-
2. pals-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. palš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. palša-
(.) ‘way’ (?)
(CHLu. 2.14.22)
(HAWKINS 2000:112: KARKAMIŠ A2-3: wa-i-sa-’ ku-ma-na-sa-ti-’ pa-la-sa-ti-i)
1. PIE *polso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palsa-
2. palsa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. palša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. palši-
(c.*) ‘Weg, Pflad, Feldzug’
(HHand. 117)
(Hitt. KASKAL-ši-iš)
1. PIE *polsi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palsi-
2. palsi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. palši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. palšiāḫ-
(vb.*) ‘auf den Weg bringen, befördern’
(HHand. 117)
(Hitt. KASKAL-ši-aḫ-mi)
1. PIE *polsiēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *polsiāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. polsiāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *polsiāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. polsiāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palsiāh-
4. palsiāh-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *palšiāh-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. palšiāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. palšiāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√por-, per-
(IEW. 816-7)
(Pyysalo 2013:47, 83)
CLu. par-
(vb.1.) ‘treiben, jagen’ (?)
(DLL. 77)
(CLu. pár-du [3sg], HIL. 734, CHD P:143f.)
1. PIE *por-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. par-
RV. pípar-
(pr.) ‘hinüberführen’
(WbRV. 777-8)
(RV. píparti [3sg])
1. PIE *píper-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. pípar-
√poro-
CLu. para-
(vb.) ‘chase, hunt : jagen’
(DLL 77)
(CLu. pa-ra-ad-du [3sg])
1. PIE *poro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. para-
HLu. arḫa para·-
(vb.) ‘hunt’
(CHLu. 7.2.1.fr6)
(HLu. (PES2)*501+RA/I-ha)
1. PIE *Π·poro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·para-
HLu. para-
(sb.) ‘foot’
(CHLu. 10.14.9)
(HLu. (“PES”)pa+ra/i-za)
1. PIE *poro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. para-
RV. pūrvā·pará-
(a.) ‘nachfolgend’
(WbRV. 846-7)
1. PIE *Π·poró-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·paró-
2. Π·paró-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. Π·pará-
√porɑh-
(CHD P:143f.)
Gr. περάο-
(pr.) ‘durchschreiten, -fahren’
(Gr. περάω)
1. PIE *peréɑhi̯o-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *peráɑhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. peráɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *peráhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. peráhi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *perái̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. perái̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *peráo-
5. peráo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. περάο-
Hitt. parḫa-
(vb.intr.) ‘eilen, jagen’
(HHand. 121)
(CHD P:143f.)
1. PIE *porɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *porho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. porho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parha-
3. parha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. parḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. parḫa-
(vb.2.) ‘treiben, jagen’
(HHand. 121)
(Hitt. pár-ḫa-i [3sg])
1. PIE *porɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *porho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. porho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parha-
3. parha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. parḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. parḫa-
(vb.) ‘treiben, jagen’
(DLL. 78)
(CLu. pár-ḫa-ad-du [3sg])
1. PIE *porɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *porho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. porho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parha-
3. parha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. parḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√pors-
(HIL. 740)
Umbr. pers-
(m.) ‘Fuß’
(WbOU. 522-3)
(Umbr. persi [sgAbl])
Hitt. parša-
(vb.1.) ‘fliehen’
(CHD P: 179f.)
(Hitt. pár-ša, HHand. 124)
1. PIE *porso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parsa-
2. parsa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. parša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Umbr. du·porso-
(a.) ‘Zweifüßler’
(WbOU. 192)
(Umbr. duporsus)
1. PIE *duɑɦ·porso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *duɦ·porso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. duɦ·porso-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Umbr. du·porso-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Hitt. parša·nu-
(cs.) ‘make flee, chase away’
(HIL. 740)
(Hitt. pár-ša-nu-ir)
1. PIE *porso·nu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parsa·nu-
2. parsa·nu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. parša·nu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. parša-
(vb.1.) ‘fliehen’
(HHand. 124)
(Hitt. pár-ša-[-at-tén])
1. PIE *porso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parsa-
2. parsa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. parša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Umbr. petur·porso-
(a.) ‘Vierfüßler’
(WbOU. 551)
(Umbr. peturporsus XX)
1. PIE *kuetur·porso-
*ku/u̯ → p
Bilabialization of labiovelar q into p
RkU›p → Umbr. petur·porso-
RV. parṣáṇi-
(a.) ‘übersetzend, hinüberfahrend’
(WbRV. 793)
(XX: check n!)
1. PIE *persóni-
PIE *rs → rš
Ruki-rule for *rs
RRukiOIA → *peršóni-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. peršóni-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *peršáni-
3. peršáni-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *paršáni-
4. paršáni-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *parṣáni-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
5. parṣáni-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. parṣáṇi-
√pordɑɦ-
Arm. hord-
(.) ‘begangen, betreten’
(ArmEtD. XX)
(IEW 816)
1. PIE *pórdɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pórdɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pórdɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *pórd-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. pórd-
*p- → h-
Change of *p- into h-
Rp=›h= → *hórd-
4. hórd-
*ó → o
Loss/Absence of accent
Ró›o → Arm. hord-
OInd. pāparddhi-
(f.) ‘Jagd’
(EWA 3:314)
(Graßmann: *pā-pardh-ti-)
1. PIE *pēpordɑɦti-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pēpordɦti-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pēpordɦti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pēpardɦti-
3. pēpardɦti-
*Dɦt → Ddɦ
Bartholomae’s Law
RDɦt›Ddɦ → *pēparddɦi-
(SPIE §4.6.5.)
4. pēparddɦi-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *pāparddɦi-
5. pāparddɦi-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → OInd. pāparddhi-
OInd. pāparddhin-
(m.) ‘Jäger’
(EWA 3:314)
1. PIE *pēpordɑɦtin-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pēpordɦtin-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pēpordɦtin-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pēpardɦtin-
3. pēpardɦtin-
*Dɦt → Ddɦ
Bartholomae’s Law
RDɦt›Ddɦ → *pēparddɦin-
(SPIE §4.6.5.)
4. pēparddɦin-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *pāparddɦin-
5. pāparddɦin-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → OInd. pāparddhin-
√pos-, √pes-
(Pyysalo)
(HIL. 754f., HHand. 127)
Lat. quadru·pes-
(a.n.) ‘vierfüssig’
(OxLatD. 1532)
Lat. quadrupes [n.sg])
Alb. për·posh
(adv.) ‘under’
(DTochB. 401)
1. PIE *Π·pēso
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·pēsa
2. Π·pēsa
*s → sh
Change of *s into sh
Rs›sh → *Π·pēsha
3. Π·pēsha
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *Π·pēsh
4. Π·pēsh
*ē → o
Change of *ē into o
Rē›o → Alb. Π·posh
OIr. īs
(adv.) ‘underneath’
(DTochB. 401)
1. PIE *pēsso
*ē → ī
Change of *ē into ī
Rē›ī → *pīsso
2. pīsso
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → OIr. pīss
Hitt. pašu-
(c.) ‘step, podium, pedestal : Sockel, Stufe’
(CHD P:211)
(Hitt. pa-aš-šu-un, CHD: no det. NA4, not a stone)
1. PIE *posu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pasu-
2. pasu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. pašu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√pou-
(Pyysalo 2013:47)
Hitt. pau-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘go’
(HHand. 128)
(in Hitt. pau·ar [inf.], pau·anzi [inf.])
1. PIE *pou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pau-
Gr. τρί·που-
(n.) ‘tripod’
(Gr. τρίπουν [NA])
1. PIE *trí·pou-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. τρί·που-
√pouo-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. pava-
(vb.M.) ‘to go’
(MonW. 610)
(Dhatup. pavate [3sg]
1. PIE *peu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *peu̯a-
2. peu̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *pau̯a-
3. pau̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OInd. pava-
√pu-
CLu. pu̯a
(adv.) ‘früher = Hitt. garu’
(HHand. 137)
(CLu. pu-ú-ua)
1. PIE *pu̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. pu̯a
CLu. pu̯a·dil-
(n.) ‘(le) passé : ver-gangen’
(DLL. 83)
(CLu. pu-u-ua-ti-i-il)
1. PIE *pu̯o·dɑɦil-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pu̯o·dɦil-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pu̯o·dɦil-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pu̯a·dɦil-
3. pu̯a·dɦil-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. pu̯a·dil-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. pu̯·alei̯a-
(.) ‘a garment for the leg or foot?:
(CHD P:369)
(CLu. pu-wa-li-ia-an-za [sgNA], HIL. 791)
1. PIE *pu̯·olei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. pu̯·alei̯a-
Hitt. pu̯·alei̯a-
(.) ‘a garment for the leg or foot?’
(CHD P:369)
(Hitt. pu-ua-li-ia [sgNA], HIL. 791)
1. PIE *pu̯·olei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pu̯·alei̯a-
√puɑh-
CLu. puḫ-
(vb.) ‘campaign, fight, hunt(?)’
(CHD P-402)
(CLu. pu-u-uḫ-ti)
1. PIE *puɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *puh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. puh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. puḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√pun-
Hitt. pau̯an-
(n.obl.) ‘das Hinausgehen’; ‘Ausgang’
(HHand. 128)
1. PIE *pou̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pau̯an-
Hitt. pau̯an·kipa-
(URU.) if ‘Ausgang+kipa (?)’
(OGH. 311)
1. PIE *pou̯on·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pau̯an·Σ-
Lyd. wc·baw·ẽn-
(vb.) ‘trample on’
(Melchert 1994:330)
(Not to Hitt. pakus- ‘stamp, crush’ vs. Melchert)
1. PIE *Π·pou̯·en-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·pau̯·en-
2. Π·pau̯·en-
*en → ẽn
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
ReN›ẽN → *Π·pau̯·ẽn-
3. Π·pau̯·ẽn-
PIE *p → b
Orthographic change of *p into b
Rp›b → *Π·bau̯·ẽn-
4. Π·bau̯·ẽn-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Lyd. Π·baw·ẽn-
Arm. hun-
(sb.) ‘Furt, Übergang’
(ArmGr. I:468-9)
(Arm. hun [sgN])
1. PIE *puno-
*p- → h-
Change of *p- into h-
Rp=›h= → Arm. huno-
OSax. fundō-
(pr.) ‘strive’
(ASaxD. 349)
1. PIE *pundɑɦēɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pundɑɦāɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pundɑɦāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pundɦāɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pundɦāɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *pundɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pundɦā-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *fundɦā-
5. fundɦā-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *fundā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. fundā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → OSax. fundō-
(XX:XX)
OEng. fundia-
(pr.) ‘sich aufmachen nach, streben, gehen, eilen’
(ASaxD. 348-9)
1. PIE *pundɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pundɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pundɦi̯o-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *fundɦi̯o-
3. fundɦi̯o-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *fundi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. fundi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *fundi̯a-
5. fundi̯a-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OEng. fundia-
OHG. fundja-
(pr.) ‘subire’
(ASaxD. 349)
1. PIE *puntɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *punthi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. punthi̯o-
*t h → þ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›þ → *punþi̯o-
3. punþi̯o-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *funþi̯o-
4. funþi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *funþi̯a-
5. funþi̯a-
*þ → d
OHG sound shift of *þ
Rþ›d → *fundi̯a-
6. fundi̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → OHG. fundja-
√pur-
(IEW 810)
Hitt. pau̯ar-
(n.N.act.) ‘das Hinausgehen’; ‘Ausgang’
(HHand. 128)
1. PIE *pou̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pau̯ar-
OInd. pura-
(pr.A.) ‘go before, precede, lead’
(MonWill. 634)
(OInd. purati [3sg])
1. PIE *puro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. pura-
OIcl. for-
(a.) ‘hastig, eilig’
(ANEtWb. 139)
(OIcl. forr XX ‹ *furha-, Beitr. 2:960)
1. PIE *puro-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›fRestr → *furo-
2. furo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. fura-
Goth. faur
(adv.prep.) ‘vor, für’
(GoEtD. 110)
1. PIE *puro
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *furo
2. furo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *fura
3. fura
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *fur
4. fur
*u → au
Allophonic change of *u into au
Ru›au → Goth. faur
ModPersL. pul-
(sb.) ‘Brücke’
(Güntert 1916:95)
1. PIE *puro-
r -› l
Change of r to l
Rr›l → *pulo-
2. pulo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → ModPersL. pula-
RV. ·purā́
(adv.) ‘früher, zuvor, von Alters her’
(WbRV. 826)
RV. pur·āṇá-
(a.) ‘vormalig, uralt, seit lange bestehend’
(WbRV. 827)
1. PIE *pur·ōnó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *pur·ōná-
2. pur·ōná-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *pur·āná-
3. pur·āná-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. pur·āṇá-
RV. purás
(prep.A) ‘vor’
(WbRV. 825-6)
1. PIE *purós
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. purás
LAv. paoirya
(adv.) ‘zu Anfang (der ersten Welt)’
(AIWb. 874)
1. PIE *pouri̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pauri̯a-
2. pauri̯a-
*au → ao
Opening of *au
Rau›ao → *paori̯a-
3. paori̯a-
*aori → aoiri
Anaptyxis of *i
RaorI›aoirI → *paoiri̯a-
4. paoiri̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. paoirya-
Goth. faurþis
(adv.) ‘πρῶτον, πρότερον before, earlier’
(GoEtD. 112)
1. PIE *purtis
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *furtis
2. furtis
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *furþis
3. furþis
*u → au
Allophonic change of *u into au
Ru›au → Goth. faurþis
TochA. purcomo-
(a.) ‘primus, optimus’
(Poucha 201)
1. PIE *purti̯oumou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *purti̯aumau-
2. purti̯aumau-
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›c → *purcaumau-
3. purcaumau-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *purcōmō-
4. purcōmō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. purcomo-
RV. pū́rva-
(a.) ‘vorder, voran seiend/gehend, usw.’
(WbRV. 844-5)
1. PIE *púru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *púru̯a-
2. púru̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *púrva-
3. púrva-
urv → ūrv
Lengthening of *u before rv
Rurv›ūrv → RV. pū́rva-
LAv. paourva-
(a.) ‘der vordere, vorn, vornan befindlich’
(AIWb. 870)
1. PIE *pouru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pauru̯a-
2. pauru̯a-
*au → ao
Opening of *au
Rau›ao → *paoru̯a-
3. paoru̯a-
*aoru → aouru
Anaptyxis of *u
RaorU›aourU → *paouru̯a-
4. paouru̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. paourva-
gAv. paourvīm
(adv.) ‘zuerst, vor allem, bei Beginn’
(AIWb. 873-4)
1. PIE *pouru̯ɑ́him
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *pouru̯íhim
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. pouru̯íhim
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pauru̯íhim
3. pauru̯íhim
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pauru̯íim
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pauru̯íim
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *pauru̯ī́m
5. pauru̯ī́m
*au → ao
Opening of *au
Rau›ao → *paoru̯ī́m
6. paoru̯ī́m
*aoru → aouru
Anaptyxis of *u
RaorU›aourU → *paouru̯ī́m
7. paouru̯ī́m
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *paourvī́m
8. paourvī́m
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → gAv. paourvīm
√pusko-
Arm. husk-
(a.) ‘dernier’
(Meillet 1894:296)
1. PIE *pusko-
*k → kʼ
Glottalization of *k
Rk›k' → *pusk'o-
2. pusk'o-
*p- → h-
Change of *p- into h-
Rp=›h= → Arm. husk'o-
√pud-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. πούδ-
(.) ‘foot’
(Gr. πούς [sgN])
1. PIE *poúd-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πούδ-
Maced. ἀργιό·πουδ-
(m.) = ‘Gr. ἀετός’
(LSJ 235)
1. PIE *hɑergi̯ió·poud-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑargi̯ió·poud-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑargi̯ió·poud-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hargi̯ió·poud-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hargi̯ió·poud-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *harǵió·poud-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. harǵió·poud-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *arǵió·poud-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. arǵió·poud-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *argió·poud-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. argió·poud-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Maced. ἀργιό·πουδ-
Parth. pwd
(.) ‘Lauf’
(IEW. 998 [diff.])
1. PIE *poudo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pauda-
2. pauda-
*a → 0
Orthographic absence of *a
Ra›0 → *pud-
3. pud-
*u → w
Orthographic change of *u into w
Ru›w → Parth. pwd-
MAv. puda-
(EN.) ‘Name einer iranischen Familie’
(AIWb. 909)
(MAv. puda-)
1. PIE *pudo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → MAv. puda-
Gr. πυδ.αρίζο-
(pr.) ‘mit dem Fuß/Huf ausschlagen’
(Gr. πυδαρίζω)
1. PIE *pud.hɑeríhɑdi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *pud.hɑaríhɑdi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. pud.hɑaríhɑdi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pud.haríhdi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pud.haríhdi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pud.arídi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pud.arídi̯o-
PIE *di̯ → j
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
Rdi̯›j → *pud.aríjo-
5. pud.aríjo-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *pud.arízo-
6. pud.arízo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πυδ.αρίζο-
Gr. πυδ.αλίζο-
(pr.) ‘mit dem Fuß/Huf ausschlagen’
(GEW 2:620)
(Gr. πυδαλίζω)
1. PIE *pud.hɑelíhɑdi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *pud.hɑalíhɑdi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. pud.hɑalíhɑdi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pud.halíhdi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pud.halíhdi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pud.alídi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pud.alídi̯o-
PIE *di̯ → j
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
Rdi̯›j → *pud.alíjo-
5. pud.alíjo-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *pud.alízo-
6. pud.alízo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πυδ.αλίζο-


PIE √p-, √op- √ep- (aff.) ‘nach, zurück, unter, usw.’ (sb.) ‘Abend(land), West’ (a.) ‘unterländisch, western’
(IEW 323-5)
(+ Pyysalo)
√po-
(Pyysalo)
Pal. pa·naga-
(vb.) ‘zurück·kommen(d) (?)’
(HHand. 118)
(Pal. pa-na-a-ga-an-zi [3pl] or [pt.?], see BPal. 7, DPal. 66)
1. PIE *po·nogɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po·nogɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. po·nogɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pa·nagɦa-
3. pa·nagɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Pal. pa·naga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Kpd. pa·naga-
(LÚ.c.) ‘‹zurück·kommend i.e. Nestor (?)›’
(NOMS. 926)
(Kpd. pá-na-ga)
1. PIE *po·nogɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po·nogɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. po·nogɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pa·nagɦa-
3. pa·nagɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Kpd. pa·naga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. pa·šku-
(vb.1.) ‘zurückweisen, vernachlässigen, vergessen’
(HHand. 127)
(CHD P:XX, HEG P:XX)
1. PIE *po·sku-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pa·sku-
2. pa·sku-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. pa·šku-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. arḫa pa·šku-
(vb.) ‘overlook, neglect’
(KLuN:334f.)
(HLu. ARHA pa-sà-REL-i)
1. PIE *Π·po·sku-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·pa·sku-
2. Π·pa·sku-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. Π·pa·šku-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OHG. fa·sō-
(vb.) ‘nachspüren’
(EWAhd. XX)
(Grundr2 I:765, WH. 2:241)
1. PIE *po·sēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *po·sāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. po·sāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po·sāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. po·sāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *po·sā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. po·sā-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *fo·sā-
5. fo·sā-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *fa·sā-
6. fa·sā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *fa·sō-
(XX:XX)
7. fa·sō-
*ō → uo
Change of ō into uo
Rō›uo → OHG. fa·suo-
Hitt. ·pa
(encl.ptcl.) etwa ‘wieder, zuruck’
(HHand. 18)
1. PIE *·po
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ·pa
√opo-
(Kronasser EHS 574)
Hitt. apa
(adv.) ‘wieder, zurück’ (postpGD) ‘nach, hinter’
(HHand. 18)
(Hitt. ap-pa, EGIR-pa)
1. PIE *opo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. apa
CLu. apa
(pref.) ‘wieder, zurück’
(HHand. 18)
1. PIE *opo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. apa
Hitt. ·apa
(encl.ptcl.) etwa ‘wieder, zuruck’
(HHand. 18)
1. PIE *·opo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ·apa
HLu. apa·zidi-
(a.) ‘western, unterländisch?’
(CHLu. 4.17.A)
(HLu. (‘OCCIDENS’)á-pa-zi-i-ti)
1. PIE *opo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. apa·Σ-
OHitt. ap·ai-
(vb.2.) ‘fertig sein, zu Ende sein, be finished/done’
(HHand. 18)
(OHitt. a-ap-pa-i [3sg], ap-pa-i, HIL. 231)
1. PIE *op·oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OHitt. ap·ai-
Hitt. ap·aa-
(vb.M.) ‘to be finished, to be done’
(HIL. 231)
(Hitt. ap-pa-a-ru [3sg])
1. PIE *op·oi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ap·ai̯a-
2. ap·ai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → Hitt. ap·aa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
√opeio-
(Pyysalo)
Oettinger (1979:472)
OHitt. ap·ei̯a-
(vb.A.) ‘fertig/zu Ende sein : to be finished/done’
(HHand. 18, HIL. 231)
(Hitt. ap-pi-ia-zi [3sg], ap-pi-ia-an-zi [3pl])
1. PIE *op·ei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OHitt. ap·ei̯a-
LAv. ap·aya-
(pr.) ‘(Gebot) nachkommen, es erfüllen, befolgen’
(AIWb. 70-1)
(LAv. apayantahe [sgG!?])
1. PIE *op·ei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ap·ei̯a-
2. ap·ei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *ap·ai̯a-
3. ap·ai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. ap·aya-
LAv. frāpaya-
(a.) ‘nach sonnenuntergang zu gelegen, westlich’
(AIWb. 1015-6)
(LAv. frāpayå [f.plA])
1. PIE *prōpei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *prōpei̯a-
2. prōpei̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *prāpei̯a-
3. prāpei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *prāpai̯a-
4. prāpai̯a-
*pR → fR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
RpR›fR → *frāpai̯a-
5. frāpai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. frāpaya-
LAv. frāpayah-
(m.) ‘Name eines Bergs oder Gebirgs’
(AIWb. 1016)
1. PIE *prōpei̯os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *prōpei̯as-
2. prōpei̯as-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *prāpei̯as-
3. prāpei̯as-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *prāpei̯ah-
4. prāpei̯ah-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *prāpai̯ah-
5. prāpai̯ah-
*pR → fR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
RpR›fR → *frāpai̯ah-
6. frāpai̯ah-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. frāpayah-
√epom-
HLu. ipamari-
(n.) ‘west’
(CHLu. 10.17.1)
(HLu. (“OCCIDENS”)i-pa-ma-ri+i-i)
1. PIE *ēpomori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēpamari-
2. ēpamari-
*ē → i
Change of *ē into i
Rē›i → HLu. ipamari-
HLu. ipami-
(pt.) ‘occidens, west’
(CHLu. 1.1.5.)
(HLu. (“OCCIDENS”)i-pa-mi)
1. PIE *ēpomi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēpami-
2. ēpami-
*ē → i
Change of *ē into i
Rē›i → HLu. ipami-
√opon
Hitt. apan
(adv.) ‘dahinter, hinten’
(HHand. 18)
(Hitt. ap-pa-an, EGIR-an)
1. PIE *opon
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. apan
CLu. apan
(pref.) ‘zurück’ (postp.) ‘hinter’
(HHand. 18)
1. PIE *opon
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. apan
HLu. apan
(aff.) ‘after’
(CHLu. 4.3.2)
(HLu. (‘POST’)á-pa-pa-wa/i-mu-ta)
1. PIE *opon
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. apan
√ēpon-
OHG. āband-
(.) ‘Abend, West’
(EWAhd. XX)
(OHG. âband-)
1. PIE *ēpont-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *ēfont-
2. ēfont-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *ēfonþ-
3. ēfonþ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēfanþ-
4. ēfanþ-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *āfanþ-
5. āfanþ-
*þ → d
OHG sound shift of *þ
Rþ›d → *āfand-
6. āfand-
*f → b
OHG sound shift of *f
Rāfa›āba → OHG. āband-
OSax. āvand-
(m.) ‘Abend’
(ASaxD. 4)
1. PIE *ēpondɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēpondɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēpondɦ-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *ēfondɦ-
3. ēfondɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ēfond-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. ēfond-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēfand-
5. ēfand-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *āfand-
6. āfand-
*āfa → -āva
Change of f into v between vowels
Rāfa›āva → OSax. āvand-
OLFrank. āvandi
(.) ‘vesperem’
(XX:XX)
(OLFrank. avandi [sgA]
1. PIE *ēpondɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēpondɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēpondɦi-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *ēfondɦi-
3. ēfondɦi-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ēfondi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. ēfondi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēfandi-
5. ēfandi-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *āfandi-
6. āfandi-
*āfa → -āva
Change of f into v between vowels
Rāfa›āva → OLFrank. āvandi-
OLFrank. āvandis
(.) ‘every evening : uespere’
(XX:XX)
(OLFrank. avandis)
1. PIE *ēpondɑɦis-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēpondɦis-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēpondɦis-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *ēfondɦis-
3. ēfondɦis-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ēfondis-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. ēfondis-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēfandis-
5. ēfandis-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *āfandis-
6. āfandis-
*āfa → -āva
Change of f into v between vowels
Rāfa›āva → OLFrank. āvandis-
√opt-
OIcl. aptan-
(m.) ‘Abend’
(ANEtWb. 11)
(OIcl. aptann [sgN])
1. PIE *opton-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *opþon-
2. opþon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *apþan-
3. apþan-
*þ → ð
Change of þ into ð
R=þ›=ð → OIcl. apðan-
OIcl. aptr
(adv.) ‘zurück, wiederum’
(ANEtWb. 11)
1. PIE *optro
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *opþro
2. opþro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *apþra
3. apþra
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *apþr
4. apþr
*þ → ð
Change of þ into ð
R=þ›=ð → OIcl. apðr
√pu
Gr. πύ·ματο-
(sup.) ‘hindermost, last’
(Gr. πύματος)
1. PIE *pú·meɑhto-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *pú·maɑhto-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. pú·maɑhto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pú·mahto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pú·mahto-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pú·mato-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pú·mato-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πύ·ματο-
RV. pú·nar
(adv.) ‘zurück, wieder, ferner’
(KEWA 2:305)
‹suffix unclear!›
1. PIE *pú·nor
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → RV. pú·nar
Lat. pu·ppi-
(.) ‘Hinterdeck (des Schliffs)’
(for Lat. ·ppi-, see √ppi- √popi- √pepi- ‘Deck, Tisch, usw.’)
√opundɑɦ-
MidLG. avond-
(.) ‘Abend’
(XX:XX)
(MidLG. avont)
1. PIE *opundɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *opundɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. opundɦ-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *ofundɦ-
3. ofundɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ofund-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. ofund-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *afund-
5. afund-
*afu → -avu
Change of f into v between vowels
Rafu›avu → MidLG. avund-
OLFrank. avond-
(.) ‘Abend’
(XX:XX)
(OLFrank avont [sgD]
1. PIE *opundɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *opundɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. opundɦ-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *ofundɦ-
3. ofundɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ofund-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. ofund-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *afund-
5. afund-
*afu → -avu
Change of f into v between vowels
Rafu›avu → OLFrank. avund-


PIE √pɑh- √bɑɦ- (vb.) ‘schlucken, trinken, kauen’ (sb.) ‘Tränke, Schmaus, Mal’
(IEW 145-6+839-40)
√pɑh-
(IEW. 839-40)
(Etudes 56f.)
Lat. cup·pā-
(f.) ‘Trinkgefäß, Becher’
(WH. 1:311)
(Lat. cuppa [sgN])
1. PIE *kúp·pēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kúp·pāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kúp·pāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kúp·pāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kúp·pāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kúp·pā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kúp·pā-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *cúp·pā-
5. cúp·pā-
*ú → u
Orthographic change of *ú into u
Rú›u → Lat. cup·pā-
RV. pra·pā́-
(f.) ‘Tränke’
(WbRV. 876)
(RV. prapā́ [sgN])
1. PIE *pro·pḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *pro·pā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pro·pā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pro·pā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pro·pā́h-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pra·pā́h-
4. pra·pā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. pra·pā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Dor. πώ-
(√pr.) ‘trinken’
(GEW 2:540)
(Aiol. pôthi [2sg], LSJ. 1406)
1. PIE *pṓɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pṓh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pṓh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pṓ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. pṓ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. πώ-
RV. pā́-
(√pr.) ‘trinken’
(WbRV. 800-1)
(RV. pāhí [2sg], ápām, ápās)
1. PIE *pṓɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pṓh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pṓh-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *pā́h-
3. pā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. pā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
RV. papā-
(pf.) ‘trinken’
(WbRV. 802)
(RV. papātha [2sg], papā́u [3sg])
1. PIE *pepōɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pepōh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pepōh-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *pepāh-
3. pepāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pepā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pepā-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. papā-
RV. pā́-
(√pr.) ‘trinken’
(WbRV. 800-1)
(RV. apāma ‹- poɑhme, Brugmann’s Law II)
1. PIE *póɑh·me
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *póh·me
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. póh·me
PIE *óhCV → ā́hCV
Brugmann’s Law for *óhCV
RóHCV›ā́HCV → *pā́h·me
(SPIE §2.3.7)
3. pā́h·me
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pā́·me
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pā́·me
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. pā́·ma
Fal. pipa-
(vb.) ‘trinken’
(WH. 2:103)
(Fal. pipafo [fut.1sg])
1. PIE *pipeɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *pipaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. pipaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pipah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pipah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Fal. pipa-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√pɑhi-
Gr. πί̄-
(ao.) ‘trinken’
(Gr. πῖθι [2sg])
1. PIE *pɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *píhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. píhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *píi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. píi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *pī́-
4. pī́-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πί̄-
OCS. pi-
(vb.) ‘trinken’
(Sadnik 655)
(OCS. piti [inf.])
1. PIE *pɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *píhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. píhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *píi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. píi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *pī́-
4. pī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *pí-
5. pí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → OCS. pi-
RV. papī-
(pf.) ‘trinken’
(WbRV. 802)
(RV. papīyāt [opt3sg])
1. PIE *pepɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *pepíhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. pepíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pepíi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. pepíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *pepī́-
4. pepī́-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. papī́-
√pɑhk-
Gr. πέ·πωκ-
(pf.) ‘trinken’
(Gr. πέπωκα [1sg])
1. PIE *pé·pōɑhk-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pé·pōhk-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pé·pōhk-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pé·pōk-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. pé·pōk-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πέ·πωκ-
OInd. taila·paka-
(m.) ‘tailapā- = oil-drinker’
(MonWil. 455)
1. PIE *Π·peɑhko-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *Π·paɑhko-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. Π·paɑhko-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·pahko-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·pahko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·pahka-
4. Π·pahka-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OInd. Π·paka-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OGaul. oclo-
(.) ‘boisso[n]’
(DLG. 237)
(in OGaul. ocl[…])
1. PIE *poɑhklo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pohklo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pohklo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *poklo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. poklo-
*p → h
Change of *p into h
Rp›h → *hoklo-
4. hoklo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oklo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. oklo-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OGaul. oclo-
OIr. ōl-
(.) ‘boisson, fait de boire’
(DLG. 237)
(OIr. ól)
1. PIE *poɑhklo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pohklo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pohklo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *poklo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. poklo
okl → ōl
Loss of *k with lengthening of *o
Rokl›ōl → *pōlo
4. pōlo
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → OIr. pōl
Lat. pōclo-
(n.) ‘Becher’
(Lat. pōcla)
1. PIE *pōɑhklo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pōhklo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pōhklo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pōklo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. pōklo-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. pōclo-
√pɑhs-
RV. pās-
(ao.) ‘trinken’
(WbRV. 802)
(RV. ápās [3sg])
1. PIE *pōɑhs-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pōhs-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pōhs-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *pāhs-
3. pāhs-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. pās-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
RV. pípāsa-
(des.) ‘trinken wollen’
(WbRV. 802)
(RV. pípāsati)
1. PIE *pípōɑhseɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *pípōɑhsaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. pípōɑhsaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pípōhsah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pípōhsah-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *pípāhsah-
4. pípāhsah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. pípāsa-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OInd. pāsyá-
(fut.) ‘trinken werden’
(MonWIl. 612)
(OInd. pāsyáti, -te)
1. PIE *pōɑhsi̯ó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pōhsi̯ó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pōhsi̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *pōhsi̯á-
3. pōhsi̯á-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *pāhsi̯á-
4. pāhsi̯á-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pāsi̯á-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. pāsi̯á-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. pāsyá-
Gr. πώσκο-
(pr.) ‘trinken’
(GEW 2:540)
Gr. πώσκω)
1. PIE *pṓɑhski̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pṓhski̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pṓhski̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *pṓhsḱo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. pṓhsḱo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pṓsḱo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pṓsḱo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *pṓsko-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. pṓsko-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πώσκο-
Lat. pōscā-
(f.) ‘Wasser mit Essig gemischt als Getränk’
(Lat. pōsca)
1. PIE *pōɑhski̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pōɑhski̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pōɑhski̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pōhski̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pōhski̯āh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *pōhsḱāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. pōhsḱāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pōsḱā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. pōsḱā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *pōskā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. pōskā-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. pōscā-
√bɑɦos-
(IEW. 145-6)
(Schmitt-Brandt 1967:XX)
Hitt. baš-
(vb.) ‘schlucken, verschlucken : swallow, gulp’
(HHand. 126)
(Hitt. pa-a-ši [3sg], pa-a-šu [3sg])
1. PIE *bɑɦos-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦos-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦas-
3. bɦas-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *bas-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. bas-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. baš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. baš-
(vb.) ‘sclucken, verschluken’
(HHand. 126)
(Hitt. pa-aš-zi, pa-aš-ta [3sg])
1. PIE *bɑɦos-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦos-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦas-
3. bɦas-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *bas-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. bas-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. baš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. baš-
(GKl.vb.) ‘schlucken, verschlucken’
(HHand. 126)
(CLu. pa-aš-ta [3sg])
1. PIE *bɑɦos-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦos-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦas-
3. bɦas-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *bas-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. bas-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. baš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. prá (...) babhas-
(pr.) ‘zerkauen’
(WbRV. 930)
(RV. prá (...) babhasat [conj])
1. PIE *Π·bɑɦebɑɦos-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·bɦebɦos-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·bɦebɦos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·bɦebɦas-
3. Π·bɦebɦas-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmann → *Π·bebɦas-
(SPIE §4.6.4)
4. Π·bebɦas-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *Π·babɦas-
5. Π·babɦas-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. Π·babhas-
√bɑɦoso-
(CHD P:203f.)
(HIL. 726-)
Hitt. baša-
(vb.1.) [in mng.] ‘schlucken, verschlucken’
(HHand. 126)
(Hitt. pa-š?-a[n-zi] [3pl])
1. PIE *bɑɦoso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦoso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦoso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦasa-
3. bɦasa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *basa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. basa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. baša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. arḫa (…) babaša·-
(vb.2.) ‘verschlucken : swallow’
(HIL. 726)
(CLu. pa-ap-pa-ša-i [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·bɑɦobɑɦoso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·bɦobɦoso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·bɦobɦoso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·bɦabɦasa-
3. Π·bɦabɦasa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *Π·babasa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·babasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. Π·babaša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. baŋha-
(m.) ‘N. einer Pflanze und deren Saft’
(AIWb. 925)
(LAv. baŋhǝm)
1. PIE *bɑɦoso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦoso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦoso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦasa-
3. bɦasa-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *bɦaha-
4. bɦaha-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *baha-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. baha-
ahA → aŋhA
Change of h into ŋh
RahA›aŋhA → LAv. baŋha-
LAv. baŋha-
(a.) ‘narkotisirt, trunken’
(AIWb. 925)
(LAv. baŋhǝm)
1. PIE *bɑɦoso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦoso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦoso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦasa-
3. bɦasa-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *bɦaha-
4. bɦaha-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *baha-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. baha-
ahA → aŋhA
Change of h into ŋh
RahA›aŋhA → LAv. baŋha-
LAv. a·baŋha-
(a.) ‘frei von dem baŋha-’
(AIWb. 87)
(LAv. abaŋhō [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑe·bɑɦoso-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑa·bɑɦoso-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑa·bɑɦoso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ha·bɦoso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ha·bɦoso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ha·bɦasa-
4. ha·bɦasa-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *a·bɦasa-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. a·bɦasa-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *a·bɦaha-
6. a·bɦaha-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *a·baha-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. a·baha-
ahA → aŋhA
Change of h into ŋh
RahA›aŋhA → LAv. a·baŋha-
RV. bhása-
(pr.) ‘kauen’
(WbRV. 930)
(RV. bhásat [3sg])
1. PIE *bɑɦóso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦóso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦóso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦósa-
3. bɦósa-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *bɦása-
4. bɦása-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. bhása-
RV. bhasá-
(pr.) ‘zerkauen, verzehren’
(WbRV. 930)
(RV. bhasáthas [3du])
1. PIE *bɑɦosó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦosó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦosó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦasó-
3. bɦasó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *bɦasá-
4. bɦasá-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. bhasá-
RV. prá (…) bhása·-
(pr.) ‘zerkauen, zerbeissen’
(WbRV. 930)
(RV. prá (...) bhásat [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·bɑɦóso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·bɦóso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·bɦóso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·bɦósa-
3. Π·bɦósa-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·bɦása-
4. Π·bɦása-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. Π·bhása-
√bɑɦosi-
(Pyysalo)
(IEW 105 [diff.])
Hitt. baši-
(vb.) ‘schlucken, verschlucken : swallow, gulp’
(HIL. 750)
(Hitt. pa-aš-i [2sg]; But HIL. 750-1 = 3sg])
1. PIE *bɑɦosi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦosi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦosi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦasi-
3. bɦasi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *basi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. basi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. baši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Goth. weina·basi-
(n.) ‘Weinbeere’
(IEW 105)
(Pokorny “Unsicher ist, ob (…) eigentlich ‘rote Beere’ (?)’)
1. PIE *Π·bɑɦosi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·bɦosi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·bɦosi-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *Π·bosi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. Π·bosi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. Π·basi-
OSax. beri-
(.) ‘Beere’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *bɑɦosí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦosí-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦosí-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *bosí-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. bosí-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *basí-
4. basí-
*asi → esi
Umlaut *asi- to esi
Rasí›esí → *besí-
5. besí-
*esí → -erí
Verner's Law
Resí›erí → *berí-
6. berí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → OSax. beri-
OHG. beri-
(.) ‘Beere’
(XX:XX)
(IEW 105)
1. PIE *bɑɦosí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦosí-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦosí-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *bosí-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. bosí-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *basí-
4. basí-
*asi → esi
Umlaut *asi- to esi
Rasí›esí → *besí-
5. besí-
*esí → -erí
Verner's Law
Resí›erí → *berí-
6. berí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → OHG. beri-
Hitt. bašiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘swallow, gulp down’
(HIL. 750)
(Hitt. pa-a-ši-iš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *bɑɦosiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦosiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦosiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *bɦosisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. bɦosisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦasisḱe/a-
4. bɦasisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *bɦasiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. bɦasiske/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *basiske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. basiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. bašiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√bɑɦosol-
[CHD P:100]
CLu. babašal-
(n.) ‘Speiseröhre’ (: ‘throat, esophagus’)
(HHand. 119)
(CLu. [pa-]pa-ša-a-la [plNA], HiuIdg. 206)
1. PIE *bɑɦobɑɦosol-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦobɦosol-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦobɦosol-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦabɦasal-
3. bɦabɦasal-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *babasal-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. babasal-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. babašal-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. babašala-
(UZUc.) ‘Speiseröhre’
(HHand. 119)
(Hitt. pa-ap-pa-aš-ša-la-an [sgA], pa-pa-aš-ša-la-an [sgA])
1. PIE *bɑɦobɑɦosolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦobɦosolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦobɦosolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦabɦasala-
3. bɦabɦasala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *babasala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. babasala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. babašala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. babašali-
(UZUc.) ‘Speiseröhre’ (’esophagus’)
(HHand. 119)
(Hitt. pa-ap-pa-aš–ša-li-in [sgA])
1. PIE *bɑɦobɑɦosoli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦobɦosoli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦobɦosoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦabɦasali-
3. bɦabɦasali-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *babasali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. babasali-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. babašali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√bɑɦoske/o-
Hitt. baške/a-
(vb.) ‘schlucken’
(HHand. 126)
(Hitt. pa-aš-ke/a-, pa-aš-ga-mi)
1. PIE *bɑɦoske/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦoske/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦoske/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦaske/a-
3. bɦaske/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *baske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. baske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. baške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. baške/a-
(GKLvb.) ‘schlucken’
(DLL. 80)
(CLu. pa-aš-ki-[...)
1. PIE *bɑɦoske/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦoske/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦoske/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦaske/a-
3. bɦaske/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *baske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. baske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. baške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√bɑɦosm-
RV. bhásman-
(a.) ‘kauend, verzehrend’
(WbRV. 930)
1. PIE *bɑɦósmen-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦósmen-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦósmen-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *bɦásmen-
3. bɦásmen-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *bɦásman-
4. bɦásman-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. bhásman-
√bɑɦosn-
TochA. päsnā-
(pr.M.) ‘devouring, DTochB. 400’
(Poucha 179)
(TochA. ///mäl ṣeṣ camyo talke ypamāṃ kosmāṃ päsnāmāṃ [pt.sgN] tämyo.)
1. PIE *bɑɦosnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *bɑɦosnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. bɑɦosnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦosnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. bɦosnāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦasnāh-
4. bɦasnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *bɦasnā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. bɦasnā-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *basnā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. basnā-
*b → p
Loss of voice of media *b
Rb›p → TochA. pasnā-
Hitt. bašantala-
(LÚc.) ‘a servant in palace kitchen, taster (?)’
(HIL. 751)
1. PIE *bɑɦosontolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦosontolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦosontolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦasantala-
3. bɦasantala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *basantala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. basantala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. bašantala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√bɑɦosu-
CLu. bašu-
(vb.) ‘schlucken : to swallow’
(DLL. 80)
(CLu. pa-aš-šu-ú-na [inf.], KLuN. 310-)
1. PIE *bɑɦosu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦosu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦosu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦasu-
3. bɦasu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *basu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. basu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. bašu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. bašu̯a-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘swallow, gulp down’
(HIL. 750)
(Hitt. pa-a-aš-šu-an-zi [inf.])
1. PIE *bɑɦosu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦosu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦosu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦasu̯a-
3. bɦasu̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *basu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. basu̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. bašu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√bɑɦs-
RV. baps-
(.) ‘zerkauen, verzehren’
(WbRV. 930)
(RV. bapsati [3pl])
1. PIE *bɑɦobɑɦs-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦobɦs-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦobɦs-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦabɦs-
3. bɦabɦs-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmann → *babɦs-
(SPIE §4.6.4)
4. babɦs-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → RV. baps-
√bɑɦso-
Gr. ὄ·ψο-
(n.) ‘Zu·kost, Zu·brot, bes. Fleisch’
(GEW 2:459)
1. PIE *ó·bɑɦso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ó·bɦso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ó·bɦso-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *ó·phso-
3. ó·phso-
*phs → ps
Loss of *h between *p and *s
Rphs›ps → *ó·pso-
4. ó·pso-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄ·ψο-
RV. bapsa-
(pr.) ‘zerkauen, verzehren’
(WbRV. 930)
(RV. bapsati [3sg])
1. PIE *bɑɦobɑɦso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦobɦso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦobɦso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦabɦsa-
3. bɦabɦsa-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmann → *babɦsa-
(SPIE §4.6.4)
4. babɦsa-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → RV. bapsa-
RV. bápsat-
(pt.) ‘kauend, zerkauend, verzehrend’
(WbRV. 930)
1. PIE *bɑɦóbɑɦsot-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦóbɦsot-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦóbɦsot-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦóbɦsat-
3. bɦóbɦsat-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *bɦábɦsat-
4. bɦábɦsat-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmann → *bábɦsat-
(SPIE §4.6.4)
5. bábɦsat-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → RV. bápsat-
√bɑɦsɑh-
AV. psā-
(vb.) ‘verzehren’
(WbRV. 895)
(AV. psātas [3du], psāhi [2sg])
1. PIE *bɑɦsēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *bɑɦsāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. bɑɦsāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦsāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. bɦsāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *bɦsā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. bɦsā
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → AV. psā
RV. sahásra·psā-
(.) ‘‹but not in WbRV. 1502!›’
(WbRV. 895)
1. PIE *Π·bɑɦsēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·bɑɦsāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·bɑɦsāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·bɦsāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·bɦsāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·bɦsā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·bɦsā
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → RV. Π·psā
√bɑɦsɑhi-
OInd. psīyá-
(P.)
(MonWIl. XX)
(OInd. ápsīyata)
1. PIE *bɑɦsɑ́hii̯ó-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *bɑɦsíhii̯ó-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. bɑɦsíhii̯ó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦsíhii̯ó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. bɦsíhii̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *bɦsíhii̯á-
4. bɦsíhii̯á-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *bɦsíii̯á-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. bɦsíii̯á-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *bɦsī́i̯á-
6. bɦsī́i̯á-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → *psī́i̯á-
7. psī́i̯á-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. psī́yá-
Gr. ψί̄ο-
(pr.) ‘mit Bröckchen, Milch füttern, zerkauen’ (Gr. ī)
(Gr. ψίω )
1. PIE *bɑɦsɑ́hii̯o-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *bɑɦsíhii̯o-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. bɑɦsíhii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦsíhii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. bɦsíhii̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *bɦsíii̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. bɦsíii̯o-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *phsíii̯o-
5. phsíii̯o-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *phsī́i̯o-
6. phsī́i̯o-
*phs → ps
Loss of *h between *p and *s
Rphs›ps → *psī́i̯o-
7. psī́i̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *psī́o-
8. psī́o-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ψί̄ο-
√bɑɦsɑht
OInd. psātá-
(pt.) ‘zerkauen’
(MonWil. XX)
()
1. PIE *bɑɦsēɑhtó-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *bɑɦsāɑhtó-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. bɑɦsāɑhtó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦsāhtó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. bɦsāhtó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *bɦsāhtá-
4. bɦsāhtá-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *bɦsātá-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. bɦsātá-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → OInd. psātá-
√bɑɦsniɑh-
RV. viśvá·psni.a-
(a.) ‘alle Nahrung erhaltend, allnährend’
(WbRV. 1302)
1. PIE *Π·bɑɦsniɑHo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·bɦsniHo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·bɦsniHo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·bɦsniHa-
3. Π·bɦsniHa-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → *Π·bɦsni.a-
4. Π·bɦsni.a-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → RV. Π·psni.a-
√bɑɦsor-
RV. sa·psará-
(a.) ‘gleiches geniessend’
(WbRV. 1477)
(RV. sa·psará-)
1. PIE *seɑh·bɑɦsoró-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑh·bɑɦsoró-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑh·bɑɦsoró-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sah·bɦsoró-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sah·bɦsoró-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sah·bɦsaró-
4. sah·bɦsaró-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *sah·bɦsará-
5. sah·bɦsará-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sa·bɦsará-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. sa·bɦsará-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → RV. sa·psará-
RV. psáras-
(n.) ‘Schmaus, Mahl’
(WbRV. 895)
(RV. psáras-)
1. PIE *bɑɦséros-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦséros-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦséros-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦséras-
3. bɦséras-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *bɦsáras-
4. bɦsáras-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → RV. psáras-
RV. su·psáras-
(a.) ‘schönes Mahl geniessend, schön schmausend’
(WbRV. 1542)
1. PIE *su·bɑɦséros-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *su·bɦséros-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. su·bɦséros-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su·bɦséras-
3. su·bɦséras-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *su·bɦsáras-
4. su·bɦsáras-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → RV. su·psáras-
RV. madhu·psáras-
(a.) ‘Süssigkeit, süsse Soma schmausend’
(WbRV. 986)
1. PIE *Π·bɑɦséros-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·bɦséros-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·bɦséros-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·bɦséras-
3. Π·bɦséras-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *Π·bɦsáras-
4. Π·bɦsáras-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → RV. Π·psáras-
√bɑɦsu-
RV. á·psu-
(a.) ‘ohne Speise’
(WbRV. 80)
1. PIE *hɑé·bɑɦsu-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *hɑá·bɑɦsu-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑá·bɑɦsu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *há·bɦsu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. há·bɦsu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *á·bɦsu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. á·bɦsu-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → RV. á·psu-
RV. psúr-
(f.) ‘Nahrung’
(WbRV. 395)
(RV. psúras [plA])
1. PIE *bɑɦsúr-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦsúr-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦsúr-
PIE *bɦs → ps
Devoicing and deaspiration of *bɦ before s
Rbɦs›ps → RV. psúr-


PIE √pɑh- (vb.) ‘schädigen’
(IEW. 827 *pau-!)
(Pyysalo 2013:387, Hitt. + Gr.)
√pɑhi-
Hitt. paḫi-
(c.) ‘something harmful’
(CHD P:1)
(Hitt. pa-aḫ-ḫi-in)
1. PIE *peɑhi-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhi-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. paḫi-
(?) ‹vb.M.› ‘--’
(DLL. 77)
(Hitt. pa-aḫ-ḫi-it-ta-ru [3sg])
1. PIE *peɑhi-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhi-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. paḫi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√pɑhil-
(MA. 650)
TochB. pīla-
(m.sg) ‘Wunde’ (van W. 1966 [Orbis 15]:256)
(DTochB. 387)
(TochB. pīle)
1. PIE *pɑ́hilo-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *píhilo-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. píhilo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *píhila-
3. píhila-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *píila-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. píila-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *pī́la-
5. pī́la-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → TochB. pīla-
TochB. pila-
(m.sg) ‘wound, LeToch1 356’
(DTochB. 387)
(TochB. pilenta, pile[n]e, pilentse)
1. PIE *pɑhilo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *philo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. philo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *phila-
3. phila-
*ph → p
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *ph
Rph›p → TochB. pila-
TochB. ·pilentatstse-
(a.) ‘having wounds, wounded’
(DTochB. 387)
1. PIE *pɑhilointo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *philointo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. philointo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *philainta·Σ-
3. philainta·Σ-
*ph → p
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *ph
Rph›p → *pilainta·Σ-
4. pilainta·Σ-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *pilēnta·Σ-
5. pilēnta·Σ-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. pilenta·Σ-
√pɑhis-
Gr. παίο-
(pr.) ‘schlagen, hauen, stoßen’
(Gr. παίω [1sg])
1. PIE *peɑhíso-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhíso-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhíso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahíso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahíso-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *paíso-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. paíso-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *paího-
5. paího-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *paío-
6. paío-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. παίο-
Hitt. paḫiškeuar-
(n.) ‘eine Feindselige Handlung’
(HHand. 115)
(Hitt. pa-aḫ-ḫi-es-ke-u-ua-ar)
1. PIE *peɑhiski̯euor-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhiski̯euor-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhiski̯euor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahiski̯euor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahiski̯euor-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *pahisḱeuor-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. pahisḱeuor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pahisḱeuar-
5. pahisḱeuar-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *pahiskeuar-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. pahiskeuar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *pahiškeuar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. pahiškeuar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫiškeuar-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Gr. παίσ-
(s.ao.) ‘schlagen, hauen, stoßen’
(Gr. ἔπαισα [1sg])
1. PIE *peɑhíss-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhíss-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhíss-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahíss-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahíss-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *paíss-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. paíss-
*ss → s
Degemination of *ss
Rss›s → *país-
5. país-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. παίσ-
√pɑhu-
Lat. pauio-
(pr.4.) ‘schlagen, stampfen’
(Lat. pauiō [1sg])
1. PIE *peɑhui̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhui̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhui̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahui̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahui̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *paui̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. paui̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. pauio-


PIE √pɑhu- √poɑhu-, √peɑhu- (sb.) ‘Feuer’
(IEW. 828)
√poɑhu-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. paḫu̯a-
(URU.) ‘mit Išuwa, Kumaḫa und Timija’
(OGH. 296)
(Hitt. pa-aḫ-ḫu-ua [All], pa-aḫ-ḫu-ua-an, OGHErg. 118)
1. PIE *poɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pohu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pohu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pahu̯a-
3. pahu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
RV. hiraṇya·pāvá-
(a.) ‘von Gold glänzend’
(WbRV. 1667)
1. PIE *Π·poɑhu̯ó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·pohu̯ó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·pohu̯ó-
PIE *oHCV → āHCV
Brugmann’s Law for *ohCV
RoHCV›āHCV → *Π·pāhu̯ó-
(SPIE §2.3.7)
3. Π·pāhu̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·pāhu̯á-
4. Π·pāhu̯á-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·pāu̯á-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·pāu̯á-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. Π·pāvá-
RV. pāva·ká-
(a.) ‘hell, hellstrahlend, flammend’
(WbRV.808-9)
(Cf. Grassmann for RV. pavaká- (meter)!)
1. PIE *poɑhu̯o·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pohu̯o·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pohu̯o·Σ-
PIE *oHCV → āHCV
Brugmann’s Law for *ohCV
RoHCV›āHCV → *pāhu̯o·Σ-
(SPIE §2.3.7)
3. pāhu̯o·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pāhu̯a·Σ-
4. pāhu̯a·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pāu̯a·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. pāu̯a·Σ-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. pāva·Σ-
√pɑhun-
Hitt. paḫu̯en-
(n.obl.) ‘Feuer’
(HHand. 115)
1. PIE *peɑhu̯en-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhu̯en-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhu̯en-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahu̯en-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahu̯en-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫu̯en-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. paḫu̯ena-
(LÚc.) ‘Mann des Feuers (?)’
(HHand. 115)
1. PIE *peɑhu̯eno-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhu̯eno-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhu̯eno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahu̯eno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahu̯eno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pahu̯ena-
4. pahu̯ena-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫu̯ena-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. paḫu̯enali-
(NA4/DUGn.) ‘Kohlenpfanne, Feuerbecken’
(HHand. 115)
1. PIE *peɑhu̯enoli-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhu̯enoli-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhu̯enoli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahu̯enoli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahu̯enoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pahu̯enali-
4. pahu̯enali-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫu̯enali-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√pɑhur-
(IEW 828)
(+ Hrozný 1917 [SH] 69: Hitt.)
Hitt. paḫu̯ar-
(n.) ‘Feuer : Sum. IZI, Akd. IŠATI’
(HHand. 115)
(Hitt. pa-aḫ-ḫu-ua-ar)
1. PIE *peɑhu̯or-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhu̯or-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhu̯or-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahu̯or-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahu̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pahu̯ar-
4. pahu̯ar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫu̯ar-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. paḫur-
(n.) ‘Feuer, Feuerasche, glühende Asche’
(CHD P:12f)
(HHand. 115)
1. PIE *peɑhur-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhur-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahur-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫur-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. paḫur-
(n.) ‘Feuer, KLuN.570f.’
(DLL. 77)
(In broken context)
1. PIE *peɑhur-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhur-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahur-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. paḫur-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
TochA. por-
(n.) ‘ignis’
(Poucha 189-90)
(TochA. por [sgN])
1. PIE *peɑhur-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhur-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahur-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *paur-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. paur-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *pōr-
5. pōr-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. por-
TochB. puwar-
(n.) = Skt. agnim
(DTochB. 393)
1. PIE *pɑ́hu̯or-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu̯ → úḫu̯
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u̯
Rɑ́Hu̯›úHu̯ → *púhu̯or-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. púhu̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *púhu̯ar-
3. púhu̯ar-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *púu̯ar-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. púu̯ar-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → *púwar-
5. púwar-
*ú → u
Orthographic change of *ú into u
Rú›u → TochB. puwar-
Gr. πρ-
(n.) ‘Feuer’
(Gr. πῦρ [sgNA])
1. PIE *pɑ́hur
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *púhur
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. púhur
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *púur
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. púur
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *pū́r
4. pū́r
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πύ̄ρ
Hitt. paḫurei̯a-
(vb.) ‘wie Feuer brennen’
(HHand. 115)
1. PIE *peɑhurei̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhurei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhurei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahurei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahurei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pahurei̯a-
4. pahurei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫurei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


√pɑhur- √bɑɦur- ‘brot, mund, essen’
(IEW XX + XX)
√bɑɦur-
Hitt. buri-
(c.) ‘Lippe, Rand, Kopf’
(HHand. 136)
1. PIE *bɑɦuri-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦuri-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦuri-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. buri-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. buri-
(c.) ‘Lippe, Rand (?)’
(HHand. 136)
1. PIE *bɑɦuri-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦuri-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦuri-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. buri-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√bɑɦurio-
LAv. baoirya-
(a.) ‘was gekaut werden muss, fest’
(AIWb. 946)
1. PIE *bɑɦouri̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦouri̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦouri̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦauri̯a-
3. bɦauri̯a-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *bauri̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. bauri̯a-
*au → ao
Opening of *au
Rau›ao → *baori̯a-
5. baori̯a-
*aori → aoiri
Anaptyxis of *i
RaorI›aoirI → *baoiri̯a-
6. baoiri̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. baoirya-
Hitt. buri̯ali-
(n.) ‘Maulkorb, Trense, Halfter (?)’
(HHand. 136)
1. PIE *bɑɦouri̯oli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦouri̯oli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦouri̯oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦauri̯ali-
3. bɦauri̯ali-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. bauri̯ali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. buri̯ali-
(GKLn.) ‘Maulkorb, Trense, Halfter (?)’
(HHand. 136)
1. PIE *bɑɦouri̯oli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦouri̯oli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦouri̯oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦauri̯ali-
3. bɦauri̯ali-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. bauri̯ali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Goth. ga·baurjaba
(adv.) ‘gern: ἡδέως, κατὰ ἑκούσιον; libenter’
(GoEtD. G3)
(Goth. gabaurjaba Mrk 6,20 CA, GoElB. 191A1)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·bɑɦouri̯obɑɦō
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·bɦouri̯obɦō
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦo·bɦouri̯obɦō
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *gɦo·bouri̯obō
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. gɦo·bouri̯obō
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *go·bouri̯obō
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. go·bouri̯obō
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ga·bauri̯abō
5. ga·bauri̯abō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *ga·bauri̯aba
6. ga·bauri̯aba
*u → au
Allophonic change of *u into au
Ru›au → *ga·baauri̯aba
7. ga·baauri̯aba
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Goth. ga·baaurjaba
Goth. filu·ga·baurjaba
(adv.) ‘ἥδιστα’
(GoEtD. G3)
1. PIE *pilu·gɑɦo·bɑɦiuri̯obɑɦō
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pilu·gɦo·bɦiuri̯obɦō
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pilu·gɦo·bɦiuri̯obɦō
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *filu·gɦo·bɦiuri̯obɦō
3. filu·gɦo·bɦiuri̯obɦō
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *filu·gɦo·biuri̯obō
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. filu·gɦo·biuri̯obō
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *filu·go·biuri̯obō
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. filu·go·biuri̯obō
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *filu·ga·biuri̯abō
6. filu·ga·biuri̯abō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *filu·ga·biuri̯aba
7. filu·ga·biuri̯aba
*u → au
Allophonic change of *u into au
Ru›au → *filu·ga·biauri̯aba
8. filu·ga·biauri̯aba
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Goth. filu·ga·biaurjaba
Goth. ga·baurjoþu-
(m.) ‘Lust, Vergnügen: ἡδονή; voluptas’
(HbGo. 108,2)
(Goth. gabaurjoþum [plD] Luk 8,14 CA)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·bɑɦouri̯ēɑhtu-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gɑɦo·bɑɦouri̯āɑhtu-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gɑɦo·bɑɦouri̯āɑhtu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·bɦouri̯āhtu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦo·bɦouri̯āhtu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦo·bɦouri̯ātu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. gɦo·bɦouri̯ātu-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *gɦo·bɦouri̯āþu-
5. gɦo·bɦouri̯āþu-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *gɦo·bouri̯āþu-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. gɦo·bouri̯āþu-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *go·bouri̯āþu-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. go·bouri̯āþu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ga·bauri̯āþu-
8. ga·bauri̯āþu-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *ga·bauri̯ōþu-
(XX:XX)
9. ga·bauri̯ōþu-
*u → au
Allophonic change of *u into au
Ru›au → *ga·baauri̯ōþu-
10. ga·baauri̯ōþu-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *ga·baaurjōþu-
11. ga·baaurjōþu-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → Goth. ga·baaurjoþu-
√bɑɦurn
Lith. burnà-
(3f.) ‘mouth, face’
(LiEtWb. XX)
(Lith. burnà [sgN])
1. PIE *bɑɦurnḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *bɑɦurnā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. bɑɦurnā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦurnā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. bɦurnā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *bɦurnā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. bɦurnā́
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *burnā́
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. burnā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *burnṓ
(XX:XX)
6. burnṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → Lith. burnà
Lith. burnlē-
(2f.) suukkonen
(LiEtWb. XX)
(Lith. XX)
1. PIE *bɑɦurnélēhɑ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦurnélēh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦurnélēh
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → *bɦurnèlēh
3. bɦurnèlēh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *bɦurnèlē
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. bɦurnèlē
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *burnèlē
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. burnèlē
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → Lith. burnèlė
bɑɦuruo
LAv. baourva-
(a.) ‘kauend’
(AIWb. 946)
1. PIE *bɑɦouru̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦouru̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦouru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦauru̯a-
3. bɦauru̯a-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *bauru̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. bauru̯a-
*au → ao
Opening of *au
Rau›ao → *baoru̯a-
5. baoru̯a-
*aoru → aouru
Anaptyxis of *u
RaorU›aourU → *baouru̯a-
6. baouru̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. baourva-
LAv. aš.baourva·-
(a.) ‘wo es viel zu kauen/essen gibt’
(AIWb. 263)
1. PIE *Π.bɑɦouru̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π.bɦouru̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π.bɦouru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π.bɦauru̯a-
3. Π.bɦauru̯a-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *Π.bauru̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. Π.bauru̯a-
*au → ao
Opening of *au
Rau›ao → *Π.baoru̯a-
5. Π.baoru̯a-
*aoru → aouru
Anaptyxis of *u
RaorU›aourU → *Π.baouru̯a-
6. Π.baouru̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. Π.baourva·-


PIE √pɑhur-, √pɑhuer-, √pɑhuor- (sb.) ‘frumenta quae de vagina non bene exibant, (m.) Bastard (f.) Nebenfrau’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√pɑhuer-
OLat. pauero-
(m.) ‘frumenta (…) quae de vagina non bene exibant’
(PFest. p. 250/3, OLat. pauerī [plN])
1. PIE *peɑhu̯ero-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhu̯ero-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhu̯ero-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahu̯ero-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahu̯ero-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pau̯ero-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pau̯ero-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OLat. pauero-
√pɑhuor-
Hitt. paḫu̯arši-
(LÚc.) ‘Bastard’ (MUNUS.) ‘Nebenfrau’
(HHand. 115)
(HIL. –)
1. PIE *peɑhu̯ortɑhi-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhu̯ortɑhi-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhu̯ortɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahu̯orthi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahu̯orthi-
PIE *thi → chi
Assibilation of *th before *i
Rthi›chi → *pahu̯orchi-
4. pahu̯orchi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pahu̯archi-
5. pahu̯archi-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *pahu̯arci-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. pahu̯arci-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → *pahu̯arši-
7. pahu̯arši-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫu̯arši-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√pɑhur-
Hitt. paḫurši-
(LÚc.) ‘Bastard’ (MUNUS.) ‘Nebenfrau’
(HHand. 115)
(“Nicht regierunsfähiges Mitglied der Königsfamilie”)
1. PIE *peɑhurtɑhi-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhurtɑhi-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhurtɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahurthi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahurthi-
PIE *thi → chi
Assibilation of *th before *i
Rthi›chi → *pahurchi-
4. pahurchi-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *pahurci-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. pahurci-
OAnat. c -> š
Change of *c into š (orthographic)
Rc›š → *pahurši-
6. pahurši-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫurši-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. paḫurzi-
(LÚc.) ‘Bastard’ (MUNUS.) ‘Nebenfrau’
(HHand. 115)
1. PIE *peɑhurdɑɦi-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhurdɑɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhurdɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahurdɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahurdɦi-
PIE *dɦi → jɦi
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi›jɦi → *pahurjɦi-
4. pahurjɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *pahurji-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. pahurji-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *pahurzi-
6. pahurzi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫurzi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √phɑl-, √bhɑl- (vb.) ‘fallen, in eine Falle locken, täuschen’ (sb.) ‘Fall, Falle, Verlust, Tod’ (a.) ‘falsch, irrig’
(IEW. 851)
(+ Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√pohɑlo-
Lith. púola-
(pr.) ‘fallen’
(LiEtWb. 666)
(Lith. púola [3pers])
1. PIE *pṓhɑlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pṓhlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pṓhlo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pṓlo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. pṓlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pṓla-
4. pṓla-
*ṓ → úo
Change of ṓ into úo
Rṓ›úo → Lith. púola-
Lith. púola-
(pr.) ‘über jmd. [A] Herfallen, ihn [A] angreifen’
(LiEtWb. 666)
(Lith. púola [3pers])
1. PIE *pṓhɑlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pṓhlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pṓhlo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pṓlo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. pṓlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pṓla-
4. pṓla-
*ṓ → úo
Change of ṓ into úo
Rṓ›úo → Lith. púola-
Latv. puola-
(vb.) ‘fallen’
(LiEtWb. 666)
(Latv. puolu [1sg])
1. PIE *pōhɑlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pōhlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pōhlo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pōlo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. pōlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pōla-
4. pōla-
*ō → uo
Change of ō into uo
Rō›uo → Latv. puola-
Lith. pra·puolìma-
(m.2) ‘Abhandenkommen, Veschwinden, usw.’
(LiEtWb. 666)
1. PIE *Π·pōhɑlímo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·pōhlímo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·pōhlímo-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *Π·pōhlìmo-
3. Π·pōhlìmo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·pōlìmo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·pōlìmo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·pōlìma-
5. Π·pōlìma-
*ō → uo
Change of ō into uo
Rō›uo → Lith. Π·puolìma-
√phɑlo-
(HEG I:43)
(Puhvel HED ½:95f., HIL. 234-, HW2 A:XX)
Hitt. a·pala-
(c.) ‘Falle, Hinterhalt’
(HHand. 18)
(Hitt. a-ap-pa-li [DL], ap-pa-al-li)
1. PIE *o·phɑolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·pholo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·pholo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·phala-
3. a·phala-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. a·pala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. a·pala-
(vb.) ‘in eine Falle locken : entrap’
(HIL. 234)
(Hitt. a-ap-pa-la-a-u-e-ni [1pl])
1. PIE *o·phɑolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·pholo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·pholo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·phala-
3. a·phala-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. a·pala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√phɑlɑhni-
Arm. ·pʼla-
(ao.) ‘einfallen : collapse’
(ArmGr. XX)
(Arm. pʼlay)
1. PIE *phɑlēɑh·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *phɑlāɑh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. phɑlāɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *phlāh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. phlāh·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *phlā·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. phlā·Σ-
*ph → pʼ
Glottalization of *ph
Rph›p' → *p'lā·Σ-
5. p'lā·Σ-
*p- → h-
Change of *p- into h-
Rp=›h= → *h'lā·Σ-
6. h'lā·Σ-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Arm. h'la·Σ-
Arm. ·pʼlani-
(pr.) ‘einfallen : collapse’
(ArmGr. XX)
(Arm. pʼlanim [1sg])
1. PIE *phɑlēɑh·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *phɑlāɑh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. phɑlāɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *phlāh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. phlāh·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *phlā·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. phlā·Σ-
*ph → pʼ
Glottalization of *ph
Rph›p' → *p'lā·Σ-
5. p'lā·Σ-
*p- → h-
Change of *p- into h-
Rp=›h= → *h'lā·Σ-
6. h'lā·Σ-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Arm. h'la·Σ-
√phɑli-
Hitt. a·palai-
(vb.) ‘in eine Falle locken’
(HHand. 18)
(Hitt. a-ap-pa-la-a-iz-zi)
1. PIE *o·phɑoloi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·pholoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·pholoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·phalai-
3. a·phalai-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. a·palai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. a·pali ta-
(vb.) ‘to mislead’ (KLuN. 317f.: “take into a trap”)
(HIL. 234)
1. PIE *o·phɑoli·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·pholi·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·pholi·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·phali·Σ-
3. a·phali·Σ-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. a·pali·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. a·paleiške/a-
(vb.iter.)
(HHand. 18)
(Hitt. ap-pa-li-eš-ke/a-, ap-pa-li-iš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *o·phɑoleiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·pholeiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·pholeiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *o·pholeisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. o·pholeisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·phaleisḱe/a-
4. a·phaleisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *a·phaleiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. a·phaleiske/a-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *a·paleiske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. a·paleiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. a·paleiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. a·palei̯ala-
(N.ag.) ‘Fallensteller › Betrüger, Gegner, Feind’
(HHand. 18)
(Hitt. ap-pa-li-ia-al-la-ša)
1. PIE *o·phɑolei̯olo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·pholei̯olo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·pholei̯olo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·phalei̯ala-
3. a·phalei̯ala-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. a·palei̯ala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√phɑln-
OHG. fall-
(m.) ‘Fall, Untergang, Sturz, Verderben, Raub’
(AhdEW. F-2)
1. PIE *phɑelno-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *phɑalno-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. phɑalno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *phalno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. phalno-
*ph → f
Affricativization of *ph
Rph›f → *falno-
4. falno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *falna-
5. falna-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → OHG. falla-
OIcl. fall-
(n.) ‘Fall, Tod, Verlust’
(ANEtWb. 110)
1. PIE *phɑelno-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *phɑalno-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. phɑalno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *phalno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. phalno-
*ph → f
Affricativization of *ph
Rph›f → *falno-
4. falno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *falna-
5. falna-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → OIcl. falla-
OHG. falla-
(vb.) ‘fallen, (herab)stürzen, zu Fall kommen, ....’
(AhdEW. F-3)
1. PIE *phɑelno-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *phɑalno-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. phɑalno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *phalno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. phalno-
*ph → f
Affricativization of *ph
Rph›f → *falno-
4. falno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *falna-
5. falna-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → OHG. falla-
OHG. falla·n-
(f.) ‘Falle, Fallstrick, Netz : decipula’
(AhdEW. F-3)
1. PIE *phɑelno·n-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *phɑalno·n-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. phɑalno·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *phalno·n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. phalno·n-
*ph → f
Affricativization of *ph
Rph›f → *falno·n-
4. falno·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *falna·n-
5. falna·n-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → OHG. falla·n-
OEng. fealla-
(vb.) ‘fall (down), fail’
(ASaxD. 271)
1. PIE *phɑelno-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *phɑalno-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. phɑalno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *phalno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. phalno-
*ph → f
Affricativization of *ph
Rph›f → *falno-
4. falno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *falna-
5. falna-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → OEng. falla-
√phɑlns-
MidHG. vals-
(a.) ‘falsch’
(AhdEW. F-4)
1. PIE *phɑelnso-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *phɑalnso-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. phɑalnso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *phalnso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. phalnso-
*ph → f
Affricativization of *ph
Rph›f → *falnso-
4. falnso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *falnsa-
5. falnsa-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *fallsa-
6. fallsa-
*lls → ls
Simplification of *lls to ls
Rlls›ls → *falsa-
7. falsa-
*f- → v-
Orthographic change of f- into v-
Rf›v → MidHG. valsa-
OHG. falscō-
(vb.) ‘widerlegen’
(AhdEW. F-4)
1. PIE *phɑelnski̯ēɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *phɑalnski̯ēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. phɑalnski̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *phɑalnski̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. phɑalnski̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *phalnski̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. phalnski̯āh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *phalnsḱāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. phalnsḱāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *phalnsḱā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. phalnsḱā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *phalnskā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. phalnskā-
*ph → f
Affricativization of *ph
Rph›f → *falnskā-
8. falnskā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *falnskō-
(XX:XX)
9. falnskō-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *fallskō-
10. fallskō-
*lls → ls
Simplification of *lls to ls
Rlls›ls → *falskō-
11. falskō-
*ō → uo
Change of ō into uo
Rō›uo → *falskuo-
12. falskuo-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OHG. falscuo-
OHG. falsc·heit-
(f.) ‘Falschheit’
(AhdEW. F-4)
1. PIE *phɑelnski·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *phɑalnski·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. phɑalnski·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *phalnski·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. phalnski·Σ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *phalnsḱ·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. phalnsḱ·Σ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *phalnsk·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. phalnsk·Σ-
*ph → f
Affricativization of *ph
Rph›f → *falnsk·Σ-
6. falnsk·Σ-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *fallsk·Σ-
7. fallsk·Σ-
*lls → ls
Simplification of *lls to ls
Rlls›ls → *falsk·Σ-
8. falsk·Σ-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OHG. falsc·Σ-
√bɦɑlo-
Ion.-Att. φηλό-
(a.) ‘betrügerisch, täuschend’
(GEW 2:1008-9)
(Gr. φηλός or φῆλος ?)
1. PIE *bɦɑēló-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *bɦɑāló-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. bɦɑāló-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦāló-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. bɦāló-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *phāló-
4. phāló-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
Rā›ē → *phēló-
5. phēló-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. φηλό-
Ion.-Att. φηλόο-
(vb.) ‘täuschen’
(Gr. φηλόω)
1. PIE *bɦɑēlói̯o-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *bɦɑālói̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. bɦɑālói̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦālói̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. bɦālói̯o-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *phālói̯o-
4. phālói̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *phālóo-
5. phālóo-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
Rā›ē → *phēlóo-
6. phēlóo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. φηλόο-
√bɦɑln-
Lat. fallo-
(pr.3.) ‘täuschen (durch nichterfüllung), betrugen’
(Lat. fallō [1sg])
1. PIE *bɦɑelno-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *bɦɑalno-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. bɦɑalno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦalno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. bɦalno-
*bɦ → f
Affricativization of labial *bɦ
Rbɦ›f → *falno-
4. falno-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → Lat. fallo-
Lat. fallā-
(f.) = ‘fallacia’
(WH. 2:447)
1. PIE *bɦɑelnēɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *bɦɑalnēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. bɦɑalnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *bɦɑalnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. bɦɑalnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦalnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. bɦalnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *bɦalnā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. bɦalnā-
*bɦ → f
Affricativization of labial *bɦ
Rbɦ›f → *falnā-
6. falnā-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → Lat. fallā-
Lat. falso-
(pt.a.) ‘falsch, irrig, unwahr’
(Lat. falsus [sgN], falsī [sgG]).
1. PIE *bɦɑelnso-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *bɦɑalnso-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. bɦɑalnso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦalnso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. bɦalnso-
*bɦ → f
Affricativization of labial *bɦ
Rbɦ›f → *falnso-
4. falnso-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *fallso-
5. fallso-
*lls → ls
Simplification of *lls to ls
Rlls›ls → Lat. falso-


PIE √pɑhr-, √bɑɦr- ‘erscheinen’
(IEW. 789+CHD P:134)
√pɑhr-
(IEW. 789)
(WP 2:6)
Gr. πεπαρό-
(ao.red.) ‘vorzeigen’
(Gr. πεπαρεῖν, Gr. /ă/)
1. PIE *pepeɑhrό-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *pepaɑhrό-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. pepaɑhrό-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pepahrό-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pepahrό-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *peparό-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. peparό-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πεπαρό-
Lat. pāreo-
(pr.2.) ‘sichtbar sein, erscheinen, sich zeigen’
(Lat. pāreō)
1. PIE *pēɑhrei̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pāɑhrei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pāɑhrei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pāhrei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pāhrei̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pārei̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pārei̯o-
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
Rei̯o›eo → Lat. pāreo-
Lat. pāru-
(pf.) ‘sichtbar sein, erscheinen, sich zeigen’
(Lat. pāruit)
1. PIE *pēɑhru-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pāɑhru-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pāɑhru-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pāhru-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pāhru-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. pāru-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Dor. πεπᾱρεύ·σιμο-
(a.) ‘= εὔφραστον, σαφές’
(GEW 2:508)
(Hes. πεπαρεύσιμον · εὔφραστον, σαφές)
1. PIE *pepēɑhreú·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pepāɑhreú·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pepāɑhreú·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pepāhreú·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pepāhreú·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pepāreú·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pepāreú·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. πεπᾱρεύ·Σ-
√bɑɦro-
[CHD P:134]
(HIL. 729f., Oettinger (1979:472), Melchert (1994:220, 222)
Hitt. bara-
(vb.2.) ‘erscheinen, auftreten, vorkommen’
(HHand. 120)
(Hitt. pa-ra-a-i [3sg]
1. PIE *bɑɦoro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦoro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦoro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦara-
3. bɦara-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. bara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. bawra-
(m.) ‘Biber’
(AIWb. 925)
1. PIE *bɑɦebɑɦro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦebɦro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦebɦro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦebɦra-
3. bɦebɦra-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *bebra-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. bebra-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *babra-
5. babra-
abr → awr
Change of *b into w
Rabr›awr → LAv. bawra-
√bɑɦrɑhk-
(Pyysalo)
OIr. bārach-
(m*o-?) ‘tomorrow’
(EtDiPC. 50)
(LEIA B-16, bárach)
1. PIE *bɑɦṓrēɑhko
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *bɑɦṓrāɑhko
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. bɑɦṓrāɑhko
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦṓrāhko
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. bɦṓrāhko
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *bɦṓrāko
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. bɦṓrāko
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *bṓrāko
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. bṓrāko
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *bā́rāko
6. bā́rāko
VkV → VkhV
Lenition of voiceless stop *k
Rk›kh → *bā́rākho
7. bā́rākho
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *bā́rakho
8. bā́rakho
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → *bā́rakh
9. bā́rakh
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *bā́rach
10. bā́rach
Rā́›ā → OIr. bārach
√bɑɦri-
Pal. barai-
(vb.) ‘zum Vorschein kommen, erscheinen’
(HHand. 120)
(Pal. pa-ra-i-it, (DPal. 67: ‘er blies’, evtl. ‘er jagte’)
1. PIE *bɑɦoroi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦoroi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦoroi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦarai-
3. bɦarai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Pal. barai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. bawri-
(m.) ‘Biber’ (f.) ‘Biberweibchen’
(AIWb. 925)
1. PIE *bɑɦebɑɦri-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦebɦri-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦebɦri-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *bebri-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. bebri-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *babri-
4. babri-
abr → awr
Change of *b into w
Rabr›awr → LAv. bawri-
√bɑɦorm-
OInd. bharmaṇ-
(n.) ‘Gold, Münze, Lohn’
(EWA 3:365)
(KEWA 2:365)
1. PIE *bɑɦormen-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦormen-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦormen-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦarmen-
3. bɦarmen-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *bɦarman-
4. bɦarman-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → *bɦarmaṇ-
5. bɦarmaṇ-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → OInd. bharmaṇ-
√bɑɦron-
Hitt. baran-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘to appear, emerge’
(HIL. 729)
(Hitt. pa-ra-an-na-aš [sgG])
1. PIE *bɑɦoron-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦoron-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦoron-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦaran-
3. bɦaran-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. baran-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. bawraini-
(a.) ‘von Biber stammend, biber-’
(AIWb. 925)
1. PIE *bɑɦebɑɦroni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦebɦroni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦebɦroni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦebɦrani-
3. bɦebɦrani-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *bebrani-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. bebrani-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *babrani-
5. babrani-
*ani → aini
Anaptyxis of *i
RanI›ainI → *babraini-
6. babraini-
abr → awr
Change of *b into w
Rabr›awr → LAv. bawraini-
√bɑɦrosɑh-
[CHD P:139]
Hitt. barašḫa-
(NA4c.) ‘‘Bergkristall, Jaspis, Chlorit, Steatit (?)’
(HHand. 121)
(Hitt. pa-ra-aš-ḫa-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *bɑɦorosɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦorosho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦorosho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦarasha-
3. bɦarasha-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *barasha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. barasha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *barašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. barašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. barašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. barašḫi-
(NA4n.) ‘ein Halbedelstein’
(HHand. 121)
(Hitt. pa-ra-aš-ḫi, ba-ra-aš-ḫi)
1. PIE *bɑɦorosɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦoroshi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦoroshi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦarashi-
3. bɦarashi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *barashi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. barashi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *barašhi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. barašhi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. barašḫi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√bɑɦorosu-
Hitt. barašu-
(NA4.) ‘ein Edelstein, ‹cf. HLu. ašu- ‘stein’ ?›’
(HHand. 121)
1. PIE *bɑɦorosu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦorosu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦorosu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦarasu-
3. bɦarasu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *barasu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. barasu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. barašu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. barašu̯ant-
(a.) ‘qualifiziert Gegenstand aus Elfenbein’
(HHand. 121)
1. PIE *bɑɦorosu̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦorosu̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦorosu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦarasu̯ant-
3. bɦarasu̯ant-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *barasu̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. barasu̯ant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. barašu̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√bɑɦru-
[CHD P:139]
OInd. bharu-
(n.) ‘Gold’
(EWA 3:365)
1. PIE *bɑɦoru-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦoru-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦoru-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦaru-
3. bɦaru-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → OInd. bharu-
Hitt. barušḫa-
(NA4c.) (ein Halbedelstein)
(HHand. 121)
(Hitt. [p]a-r[u]-uš-ḫa-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *bɑɦorusɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦorusho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦorusho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦarusha-
3. bɦarusha-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *barusha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. barusha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *barušha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. barušha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. barušḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
RV. babhrú-
(a.) ‘rotbraun, braun’ (Im.) ‘Biber’
(WbRV. 899)
(RV. babhrú-
1. PIE *bɑɦebɑɦrú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦebɦrú-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦebɦrú-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmann → *bebɦrú-
(SPIE §4.6.4)
3. bebɦrú-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *babɦrú-
4. babɦrú-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. babhrú-
RV. babhrú·dhūta-
(a.) ‘von Babhru (im Wasser) durchgeschüttelt’
(WbRV. 899)
(XX - cf. Accent!)
1. PIE *bɑɦebɑɦrú·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦebɦrú·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦebɦrú·Σ-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmann → *bebɦrú·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.4)
3. bebɦrú·Σ-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *babɦrú·Σ-
4. babɦrú·Σ-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. babhrú·Σ-


PIE √pili- (a.) ‘fest’ (sb.) ‘Festung, Burg, Schloß, Stadt’
(IEW 799)
(Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√pili-
(Rieken 1999:361)
Hitt. šuḫ·pili-
(a.) ‘sehr fest; very firm’
(HIL. 893-7)
(Hitt. šu-uḫ-pí-li-in [sgA])
1. PIE *suɑh·pili-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *suh·pili-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. suh·pili-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šuh·pili-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. šuh·pili-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šuḫ·pili-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lith. pilì-
(4f.) ‘Burg, Schloss, Stadt’
(LiEtWb. 590-1)
(Lith. pilìs, piliẽs [G])
1. PIE *pilí-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → Lith. pilì-
Lith. pìli-
(f.) ‘Burg, Schloss, Stadt’
(LiEtWb. 590-1)
(Lith. pìlis, pìlies [G])
1. PIE *píli-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → Lith. pìli-
Lith. piliẽti-
(2) ‘Bürger : citizen’
(LiEtWb. 590-1)
(Lith. piliẽtis)
1. PIE *pileíti
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *pileìti
2. pileìti
eì → eĩ
Circumflex intonation for eì
RLiAcc14 → *pileĩti
3. pileĩti
eí -› iẽ
Change of eí to iẽ
Reĩ›iẽ → Lith. piliẽti
Latv. pil-
(f.) ‘Burg, Schloss’
(LiEtWb. 591)
(Latv. pils)
√pilēhɑ
Lith. pìlė-
(2f.) ‘Burg, Schloß, Stadt’
(LiEtWb. 591)
(Lith. pìlė)
1. PIE *pílēhɑ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pílēh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pílēh
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *pìlēh
3. pìlēh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pìlē
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pìlē
ìlē -› ĩlē
Circumflex intonation ì -› ĩ
Rìlē›ĩlē → *pĩlē
5. pĩlē
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → Lith. pĩ
Lith. pĩlė-
(f.) ‘arx, oppidum, urbs’
(LiEtWb. 590)
(Lith. pĩle)
1. PIE *pílēhɑ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pílēh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pílēh
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *pìlēh
3. pìlēh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pìlē
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pìlē
ìlē -› ĩlē
Circumflex intonation ì -› ĩ
Rìlē›ĩlē → *pĩlē
5. pĩlē
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → Lith. pĩlė


PIE √pl- √pol- √pel- (vb.) ‘schlagen, stoßen, treiben’
(IEW 801f.)
(Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√pel- √pol-
Lat. pepul-
(pf.) ‘drive, shoot, move, exile, strike’
(Lat. pepulit [3sg])
1. PIE *pepòl-
*ò → u
Change of second-syllable ò into u
Rò›u → Lat. pepul-
Umbr. ař·pel-
(vb.) ‘appellitāre, admouēre’
(WbOU. 52)
(Umbr. ařpeltu)
√polɑh-
Hitt. palḫ-
(pr.A.) ‹‘stoßen/schlagen/in Bewegung setzen (?)’›
(Pyysalo transl.; HIL. 717)
(Hitt. [ÉR]INMEŠ-an pa-a[l?]-ḫe-er [3pl] = KBo 3.1.i.34)
1. PIE *polɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *polh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. polh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palh-
3. palh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. palḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√peln-
Lat. pello-
(vb.) ‘stoßend in Bewegung setzen, forttreiben’
(Lat. pellō, pellĕre)
1. PIE *pelno-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → Lat. pello-
√pels-


PIE √pl- √pol- √pel- ‘extingui’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√polɑhi-
OInd. palāya-
(vb.) ‘cease, vanish’
(MonWil. XX)
1. PIE *poLoɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *poLohi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. poLohi̯o-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *polohi̯o-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. polohi̯o-
PIE *oHCV → āHCV
Brugmann’s Law for *ohCV
RoHCV›āHCV → *polāhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.3.7)
4. polāhi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palāhi̯a-
5. palāhi̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *palāi̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. palāi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. palāya-
TochA. palyäṣ-
(pret.A.) ‘extingui’
(Poucha 175)
(TochA. palyäṣt)
1. PIE *polɑhi̯osi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *polhi̯osi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. polhi̯osi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palhi̯asi-
3. palhi̯asi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pali̯asi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pali̯asi-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
Rsi›ṣ → *pali̯aṣ-
5. pali̯aṣ-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochA. palyaṣ-
√polos-
HLu. palaš-
(vb.) ‘to die (?)’
(CHLu. 2.13.§.XX)
(HLu. pa-la-sa-ti-i [3sg])
1. PIE *polos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palas-
2. palas-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. palaš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. palaš·urimi-
(c.) ‘gemeiner ‹cf. LÚurimi- NOMS. 1445› Mensch’
(HHand. 117)
(LuPG. 21)
1. PIE *polos·urimi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *palas·urimi-
2. palas·urimi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. palaš·urimi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√pels-
OInd. parṣa-
(pr.A.) [mng.] ‘beschädigen, verletzen, KEWA 2:230’
(EWA 3:308)
(Dhātup. parṣati)
1. PIE *pelso-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *perso-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. perso-
PIE *rs → rš
Ruki-rule for *rs
RRukiOIA → *peršo-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. peršo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *perša-
4. perša-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *parša-
5. parša-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → OInd. parṣa-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
√plɑh-
(Pyysalo)
(HIL. 718 [oE])
Hitt. plāḫ-
(vb.) ‘rufen, anrufen’
(HEG P.388)
(Hitt. pa-la-a-aḫ-t[a])
1. PIE *plēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *plāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. plāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *plāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. plāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. plāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. uari plāḫ·-
(vb.) ‘um/zu Hilfe rufen : call for help’
(HHand. 117)
(Hitt. nu ua-ar-ri pa-la-aḫ-ḫe-ir [3pl], cf. CHD P:60)
1. PIE *Π plēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π plāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π plāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π plāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π plāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π plāḫ·-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
RV. carṣaṇi·prā́-
(a.) ‘die Menschen segnend’
(WbRV. 442)
(RV. carṣaṇiprā́s [N], carṣaṇiprā́m [A])
1. PIE *Π·plḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *Π·plā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·plā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·plā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·plā́h-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *Π·prā́h-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. Π·prā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. Π·prā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√plɑhi-
LAv. frī-
(f.) ‘Flehen, Gebet’
(AIWb. 1025)
(LAv. fryō [plN])
1. PIE *plɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *plíhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. plíhi-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *príhi-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. príhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *príi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. príi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *prī́-
5. prī́-
*pR → fR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
RpR›fR → *frī́-
6. frī́-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → LAv. frī-
AV. ā·prī́-
(f.) ‘Bez. bestimmte Anrüfungen’
(EWA 1:169)
1. PIE *Π·plɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *Π·plíhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·plíhi-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *Π·príhi-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. Π·príhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·príi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·príi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → AV. Π·prī́-
LAv. ā·frīna-
(n.) ‘Segenswunsch, -spruch’
(AIWb 331)
(LAv. āfrīnǝm)
1. PIE *Π·plɑ́hino-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *Π·plíhino-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·plíhino-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *Π·príhino-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. Π·príhino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·príhina-
4. Π·príhina-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·príina-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·príina-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *Π·prī́na-
6. Π·prī́na-
*pR → fR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
RpR›fR → *Π·frī́na-
7. Π·frī́na-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → LAv. Π·frīna-
LAv. ā·frīti-
(f.) ‘Anwunschen, Segnung, Segenspruch’
(AIWb. 330)
1. PIE *Π·plɑ́hiti-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *Π·plíhiti-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·plíhiti-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *Π·príhiti-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. Π·príhiti-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·príiti-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·príiti-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *Π·prī́ti-
5. Π·prī́ti-
*pR → fR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
RpR›fR → *Π·frī́ti-
6. Π·frī́ti-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → LAv. Π·frīti-
√plɑhS-
OLat. plōrā-
(vb.) ‘clamare, laut weinen’
(WH. 2:232-3)
1. PIE *plōɑhrēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *plōɑhrāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. plōɑhrāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *plōhrāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. plōhrāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OLat. plōrā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. im·plōrā-
(vb.) ‘anrufen’
(WH. 2:232-3)
1. PIE *Π·plōɑhrēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·plōɑhrāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·plōɑhrāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·plōhrāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·plōhrāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. Π·plōrā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)


PIE √pn-, √pon-, √pen- (sb.) ‘Haus, Heim, Innere (= Hitt. parna-)’ (adv.) ‘bei, in, apud, cōram’
(IEW 807)
(+ Pyysalo)
√pono-
Hitt. pana·ša-
(URUa.) ‘=URUparna·ša-’
(OGH. 306)
(Hitt. pa-na-aš-ša)
1. PIE *pono·so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pana·sa-
2. pana·sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. pana·ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. pana·ba-
(a.) ‘spezifiert ‘Stadt’’
(HHand. 118)
(for the suffix, cf. OInd. par·pa- ‘Haus’ to Hitt. per-/parna- ‘id.’)
1. PIE *pono·bɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pono·bɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pono·bɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pana·bɦa-
3. pana·bɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. pana·ba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. pana·mu̯ati-
(LÚ.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(CHLu. 6.1.1)
(HLu. pa-na-mu-wa/i-ti-sa)
1. PIE *pono·mu̯oti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. pana·mu̯ati-
√peno-
Lat. peno-
(n.) ‘Innere des Hauses/Vestatempels’
(WH. 2:281)
(EM2:735f.)
Lat. penos-
(n.) ‘das Innere des Hauses’
(WH. 2:280)
√pene-
Lat. pene·trā-
(pr.1.) ‘eindringen, durchdringen’
(WH. 2:281)
1. PIE *pene·trēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pene·trāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pene·trāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pene·trāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pene·trāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. pene·trā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. pene·s
(prep.A) ‘bei, in, cōram, apud’
(WH. 2:280)
Dor. πενέ·στᾱ-
(m.) ‘Hörige, Knechte, arme Landarbeiter’
1. PIE *pené·stēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pené·stāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pené·stāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pené·stāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pené·stāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pené·stā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pené·stā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. πενέ·στᾱ-
Dor. πενέ·στᾱ-
(m.) ‘N. der leibeigenen Bevölkerung Thessaliens’
(Gr. πενέσται)
1. PIE *pené·stēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pené·stāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pené·stāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pené·stāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pené·stāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pené·stā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pené·stā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. πενέ·στᾱ-
Illyr. pene·stā-
(VN.) ‘penestai’
(GEW 2:504)
(Illyr. penestae [plN])
1. PIE *pene·stēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pene·stāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pene·stāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pene·stāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pene·stāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Illyr. pene·stā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Gr. πενε·στικό-
(a.) ‘zu den πενέστα gehörig’
(GEW 2:504)
1. PIE *pene·stikó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πενε·στικό-
√penēhɑ
Latv. penê-
(vb.) ‘verwöhnen’
(IEW 807)
(Latv. penêt [inf.])
1. PIE *penḗhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *penḗh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. penḗh-
*ḗH → êH
Latvian tone rule for ḗH
RAccLatv6 → *penêh-
3. penêh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Latv. penê-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√peni-
Lat. penitus
(adv.) ‘(von) innen, tief, gründlich’
(IEW 807)
1. PIE *penitos
*-os → us
Change of root-final -os into -us
R=os›=us → Lat. penitus


PIE √pn-, √pon-, √pen- (adv.) ‘über’ (vb.) ‘loben, rühmen, bewundern’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + RV.)
√pon- √pen- √pn-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. pan
(adv.) ‘pariauan : drüben, jenseits : over, beyond’
(HHand. 118)
1. PIE *pon
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pan
RV. ā́ (...) papan-
(pf.) ‘bewundern, rühmen’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. ā́ papana [1sg])
1. PIE *Π·pepon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·pepan-
2. Π·pepan-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. Π·papan-
RV. papn-
(pf.M.) ‘XX’
(WbRV. 772)
1. PIE *pepn-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. papn-
√pono- √peno- √pno-
RV. pana-
(pr.) ‘bewundern, anstaunen, preisen’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. pananta)
1. PIE *peno
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pena
2. pena
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. pana
RV. ā́ (...) pána-
(pr.) ‘bewundern, rühmen’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. ā́ (...) pánanta)
1. PIE *Π·péno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·péna-
2. Π·péna-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → RV. Π·pána-
RV. páni·pna-
(int.) ‘sich wunderbar beweisen’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. pánipnatam [pt.])
1. PIE *péni·pno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *péni·pna-
2. péni·pna-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → RV. páni·pna-
√ponɑh- √penɑh-
RV. panāya-
(vb.M.) ‘[A] zur Bewunderung sehen lassen’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. panāyata [3sg])
1. PIE *ponēɑhi̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ponāɑhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ponāɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ponāhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ponāhi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *panāhi̯a-
4. panāhi̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *panāi̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. panāi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. panāya-
RV. panā́yia-
(a.) ‘staunenswert’
(WbRV. 772)
1. PIE *ponḗɑhi̯iHo-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *ponā́ɑhi̯iHo-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ponā́ɑhi̯iHo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ponā́hi̯iHo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ponā́hi̯iHo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *panā́hi̯iHa-
4. panā́hi̯iHa-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → *panā́hi̯i.a-
5. panā́hi̯i.a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *panā́i̯i.a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. panā́i̯i.a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. panā́yi.a-
√poni- √peni-
RV. panáya-
(csAM.) ‘bewundern, rühmen, loben [A]’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. panáyanti, panayanta)
1. PIE *ponéi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *panéi̯a-
2. panéi̯a-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *panái̯a-
3. panái̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. panáya-
RV. panáya-
(csM.) ‘sich freuen über [A, G]’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. panayanta [3pl])
1. PIE *ponéi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *panéi̯a-
2. panéi̯a-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *panái̯a-
3. panái̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. panáya-
RV. páni·pna-
(int.) ‘sich wunderbar beweisen’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. pánipnatam [pt.])
1. PIE *péni·pno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *péni·pna-
2. péni·pna-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → RV. páni·pna-
RV. pánya-
(a.) ‘bewundernswert’
(WbRV. 773)
1. PIE *póni̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *póni̯a-
2. póni̯a-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *páni̯a-
3. páni̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. pánya-
RV. vi panyá·-
(P.) ‘rühmen [A]’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. vi panyā́mahe)
1. PIE *Π·poni̯ó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·pani̯ó-
2. Π·pani̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·pani̯á-
3. Π·pani̯á-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·panyá-
RV. vi·panyáyā
(adv.) ‘mit Bewunderung, in b-werter Weise’
(WbRV. 1283)
1. PIE *Π·poni̯éɑhi̯ē-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *Π·poni̯áɑhi̯ē-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. Π·poni̯áɑhi̯ē-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·poni̯áhi̯ē-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·poni̯áhi̯ē-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·pani̯áhi̯ē-
4. Π·pani̯áhi̯ē-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·pani̯ái̯ē-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·pani̯ái̯ē-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *Π·pani̯ái̯ā-
6. Π·pani̯ái̯ā-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·panyáyā-
RV. pányas-
(comp.) ‘wunderbarer, herrlicher’
(WbRV. 773)
1. PIE *péni̯os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *péni̯as-
2. péni̯as-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *páni̯as-
3. páni̯as-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. pányas-
RV. paniṣ-
(s.ao.M.) ‘bewundernswert sein’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. paniṣṭa [3sg])
1. PIE *penis-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *peniš-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. peniš-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *paniš-
3. paniš-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. paniṣ-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
RV. pániṣṭha-
(sup.) ‘sehr wunderbar, sehr herrlich’
(WbRV. 773)
1. PIE *pénistɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pénistho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pénistho-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *péništho-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. péništho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *péništha-
4. péništha-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *páništha-
5. páništha-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *pániṣtha-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
6. pániṣtha-
*ṣt → ṣṭ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rṣt›ṣṭ → RV. pániṣṭha-
OInd. pániṣṭi-
(f.) ‘Lob, Bewunderung’
(WbRV. 773)
(SV. pániṣṭi-)
1. PIE *pénisti-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *péništi-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. péništi-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *páništi-
3. páništi-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *pániṣti-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. pániṣti-
*ṣt → ṣṭ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rṣt›ṣṭ → OInd. pániṣṭi-
RV. panitá-
(pt.a.) ‘gepriesen’
(WbRV. 772)
1. PIE *ponitó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *panitó-
2. panitó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. panitá-
RV. panitár-
(a.) ‘anerkennend, lobend’
(WbRV. 773)
1. PIE *penitór-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *penitár-
2. penitár-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. panitár-
RV. vi·panyú-
(a.) ‘rühmend, bewundernd, rühmenswert’
(WbRV. 1283)
1. PIE *Π·poni̯ú-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·pani̯ú-
2. Π·pani̯ú-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·panyú-
√penosi-
RV. panasya-
(pr.) ‘sich bewundernswert zeigen’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. panasyate)
1. PIE *penosi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *penasi̯a-
2. penasi̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *panasi̯a-
3. panasi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. panasya-
RV. panasyá-
(pr.) ‘bei jemand [L] Anerkennung/Beifall finden’
(WbRV. 772)
(RV. panasyáte)
1. PIE *penosi̯ó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *penasi̯ó-
2. penasi̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *penasi̯á-
3. penasi̯á-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *panasi̯á-
4. panasi̯á-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. panasyá-
RV. panasyú-
(a.) ‘sich bewundernswert zeigend, b-wert’
(WbRV. 772)
1. PIE *penosi̯ú-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *penasi̯ú-
2. penasi̯ú-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *panasi̯ú-
3. panasi̯ú-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. panasyú-
√penu-
RV. panu-
(f.) ‘Bewunderung, Lob’
(WbRV. 773)
(RV. panvā́ [sgI])
1. PIE *penu-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. panu-


PIE √pp- √pop- √pep- ‘Tisch, Deck, Tablett, usw.’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√pop-
(CHD P:96)
Hitt. pap-
(vb.) ‘make loaves out of dough’
(HIL. 725)
(Hitt. pa-a-pa?-an-zi [3pl])
1. PIE *pop-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pap-
√ppi-
Lat. pu·ppi-
(.) ‘Hinter ‹pu-› deck ‹ppi-› (des Schliffs)’
√popu-
(CHD P:108)
Hitt. papu-
(GIŠc.) ‘Tisch’ (?), ‘Gestell’ (?)
(HHand. 119)
(Hitt. pa-pu-u-un [sgA], [p]a?-a-p[u]-u-un?-na, “hölzernes Gerät, das in der Beckerei verwendet wird”.)
1. PIE *popu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. papu-
Hitt. papu̯a-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘(Teig) formen, kneten’ (?)
(HHand. 119)
(in Hitt. pa-a-pu-u-ua-an-zi [inf.], pa-a-pu-ua-an-zi [id.])
1. PIE *popu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. papu̯a-
√popul-
(CHD P:108)
Hitt. papul-
(n.) ‘Backbrett’, ‘Tablett’ (?)
(HHand. 119)
(Hitt. pa-a-pu-li [DL or NA, cf. below], “hölzernes Gerät zum Transportieren von Broten”)
1. PIE *popul-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. papul-
Hitt. papuli-
(n.) ‘Backbrett’, ‘Tablett’ (?)
(HHand. 119)
1. PIE *populi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. papuli-


PIE √pr- √por- √per- ‘Erde, Ton’ (a.) ‘irden’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + Ital.)
√por-
Hitt. par·duḫa-
(.) ‘ein Gefäß bzw. Material zur Gefäßherstellung’
(HHand. 125)
1. PIE *por·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. par·Σ-
√pors- √pers-
(CHD P:191)
Hitt. parš·tuḫa-
(c./n.) ‘irdener Becher: DUGGAL.GIR4’
(HHand. 121)
(Hitt. pár-aš-du-uḫ-ḫa-an, pár-aš-tu-uḫ-ḫi-it)
1. PIE *pors·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pars·Σ-
2. pars·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. parš·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Umbr. perso-
(sb.) ‘Erdboden, Grund’
(WbOU. 524)
(Umbr. persom)


√prɑhu- √perɑhu- √porɑhu- (sb.) ‘Knoten, Gelenk’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√perɑhuo- √porɑhuo-
RV. párva-
(n.) ‘die Stengelröhre der Pflanzen’
(WbRV. 792)
1. PIE *pérɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pérhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pérhu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pérhu̯a-
3. pérhu̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *péru̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. péru̯a-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *páru̯a-
5. páru̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. párva-
RV. parva·śás
(adv.) ‘gliedweise, stückweise’
(WbRV. 792)
1. PIE *perɑhu̯o·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *perhu̯o·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. perhu̯o·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *perhu̯a·Σ-
3. perhu̯a·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *peru̯a·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. peru̯a·Σ-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *paru̯a·Σ-
5. paru̯a·Σ-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. parva·Σ-
Hitt. parḫu̯ala-
(LÚc.) ‘ein Funktionär’
(HHand. 122)
1. PIE *porɑhu̯olo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *porhu̯olo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. porhu̯olo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parhu̯ala-
3. parhu̯ala-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. parḫu̯ala-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√perɑhuɑhn-
RV. párvaṇ-
(n.) ‘Knoten der Pflanzen’
(WbRV. 792)
1. PIE *pérɑhu̯eɑhn-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *pérɑhu̯aɑhn-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. pérɑhu̯aɑhn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pérhu̯ahn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pérhu̯ahn-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *péru̯an-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. péru̯an-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *páru̯an-
5. páru̯an-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *párvan-
6. párvan-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. párvaṇ-
RV. párvaṇ-
(n.) ‘die Flocken der Wolle’
(WbRV. 792)
1. PIE *pérɑhu̯eɑhn-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *pérɑhu̯aɑhn-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. pérɑhu̯aɑhn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pérhu̯ahn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pérhu̯ahn-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *péru̯an-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. péru̯an-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *páru̯an-
5. páru̯an-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *párvan-
6. párvan-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. párvaṇ-
RV. párvaṇ-
(n.) ‘Knotenpunkt eines Zeitraumes, Zeitpunkt’
(WbRV. 792)
1. PIE *pérɑhu̯eɑhn-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *pérɑhu̯aɑhn-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. pérɑhu̯aɑhn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pérhu̯ahn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pérhu̯ahn-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *péru̯an-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. péru̯an-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *páru̯an-
5. páru̯an-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *párvan-
6. párvan-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. párvaṇ-
Ion. πειρήν·αντ-
(pt.A.) ‘knotend, knüpfend, befestigende’
(GEW 2:490)
1. PIE *perɑhu̯ḗɑhn·Σ-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *perɑhu̯ā́ɑhn·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. perɑhu̯ā́ɑhn·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *perhu̯ā́hn·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. perhu̯ā́hn·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *peru̯ā́n·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. peru̯ā́n·Σ-
*eru̯ -> eir
Compensatory lengthening of eru̯ into eir
Reru̯›eir → *peirā́n·Σ-
5. peirā́n·Σ-
*ā́ → ḗ
Ion-Att. change of *ā́ into ḗ
Rā́›ḗ → *peirḗn·Σ-
6. peirḗn·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion. πειρήν·Σ-
√perɑhuɑhr-
Gr. πείραρ-
(n.) ‘Knoten’
(Hom. πεῖραρ)
1. PIE *pérɑhu̯eɑhr-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *pérɑhu̯aɑhr-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. pérɑhu̯aɑhr-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pérhu̯ahr-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pérhu̯ahr-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *péru̯ar-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. péru̯ar-
*éru̯ -> eír
Compensatory lengthening of éru̯ into eír
Réru̯›eír → *peírar-
5. peírar-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πείραρ-
√perɑhur-
Hitt. parḫur-
(GIŠn.) ‘Pflanzenteil: Knospe, Ast ?’
(HHand. 122)
1. PIE *porɑhur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *porhur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. porhur-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parhur-
3. parhur-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. parḫur-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
RV. párur-
(n.) ‘Gelenk zwischen den Gliedern des Leibes’
(WbRV. 789)
1. PIE *pórɑhur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pórhur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pórhur-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *párhur-
3. párhur-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. párur-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√porɑhus-
RV. páruṣ-
(n.) ‘Gelenk zwischen den Gliedern des Leibes’
(WbRV. 789)
1. PIE *pórɑhus-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pórhus-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pórhus-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *pórhuš-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. pórhuš-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *párhuš-
4. párhuš-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *páruš-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. páruš-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. páruṣ-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
AV. yathā·paruṣ
(adv.) ‘joint after joint’
(EWA 2:99)
AV. yathā·paruṣ
1. PIE *Π·porɑhus
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·porhus
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·porhus
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *Π·porhuš
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. Π·porhuš
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·parhuš
4. Π·parhuš
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·paruš
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·paruš
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → AV. Π·paruṣ
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
RV. paruṣá-
(a.) ‘flockig’ (von der Wolle)
(WbRV. 789)
RV. paruṣá-
1. PIE *porɑhusó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *porhusó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. porhusó-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *porhušó-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. porhušó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parhušó-
4. parhušó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *parhušá-
5. parhušá-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *parušá-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. parušá-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. paruṣá-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)


PIE √prku- √porku- √perku- (a.) ‘mundus : rein, sauber’ (sb.) ‘Welt’ (vb.) ‘reinigen’
(IEW 822)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. Pal., CLu.; or PIE √pharku- ?)
√porku-
(CHD P:163f.)
Hitt. parku-
(a.) ‘rein, sauber, unschuldig; ‹cf. Lat. mundus›’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku, pár-ku-un [sgA], pár-ku-ua-aš [G])
1. PIE *porku-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku-
Hitt. parku-
(É) ‘a building’
(HIL: 738)
(Hitt. pár-ku-ua-aš [plG])
1. PIE *porku-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku-
√porkuo-
Hitt. parku̯a-
(vb.) ‘reinigen, säubern’
(HIL. 738)
(Hitt. pár-ku-ua-an-zi [3pl], pár-ku-ua-at-ta)
1. PIE *porku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku̯a-
CLu. paparku̯a-
(vb.) ‘reinigen, säubern; ‹cf. Lat. mundare ‘id.’›’
(HHand. 119)
(CLu. pa-ap-pár-ku-ua-at-ti)
1. PIE *poporku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. paparku̯a-
Hitt. parku̯ai-
(vb.1.) ‘sich reinigen, entsühnen’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-ua-ia-aš [G])
1. PIE *porku̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku̯ai-
Hitt. parku̯ai-
(a.) ‘rein, etc.’
(HIL. 737)
1. PIE *porku̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku̯ai-
Hitt. parku̯ai̯a-
(É) ‘XX’
(HIL. 738)
(Ḫi, pár-ku-ua-ia-aš [plDL])
1. PIE *porku̯oii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parku̯aii̯a-
2. parku̯aii̯a-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *parku̯aia-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. parku̯aia-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → Hitt. parku̯ai̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
CLu. parku̯aimi-
(pt.) ‘gereinigt’ (?)
(HHand. 123)
(CLu. pár-ku-ua-i-mi-in-zi)
1. PIE *porku̯oimi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. parku̯aimi-
Hitt. parku̯ala-
(a.) ‘rein’ (?)
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-ua-al-la)
1. PIE *porku̯olo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku̯ala-
Hitt. parku̯an·darei̯a-
(vb.) ‘rein sein/werden?’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-ua-an-ta-ri-i[a-mi?] [1sg])
1. PIE *porku̯on·dɑɦorei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *porku̯on·dɦorei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. porku̯on·dɦorei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parku̯an·dɦarei̯a-
3. parku̯an·dɦarei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. parku̯an·darei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. parku̯·aštanani-
(NINDA) (ein Gebäck)
(HHand. 123)
1. PIE *porku̯o·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku̯a·Σ-
Goth. fairƕau-
(m.) ‘kósmos : mundus : saeculum : Welt : world’
(GoEtD. F12)
(Goth. fairƕau, fairƕaus)
1. PIE *perku̯ou-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *perxu̯ou-
2. perxu̯ou-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *ferxu̯ou-
3. ferxu̯ou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ferxu̯au-
4. ferxu̯au-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *firxu̯au-
5. firxu̯au-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *firhu̯au-
6. firhu̯au-
hw → ƕ
Monophonemization of hw into ƕ
Rhu̯›ƕ → *firƕau-
7. firƕau-
i → ai
Opening of i into ai
Ri›ai → Goth. fairƕau-
√porkui-
Pal. parku̯i-
(vb.) ‘reinigen, säubern (?), HHand. 123’
(DPal. 67)
(Pal. pa-ar-ku-i-ti, pár-ku-i-ti [3sg])
1. PIE *porku̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. parku̯i-
Hitt. parku̯i-
(sb.) ‘das Reine (Metall), Bronze : ZABAR’
(HHand. 123)
1. PIE *porku̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku̯i-
Hitt. parku̯i
(UZU) ‘pure ḫaštai= bone’
(HIL. 738)
(Hitt. UZUpár-ku-i ḫa-aš-ta-i)
1. PIE *porku̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku̯i-
Hitt. parku̯i-
(a.) ‘rein, sauber, unschuldig’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-iš, pár-ku-in [A])
1. PIE *porku̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku̯i-
Hitt. parku̯i-
(vb.1.) ‘sich reinigen, entsühnen’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-i-ed-d[a-at])
1. PIE *porku̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku̯i-
Hitt. parkui̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘sich reinigen, entsühnen’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-ia-ta-at)
1. PIE *porkui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parkui̯a-
Kpd. parkui̯a-
(LÚ.c.) ‘rein, sauber, unschuldig’
(NOMS. 943)
(Kpd. pá-ar-ku-i-a)
1. PIE *porkui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Kpd. parkui̯a-
Hitt. parku̯imar-
(n.) ‘Reinigung; ‹cf. Lat. mundatio ›’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-e-m[ar?])
1. PIE *porku̯imor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parku̯imar-
Hitt. parku̯iš-
(vb.) ‘rein werden, sich als unschuldig erweisen’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-e-eš-zi, pár-ku-eš-zi, pár-ku-iš-zi)
1. PIE *porku̯is-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parku̯is-
2. parku̯is-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. parku̯iš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. parkui̯an-
(n.) ‘(rituelle) Reinigung, Entsühnung’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-e-ia-an-na-aš [G])
1. PIE *porkui̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parkui̯an-
Hitt. parkui̯adar-
(n.) ‘(rituelle) Reinigung, Entsühnung’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-ia-a-tar)
1. PIE *porkui̯odɑɦor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *porkui̯odɦor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. porkui̯odɦor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parkui̯adɦar-
3. parkui̯adɦar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. parkui̯adar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√porkuli-
Hitt. parkuli-
(.) ’ein hurr. Kult-, bzw. Tempelgerät’
(HHand. 123)
1. PIE *porkuli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parkuli-
√porkunu-
Hitt. parkunu-
(cs.) ‘reinigen, jmd. für rein erklären, freisprechen’
(HHand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-nu-mi)
1. PIE *porkunu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parkunu-
Hitt. parkunuant-
(pt.) ‘gereinigt, sauber, HHand. 123’
(HIL. 738)
1. PIE *porkunu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parkunu̯ant-
Hitt. parkunumar-
(n.) ‘XX’
(Hhand. 123)
(Hitt. pár-ku-nu-mar, par-ku-nu-um-ma-aš)
1. PIE *porkunumor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. parkunumar-
Hitt. parkunuške/a-
(pr.) ‘XX’
(HIL. 738)
(Hitt. pár-ku-nu-uš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *porkunuski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *porkunusḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. porkunusḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parkunusḱe/a-
3. parkunusḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *parkunuske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. parkunuske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. parkunuške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√porkus-
Hitt. parkuš-
(vb.) ‘rein werden’
(HHand. 123
1. PIE *porkus-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parkus-
2. parkus-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. parkuš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√perkuu-
Goth. fairƕu-
(m.) ‘κόσμος : mundus : saeculum : Welt’
(GoEtD. F12)
(Goth. fairƕus [sgN], fairƕu [sgA])
1. PIE *perku̯u-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *perxu̯u-
2. perxu̯u-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *ferxu̯u-
3. ferxu̯u-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *firxu̯u-
4. firxu̯u-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *firhu̯u-
5. firhu̯u-
hw → ƕ
Monophonemization of hw into ƕ
Rhu̯›ƕ → *firƕu-
6. firƕu-
i → ai
Opening of i into ai
Ri›ai → Goth. fairƕu-
Goth. ·fairƕu haban-
(pt.) ‘κοσμοκράρωρ : Weltherrscher’
(GoEtD. F12)
(Goth. fairƕu habans)
1. PIE *perku̯u·Σ-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *perxu̯u·Σ-
2. perxu̯u·Σ-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *ferxu̯u·Σ-
3. ferxu̯u·Σ-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *firxu̯u·Σ-
4. firxu̯u·Σ-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *firhu̯u·Σ-
5. firhu̯u·Σ-
hw → ƕ
Monophonemization of hw into ƕ
Rhu̯›ƕ → *firƕu·Σ-
6. firƕu·Σ-
i → ai
Opening of i into ai
Ri›ai → Goth. fairƕu·Σ-
Goth. sa·fairƕu haban-
(pt.) ‘κοσμοκράρωρ : mundi rector’
(GoEtD. F12)
1. PIE *so·perku̯u·Σ-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *so·perxu̯u·Σ-
2. so·perxu̯u·Σ-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *so·ferxu̯u·Σ-
3. so·ferxu̯u·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sa·ferxu̯u·Σ-
4. sa·ferxu̯u·Σ-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *sa·firxu̯u·Σ-
5. sa·firxu̯u·Σ-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *sa·firhu̯u·Σ-
6. sa·firhu̯u·Σ-
hw → ƕ
Monophonemization of hw into ƕ
Rhu̯›ƕ → *sa·firƕu·Σ-
7. sa·firƕu·Σ-
i → ai
Opening of i into ai
Ri›ai → Goth. sa·fairƕu·Σ-


PIE √pt- √pot- √pet- (vb.) ‘lehen, bezahlen, vergelten, sich rächen’ (sb.) ‘Zuteilung, Vergeltung, Räche’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√peto-
Hitt. peta-
(n.pl) ‘Zuteilung an Landbesitz/Nahrungsmitteln’
(HHand. 131)
(Hitt. pieda)
1. PIE *peto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. peta-
Hitt. ukturi peta·
(phr.) ‘ewiges Lehen’
(HHand. 131)
(Hitt. ukturi pieda)
1. PIE *Π·peto
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·peta
Hitt. petai-
(vb.dn.) ‘bezahlen’
(HHand. 131)
1. PIE *petoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. petai-
√petoni-
Hitt. petanei-
(vb.) ‘render, pay’
(HiuA 122)
(Hitt. píd-da-an-ni-iš)
1. PIE *petonei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. petanei-
Hitt. petanai-
(vb.2.) ‘pfllichtgemäß entrichten’
(HHand. 133)
1. PIE *petonoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. petanai-
√petoɑh-
Lith. at·petúo-
(pr.) ‘sich rächen’
(ALiEtWb. A-61)
(OLith. atpetúoti [inf.])
1. PIE *Π·petṓɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·petṓh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·petṓh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·petṓ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·petṓ-
*ṓ → úo
Change of ṓ into úo
Rṓ›úo → Lith. Π·petúo-
Lith. at·pėtúo-
(vb.) ‘sich rächen’
(ALiEtWb. A-61)
(OLith. atpėtúoti [inf.])
1. PIE *Π·pētṓɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·pētṓh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·pētṓh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·pētṓ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·pētṓ-
*ṓ → úo
Change of ṓ into úo
Rṓ›úo → *Π·pētúo-
4. Π·pētúo-
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → Lith. Π·pėtúo-
√petouimo-
Lith. at·petãvima-
(m.) ‘Vergeltung, Rache’
(ALiEtWb. A-61)
(OLith. atpetãvimas [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·petóu̯imo-
ó → ò
Emergence of gravis PLith. ò
RLiAcc5 → *Π·petòu̯imo-
2. Π·petòu̯imo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·petòu̯ima-
3. Π·petòu̯ima-
PIE *ò → à
Change of *ò into à
Rò›à → *Π·petàu̯ima-
4. Π·petàu̯ima-
àu̯i -› ãu̯i
Circumflex intonation à -› ã
Ràu̯i›ãu̯i → *Π·petãu̯ima-
5. Π·petãu̯ima-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. Π·petãvima-
Lith. at·pėtãvima-
(m.) ‘Vergeltung, Rache’
(ALiEtWb. A-61)
(OLith. atpėtãvimas [sgNA)
1. PIE *Π·pētóu̯imo-
ó → ò
Emergence of gravis PLith. ò
RLiAcc5 → *Π·pētòu̯imo-
2. Π·pētòu̯imo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·pētòu̯ima-
3. Π·pētòu̯ima-
PIE *ò → à
Change of *ò into à
Rò›à → *Π·pētàu̯ima-
4. Π·pētàu̯ima-
àu̯i -› ãu̯i
Circumflex intonation à -› ã
Ràu̯i›ãu̯i → *Π·pētãu̯ima-
5. Π·pētãu̯ima-
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → *Π·pėtãu̯ima-
6. Π·pėtãu̯ima-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. Π·pėtãvima-


√pt- √pet- √pot- ‘fliegen’
(IEW 825-6)
(HEG P:624)
√popti- √pepti-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. papti-
(pr.M.) ‘‹fliegen (?), subj. dU]TU-wa-az [sgN] ? ›’
(HHand. 119)
(CLu. pa-ap-ti-it-tar [3sg])
1. PIE *popti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. papti-
RV. áti (…) papti·-
(pf.A.) ‘vorüber fliegen, darüber hinausfliegen’
(WbRV. 762)
(RV. áti paptima [1pl])
1. PIE *Π·pepti-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. Π·papti-
RV. paptivā́ṃs-
(pf.pt.) ‘fliegend sein’
(WbRV. 763)
1. PIE *poptiu̯ṓns-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *paptiu̯ṓns-
2. paptiu̯ṓns-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *paptiu̯ā́ns-
3. paptiu̯ā́ns-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *paptivā́ns-
4. paptivā́ns-
PIE *ns → ṃs
Emergence of nasal before *ns
Rns›ṃs → RV. paptivā́ṃs-


PIE √pedaɦ- (sb.) ‘foot, step’ (MidHG. grit ‘passus’), (vb.) ‘carry, bring’ (cf. Lith. grìd- ‘id.’, LiEtWb. 161)
(IEW 790-2)
(+ Pyysalo)
√pet-
OInd. patra-
(sb.) ‘vehicle, chariot, car, horse, camel’
(MonWil. XX)
1. PIE *petro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *petra-
2. petra-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → OInd. patra-
Hitt. petun-
(N.act.) ‘a utensil for carrying forward, CHD’
(HHand. 130)
(Hitt. píd-du-na-aš [sgG])
√pedɑɦo-
ODor. ϝικατί·πεδο-
(a.) ‘20 Fuss betragend’
(Grundr2 1:488)
(Heracl. ϝικατί·πεδο-)
1. PIE *Π·pedo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → ODor. Π·πεδο-
RV. padá-
(n.) ‘Tritt, Fusstapfe, -spur, Spur, Schritt’
(WbRV. 770)
1. PIE *pedó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *pedá-
2. pedá-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. padá-
LAv. paδa-
(n.) ‘Tritt, Treten, Stapfe, Fussspur’
(AIWb. 842)
1. PIE *pedo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *peda-
2. peda-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *pada-
3. pada-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → LAv. paδa-
Hitt. peda-
(vb.2.) ‘hinschaffen, forttragen, (Zeit) vorbringen’
(HHand. 130)
(Hitt. pí-e-ta-aḫ-ḫé, pí-taḫ-ḫi [1sg], Kimball 1999:261-2)
1. PIE *pedo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. peda-
Hitt. pipeda-
(vb.M.) ‘hinschaffen, forttragen’ (‘to carry out’)
(HHand. 130)
(Hitt. pí-pí-e-da-an-ta [3pl], CHD P: 345f. HIL. 779)
1. PIE *pipedo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pipeda-
√pedɑɦēɑh-
Lat. pedā-
(f.) ‘Füssspur’
(WH. 2:293)
1. PIE *pedēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pedāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pedāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pedāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pedāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. pedā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. re·pedā-
(pr.) ‘zurückgehen’
(WH. 2: 293)
1. PIE *Π·pedēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·pedāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·pedāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·pedāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·pedāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. Π·pedā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√pedɑɦi-
RV. pádi-
(m.) ‘ein Tier, viell. Lasttier’
(WbRV. 771)
1. PIE *pédi-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → RV. pádi-
√pedɑɦu-
Hitt. pedu-
(vb.) ‘hinschaffen, forttragen, (Zeit) vorbringen’
(HHand. 130)
(Hitt. pí-e-tu-me-ni [1pl])
Hitt. pedun-
(N.act.) ‘a utensil for carrying forward, CHD’
(HHand. 130)
(Hitt. pí-du-na-aš [sgG])


PIE √pu- √pou-, √peu- ‘brennen’
(IEW 828)
√pun-
RV. pun-
(√aoM.) ‘8, 5’
(WbRV. 841)
(RV. punaté [3pl])
RV. punā́-
(pr.9.) ‘hell machen, entflammen’
(WbRV. 841)
(RV. punā́ti [3sg])
1. PIE *punḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *punā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. punā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *punā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. punā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. punā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OIcl. funin-
(m.) ‘Feuer’
(ANEtWb. 147)
(OIcl. fŭni [sgN])
1. PIE *punin-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›fRestr → OIcl. funin-
Goth. funin-
(obl.) ‘Feuer’
(GoEtD. 120)
(Goth. funins [sgG])
1. PIE *punin-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → Goth. funin-
√pur-
CLu. pau̯ari-
(pret.A.) ‘Lagerfeuer anzünden : light a (camp)fire’
(HHand. 128)
(CLu. pa-ua-ar-it-ta, CHD P:12f., KLuN. 1990:570f., HIL. 709-10)
1. PIE *pou̯ori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. pau̯ari-
Gr. πυρ-
(n.obl.) ‘Feuer’
(GEW 2:627-9)
1. PIE *pur-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πυρ-
Arm. hro-
(sb.obl.) ‘of fire’
(ArmGr. 1XX)
(Arm. hroy [sgG]
1. PIE *pùro
*p- → h-
Change of *p- into h-
Rp=›h= → *hùro
2. hùro
ù -› 0
Loss of unaccented u
Rù›0 → Arm. hro
Gr. πυρό-
(m.) ‘Feuer’
(Gr. πυρός [sgN], Gr. /ŭ/)
1. PIE *puró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πυρό-
Umbr. puro-
(sb.) ‘Feuer’
(WbOU. 617-8)
(Umbr. purom-e [sgA], pure [Abl])
Dor. πυρᾱ́-
(f.) ‘Wachtfeuer, Feuerstätte, Herd, Scheiterhaufen’
(GEW 2:627-8)
1. PIE *purḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *purā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. purā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *purā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. purā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *purā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. purā́-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. πυρᾱ́-


PIE √pu- ‘rechnen, zählen, denken, fragen, erforschen, vermuten’
(IEW. 827)
(Pyysalo 2013:410-1)
√pu-
(Pisani 1953:307-309)
(HIL. 510f. , Puhvel HED 4: 66f.)
Hitt. ga·pua-
(vb.) ‘abzählen, rechnen denken, usw.’
(HEG 1:493-5)
(Melchert 1994:126)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·puo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·puo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦo·puo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦa·pua-
3. gɦa·pua-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ga·pua-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√pui-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ga·puai-
(vb.) ‘abzählen, rechnen denken, usw.’
(HEG 1:493-5)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·puoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·puoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦo·puoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦa·puai-
3. gɦa·puai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ga·puai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Ion. νή·πιο-
(a.) ‘unverständig, kindisch’
(Gr. νήπιος)
1. PIE *nḗɑh·pu̯iso-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *nā́ɑh·pu̯iso-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. nā́ɑh·pu̯iso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nā́h·pu̯iso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nā́h·pu̯iso-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nā́·pu̯iso-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. nā́·pu̯iso-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *nā́·pu̯iho-
5. nā́·pu̯iho-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *nā́·piho-
6. nā́·piho-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *nā́·pio-
7. nā́·pio-
*ā́ → ḗ
Ion-Att. change of *ā́ into ḗ
Rā́›ḗ → *nḗ·pio-
8. nḗ·pio-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion. νή·πιο-
√puntɑh-
Gr. πυνθάνο-
(vb.) ‘erfragen, erforschen, vernehmen’
(Gr. πυνθάνω)
1. PIE *puntɑhéɑhno-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *puntɑháɑhno-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. puntɑháɑhno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *puntháhno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. puntháhno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *puntháno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. puntháno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πυνθάνο-
√punus-
(CHD P. 377f.)
(HIL. 788f.)
Hitt. punuš-
(vb.A.) ‘fragen, erforschen : ÈN.TAR’
(HHand. 135)
(Hitt. pu-nu-uš-mi [1sg])
1. PIE *punus-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. punuš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. punušu̯a-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘fragen, erforschen’
(HHand. 135)
(Hitt. pu-nu-uš-šu-ua-an-zi, pu-nu-uš-šu-u-ua-ar)
1. PIE *punusu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *punusu̯a-
2. punusu̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. punušu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. punuške/a-
(impf.) ‘fragen, erforschen’
(HHand. 135)
(Hitt. pu-nu-uš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *punuski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *punusḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. punusḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *punusḱe/a-
3. punusḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *punuske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. punuske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. punuške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√putɑh-
Lat. putā-
(vb.) ‘berechnen, vermuten, denken, usw.’
(WH. 2:393)
1. PIE *putēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *putāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. putāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *putāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. putāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. putā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Gr. πύθο-
(vb.) ‘erfragen, erforschen, vernehmen’
(GEW 2:625)
1. PIE *pútɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pútho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pútho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πύθο-
√puti-
LinB. να·πυτιjο-
(a.) ‘unverständig, kindisch’
(GEW 3:157)
(LinB. na-pu-ti-jo)
1. PIE *nēɑh·putii̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *nāɑh·putii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. nāɑh·putii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nāh·putii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nāh·putii̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nā·putii̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. nā·putii̯o-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *na·putii̯o-
5. na·putii̯o-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *na·putijo-
6. na·putijo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. να·πυτιjο-
Ion. νη·πύτιο-
(a.) ‘unverständig, kindisch’
(Gr. νηπύτιος)
1. PIE *nēɑh·pútii̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *nāɑh·pútii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. nāɑh·pútii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nāh·pútii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nāh·pútii̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nā·pútii̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. nā·pútii̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *nā·pútio-
5. nā·pútio-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
Rā›ē → *nē·pútio-
6. nē·pútio-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion. νη·πύτιο-


√puɑh- ‘zerstören, schneiden’
(IEW 827)
√puɑh-
CLu. puḫami-
(pt.) ‘gepflükt, abgeschnitten, herausgerumpf (Blumen)’
(HHand.134
1. PIE *puɑhomi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *puhomi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. puhomi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *puhami-
3. puhami-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. puḫami-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lat. an·putā-
(pr.1.) ‘ringsum beschneiden, weg schneiden’
(WH. 1:42)
1. PIE *Π·puɑhtēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·puɑhtāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·puɑhtāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·puhtāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·puhtāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. Π·putā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)


PIE √puhɑl- (sb.) ‘Tor, Tür, Burg, fester Platz’
(IEW 799)
(Pyysalo 2013:209)
√puhɑl-
(IEW. 799)
RV. pu.úr-
(f.) ‘ein Gott (Indra, Agni) als der Frommen Burg’
(WbRV. 823)
(in RV pū́r [zweisilbig])
1. PIE *puHɑ́l-
PIE *uḫɑ́ → uḫú
Distant assimilation of *u and *ɑ́
RuHɑ́›uHú → *puHúl-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. puHúl-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *puHúr-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. puHúr-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → RV. pu.úr-
RV. pū́r-
(f.) ‘Burg, Fester Platz’
(WbRV 823-4)
(RV. pū́r [sgN])
1. PIE *puhɑ́l-
PIE *uḫɑ́ → uḫú
Distant assimilation of *u and *ɑ́
RuHɑ́›uHú → *puhúl-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. puhúl-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *puhúr-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. puhúr-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *puúr-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. puúr-
*uú → ū́
Contraction of u and ú
Ruú›ū́ → RV. pū́r-
RV. pū́r·pati-
(m.) ‘Herr der Burg’
(WbRV. 844)
1. PIE *puhɑ́l·Σ-
PIE *uḫɑ́ → uḫú
Distant assimilation of *u and *ɑ́
RuHɑ́›uHú → *puhúl·Σ-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. puhúl·Σ-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *puhúr·Σ-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. puhúr·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *puúr·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. puúr·Σ-
*uú → ū́
Contraction of u and ú
Ruú›ū́ → RV. pū́r·Σ-
RV. pūr·bhíd-
(a.) ‘Burgen zerbrechend’
(WbRV. 844)
1. PIE *puhɑ́l·Σ-
PIE *uḫɑ́ → uḫú
Distant assimilation of *u and *ɑ́
RuHɑ́›uHú → *puhúl·Σ-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. puhúl·Σ-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *puhúr·Σ-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. puhúr·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *puúr·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. puúr·Σ-
*uú → ū́
Contraction of u and ú
Ruú›ū́ → RV. pū́r·Σ-
RV. pūr·bhídya-
(n.) ‘das Zerbrechen, Zerstören der Burgen’
(WbRV. 844)
1. PIE *puhɑ́l·Σ-
PIE *uḫɑ́ → uḫú
Distant assimilation of *u and *ɑ́
RuHɑ́›uHú → *puhúl·Σ-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. puhúl·Σ-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *puhúr·Σ-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. puhúr·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *puúr·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. puúr·Σ-
*uú → ū́
Contraction of u and ú
Ruú›ū́ → RV. pū́r·Σ-
RV. púr-
(f.) ‘Burg, Fester Platz’
(WbRV 823-4)
(RV. púras [sgG])
1. PIE *púhɑl-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *púhl-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. púhl-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *púhr-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. púhr-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. púr-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√puhɑlo-
Hitt. puḫla-
(c.) ‘Name eines des Stadttore von Ḫattuša’
(HHand. 134)
1. PIE *puhɑlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *puhlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. puhlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *puhla-
3. puhla-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. puḫla-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Gr. πύλο-
(ON.) ‘Pylos = Tor’
(GEW 2:624)
1. PIE *púhɑlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *púhlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. púhlo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *púlo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. púlo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πύλο-
LinB. πυλο-
(ON.) ‘Pylos’
(GEW X:XX)
1. PIE *puhɑlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *puhlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. puhlo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pulo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. pulo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. πυλο-
OInd. pura-
(n.) ‘a fortress, castle, city, town’
(MonWill. 635)
1. PIE *puhɑlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *puhlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. puhlo-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *puhro-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. puhro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *puhra-
4. puhra-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OInd. pura-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Gr. ἑπτά·πυλο-
(a.) ‘siebentorig’
(Gr. ἑπτάπυλος)
1. PIE *Π·puhɑlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·puhlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·puhlo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·pulo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·pulo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·πυλο-
Gr. πυλο·υρό-
(a.) ‘Torwart, Wächter’
(GEW 2:623)
1. PIE *puhɑlo·uró-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *puhlo·uró-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. puhlo·uró-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pulo·uró-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. pulo·uró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πυλο·υρό-
RV. puram·dará-
(m.) ‘Burg·gestötzer’
(WbRV 824)
RV. puraṃ·dará-
1. PIE *puhɑlom·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *puhlom·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. puhlom·Σ-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *puhrom·Σ-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. puhrom·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *puhram·Σ-
4. puhram·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. puram·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√puhɑlɑh-
Ion.-Att. πύλη-
(f.) ‘Türflügel, Torflügel’ (pl) ‘Tor, Pforte’
(Gr. πύλη [sgN], πύλαι)
1. PIE *púhɑlēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *púhɑlāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. púhɑlāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *púhlāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. púhlāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *púlā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. púlā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
Rā›ē → *púlē-
5. púlē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. πύλη-
Dor. πυλᾱ·ωρό-
(a.) ‘Torwart, Wächter’
(GEW 2:623)
(Dor. πυλαωρό-)
1. PIE *puhɑlēɑh·u̯ōró-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *puhɑlāɑh·u̯ōró-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. puhɑlāɑh·u̯ōró-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *puhlāh·u̯ōró-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. puhlāh·u̯ōró-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pulā·u̯ōró-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pulā·u̯ōró-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *pulā·ōró-
5. pulā·ōró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. πυλᾱ·ωρό-
Dor. πυλα·υρό-
(a.) ‘Torwart, Wächter’
(GEW 2:623)
1. PIE *puhɑlēɑh·uró-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *puhɑlāɑh·uró-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. puhɑlāɑh·uró-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *puhlāh·uró-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. puhlāh·uró-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pulā·uró-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pulā·uró-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *pula·uró-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. pula·uró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. πυλα·υρό-
√puhɑli-
Gr. πυλόο-
(pr.) ‘mit Toren versehen (werden)’
(Gr. πυλόω)
1. PIE *puhɑlói̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *puhlói̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. puhlói̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pulói̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. pulói̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *pulóo-
4. pulóo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πυλόο-
OInd. puri-
(n.) ‘a fortress, castle, city, town’
(MonWil. XX)
1. PIE *puhɑli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *puhli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. puhli-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *puhri-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. puhri-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OInd. puri-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
RV. púrya-
(a.) ‘in einem festen Platz befindlich’
(WbRV 836)
1. PIE *púhɑli̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *púhli̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. púhli̯o-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *púhri̯o-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. púhri̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *púhri̯a-
4. púhri̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *púri̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. púri̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. púrya-
RV. púrya-
(a.) ‘in einem festen Platz [púr] befindlich’
(WbRV. 836)
1. PIE *púhɑli̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *púhli̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. púhli̯o-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *púhri̯o-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. púhri̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *púhri̯a-
4. púhri̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *púri̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. púri̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. púrya-
Gr. πυλίδ-
(f.dim.) ‘XX’
(Gr. πυλίς, πυλίδος)
1. PIE *puhɑlíɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *puhlíɦd-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. puhlíɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *puhlíd-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. puhlíd-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pulíd-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pulíd-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πυλίδ-


PIE √pul- (sb.) ‘Kind, Jungfrau, Füllen, Fohlen’ (a.) ‘jung, klein’
(IEW XX)
√pul-
Hitt. pula-
(c.) ‘Kind’ (a.) ‘jung, klein’ (Sum. TUR-la)
(HHand. 143)
1. PIE *pulo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pula-
Gr. ἐμ·πυλαί
(f.pl) Hes. ‘αἱ νύμφαι’
(LSJ. 549)
1. PIE *Π·puleɑhí
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *Π·pulaɑhí
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. Π·pulaɑhí
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·pulahí
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·pulahí
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·pulaí
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·pulaí
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·πυλαί
Goth. fula·n-
(m.) ‘Füllen, Fohlen’
(GoEtD. F-102)
1. PIE *pulo·n-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *fulo·n-
2. fulo·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. fula·n-


PIE √pul- (sb.) ‘Brot, Nahrung’ (vb.) ‘schmausen’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo: Lat. + Anat.; Or *pɑhul- > phul-?)
√pul-
Hitt. pula-
(DUG.) ‘Brotbehälter’
(HHand. 134)
1. PIE *pulo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pula-
Lat. e·pulo-
(n.) ‘Mahl, Festmahl’
(WH. 1:410)
Lat. e·pulā-
(pr.1.M.) ‘schmausen’
(WH. 1:410)
1. PIE *e·pulēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *e·pulāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. e·pulāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *e·pulāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. e·pulāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. e·pulā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OLat. e·pulā-
(pl) ‘Speise, Gerichte’
(WH. 1:410)
1. PIE *e·pulēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *e·pulāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. e·pulāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *e·pulāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. e·pulāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OLat. e·pulā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Pal. pulašina-
(n/c.?) ‘Brot, HHand. 134’
(DPal. 79)
1. PIE *pulosino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pulasina-
2. pulasina-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Pal. pulašina-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


√pur- ‘Erde, Land; Landstück, Haus; Ton, Lehm’
(IEW XX)
(+ Bomhard 1973 [RHA 31]: BSL + Pyysalo [RV.])
√pur-
RV. púr·īṣa-
(n.) ‘earth, land, loose earth, rubble’
(MonWil. 636)
OInd. púr·īṣa-
(n.) ‘Schütt, Geröll’ (?)’
(WbRV. 827)
√puru-
Lith. pur̃va-
(m4.) ‘mud, dirt’
(LiEtWb. 675)
(Lith. pur̃vas)
1. PIE *puŕu̯o-
*uŕ -> ur̃
Circumflex from uŕ to ur̃
Ruŕ›ur̃ → *pur̃u̯o-
2. pur̃u̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pur̃u̯a-
3. pur̃u̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. pur̃va-
Lith. pur̃vina-
(a3.) ‘muddy’
(LiEtWb. 675)
(Lith. pur̃vinas)
1. PIE *puŕu̯ino-
*uŕ -> ur̃
Circumflex from uŕ to ur̃
Ruŕ›ur̃ → *pur̃u̯ino-
2. pur̃u̯ino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pur̃u̯ina-
3. pur̃u̯ina-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. pur̃vina-
√purun-
Hitt. purun·katei-
(d.) ‘XX’
(OHP. 1:563-4)
(Hitt. pu-u-ru-un-kat-te-in [sgA])
1. PIE *purun·kotei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. purun·katei-
Hitt. puruna·niga-
(d.) ‘RDH. 37, 71 (fu- –› Pal. or ProH.?)’
(OHP. 1:563)
(Hitt. uuu-ru-na-an-ni-ga-aš [N])
1. PIE *puruno·nigɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *puruno·nigɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. puruno·nigɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *puruna·nigɦa-
3. puruna·nigɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. puruna·niga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√purut-
[CHD P:395f.]
Hitt. purut-
(n.) ‘Erde, Erdreich, Schlamm, Lehm’
(HHand. 136)
(Hitt. pu-ru-ut [NA], pu-u-ru-ut, pu-ru-ut-ti)
Hitt. puruta-
(c.) ‘Erde, Erdreich, Schlamm, Lehm’
(HHand. 136)
(Hitt. pu-ru-ud-da-za, pu-ru-ud-da-az-za)
1. PIE *puruto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. puruta-
Hitt. puruta-
(vb.) ‘mit Lehm Beschmieren, verputzen’
(HHand. 136)
(Hitt. pu-ru-ud-da-an-zi [3pl])
1. PIE *puruto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. puruta-
√purut-
Hitt. purutai-
(vb.) ‘mit Lehm Beschmieren, verputzen’
(HHand. 136)
1. PIE *purutoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. purutai-
Hitt. puruteiaua-
(.) ‘XX’
(HIL. 789)
(Hitt. pu-ru-ut-ti-ia-u-ua-an-zi [inf.])
1. PIE *purutei̯ouo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. purutei̯aua-
Hitt. puruteišar-
(n.) ‘Bauwerk’
(HHand. 136)
(Hitt. [p]u-ru-ut-te-e[š-šar?])
1. PIE *purutei̯esor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *purutei̯esar-
2. purutei̯esar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. purutei̯ešar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. puruteišn-
(n.) ‘mudbrick’
(HIL. 789)
(Hitt. pu-ru-ut-ti-eš-ni [sgDL])
1. PIE *purutei̯esn-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. purutei̯ešn-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √pus- ‘divide, exclipse, become small’ (sb.) ‘half’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√pus-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. puš-
(vb.) ‘to be eclipsed; of sun and moon’
(CHD P:398)
(Hitt. pu-uš-zi [3sg], HIL. 789,)
1. PIE *pus-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. puš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lith. pùs·dili-
(.) ‘abnehmender Mond, Mond/Monat in letzten Viertel’
(LiEtWb. 676)
1. PIE *pús·Σ-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis PLith. ù
RLiAcc3 → Lith. pùs·Σ-
Latv. pùs·nakt-
(.) ‘Mitternacht’
(LiEtWb. 676)
(Latv. pùsnakts; ‹XX = stem !›)
1. PIE *pús·nokut-
ú -› ù
Latvian tone rule ú -› ù
RAccLatv11 → *pùs·nokut-
2. pùs·nokut-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *pùs·nokt-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
3. pùs·nokt-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Latv. pùs·nakt-
OPr. pausa-
(n.) ‘Hälfte’
(LiEtWb. 676)
1. PIE *pouso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OPr. pausa-
Lith. pùsė-
(f.) ‘Hälfte’
(LiEtWb. 676)
(APrS. 391)
1. PIE *púsēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *púsēh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. púsēh-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis PLith. ù
RLiAcc3 → *pùsēh-
3. pùsēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pùsē-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pùsē-
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → Lith. pùsė-
Latv. puse-
(f.) ‘Hälfte, Seite, Gegend’
(APrS. 391)
1. PIE *pusēhɑ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pusēh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pusēh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pusē
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. pusē
*-ē → -e
Shortening of ē in root-final position
R=ē›=e → Latv. puse
Lith. pusiáu
(adv.) ‘halb, mitten, entzwei’
(LiEtWb. 676)
(Lith. pusiáu [duL] = Latv. pušu)
1. PIE *pusḗhɑu
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pusḗhu
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pusḗhu
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pusḗu
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. pusḗu
*ḗu -> iáu
Brechung of ḗu into iáu
Rḗu›iáu → Lith. pusiáu
OInd. puṣya-
(pr.4.tr.) ‘divide, distribute’
(MonWill. 638)
1. PIE *pusi̯o-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *puši̯o-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. puši̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *puši̯a-
3. puši̯a-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *puṣi̯a-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. puṣi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. puṣya-
Hitt. pušz-
(vb.1.M.) ‘klein werden, sich verfinstern’
(HHand. 136)
(Hitt. pu-uš-za [3sg])
1. PIE *pusdɑɦi̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pusdɦi̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pusdɦi̯-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *pusjɦ-
3. pusjɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *pusj-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. pusj-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *pusz-
5. pusz-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. pušz-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √bɑɦ- (sb.) ‘Mittel, instrumentum’ (end.) ‘Instrumental’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√bɑɦo-
OGaul. ·bo
(end.) ‘instrumental case’
(XX:XX)
(In OGaul. atrebo)
1. PIE *·bɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *·bɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ·bɦo
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → OGaul. ·bo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
Hitt. tarši·bala-
(LÚc.) ‹‘Kutscher’ (?)›
(HHand. 170)
1. PIE *torsi·bɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *torsi·bɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. torsi·bɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tarsi·bɦala-
3. tarsi·bɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *tarsi·bala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tarsi·bala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. tarši·bala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. tarši·bali-
(LÚc.) ‹‘Kutscher’ (?)›
(HHand. 170)
1. PIE *torsi·bɑɦoli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *torsi·bɦoli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. torsi·bɦoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tarsi·bɦali-
3. tarsi·bɦali-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *tarsi·bali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tarsi·bali-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. tarši·bali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√bɑɦi-
Hitt. ḫune·bi-
(LÚc.) (ein Funktionär)
(HHand. 54, HEG –)
1. PIE *hɑune·bɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hune·bɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hune·bɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *hune·bi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. hune·bi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫune·bi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Kpd. tarši·bi-
(LÚ.c.) ‘-(?)-’ (ct. above)
(NOMS. 1290)
(Kpd. tár-ší-pì)
1. PIE *torsi·bɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *torsi·bɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. torsi·bɦi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tarsi·bɦi-
3. tarsi·bɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *tarsi·bi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tarsi·bi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Kpd. tarši·bi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. tarši·bi̯·ala-
(c.) ‘Kutscher’ (?)
(HHand. 170)
1. PIE *torsi·bɑɦi̯·olo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *torsi·bɦi̯·olo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. torsi·bɦi̯·olo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tarsi·bɦi̯·ala-
3. tarsi·bɦi̯·ala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *tarsi·bi̯·ala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tarsi·bi̯·ala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. tarši·bi̯·ala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. ·bhiṣ
(end.) ‘plural instrumental case’
(AiGr. XX:XX)
(E.g. in RV. ·bhiṣ)
1. PIE *·bɑɦis
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *·bɦis
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ·bɦis
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *·bɦiš
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. ·bɦiš
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *·bɦiṣ
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. ·bɦiṣ
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. ·bhiṣ
Hitt. ḫune·biša-
(.) ‘ein Transportmittel (?)’
(HHand. 54)
Hitt. ḫunebiša
1. PIE *hɑune·bɑɦiso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hune·bɦiso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hune·bɦiso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hune·bɦisa-
3. hune·bɦisa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *hune·bisa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hune·bisa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hune·biša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. hune·biša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫune·biša-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE bɑɦ- ‘dieser’
(IEW —)
(Pyysalo)
√bɑɦo-
Hitt. aba-
(dem.pron.) ‘jener, er, der betreffende, is’
(HEG1:39-40)
(HIL. 229)
1. PIE *obɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *obɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. obɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *abɦa-
3. abɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. aba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. aba-
(dem.pron.) ‘jener, er, der betreffende, is’
(XX:XX)
(Melchert 1994:342)
1. PIE *obɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *obɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. obɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *abɦa-
3. abɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. aba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. ba-
(dem.pron.) ‘that one, the same, etc.’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. pa-ša [G], Not afairesis, vs. Melchert (1994:276, 321)
1. PIE *bɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦa-
3. bɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. ba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lyd. b-
(dem.pron.) ‘he, she’
(XX:XX)
(Lyd. b-λ ‘to him’, Melchert 1994:264)
1. PIE *bɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦa
3. bɦa
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ba
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ba
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *b
5. b
PIE *b → f
Orthographic change of *b into f
Rb›f → Lyd. f
√bɑɦi-
Hitt. abi-
(.) ‘XX’
(Hitt. abiel [sgG])
1. PIE *obɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *obɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. obɦi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *abɦi-
3. abɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. abi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. φι-
(refl.ptcl.) ‘= σφι(ν)’
(GEW 2:1020)
(Lac. φιν )
1. PIE *bɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦi-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *phi-
3. phi-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. φι-
Lyd. bi-
(.) ‘er/sie : (s)he’
(XX:XX)
(Lyd. bi-s [sgN], Melchert 1994:356)
1. PIE *bɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *bi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. bi-
PIE *b → f
Orthographic change of *b into f
Rb›f → Lyd. fi-
√bɑɦilo-
Lyd. bil-
(a.) ‘eius’
(LydWb. 78)
1. PIE *bɑɦilo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦilo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦilo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦila-
3. bɦila-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *bila-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. bila-
PIE *b → f
Orthographic change of *b into f
Rb›f → Lyd. fila-
Gr. φιλό-
(a.) ‘eigen’, (Melchert 1994:377)
1. PIE *bɑɦiló-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦiló-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦiló-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *philó-
3. philó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. φιλό-
√bɑɦu-
Lyd. bu-
(.) ‘XX’
(XX:XX)
(Lyd. bu-λ ‘him’)
1. PIE *bɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *bu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. bu-
PIE *b → f
Orthographic change of *b into f
Rb›f → Lyd. fu-


PIE √bɑɦid- (vb.) ‘binden’ (sb.) ‘
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + Lat.)
√bɑɦidulo-
(CHD P:365, HIL. 786-7)
(Not to *petah2 ‘spread out’ vs. Rieken (1999a: 471-2):
Hitt. bidula-
(SIGc.) ‘Zwirnzpule, Schnur’
(HHand. 134)
(Note the alternation -t- vs. -tt- below !)
1. PIE *bɑɦidulo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦidulo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦidulo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦidula-
3. bɦidula-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. bidula-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. bidula-
(SIGc.) ‘Schlinge, Knoten, Seil’
(HHand. 134)
(Hitt. pít-tu-la-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *bɑɦidulo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦidulo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦidulo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦidula-
3. bɦidula-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. bidula-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. bidulia-
(c.) ‘Einschnürung, Beengung, Angst, Knoten’
(HHand. 134)
(Hitt. pí-tu-li-ia-an [sgA])
1. PIE *bɑɦidulio-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦidulio-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦidulio-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *bɦidulia-
3. bɦidulia-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. bidulia-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√bɑɦidi-
OLat. fidi-
(f.) ‘string of a lyre’
(OxLatD. 698)
(OLat. fidis [sgN])
1. PIE *bɑɦidi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *bɦidi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. bɦidi-
*bɦ → f
Affricativization of labial *bɦ