PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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© 2014-2017 University of Helsinki

"Durch zweier Zeugen Mund wird alle Wahrheit kund" — August Fick
(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
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PIE



PIE √i- √oi- √ei- (vb.) ‘glänzen’
(IEW —)
√oi-
Hitt. ai-
(2M.) ‘warm, heiß, sein’
(HEG I:3-4, HIL. 199)
(Hitt. a-i-it-ta-at [3sg], a-a-ri [3sg], a-a-an-ta [3pl])
1. PIE *oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ai-
Hitt. aan-
(n.indecl.) ‘ein Gebäck’
(HEG I:24)
(Hitt. a-a-an [sgNA], HW2 A:44)
1. PIE *oi̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ai̯an-
2. ai̯an-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → Hitt. aan-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
Hitt. aant-
(pt.) ‘heiß, warm’
(CGr2:18 & n.23)
(Hitt. a-a-an-za, a-a-da-as, a-a-an-te-it, HHand. 17)
1. PIE *oi̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ai̯ant-
2. ai̯ant-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → Hitt. aant-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
Hitt. aanta-
(URU.) ‘Im Lande Tarḫuntaša’
(OGHErg. 7)
(Hitt. a-an-ta [All], a-an-ta-aš [N])
1. PIE *oi̯onto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ai̯anta-
2. ai̯anta-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → Hitt. aanta-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
√intr-
OCS. ob·ętri-
(vb.) ‘entflammen’
(Sadnik √206)
(OCS. obętriti)
1. PIE *Π·intriɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *Π·intriíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·intriíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·intrií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·intrií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *Π·intrī́-
4. Π·intrī́-
*i n → ę
Emergence of nasal vowel ę
Rin›ę → *Π·ętrī́-
5. Π·ętrī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *Π·ętrí-
6. Π·ętrí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → OCS. Π·ętri-
OCS. ob·ętri-
(vb.refl.) ‘entbrennen lassen’
(Sadnik √206)
(OCS obętriti sę ‘brennen, hitzig sein’)
1. PIE *Π·intriɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *Π·intriíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·intriíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·intrií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·intrií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *Π·intrī́-
4. Π·intrī́-
*i n → ę
Emergence of nasal vowel ę
Rin›ę → *Π·ętrī́-
5. Π·ętrī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *Π·ętrí-
6. Π·ętrí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → OCS. Π·ętri-
OCS. ob·ętrja-
(vb.) ‘glühen’
(Sadnik √206)
(OCS. obętrjati)
1. PIE *Π·intri̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·intri̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·intri̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·intri̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·intri̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·intri̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·intri̯ā-
*i n → ę
Emergence of nasal vowel ę
Rin›ę → *Π·ętri̯ā-
5. Π·ętri̯ā-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *Π·ętrjā-
6. Π·ętrjā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OCS. Π·ętrja-
√inu-
Hitt. inu-
(vb.1.cs.) ‘warm/heiß machen; kochen’
(HIL. 199, HHand. 31, 62)
(Hitt. i-nu-uz-zi, i-nu-ut-te-en)
Hitt. inuške/a-
(cs.iter.) ‘warm/heiß machen; kochen’
(HIL. 199, HHand. 31)
(Hitt. i-nu-uš-ki/a-)
1. PIE *inuski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *inusḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. inusḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *inusḱe/a-
3. inusḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *inuske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. inuske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. inuške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. inu·taḫaba-
(URU.) “Zorn der Gottheit Tarupašani von I.”
(OGHErg. 51)
(Hitt. in-nu-ta-ḫa-pa[ [All])
√is-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. iš·anapi-
(c.) (ein Schmuckgegenstand aus Eisen [= iš-])
(HHand. 63)
(cf. Hitt. anapi- ‘unbekannte Substanz’)
1. PIE *is·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. iš·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Goth. eis·arn-
(n.) ‘Eisen: iron’
(GoEtD. E2.)
(Goth. eisarna [plA] Mrk 5,4 CA, eisarnam [plD] Mrk 5,4 CA; L.: HbGo. 27,1)
1. PIE *eis·Σ-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *īs·Σ-
2. īs·Σ-
*ī → ei
Orthographic change of *ī into ei
Rī›ei → Goth. eis·Σ-
Hitt. aiš-
(vb.) ‘to become hot (?)’
(HIL. 199)
(Hitt. a-i-iš-ša-an-zi [3pl])
1. PIE *ois-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ais-
2. ais-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aiš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √i- √oi- √ei- (vb.) ‘geben’
(IEW 10)
(Pyysalo)
√oi-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. ḫiz·ai-
(vb.) ‘aushändigen, anvertrauen (?)’
(HHand. 51)
(CLu. ḫi-iz-za-in-du [3pl], Laroche DLL. 46)
1. PIE *ɦɑigi̯·oi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦigi̯·oi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦigi̯·oi-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦij́·oi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦij́·oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦij́·ai-
4. ɦij́·ai-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *ɦiz·ai-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. ɦiz·ai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫiz·ai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
TochB. ay-
(pr.MA.) ‘give’ [LeToch1 174-5]
(DTochB. 100)
(TochB. ayītär [3sg], ayi-ne [3sg]
1. PIE *oi̯-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ai̯-
2. ai̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. ay-
TochB. āy-
(pr.A.) ‘give’
(DTochB. 100)
(TochB. āyu [1sg], ait [3sg], aiṃ [3sg])
1. PIE *ōi̯-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *āi̯-
2. āi̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. āy-
√ei-
√ioi-
√ior-
HLu. i̯ar-
(vb.) ‘stretch out, extend, put forth’
(CHLu. 3.3.9)
(HLu. (LONGUS)ia+ra/i-ta [3.3.9], ia+ra/i-ti-i [10.14.24])
1. PIE *i̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. i̯ar-
HLu. i̯ar·ari-
(I.c.) ‹with √(a)ri- = ‘(?)›
(CHLu. 2.22.1)
(HLu. i-a+ra/i-ri+i-i-sa)
1. PIE *i̯or·ori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. i̯ar·ari-
TochB. āyar-
(sb.) ‘‹≈ ‘gift, giving(?)’; see also Adams -›’
(DTochB. 47)
(TochB. ton āyarsa śwātsi yoktsi eneṃ taṣakke)
1. PIE *ōi̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōi̯ar-
2. ōi̯ar-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *āi̯ar-
3. āi̯ar-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. āyar-
√ioro-
HLu. i̯ara-
(.) ‘-(?)-; ‹uncertain›’
(CHLu. 2.24.11)
(HLu. ‘SCALPRUM’(-)i-ara/i-za [plD])
1. PIE *i̯oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. i̯ara-
CLu. i̯ara·ziti-
(I.c.*)
(NOMS. 434)
(in Hitt. ia-ar-LÚ-iš, Akd. ia-ra-LÚ)
1. PIE *i̯oro·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. i̯ara·Σ
Hitt. i̯ara·zalma-
(I.c.) (écuyer)
(NOMS. 433)
(Hitt. ia-ar-ra-za-al-ma(-aš))
1. PIE *i̯oro·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. i̯ara·Σ
Hitt. i̯ara·PABa-
(m.c.) (Sum. PAP ‘schützen, sichern’ = Hitt. paḫš-)
(NOMS. 430)
(Hitt. ia-ar-ra-PAB-aš)
1. PIE *i̯oro·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. i̯ara·Σ
√iori-
HLu. i̯ari-
(vb.) ‘extend’
(CHLu. 2.24.17)
(HLu. (‘LONGUS’)ia+ra/i-i-ha)
1. PIE *i̯ori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. i̯ari-
Hitt. i̯ari-
(m.c.) ‘auteur de rituel’’
(NOMS. 435)
(Hitt. ia-ar-ri)
1. PIE *i̯ori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. i̯ari-
Hitt. i̯ari
(d.) ‹cf. below›
(OHP. 1:178-81)
(Hitt. ia-ar-ri [Abs.], ia-ri-iš)
1. PIE *i̯ori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. i̯ari-
CLu. i̯ari-
(d.) ’a Luwian war god armed with bow’
(OHP. 1:178-81)
(CLu. ia-ar-ri-in [sgA])
1. PIE *i̯ori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. i̯ari-
CLu. ARHA·i̯ari̯a-
(vb.) ‘stretch out’
(CHLu. 2.11.3)
(HLu. (“LONGUS”)ia+ra/i-ia-ta)
1. PIE *Π·i̯ori̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. Π·i̯ari̯a-
CLu. i̯ari·ši-
(d.a.gen.)
(OHP. 1:178-81)
(CLu. ia-ar-ri-iš-ši-iš [N])
1. PIE *i̯ori·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *i̯ari·si-
2. i̯ari·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. i̯ari·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ioru-
CLu. i̯aru-
(vb.) ‘-(?)-,HHand. 59; ‹cf. above(?)›
(DLL. 50)
(CLu. ia-ru-un-ta [3pl])
1. PIE *i̯oru
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. i̯aru
√idɑɦi-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. kuš·iza-
(.) ‘= Akk. bi-ib-lu : Hochzeitgeschenk’
(Rieken 1999:258)
1. PIE *kus·idɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kus·idɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kus·idɦi̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *kus·ijɦo-
3. kus·ijɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kus·ijɦa-
4. kus·ijɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *kus·ija-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. kus·ija-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *kus·iza-
6. kus·iza-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. kuš·iza-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√iu-
TochB. āyu
(pret.pt.) ‘given’
(DTochB. 100)
1. PIE *ōi̯u-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *āi̯u-
2. āi̯u-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. āyu-
CLu. ḫiz·au-
(vb.) ‘aushändigen, anvertrauen (?)’
(HHand. 51)
(Laroche DLL. 46, ḫi-iz-za-ú-un-du [3pl])
1. PIE *ɦɑigi̯·oi̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦigi̯·oi̯u-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦigi̯·oi̯u-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦij́·oi̯u-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦij́·oi̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦij́·ai̯u-
4. ɦij́·ai̯u-
* ai̯u → au
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *u
Rai̯u›au → *ɦij́·au-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
5. ɦij́·au-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *ɦiz·au-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
6. ɦiz·au-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫiz·au-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√ieur-
(Pyysalo)
TochB. āyor
(.) ‘Gabe’
(DTochB. 100)
(TochB. āyormeṃ [sgAbl])
1. PIE *ōi̯our-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōi̯aur-
2. ōi̯aur-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *āi̯aur-
3. āi̯aur-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *āi̯ōr-
4. āi̯ōr-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *āi̯or-
5. āi̯or-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. āyor-
OGaul. ieur-
(pret.) ‘offer’
(DLG. 188f.)
(OGaul. ieuru [3sg], Alise, EtDiPC. 122)
1. PIE *i̯eur-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OGaul. ieur-
√iuoru-
Hitt. iu̯aru-
(n.) ‘Erbschaft, Mitgift, Geschenk’
(HEG 1:454-6)
(HiuIdg. 55, Weitenberg 1984:445, Rieken 1999:354, HHand. 68)
1. PIE *iu̯oru-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. iu̯aru-
Hitt. iu̯aru̯ai-
(vb.) ‘beschenken, verleihen’
(HHand. 68)
(Oettinger 1979:33)
1. PIE *iu̯oru̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. iu̯aru̯ai-
Hitt. iu̯aru̯ali-
(c.) ‘ein Funktionär’
(HHand. 68)
1. PIE *iu̯oru̯oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. iu̯aru̯ali-


PIE √i- (vb.) ‘sein’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√oi-
Pal. ai-
(pr.1.A.) ‘sein’
(HHand. 12)
(Pal. ai ‘sei!’ [Imp2sg])
1. PIE *oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. ai-
Hitt. ap·ai-
(vb.2.) ‘fertig sein, zu Ende sein’
(HHand. 18)
1. PIE *op·oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ap·ai-
CLu. aa-
(vb.) ‘sein’ ‹thus not †aa‹s›du(!?)›’
(KBo IX 145 11-12)
(CLu. URUDU-is /tarm/is 3-su 9-un aadu huw[a- 12 /tarminzi/ 3-su 9-un aadu)
1. PIE *oi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ai̯a-
2. ai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → CLu. aa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
√eio-
Hitt. ap·ei̯a-
(vb.2.) ‘fertig sein, zu Ende sein’
(HHand. 18)
1. PIE *Π·ei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·ei̯a-
CLu. kuanzun·ei̯a-
(vb.) ‘schwer sein, niedergedrückt sein’
(HHand. 88)
1. PIE *Π·ei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. Π·ei̯a-
Hitt. laḫlaḫ·ei̯a-
(vb.1.M.) ‘erregt/ängstlich sein, sich sorgen’
(HEG 2:13)
1. PIE *Π·ei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·ei̯a-
Hitt. laz·ei̯a-
(vb.M.) ‘günstig sein’
(HEG 2:49)
1. PIE *Π·ei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·ei̯a-
Hitt. zap·ei̯a-
(vb.M.) ‘undicht sein, tropfen, lecken’
(HIL. 1193)
1. PIE *Π·ei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·ei̯a-
Lat. hūm·eo-
(vb.) ‘feucht sein’
(WH. 2:815)
(Lat. hūmeō)
1. PIE *Π·ei̯o-
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
Rei̯o›eo → Lat. Π·eo-
Lat. sil·eo-
(pr.2.) ‘to be silent’
(Lat. sileō)
1. PIE *Π·ei̯o-
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
Rei̯o›eo → Lat. Π·eo-
Lat. sol·eo-
(pr.2.) ‘gewohnt sein, pflegen’
(Lat. soleō)
1. PIE *Π·ei̯o-
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
Rei̯o›eo → Lat. Π·eo-
Lat. sord·eo-
(vb.2.) ‘schmutzig sein’
(WH. 2:562)
(Lat. sordeō
1. PIE *Π·ei̯o-
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
Rei̯o›eo → Lat. Π·eo-
Lat. alb·eo-
(vb.) ‘to be white : weiß sein’
(Lat. albeō)
1. PIE *Π·ei̯o-
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
Rei̯o›eo → Lat. Π·eo-
Lat. au·eo-
(pr.2.) ‘gegrüßt sein’
(Lat. auē, auētō, auēte)
1. PIE *Π·ei̯o-
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
Rei̯o›eo → Lat. Π·eo-
√i-
Goth. i-
(pr.) ‘to be’
(GoEtD. I15.)
(Goth. im [1sg])
Hitt. imba·i-
(vb.fient.) bekümmert sein’
(HEG 1:6)
(EHS 477)
1. PIE *imbɑɦo·i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *imbɦo·i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. imbɦo·i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *imbɦa·i-
3. imbɦa·i-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. imba·i-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lyd. Π·i-
(vb.) ‘sein’
(LydWb. 100)
(Lyd. ·im [1sg]; Not from †esmi as Goth. im, vs. Gusmani 1971:1-7)
√is-
Hitt. ieš-
(s.ao.) ‘sein’
(HIL. 295)
(Hitt. i-eš-zi [3sg], [KUB 34.114 rev. 5])
1. PIE *ies-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ieš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. ἰσ-
(s.ao.) ‘sein’
(LSJ. 837)
(Gr. ἰσθι [2sg])
1. PIE *is-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἰσ-
Pal. iške/a-
(dur.) ‘immer sein’
(DPal. 57)
(Pal. iš-ka [2sg])
1. PIE *iski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *isḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. isḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *isḱe/a-
3. isḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *iske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. iske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Pal. iške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. imba·iške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘bekümmert ‹imba-› sein’
(HHand. 61)
1. PIE *imbɑɦo·iski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *imbɦo·iski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. imbɦo·iski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *imbɦo·isḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. imbɦo·isḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *imbɦa·isḱe/a-
4. imbɦa·isḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *imbɦa·iske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. imbɦa·iske/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *imba·iske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. imba·iske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. imba·iške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Arm. icʼe-
(vb.) ‘sein’
(IEW 341)
(Arm. icʼem ‘daß ich sei’)
1. PIE *iski̯e-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *isće-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. isće-
*sć → cʼ
Change of sć into cʼ
Rsć›cʼ → Arm. icʼe-


PIE √i- (vb.A.) ‘machen; causative suffix’ (vb.MP.) ‘(gemacht) werden’
(IEW –)
(Holma 1916 + Schmitt-Brandt 1967:129)
√oi-
LycA. ai-
(vb.) ‘machen’
(DLycLg. 2)
(Lyc. aiti [3pl], aitẽ [pret3pl])
1. PIE *oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → LycA. ai-
Gr. Π·όο-
(cs.A.) ‘Π machen’ (cs.M.) ‘Π werden’
(GEW 2:109)
(Gr. leukόω, leukóomai XX)
1. PIE *Π·ói̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *Π·óo-
2. Π·óo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·όο-
CLu. aa-
(vb.) ‘machen’
(DLL. 23-24)
(CLu. a-a-du [3sg?], a-a-ta [3sg]
1. PIE *oi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ai̯a-
2. ai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → CLu. aa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
√ei-
Hitt. ei-
(vb.) ‘machen : DÙ : perform’
(HEG 2:338-43)
(Hitt. e-it [3sg] ‘perform’ EZEN4, HED I:335-347)
Gr. Π·έο-
(cs.suff.) ‘machen’
(XX:XX)
(Gr. Π·έω in etc.)
1. PIE *Π·éi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *Π·éo-
2. Π·éo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·έο-
√i-
Lyd. i-
(vb.) ‘machen’ (?)
(LydWb. 128-129)
(Lyd. il [pret3])
√io-
OHitt. i̯a-
(vb.1.A.) ‘DÙ : machen’
(HEG I:338-343)
(OHitt. ia-az-zi, ia-an-zi, HIL. 442, HED e/i : 335f.)
1. PIE *i̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OHitt. i̯a-
TochA. ya-
(vb.) ‘facere’
(Poucha 235-7)
(TochA. yatär [3sg], yatsi [inf.])
1. PIE *i̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *i̯a-
2. i̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochA. ya-
√ie-
Hitt. i̯e-
(vb.) ‘machen, tun’
(HIL. 442)
(Hitt. i-e-mi [1sg], i-en-zi [3pl])
√oiio-
HLu. ai̯a-
(vb.) ‘make’
(CHLu. 10.14.25)
(HLu. á-ia-ti-i)
1. PIE *oii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aii̯a-
2. aii̯a-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *aia-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. aia-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → HLu. ai̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
CLu. ai̯a·mi-
(pt.) ‘gemacht, hergestellt’
(HHand2: 12)
(CLu. aiammi-)
1. PIE *oii̯o·mi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aii̯a·mi-
2. aii̯a·mi-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *aia·mi-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. aia·mi-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → CLu. ai̯a·mi-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
HLu. ai̯a·mi-
(pt.) ‘‹gemacht(?), cf. above(?)›’
(CHLu. 3.6.1)
(HLu. ...]á-ia-mi-i-sá)
1. PIE *oii̯o·mi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aii̯a·mi-
2. aii̯a·mi-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *aia·mi-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. aia·mi-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → HLu. ai̯a·mi-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
√ii-
Lyd. i.i-
(vb.) ‘machen, unternehmen’ (?)
(LydWb. 131-2)
(Lyd. iit·λ)
Pal. ii̯a-
(vb.) ‘machen’
(DasPal. 57)
(Pal. i-ia-ti [3sg])
1. PIE *ii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. ii̯a-
Hitt. ii̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘machen, tun’
(HHand. 59)
(Hitt. i-ia-zi [3sg], i-ia-an-zi [3pl])
1. PIE *ii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ii̯a-
√iu- √ieu- √iou-
OIcl. ivasan-
(f.) ‘Beschäftigung, Tätigkeit (Lat. negotium)’
(XX:XX)
[Historia Ecclesiastica Islandiae i. 255]
1. PIE *iu̯osonēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *iu̯osonāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. iu̯osonāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *iu̯osonāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. iu̯osonāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *iu̯osonā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. iu̯osonā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *iu̯asanā
5. iu̯asanā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *iu̯asanō
(XX:XX)
6. iu̯asanō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *iu̯asana
7. iu̯asana
*-a -u
Change of root final -a into -u
R=a›=u → *iu̯asanu
8. iu̯asanu
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *ivasanu
9. ivasanu
*-u → Ø
Loss of -u in root-final position
R=u›=0 → OIcl. ivasan


PIE √i- √ei- √oi- (vb.) ‘gehen’
(IEW 293ff.)
√i-
CLu. i-
(vb.) ‘aller: gehen’
(DLL. 50)
(CLu. i-ti [3sg], i-du [3sg])
HLu. i-
(PES2vb.) ‘to go’
(CHLu. 62)
(HLu. (PES2)i-tú-u[... [3pers], (PES2)i-ha, “PES2”i-tà)
Pal. i-
(vb.) ‘gehen’
(Melchert 1994:199)
(Pal. iwini [1pl])
Hitt. i-
(vb.) ‘gehen’
(HEG I:335)
(Hitt. i-it [ipv2sg], HIL. 435)
√iio-
(HEG i:343ff.)
Hitt. ii̯a-
(vb.M.) ‘to go, come, walk, proceed, stide, march’
(HIL. 441)
(Hitt. i-ia-aḫ-ḫa-ri [1sg], i-ia-at-ta, i-ia-at-ta-ri [3sg], )
1. PIE *ii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ii̯a-
CLu. ii̯a-
(vb.A.) ‘aller: gehen’
(DLL. 50)
(CLu. i-ia-an-du [3pl])
1. PIE *ii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ii̯a-
√iiono-
Hitt. ii̯ana-
(vb.dur.) ‘gehen, marschieren’
(HHand. 60)
(Hitt. i-ia-an-na-aḫ-ḫ[é], i-ia-an-na-ai)
1. PIE *ii̯ono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ii̯ana-
Pal. ii̯ana-
(vb.) ‘gehen, marschieren’
(DPal. 57)
(Pal. i-ia-an-na-i [3pers.])
1. PIE *ii̯ono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. ii̯ana-
√iiont-
LinB. ιjοντ-
(pt.) ‘gehend’
(DMycGr. 349)
(LinB. i-jo-te = Gr. ἰόντες)
1. PIE *ii̯ont-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *ijont-
2. ijont-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. jοντ-
Gr. ἰόντ-
(pr.pt.) ‘gehend’
(GrGr. 1:525)
(Gr. ἰών, ἰόντες)
1. PIE *ii̯ónt-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *iónt-
2. iónt-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἰόντ-
Hitt. ii̯ant-
(pt.) ‘gehend’
(HIL. 441)
(Hitt. i-ia-an-t-)
1. PIE *ii̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ii̯ant-
Hitt. ii̯ant-
(UDU.c.) ‘Schaf ‹if ≈ ›πρόβατον’›
(HIL. 440)
(Hitt. UDU i-ia-an-za [N], i-ia-an-ta-an [A], i-ia-an-ta-aš [G])
1. PIE *ii̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ii̯ant-
√ikiu-
LinB. ἰϙο-
(m.) ‘horse’
(GEW 1:733)
(LinB. i-qo)
1. PIE *ikiu̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *iḱu̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. iḱu̯o-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *iku̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. iku̯o-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. ἰϙο-
Hitt. šar·iku̯a-
(LÚ/ÉRINc.) ‘cf. Gr. hamippoi (light cavalry support troops)’
(HHand. 145)
1. PIE *sor·ikiu̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sor·iḱu̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. sor·iḱu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sar·iḱu̯a-
3. sar·iḱu̯a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sar·iku̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sar·iku̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šar·iku̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√iu-
Lat. īu-
(pf.) ‘gehen, usw.’
(Lat. īuī [1sg])
1. PIE *eiu̯-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *īu̯-
2. īu̯-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. īu-
Pal. i̯u-
(pr.1.) ‘gehen’ or ‘kommen (?)’
(HHand. 68)
(Pal. i-ú [ipv2sg])
HLu. iu-
(vb.sb.) ‘to go’
(CHLu. 1.1.34)
(HLu. (“PES2”)i-u-na [inf.])
RV. ā·yú-
(a.) ‘beweglich, wandernd’ (m.) ‘Wanderer’
(WbRV. 182)
1. PIE *Π·i̯ú-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·yú-
√iuo-
RV. éva-
(m.) ‘die Rosse, Gang, Weg’
(WbRV. 302)
(KEWA 1:129)
1. PIE *eíu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eíu̯a-
2. eíu̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *aíu̯a-
3. aíu̯a-
aí → ḗ
Monophthongization of *aí
Raí›ḗ → *ḗu̯a-
4. ḗu̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *ḗva-
5. ḗva-
ḗ → é
Change of ḗ into é
Rḗ›é → RV. éva-
RV. éva-
(a.) ‘eilend, rasch’
(WbRV. 302)
(KEWA 1:129)
1. PIE *eíu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eíu̯a-
2. eíu̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *aíu̯a-
3. aíu̯a-
aí → ḗ
Monophthongization of *aí
Raí›ḗ → *ḗu̯a-
4. ḗu̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *ḗva-
5. ḗva-
ḗ → é
Change of ḗ into é
Rḗ›é → RV. éva-
Hitt. šar·iu̯a-
(LÚ/ÉRIN.c.) ‘cf. Gr. hamippoi (light cavalry support troops)’
(HHand. 145)
1. PIE *sor·iu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sar·iu̯a-
2. sar·iu̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šar·iu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šar·iu̯anda-
(LÚ.c.) ‘cf. above’
(NOMS. 1120)
(in Akd. ša-ri-ua-an-da)
1. PIE *sor·iu̯ondɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sor·iu̯ondɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sor·iu̯ondɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sar·iu̯andɦa-
3. sar·iu̯andɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *sar·iu̯anda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. sar·iu̯anda-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šar·iu̯anda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √i- (vb.) ‘wünschen, begehren, erlangen’
(IEW –)
√il-
(IEW 501 [Celtic])
(Pyysalo: Anat. + Lat.)
Pal. ila-
(c.) ‘Sehnsucht, Begehren ?, HHand. 60’
(DPal. 57)
(Pal. i-la-aš)
1. PIE *ilo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. ila-
√iloli-
Hitt. ilali-
(d.) ‘-(?)-’
(OHP. 1:181)
(Hitt. i-la-li-iš [N])
1. PIE *iloli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ilali-
HLu. ilali-
(.) ‘Ilali-’
(CHLu. 10.22.1)
(HLu. i-la?-li-sa4)
1. PIE *iloli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ilali-
Kpd. ilali·alka-
(LÚ.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 444)
(Kpd. i-lá-le-al-ga)
1. PIE *iloli·olko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Kpd. ilali·alka-
Kpd. ilali·elka-
(LÚ.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 444)
(Kpd. i-lá-le-el-ga)
1. PIE *iloli·elko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Kpd. ilali·elka-
Hitt. ilali·ške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘begehren, wünschen’
(HHand. 60)
1. PIE *iloli·ski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *iloli·sḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. iloli·sḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ilali·sḱe/a-
3. ilali·sḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *ilali·ske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. ilali·ske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ilali·ške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Kpd. ilali·ška-
(LÚ.c.) ‘cf. above’
(NOMS. 445)
(Kpd. e/i-lá-li-iš-ga/kán)
1. PIE *iloli·ski̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *iloli·sḱo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. iloli·sḱo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ilali·sḱa-
3. ilali·sḱa-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *ilali·ska-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. ilali·ska-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Kpd. ilali·ška-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ilali·uma-
(LÚ.c.) ‘officier du palais’
(NOMS. 446)
(in Akd. i-la-li-u(-um)-ma)
1. PIE *iloli·umo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ilali·uma-
Hitt. ilali·uma-
(LÚ.c.) ‘autre’
(NOMS. 466)
(in Akd. i-la-a-li-u-ma)
1. PIE *iloli·umo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ilali·uma-
√ilolio-
Hitt. ilali̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘begehren, wünschen’
(HHand. 60)
1. PIE *iloli̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ilali̯a-
Kpd. ilali̯a-
(LÚ.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 442)
(Kpd. i-lá-li-a)
1. PIE *iloli̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Kpd. ilali̯a-
Kpd. ilali̯a·ḫšu-
(LÚ.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 443)
(Kpd. i-lá-li(-a)-aḫ-šu)
1. PIE *iloli̯o·hɑsu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *iloli̯o·hsu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. iloli̯o·hsu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ilali̯a·hsu-
3. ilali̯a·hsu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ilali̯a·hšu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ilali̯a·hšu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Kpd. ilali̯a·ḫšu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ilali̯and-
(d.) ‘DPal. 57, GhR. 381, 468, 483, 611-2’
(OHP. 1:182-3)
(Hitt. i-la-a-li-ia-an-du-uš [plA])
1. PIE *iloli̯ondɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *iloli̯ondɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. iloli̯ondɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ilali̯andɦ-
3. ilali̯andɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ilali̯and-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Pal. ilali̯and-
(d.) ‘RDH. 71, 74, Otten 1976-80 RIA 5:48-9, REL. 88-89, 113-4’
(OHP. 1:182-3)
(Pal. i-la-li-ia-an-ta-aš, [i-l]a-li-an-te-eš)
1. PIE *iloli̯ondɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *iloli̯ondɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. iloli̯ondɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ilali̯andɦ-
3. ilali̯andɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Pal. ilali̯and-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Pal. ilali̯and·ig-
(d.) ‘an 4. Position des pal. Pantheons’
(OHP. 1:182-3)
(Pal. i-la-li-an-ti-qa, i-la-li-an-ti-ke-eš)
1. PIE *iloli̯ondɑɦ·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *iloli̯ondɦ·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. iloli̯ondɦ·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ilali̯andɦ·Σ-
3. ilali̯andɦ·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Pal. ilali̯and·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√iōle/o-
Cymr. iawl-
(.) ‘Gebot, Lob’
(Cymr. iawl [sgN])
1. PIE *i̯ōlo
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *i̯ālo
2. i̯ālo
*ā -› aw
Change of ā into aw
Rā›aw → *i̯awlo
3. i̯awlo
*-o → -Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R=o›=0 → *i̯awl
4. i̯awl
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Cymr. iawl
OIr. āili-
(vb.) ‘eifrig wünschen, erbitten, erflehen’
(DIL. 16, LEIA A-31)
(OIr. áilid [3sg])
1. PIE *i̯ṓle-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *i̯ā́le-
2. i̯ā́le-
ā́le -› ā́ile
Epenthesis ā́le -› ā́ile
Rā́le›ā́ile → *i̯ā́ile-
3. i̯ā́ile-
R=e-›=i- → *i̯ā́ili-
4. i̯ā́ili-
i̯V -› V
Loss of *i̯ in word-initial
Ri̯=›0= → *ā́ili-
5. ā́ili-
Rā́›ā → OIr. āili-
√iolo-
(Pyysalo 2015)
Lat. har·iolo-
(m.) ‘Wahr·sager’
(Lat. hariolus [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·i̯olo-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. Π·iolo-
√iolɑh-
OBret. iola-
(vb.) ‘precentur’
(LEIA A-31)
(OBret. iolent [conj3pl])
1. PIE *i̯olēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *i̯olāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. i̯olāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *i̯olāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. i̯olāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *i̯olā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. i̯olā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *i̯ola-
5. i̯ola-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OBret. iola-
Cymr. iola-
(vb.) ‘ich lobe, preise’
(Cymr. iolaf [1sg])
1. PIE *i̯olēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *i̯olāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. i̯olāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *i̯olāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. i̯olāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *i̯olā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. i̯olā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *i̯ola-
5. i̯ola-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Cymr. iola-
Cymr. eir.iola·-
(vb.) ‘dringlich bitten’
(Cymr. eiriolaf [1sg])
1. PIE *Π.i̯olēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π.i̯olāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π.i̯olāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π.i̯olāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π.i̯olāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π.i̯olā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π.i̯olā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *Π.i̯ola-
5. Π.i̯ola-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Cymr. Π.iola·-
Lat. har.iolā·-
(pr.M.) ‘wahr·sagen’
(Lat. hariolor [1sg])
1. PIE *Π.i̯olēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π.i̯olāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π.i̯olāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π.i̯olāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π.i̯olāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π.i̯olā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π.i̯olā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. Π.iolā·-


PIE √i- √oi- √ei- (a.) ‘böse’
(IEW 307)
√oi-
(HEG 1:5)
(HED 1/2:366f.)
Hitt. ai-
(n.) ‘das Leid, das Weh’
(HEG I:5)
(HHand. 11)
1. PIE *oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ai-
Hitt. ai-
(c.) ‘das Ach’
(HEG I:5-6)
1. PIE *oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ai-
Hitt. ai
(intj.) ‘ach!, weh!’ (Wehruf)
(HEG 1:5-6)
1. PIE *oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ai-
√il- √eil- √oil-
(IEW 310)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + TochB.)
Hitt. ila-
(c.) ‘Art Krankheit’
(HEG I:353)
(Hitt. i-la-as [sgN])
1. PIE *ilo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ila-
Hitt. ilaa-
(c.) ‘Art Krankheit’
(HEG I:353)
(Hitt. i-la-a-an [sgA])
1. PIE *iloi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ilai̯a-
2. ilai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → Hitt. ilaa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
TochB. elyeñcai-
(a.) ‘doing ill (to someone) (?)’
(DTochB. 96)
1. PIE *oili̯ointi̯ōi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aili̯ainti̯ōi-
2. aili̯ainti̯ōi-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *aili̯ainti̯āi-
3. aili̯ainti̯āi-
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›c → *aili̯aincāi-
4. aili̯aincāi-
*nc → ñc
Palatalization of *n before c
Rnc›ñc → *aili̯aiñcāi-
5. aili̯aiñcāi-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *ēli̯ēñcāi-
6. ēli̯ēñcāi-
āi → ai
Orthographic change of āi into ai
Rāi›ai → *ēli̯ēñcai-
7. ēli̯ēñcai-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *eli̯eñcai-
8. eli̯eñcai-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. elyeñcai-
OIcl. ill-
(a.) ‘schlecht, böse’
(ANEtWb. 285)
(OIcl. illr [sgN])
1. PIE *ilno
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ilna
2. ilna
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *iln
3. iln
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → OIcl. ill
OIcl. illa-
(vb.) ‘tadeln, klage führen’
(ANEtWb. 285)
1. PIE *ilno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ilna-
2. ilna-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → OIcl. illa-


PIE √i- √ei- √oi- (vb.) ‘wachsen’
(IEW 297-8)
√eio-
Hitt. ei̯a-
(GIŠ.n.) ‘immergrüner Baum: yew?, HIL. 278’
(HEG I:102)
(Hitt. e-ia, e-i-e [plNA], e-ia-aš)
1. PIE *ei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ei̯a-
Kpd. ei̯a·niga-
(f.a) ‘Daughter of Three (a nymph)’
(LPG 137-8)
1. PIE *ei̯o·nigɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ei̯o·nigɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ei̯o·nigɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ei̯a·nigɦa-
3. ei̯a·nigɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Kpd. ei̯a·niga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√eion-
Hitt. ei̯an-
(n.) ‘an evergreen tree, yew, juniper ?’
(HIL. 278)
(Hitt. e-a-an . e-ia-an [NA], e-ia-na-aš [sgG], e-ia-ni, e-a-ni)
1. PIE *ei̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ei̯an-
Hitt. ei̯anan-
(n.) ‘an evergreen tree’ (‘yew’ ?)
(HIL. 278)
)Hitt. eianan-)
1. PIE *ei̯onon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ei̯anan-
√eieɑh-
Mess. eia-
(GN.f.) ‘from Pola & Nesactium’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *ei̯eɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *ei̯aɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. ei̯aɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ei̯ah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ei̯ah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Mess. ei̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Gr. μηλ·έα-
(f.) ‘apple-tree (Pyrus malus)’
(GEW 2:226)
1. PIE *Π·éi̯eɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *Π·éi̯aɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. Π·éi̯aɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·éi̯ah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·éi̯ah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·éi̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·éi̯a-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *Π·éa-
5. Π·éa-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·έα-
Gr. κιτρ·έα-
(f.) ‘Zitronat-baum’
(GEW 1:860-1)
1. PIE *Π·éi̯eɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *Π·éi̯aɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. Π·éi̯aɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·éi̯ah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·éi̯ah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·éi̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·éi̯a-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *Π·éa-
5. Π·éa-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·έα-
√oiēɑh-
Dor. ὄᾱ-
(f.) ‘Sperberbaum, Vogelbeerbaum’
(GEW 2:343)
(Dor. ὄα)
1. PIE *ói̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ói̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ói̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ói̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ói̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ói̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ói̯ā-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *óā-
5. óā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. ὄᾱ-
Att. ὄη-
(f.) ‘Sperberbaum, Vogelbeerbaum’
(GEW 2:343)
(Att.-Ion. ὄη)
1. PIE *ói̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ói̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ói̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ói̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ói̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ói̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ói̯ā-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *óā-
5. óā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
Rā›ē → *óē-
6. óē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Att. ὄη-
√eihɑu-
OEng. īw-
(n.) ‘yew tree, taxus’ (es)
(ASaxD. 602)
(OEng. īw)
1. PIE *eihɑu̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eihu̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eihu̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *eiu̯o
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. eiu̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eiu̯a
4. eiu̯a
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *īu̯a
5. īu̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *īu̯
6. īu̯
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OEng. īw
Lith. ievà-
(f.) ‘Faul-baum: bird-cherry’
(LiEtWb. 183)
(Lith. ievà [sgN])
1. PIE *eihɑu̯ḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *eihɑu̯ā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. eihɑu̯ā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eihu̯ā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. eihu̯ā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *eiu̯ā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. eiu̯ā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *eiu̯ṓ
(XX:XX)
5. eiu̯ṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → *eiu̯à
6. eiu̯à
*ei -> ie
Change of *ei into ie
Rei›ie → *ieu̯à
7. ieu̯à
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. ievà
Latv. iva-
(f.) ‘Faul-baum: bird-cherry’
(HIL. 278)
1. PIE *eihɑu̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *eihɑu̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. eihɑu̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eihu̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. eihu̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *eiu̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. eiu̯ā
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *eivā
5. eivā
*ei -> ie
Change of *ei into ie
Rei›ie → *ievā
6. ievā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → Latv. ieva
Russ. íva-
(f.) ‘Weide’
(REW 1:467)
(Russ. íva [sgN])
1. PIE *eíhɑu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *eíhɑu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. eíhɑu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eíhu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. eíhu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *eíu̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. eíu̯ā-
*eí → ī́
Monophthongization of *eí into ī́
Reí›ī́ → *ī́u̯ā-
5. ī́u̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *ī́vā-
6. ī́vā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *ī́va-
7. ī́va-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → Russ. íva-
OHG. īwa
(f.) ‘Eibe: jew : taxus’
(XX:XX)
OHG. īwa
1. PIE *eihɑu̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *eihɑu̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. eihɑu̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eihu̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. eihu̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *eiu̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. eiu̯ā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *eiu̯ō
(XX:XX)
5. eiu̯ō
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *īu̯ō
6. īu̯ō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *īu̯a
7. īu̯a
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. īwa
OCS. iva-
(f.) ‘Eibe, Salweide’
(Sadnik √XX)
OCS. iva
1. PIE *eihɑu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *eihɑu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. eihɑu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eihu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. eihu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *eiu̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. eiu̯ā-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *īu̯ā-
5. īu̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *īvā-
6. īvā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *īva-
7. īva-
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. iva-
√oihɑuēɑh-
Dor. οἴᾱ-
(f.) ‘Sperberbaum, Vogelbeerbaum’
(GEW 2:343)
(Dor. oἴα)
1. PIE *oíhɑu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *oíhɑu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. oíhɑu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oíhu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. oíhu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oíu̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. oíu̯ā-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *oíā-
5. oíā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. οἴᾱ-
Att. οἴη-
(f.) ‘Sperberbaum, Vogelbeerbaum’
(GEW 2:343)
(Att. οἴη)
1. PIE *oíhɑu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *oíhɑu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. oíhɑu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oíhu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. oíhu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oíu̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. oíu̯ā-
ā –> ē (Att)
Attican change of ā –› ē
Rā›ēAtt → *oíu̯ē-
5. oíu̯ē-
*u̯E → hE
Change of u̯ into h before e,é,ē,ḗ
Ru̯E›hE → *oíhē-
6. oíhē-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *oíē-
7. oíē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Att. οἴη-
Lat. ūuā-
(f.) ‘Traube’
(WH. 2:849)
(Lat. ūva [sgN])
1. PIE *oihɑu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *oihɑu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. oihɑu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oihu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. oihu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oiu̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. oiu̯ā-
*oi → ē
Monophthongization of *oi into ū
Roi›ū → *ūu̯ā-
5. ūu̯ā-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. ūuā-
√iio-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. tiuar·ii̯a-
(GIŠn.) ‘soleil (plante): Kraut des Sonnengottes’
(DLL. 98)
(CLu. ti-ua-ri-ia [plNA] = dUTU-aš uelku’)
1. PIE *tiu̯or·ii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. tiu̯ar·ii̯a-
Gr. κίτρ·ιο-
(n.) ‘Zitronat·baum’
(GEW 2:860)
(Gr. κίτριον [sgNA])
1. PIE *Π·ii̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *Π·io-
2. Π·io-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·ιο-
√iiodɑɦ-
(Eichner 1973 [MSS 31]: 77)
(Eichner correctly connects Hitt. iiadar to Hitt. eia-)
Kpd. iiad·alka-
(f.) ‘fertile bough(?)’
(LuPG 137-8)
(Kpd. iatalka)
1. PIE *ii̯odɑɦ·olko-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ii̯odɦ·olko-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ii̯odɦ·olko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ii̯adɦ·alka-
3. ii̯adɦ·alka-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Kpd. ii̯ad·alka-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ii̯ada-
(n.) ‘Üppigkeit: growth, fertility, prosperity’
(HHand. 60)
(Hitt. i-ia-a-ta, i-ia-a-da, i-ia-ta, i-ra-da, i-ia-ta-aš)
1. PIE *ii̯odɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ii̯odɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ii̯odɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ii̯adɦa-
3. ii̯adɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ii̯ada-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. ii̯ada-
(.) ‘-(?)-’
(DLL. 50)
(CLu. i-ia-da)
1. PIE *ii̯odɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ii̯odɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ii̯odɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ii̯adɦa-
3. ii̯adɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. ii̯ada-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. iiadn-
(n.) ‘Fülle, Überfluß; (hohe) Qualität’
(HHand. 60)
(Hitt. i-ia-at-na-aš, i-ia-at-na, i-ia-at-na-za)
1. PIE *ii̯odɑɦn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ii̯odɦn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ii̯odɦn-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ii̯adɦn-
3. ii̯adɦn-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ii̯adn-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. iiadniant-
(pt.) ‘kultiviert, wachsend’
(HHand. 60)
(Hitt. i-ia-at-ni-ia-an [N], i-ia-at-ni-ia-an-da-aš [plDL])
1. PIE *ii̯odɑɦneiant-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ii̯odɦneiant-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ii̯odɦneiant-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ii̯adɦneiant-
3. ii̯adɦneiant-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ii̯adneiant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. iiadnuant-
(a.) ‘üppig : growing, luxuriant’
(HHand. 60)
(Hitt. i-ia-at-nu-ua-an [N])
1. PIE *ii̯odɑɦnuant-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ii̯odɦnuant-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ii̯odɦnuant-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ii̯adɦnuant-
3. ii̯adɦnuant-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ii̯adnuant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. iiadar-
(n.) ‘Fülle, Überfluß; (hohe) Qualität’
(HHand. 60)
(Hitt. i-ia-tar)
1. PIE *ii̯odɑɦor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ii̯odɦor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ii̯odɦor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ii̯adɦar-
3. ii̯adɦar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ii̯adar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ipiio-
Hitt. ipii̯a-
() ((GIŠ/Ú)c.) ‘eine Pflanze, die Frucht traben/Dolden trägt’
(HHand. 32, 62)
(Hitt. ippiya-, eppiya-)
1. PIE *ipii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ipii̯a-
CLu. ipii̯a-
(n.) ‘eine Pflanze, Eibe (?)’
(HHand. 62)
(CLu. ippia-)
1. PIE *ipii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ipii̯a-
Hitt. ipii̯a-
(EZEN.) ‘ipia-Fest’
(HHand. 62)
(Hitt. EZEN4 ippiyaš [sgG])
1. PIE *ipii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ipii̯a-
Hitt. ipii̯anza-
(SAR.) ‘eine Arzneipflanze’
(HHand. 62)
(Hitt. ippianzan)
1. PIE *ipii̯ondɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ipii̯ondɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ipii̯ondɦi̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *ipii̯onjɦo-
3. ipii̯onjɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ipii̯anjɦa-
4. ipii̯anjɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ipii̯anja-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ipii̯anja-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. ipii̯anza-
√iodɑɦ-
(Pyysalo)
OHG. jata-
(f.?) ‘Jäteisen (?): weeding hoe’
(Gl. 11. Cent.)
1. PIE *i̯odɑɦēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *i̯odɑɦāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. i̯odɑɦāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *i̯odɦāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. i̯odɦāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *i̯odɦā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. i̯odɦā
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *i̯odā
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. i̯odā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *i̯adā
6. i̯adā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *i̯adō
(XX:XX)
7. i̯adō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *i̯ada
8. i̯ada
*d → t
OHG sound shift of *d
Rd›tHG → *i̯ata
9. i̯ata
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → OHG. jata
Kpd. iada·alka-
() ((f.)c.) ‘herb-bough’
(NOMS. 440)
(Kpd. i-a-ta-al-ga)
1. PIE *i̯odɑɦo·olko-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *i̯odɦo·olko-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. i̯odɦo·olko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *i̯adɦa·alka-
3. i̯adɦa·alka-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Kpd. i̯ada·alka-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √i- (prep./pref.) ‘zu, in’
(IEW 311-312)
√i-
Hitt. i·teišai-
(vb.) ‘vor Gericht bringen (?)’
(HHand. 68)
(Hitt. ittišai-, ‹cf. Lith. teĩsti ‘be-, ver- urteilen’, Latv. tìesa ‘Recht, Urteil; Gericht’, etc.›
RV. í·nakṣa-
(pr.) ‘zu erreichen suchen, er-, an, hinstreben’
(WbRV. 212)
(RV. ínakṣasi [2sg])
RV. i·yav·raj-
(a.) ‘mit dem Zurüsten (des Gottesdienes) beschäftig’
(WbRV. 219)
RV. i·ṣidh-
(f.) ‘Darbringung, Gabe’
(WbRV. 226)
Arm. y·amsean
(adv.) ‘in the month’
(ArmGr. 417)
(Arm. amis ‘Monat’, (y)amsean [sgGDLoc], EtDiArm. 47)
1. PIE *i̯·Σ
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → Arm. y·Σ
Arm. y·awelu-
(vb.) ‘hinzu-fügen’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *i̯·Σ
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → Arm. y·Σ
Arm. y·ang
(adv.) ‘(at/to) end’
(IHArm. 90)
1. PIE *i̯·Σ
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → Arm. y·Σ
√in-
Dor. ἰν·αλαλισ-
(pf.) ‘engrave, inscribe’
(LSJ. 553)
(Cypr. ἰν·αλαλισμένα)
1. PIE *in·Σ
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. ἰν·Σ
Lith. ·iñ
(prep.pref.) ‘in, an, auf, zu, nach’
(LiEtWb. 181)
LAv. ·inǰa-
(adv.) ‘zurück’ (cf. LAv. tinǰa)
(AIWb. 367)
Hitt. in·galau̯a-
(URU.) ‘Feldzug gegen das Land Azi; ‹cf. taua·galaua-›
(OGH. 141)
(Hitt. in-ga-la-ua, In I. nahm ich den Vorbeimarsch der Fußtruppen, der Wagenkämpfer ab’)
CLu. in·taḫa-
(.) ‘-(?)- HHand. 62; ›cf. HLu. taḫa- ‘altar (?)’›’
(DLL. 51)
(CLu. i-in-ta-ḫa)
Hitt. in·taluzi-
(c./n.) ‘Schaufel’
(HHand. 62)
Hitt. in·dana-
(GADA.c.) (ein Tuch oder Kleid) ‹cf. dedana-›
(HHand. 62)
Hitt. in·dani-
(TÚG.c.) (ein Tuch oder Kleid)
(HHand. 62)
Hitt. in·zaluḫa-
(UR]U?.) ‘Mit Kašara, Ḫuršama, Arzawa, den Ḫurriern’
(OGH. 142)
(Hitt. in-za-lu-ḫa-aš)
CLu. in·zagaan-
(n.) ‘inhumation; ‹cf. CLu. zagani-’
(DLL. 51)
(CLu. in-za-ga-a-an, HHand. 62, Melchert 2003a:184, HIL. 995)
Hitt. in·uida-
(URU.) ‘OGHErg. 51): “IŠTAR von I., ›Ḫurnija’
(OGH. 141-2)
(Hitt. in-nu-wi5-ta, in-ú-i-ta, nIŠTAR von Wašutuwanta, Ḫepat von Wašutuwanta, IŠTAR von I.’)
√ini-
Ogam. ini·gena-
(f.) ‘fille’
(Ziegler 1994xx: 199-9)
(Ogam. inigena)
OIr. in·gen-
(f.) ‘fille’
(DIL. 406)
(OIr. ingen)


PIE √ihɑku- √iɦɑgu- (vb.) ‘(be)greifen, mächtig sein, usw.‘
(IEW 503, i̯ēgʷ)
√iēhɑku-
Lith. jė́k-
(vb.) ‘begreifen, zu sich kommen, verstehen’
(LiEtWb. 194)
(Lith. jė́kti [inf.])
1. PIE *i̯ḗhɑku-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *i̯ḗhku-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. i̯ḗhku-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *i̯ḗku-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. i̯ḗku-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *i̯ḗk-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. i̯ḗk-
*ḗ -> ė́
Change of *ḗ -> ė́
Rḗ›ė́ → *i̯ė́k-
5. i̯ė́k-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Lith. jė́k-
√iṓhɑku-
Lith. júok-
(vb.) ‘begreifen, zu sich kommen, verstehen’
(LiEtWb. 194)
(Lith. júokti [inf.])
1. PIE *i̯ṓhɑku-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *i̯ṓhku-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. i̯ṓhku-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *i̯ṓku-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. i̯ṓku-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *i̯ṓk-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. i̯ṓk-
*ṓ → úo
Change of ṓ into úo
Rṓ›úo → *i̯úok-
5. i̯úok-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Lith. júok-
√ihɑēku-
Lith. jokė́-
(vb.) ‘begreifen, zu sich kommen, verstehen’
(LiEtWb. 194)
(Lith. jokė́tis [inf.])
1. PIE *i̯hɑēkuḗhɑ-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *i̯hɑākuḗhɑ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. i̯hɑākuḗhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *i̯hākuḗh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. i̯hākuḗh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *i̯ākuḗ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. i̯ākuḗ-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *i̯ākḗ-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. i̯ākḗ-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *i̯ōkḗ-
(XX:XX)
6. i̯ōkḗ-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯okḗ-
7. i̯okḗ-
*ḗ -> ė́
Change of *ḗ -> ė́
Rḗ›ė́ → *i̯okė́-
8. i̯okė́-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Lith. jokė́-
√iḗɦɑgu-
Latv. jg-
(vb.) ‘begreifen, verstehen’
(LiEtWb. 192)
(Latv. jẽgt [inf.])
1. PIE *i̯ḗɦɑgu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *i̯ḗɦgu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. i̯ḗɦgu-
*ḗH → êH
Latvian tone rule for ḗH
RAccLatv6 → *i̯êɦgu-
3. i̯êɦgu-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *i̯êgu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. i̯êgu-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *i̯êg-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. i̯êg-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Latv. jêg-
Latv. jga-
(f.) ‘verstand’
(IEW 503)
1. PIE *i̯ḗɦɑgu̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *i̯ḗɦɑgu̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. i̯ḗɦɑgu̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *i̯ḗɦgu̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. i̯ḗɦgu̯āh
*ḗH → êH
Latvian tone rule for ḗH
RAccLatv6 → *i̯êɦgu̯āh
4. i̯êɦgu̯āh
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *i̯êgu̯āh
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. i̯êgu̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *i̯êgu̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. i̯êgu̯ā
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *i̯êgā
(SPIE §4.8.3)
7. i̯êgā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → *i̯êga
8. i̯êga
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Latv. jêga
Lith. jėgà-
(4f.) ‘Kraft, Stärke, Macht’
(LiEtWb. 192)
(Lith. jėgà)
1. PIE *i̯ēɦɑgu̯ḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *i̯ēɦɑgu̯ā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. i̯ēɦɑgu̯ā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *i̯ēɦgu̯ā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. i̯ēɦgu̯ā́h
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *i̯ēgu̯ā́h
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. i̯ēgu̯ā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *i̯ēgu̯ā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. i̯ēgu̯ā́
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *i̯ēgā́
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. i̯ēgā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *i̯ēgṓ
(XX:XX)
7. i̯ēgṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → *i̯ēgà
8. i̯ēgà
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → *i̯ėgà
9. i̯ėgà
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Lith. jėgà
Att. ἥβη-
(f.) ‘reife Jugend, Jugendkraft, Mannbarkeit’
(GEW 1:620)
(Att. ἥβη)
1. PIE *i̯ḗɦɑgu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *i̯ḗɦɑgu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. i̯ḗɦɑgu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *i̯ḗɦgu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. i̯ḗɦgu̯āh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *i̯ḗgu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. i̯ḗgu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *i̯ḗgu̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. i̯ḗgu̯ā-
*gu/u̯ → b
Bilabialization of labiovelar into b
RgU›b → *i̯ḗbā-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. i̯ḗbā-
ā –> ē (Att)
Attican change of ā –› ē
Rā›ēAtt → *i̯ḗbē-
7. i̯ḗbē-
*i̯- → h-
Change of initial *i̯ into h
Ri̯=›h= → *hḗbē-
8. hḗbē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Att. ἥβη-
Dor. ἥβᾱ-
(f.) ‘reife Jugend, Jugendkraft, Mannbarkeit’
(GEW 1:620)
(Dor. ἥβα)
1. PIE *i̯ḗɦɑgu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *i̯ḗɦɑgu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. i̯ḗɦɑgu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *i̯ḗɦgu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. i̯ḗɦgu̯āh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *i̯ḗgu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. i̯ḗgu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *i̯ḗgu̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. i̯ḗgu̯ā-
*gu/u̯ → b
Bilabialization of labiovelar into b
RgU›b → *i̯ḗbā-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. i̯ḗbā-
*i̯- → h-
Change of initial *i̯ into h
Ri̯=›h= → *hḗbā-
7. hḗbā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. ἥβᾱ-
√iɦɑḗgu-
Aeol. ἄ̄βᾱ-
(f.) ‘reife Jugend, Jugendkraft, Mannbarkeit’
(GEW 1:620)
(Aeol. ἄβα, cf. also Dor. ἔφαβος)
1. PIE *i̯ɦɑḗguēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *i̯ɦɑḗguāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. i̯ɦɑḗguāɑh-
PIE *ɑḗ → ɑā́
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑḗ
Rɑḗ›ɑā́ → *i̯ɦɑā́guāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. i̯ɦɑā́guāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *i̯ɦā́guāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. i̯ɦā́guāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *i̯ā́guāh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. i̯ā́guāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *i̯ā́guā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. i̯ā́guā-
*gu/u̯ → b
Bilabialization of labiovelar into b
RgU›b → *i̯ā́bā-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
7. i̯ā́bā-
*i̯- → h-
Change of initial *i̯ into h
Ri̯=›h= → *hā́bā-
8. hā́bā-
h- -› Ø
Loss of word-initial h-
Rh=›0= → *ā́bā-
9. ā́bā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Aeol. ἄ̄βᾱ-


PIE √igiɑɦ- √oigiɑɦ- √eigiɑɦ- (vb.) ‘bersten, zerspringen’
(IEW 15)
(+ Pyysalo)
√igiɑɦ-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. eiga-
(vb.M.) ‘bersten, zerspringen, zersplittern’
(HEG 1:349-52)
(Hitt. egattaru)
1. PIE *eigi̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eigi̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eigi̯ɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *eiǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. eiǵɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eiǵɦa-
4. eiǵɦa-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *eigɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. eigɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. eiga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. igai-
(pr.) ‘burst, split’
(HEG 1:349-52)
(Hitt. i-ga-it)
1. PIE *igi̯ɑɦoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *igi̯ɦoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. igi̯ɦoi-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *iǵɦoi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. iǵɦoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *iǵɦai-
4. iǵɦai-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *igɦai-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. igɦai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. igai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. igai̯a-
(SAR.) ‘a kind of plant’
(HEG 1:350)
(Hitt. igaiaš)
1. PIE *igi̯ɑɦoii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *igi̯ɦoii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. igi̯ɦoii̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *iǵɦoii̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. iǵɦoii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *iǵɦaii̯a-
4. iǵɦaii̯a-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *iǵɦaia-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
5. iǵɦaia-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → *iǵɦai̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
6. iǵɦai̯a-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *igɦai̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. igɦai̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. igai̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OIcl. eigin-
(n.) ‘eben hervorgesproßter Saatkeim’
(ANEtWb. 95)
(ANEtWb. 284)
1. PIE *oigi̯ɑɦeno
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oigi̯ɦeno
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. oigi̯ɦeno
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *oiǵɦeno
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. oiǵɦeno
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *oigɦeno
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. oigɦeno
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *oigeno
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. oigeno
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aigena
6. aigena
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *aigina
7. aigina
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
Rai›ei → *eigina
8. eigina
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OIcl. eigin
OIcl. igða·n-
(f.) ‘Graumeise’
(ANEtWb. 284)
1. PIE *igi̯ɑɦito·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *igi̯ɦito·n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. igi̯ɦito·n-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *iǵɦito·n-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. iǵɦito·n-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *igɦito·n-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. igɦito·n-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *igɦiþo·n-
5. igɦiþo·n-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *igiþo·n-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. igiþo·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *igiþa·n-
7. igiþa·n-
*igiþ → igþ
Loss of unstressed *i in igiþ
Rigiþ›igþ → *igþa·n-
8. igþa·n-
*þ → ð
Change of þ into ð
R=þ›=ð → OIcl. igða·n-
√igiɑɦnio-
(Pyysalo)
Lat. ignio-
(n.pl) ‘vitia vāsōrum fictilium’
(OxLatD. 823)
(WH. 1:676)
1. PIE *igi̯ɑɦnii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *igi̯ɦnii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. igi̯ɦnii̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *iǵɦnii̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. iǵɦnii̯o-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *igɦnii̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. igɦnii̯o-
gɦn -› gn
Change of gɦn into gn
Rgɦn›gn → *ignii̯o-
5. ignii̯o-
*ii̯o → io
Loss *i̯ between i and o
Rii̯o›io → Lat. ignio-
Hitt. ignii̯and-
(pt.) ‘verkrüppelt, lahm : lame’
(HHand. 60)
(Hitt. ik-ni-ia-an-za [sgN] pád-da-i le-e)
1. PIE *igi̯ɑɦnii̯ondah-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *igi̯ɦnii̯ondah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. igi̯ɦnii̯ondah-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *iǵɦnii̯ondah-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. iǵɦnii̯ondah-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *iǵɦnii̯andah-
4. iǵɦnii̯andah-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *igɦnii̯andah-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. igɦnii̯andah-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ignii̯andah-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. ignii̯andah-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ignii̯andaḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √iku- √oiku- √eiku- (vb.) ‘ausgeben, opfern; verschwenden’
(IEW —)
(Pyysalo: Anat. + Lith.; PIE *iku or ikɑhu-?)
√ikuno-
CLu. ikuna-
(vb.) ‘in einer bestimmten Art opfern’
(HHand. 60)
1. PIE *ikuno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ikuna-
√ikunant-
Hitt. ikunant-
(UZU.n.) ‘tierisches Körperteil, das eßbar ist’
(HHand. 30, 60)
(Hitt. ekunant-, ikunant-, Weitenberg 1984:275)
1. PIE *ikunont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ikunant-
CLu. ikunanti-
(N.) ‘- (?) -’ (HHand. 60)
(DLL. 51)
(CLu. ik-ku-na-a-an-ti- [n] [sgA])
1. PIE *ikunontei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ikunantei-
√ikunot-
(HEG 2:352)
CLu. eikunat-
(.) ‘eine bestimmte Art Opfer, HHand. 60’
(DLL. 51)
(CLu. (i)-ik-ku-na-at-ta-aš [sgG])
1. PIE *eikunot-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. eikunat-
Hitt. ikunata-
(.) ‘épith. de mouton’
(HHand. 60)
(Hitt. i-ik-ku-na-at-ta-aš, ik-ku-na-at-ta-aš [sgG])
1. PIE *eikunoto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. eikunata-
CLu. ikunataši-
(a.gen.) ‘- (?) -’
(HHand. 60)
1. PIE *eikunoto·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eikunata·si-
2. eikunata·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. eikunata·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ikuoni-
Hitt. iku̯anei̯a-
(TÚG.) (Kleid in der Art der Bewohner der URUI.”
(HHand. 60)
1. PIE *iku̯onei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. iku̯anei̯a-
Hitt. iku̯anei̯a-
(URU.) Ικόνιον/Konya (?), OHGErg. 49: ‹Hurnija’
(OGH. 137-8)
(Hitt. ik-ku-ua-ni-ia-aš [sgN], KLuN 537n.1978a)
1. PIE *iku̯onei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. iku̯anei̯a-
√ikunou-
CLu. eikunau-
(vb.1.) ‘-(?)-;cf. išḫu-nau- & ḫarga-nau-’
(DLL. 51)
(CLu. i-ik-ku-na-a-ú-un-ta [3pl])
1. PIE *eikunou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. eikunau-
CLu. eikunauna·ši-
(a.gen.) ‘épith. de mouton, Weitenberg 1984:295’
(DLL. 51)
(CLu. i-ik-ku-ú-na-ú-na-aš-ši-iš, HHand. 60)
1. PIE *eikunouno·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eikunauna·si-
2. eikunauna·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. eikunauna·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ikuor-
CLu. iku̯ar-
(n.) ‘certain sacrification, KLuN 537-542’
(DLL. 51)
(CLu. ik-ku-ua-a[r])
1. PIE *iku̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. iku̯ar-
Hitt. iku̯ar-
(.) ‘eine bestimmte Art Opfer’
(HHand. 60)
1. PIE *iku̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. iku̯ar-
√ikur-
HLu. ikura-
(d.) ‘-(?)-’
(CHLu. 6.19.1)
(HLu. ...(DEUS)[i]-ku+ra/i, (DEUS)i-ku-ra/i-na)
1. PIE *ikuro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ikura-
√ikuou-
CLu. iku̯au·[
(.) ‘-(?)-’
(DLL. 51)
(CLu. ik-ku-ua-u?-[)
1. PIE *iku̯ou·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. iku̯au·Σ
√ikuuɑh-
(also LycA. ikuwaza- DLycLg. 28, LycA. mikuwe (DLycLg. 96) here?)
Lith. aikvó-
(vb.) ‘ausgeben, verschwenden’
(LiEtWb. 3)
1. PIE *oikuu̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *oikuu̯ā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. oikuu̯ā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oikuu̯ā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. oikuu̯ā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oikuu̯ā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. oikuu̯ā́-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *oiku̯ā́-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. oiku̯ā́-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aiku̯ā́-
6. aiku̯ā́-
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *aiku̯ṓ-
(XX:XX)
7. aiku̯ṓ-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → *aiku̯ó-
8. aiku̯ó-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. aikvó-
Lith. eikvó-
(vb.) ‘ausgeben, verschwenden’
(LiEtWb. 3)
1. PIE *eikuu̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *eikuu̯ā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. eikuu̯ā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eikuu̯ā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. eikuu̯ā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *eikuu̯ā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. eikuu̯ā́-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *eiku̯ā́-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. eiku̯ā́-
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *eiku̯ṓ-
(XX:XX)
6. eiku̯ṓ-
*ei -> ie
Change of *ei into ie
Rei›ie → *ieku̯ṓ-
7. ieku̯ṓ-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → *ieku̯ó-
8. ieku̯ó-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. iekvó-


PIE √il- (vb.) ‘wachsen, gedeihen’ (sb.) ‘Baum, Pflanze, Gurke’
(IEW —)
√ili-
OInd. ilya-
(m.) ‘ein Baum in der Nähe von Brahmans Palast’
(EWA 1:197)
1. PIE *iLi̯o-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *ili̯o-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. ili̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ili̯a-
3. ili̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. ilya-
√ilu-
Hitt. zida·ilu-
(GIŠ.) (Baum oder hölzernes Gerät)
(HHand. 209)
(Hitt. zitailu-)
CLu. ilu̯a-
(GIŠ.n.) ‘eine Pflanze oder ein Gegenstand aus Holz’(HHand. 61)
(DLL. 45)
(CLu. i-lu-u-ua)
1. PIE *ilu̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ilu̯a
CLu. ilu̯a-
(ø.) ‘-(?)-’
(DLL. 45)
(CLu. i-lu-ú-u[a])
1. PIE *ilu̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ilu̯a
OInd. ·irvālu-
(m./f.) ‘Gurke’
(EWA 1:230)
(Lex. irvālu, Grundr2 1:430, AiGr. 1:221)
1. PIE *ilu̯·Σ
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *iru̯·Σ
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. iru̯·Σ
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OInd. irv·Σ
OInd. ·irvāru-
(m./f.) ‘Gurke’
(EWA 1:230)
(Lex. OInd. irvāru, Grundr2 1:430, AiGr. 1:221)
1. PIE *ilu̯·Σ
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *iru̯·Σ
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. iru̯·Σ
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OInd. irv·Σ


PIE √im- (sb.) ‘Grund, Feld, Steppe, Land’ (a.) ‘unter’
(IEW –)
√imo-
(Pyysalo)
Lat. īmo-
(sup.) ‘der unterste’
(Lat. īmus [sgN])
1. PIE *eimo-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → Lat. īmo-
Lith. lyd·ìma-
(m.) ‘Rodeland’
(LiEtWb. 364)
(Lith. √lyd- ‘roden’)
1. PIE *Π·ímo-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *Π·ìmo-
2. Π·ìmo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lith. Π·ìma-
Lith. ar·ìma-
(m2.) ‘gepflügter Acker’
(Senn 2:184)
1. PIE *Π·ímo-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *Π·ìmo-
2. Π·ìmo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lith. Π·ìma-
Lat. īmi
(adv.) ‘aus dem Grunde’
(WH. 1:685-6)
1. PIE *eimi-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → Lat. īmi-
√imɑh-
Osc. īmā-
(f.) ‘der unterste’
(WbOU. 341)
(Osc. imaden [Abl+L] ‘ab imō’)
1. PIE *eimēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *eimāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. eimāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eimāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. eimāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *eimā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. eimā-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → Osc. īmā-
√imoni-
HLu. antá imani·-
(OCCIDENS.vb.) ‹‘to set’ (?)›
(CHLu. 6.2.11)
(HLu. a-tá (OCCIDENS)i-ma-ni-ti [3sg])
1. PIE *Π imoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π imani·-
√imor-
HLu. imara·ša-
(.) ‘von Imara-, offenes Land’
(CHLu. 6.16.4)
(in HLu. i-pá?+ra/i(?)-sa-na
1. PIE *imoro·so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *imara·sa-
2. imara·sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. imara·ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. imara·ša-
(a.gen.) ‘von *imara- ‘Steppe, offenes Land’
(DLL. 51)
(CLu. im(-ma)-ra-aš-ša-)
1. PIE *imoro·so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *imara·sa-
2. imara·sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. imara·ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. imra·ša-
(a.gen.) ‘von *imara- ‘Steppe, offenes Land’
(DLL. 51)
(CLu. im(-ma)-ra-aš-ša-)
1. PIE *imro·so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *imra·sa-
2. imra·sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. imra·ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√imulo
Lat. īmulo-
(dim.m.) ‘der unterste; der innerste’
(Lat. īmulus [sgN], Catull. 25,2)
1. PIE *eimulo-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → Lat. īmulo-


PIE √imbɑɦ- (sb.) ‘last, burden, quantity, abundance‘ (vb.) ‘(op)press, burden’
(IEW –)
(Kassian: Gr. + Pyysalo: Celt.)
√imbɑɦo-
Hitt. aimba-
(c.) ‘Last, Bedrückung’
(HEG 1:6)
1. PIE *oimbɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oimbɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. oimbɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aimbɦa-
3. aimbɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. aimba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. imba-
(c.) ‘Last, Bedrückung’
(HEG 1:6)
1. PIE *imbɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *imbɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. imbɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *imbɦa-
3. imbɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. imba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. imba-
(URU.) ‘Im Land › Mira’
(OGH. 140)
(Akd. im-pa-a-an [sgA], im-pa-an)
1. PIE *imbɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *imbɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. imbɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *imbɦa-
3. imbɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. imba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√imbɑɦeto-
(Stokes apud DLG. 189)
OGaul. imbeto-
(PN.m.) ‘‹Wichtig (?)›’
(DLG. 189)
(OBrit. imbetus [sgN])
1. PIE *imbɑɦeto
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *imbɦeto
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. imbɦeto
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → OGaul. imbeto
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
OIr. imbed-
(n.*o-) ‘large quantity, abundance of wealth’
(EtDiPC. 172)
1. PIE *imbɑɦeto
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *imbɦeto
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. imbɦeto
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *imbeto
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. imbeto
VtV → VthV
Lenition of voiceless stop *t
Rt›th → *imbetho
4. imbetho
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → *imbeth
5. imbeth
*-th → -d
Change of root-final *t into d
R=th›=d → OIr. imbed
OCymr. immet-
(.) ‹reading and meaning uncertain -›
(EtDiPC. 172)
(EtGlOW. 91)
1. PIE *imbɑɦeto
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *imbɦeto
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. imbɦeto
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *imbeto
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. imbeto
mb → mm
Assimilation of m and b
Rmb›mm → *immeto
4. immeto
*-o → -Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R=o›=0 → OCymr. immet
OGaul. imbetio-
(PN.m.) ‘-(?)-’
(DLG. 189)
(OGaul. imbetius [sgN])
1. PIE *imbɑɦeti̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *imbɦeti̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. imbɦeti̯o-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *imbeti̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. imbeti̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OGaul. imbetio-
√imbɑɦdɑɦo-
(Alexei Kassian)
(http://starling.rinet.ru/Texts/anatnost.pdf, p. 154-5)
Gr. ἰμφθέντ-
(ao.P.pt.) ‘oppressed, injured, maltreated’
(Wikisource -›)
(Hes. ἰμφθείς : βλαφθείς, λωβηθείς, νυχθείς, http://el.wikisource.org/wiki/Γλώσσαι/Ι
1. PIE *imbɑɦdɑɦént-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *imbɦdɦént-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. imbɦdɦént-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *imphdɦént-
3. imphdɦént-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *imphthént-
4. imphthént-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἰμφθέντ-


PIE √in- (vb.) ‘machen’ (sb.) ‘Macht, Schutz’ (a.) ‘wirksam, mächtig, stark’ (adv.) ‘geradeaus’
(IEW 10+774)
(Pyysalo)
√in-
Lyd. in-
(pr.) ‘machen’
(LydWb. 132)
(Lyd. int [3pers]
Lyd. in-
(pret.) ‘machen’
(LydWb. 132)
(Lyd. inl [3pers])
√ino-
(Pyysalo)
Lyd. ina-
(pret.) ‘machen’
(LydWb. 132)
(Lyd. inal [3pret.])
1. PIE *ino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lyd. ina-
RV. iná-
(a.) ‘mächtig, wirksam, stark (häufig von índra-)’
(WbRV 211-2)
1. PIE *inó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. iná-
RV. an·iná-
(a.) ‘un-kräftig’
(WbRV. 56)
1. PIE *hɑen·inó-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑan·inó-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑan·inó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *han·inó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. han·inó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *han·iná-
4. han·iná-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. an·iná-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√inon-
Lyd. inãn-
(vb.) ‘machen’
(LydWb. 134)
(Lyd. inãnt [3pers])
1. PIE *inon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *inan-
2. inan-
*am/n → ãm/n
Emergence of nasal vowel ã
RaN›ãN → Lyd. inãn-
Lyd. inãnid-
(vb.) ‘machen’
(LydWb. 132)
(Lyd. inãnidν [1sg], XX - check the suffix!)
1. PIE *inonɑɦidɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *inonɦidɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. inonɦidɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *inanɦidɦ-
3. inanɦidɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *inanɦid-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. inanɦid-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *inanid-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. inanid-
*am/n → ãm/n
Emergence of nasal vowel ã
RaN›ãN → Lyd. inãnid-
√inor-
(HEG I:358-62)
(HED 1/2: 366f. HIL. 448-)
Hitt. inar-
(d.) ‘followed by dḫapantali(ia)-’
(OHP. 1:187-90)
(Hitt. i-na-ar, i-na-a-ar [Abs], Aspects 8-9, 14-5, GhR. 60, 64, 156-7, 311, 419, 436-8, 450-3, 619-20)
1. PIE *inor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. inar-
Kpd. inar-
(LÚ.c.) (prince de Kaneš, père de Waršama-)
(NOMS. 453(a))
(Kpd. i-na-ar
1. PIE *inor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Kpd. inar-
Hitt. inar-
(LÚ.c.)
(NOMS. 453(b))
(Hitt. i-na-ar, Klinger (1996:159-162), RDH. 82-83, G. McMahon (AS. 25:24-7)
1. PIE *inor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. inar-
√inoro-
Hitt. inara-
(d.) ‘= ‘Sum. dLAMMA’
(OHP. 1:187-90)
(Hitt. i-na-ra-aš [N], REL. 55, 71, 90, WbMyth. 178-9)
1. PIE *inoro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. inara-
CLu. inara
(adv.) ‘geradeaus’
(HHand. 61)
(Hitt. in-na-ra-a, in-na-ra-ma, in-na-ra-ua-kán)
1. PIE *inoro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. inara-
Hitt. inara-
(LÚ.c.) (officier; divers)
(NOMS. 454)
(Hitt. i-na-ra-aš, in-na-ra-a)
1. PIE *inoro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. inara-
√inorɑh-
Hitt. inarāḫ-
(vb.1.) ‘kräftig machen’
(HHand. 61)
(Hitt. i-na-ra-aḫ-ḫi [3sg], in-na-ra-aḫ-ḫa-at [1sgM])
1. PIE *inorēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *inorāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. inorāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *inorāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. inorāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *inarāh-
4. inarāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. inarāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. inarāḫu̯ar-
(n.N.act.) ‘Verstärkung (von etw.)’
(HHand. 61)
(Hitt. in-na-ra-aḫ-ḫu-ar)
1. PIE *inorēɑhu̯or-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *inorāɑhu̯or-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. inorāɑhu̯or-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *inorāhu̯or-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. inorāhu̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *inarāhu̯ar-
4. inarāhu̯ar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. inarāḫu̯ar-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√inorouo-
Kpd. inarau̯a-
(LÚ.c.)
(NOMS. 456.1)
(Kpd. i-na-ra-ua)
1. PIE *inorou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Kpd. inarau̯a-
Hitt. inarau̯a-
(LÚ.c.)
(NOMS. 456.2)
(Hitt. in-na-ra-u-ua-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *inorou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. inarau̯a-
Hitt. inarau̯a
(adv.) ‘geradeaus’
(HHand. 61)
1. PIE *inorou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. inarau̯a-
Hitt. inarau̯eš-
(vb.fient.) ‘rüstig werden’
(HHand. 61)
(Hitt. in-na-ra-u-e-eš-zi)
1. PIE *inorou̯es-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *inarau̯es-
2. inarau̯es-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. inarau̯eš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. inarau̯an-
(n.) ‘Rüstigkeit’
(HHand. 61)
(Hitt. in-na-ra-u-ua-an-ni-it [sgI])
1. PIE *inorou̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. inarau̯an-
Hitt. inarau̯ant-
(a.) ‘rüstig’
(HHand. 61)
(Hitt. in-na-ra-u-ua-an-za, in-na-ra-u-ua-an-da-an)
1. PIE *inorou̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. inarau̯ant-
Hitt. inarau̯ant-
(d.) ‘XX’
(OHP. 1:191)
(Hitt. in-na-ra-u-ua-an-ta-aš, Aspects 30 n. 1; GhR. 308, 371, 408, 468; RDH. 74)
1. PIE *inorou̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. inarau̯ant-
Hitt. inarau̯adar-
(n.) ‘Rüstigkeit’
(HHand. 61)
(Hitt. in-na-ra-u-ua-tar, KAL-tar)
1. PIE *inorou̯odɑɦor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *inorou̯odɦor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. inorou̯odɦor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *inarau̯adɦar-
3. inarau̯adɦar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. inarau̯adar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. inarau̯auar-
(n.) ‘Macht’
(HHand. 61)
(Hitt. in-na-ra-u[a-u]-a-ar)
1. PIE *inorou̯ouor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. inarau̯auar-
√in·drɑɦo-
RV. índr̥.a-
(GN.m.) ‘Indra’
(WbRV. 214)
(Three-syllabic)
1. PIE *índrɑHo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *índrHo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. índrHo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *índrHa-
3. índrHa-
CrC → Cr̥C
Syllabification of *r in CrC
Rr›r̥ → *índr̥Ha-
4. índr̥Ha-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → RV. índr̥.a-
RV. índra-
(GN.m.) ‘Indra’ (der Gott des Lichthimmels)
(WbRV. 213-4)
1. PIE *índrɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *índrɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. índrɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *índrɦa-
3. índrɦa-
CrC → Cr̥C
Syllabification of *r in CrC
Rr›r̥ → *índr̥ɦa-
4. índr̥ɦa-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → RV. índr̥a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
MAv. indra-
(m.) ‘Name eines Daēva’
(AIWb. 367-8)
(MAv. indra-)
1. PIE *indrɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *indrɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. indrɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *indrɦa-
3. indrɦa-
CrC → Cr̥C
Syllabification of *r in CrC
Rr›r̥ → *indr̥ɦa-
4. indr̥ɦa-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *indr̥a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. indr̥a-
*r̥ → ǝr
Change of *r̥ into ǝr
Rr̥›ǝr → MAv. indǝra-
RV. an·indrá-
(a.) ‘den Indra nicht verehrends, dem Indra feind’
(WbRV. 56)
1. PIE *Π·indrɑɦó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·indrɦó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·indrɦó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·indrɦá-
3. Π·indrɦá-
CrC → Cr̥C
Syllabification of *r in CrC
Rr›r̥ → *Π·indr̥ɦá-
4. Π·indr̥ɦá-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → RV. Π·indr̥á-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
RV. indraya-
(pr.M.) ‘sich wie Indra benehmen’
(WbRV. 215)
1. PIE *indrɑɦoi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *indrɦoi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. indrɦoi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *indrɦai̯a-
3. indrɦai̯a-
CrC → Cr̥C
Syllabification of *r in CrC
Rr›r̥ → *indr̥ɦai̯a-
4. indr̥ɦai̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *indr̥ai̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. indr̥ai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. indr̥aya-
OInd. indriyá-
(n.) ‘Kraft, Vermögen : power, force’
(KEWA 1:89)
1. PIE *indrɑɦii̯ó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *indrɦii̯ó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. indrɦii̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *indrɦii̯á-
3. indrɦii̯á-
CrC → Cr̥C
Syllabification of *r in CrC
Rr›r̥ → *indr̥ɦii̯á-
4. indr̥ɦii̯á-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *indr̥ii̯á-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. indr̥ii̯á-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. indr̥iyá-
OInd. indriyá-
(a.) ‘kraftvoll, mächtig, stark’
(KEWA 1:89)
1. PIE *indrɑɦii̯ó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *indrɦii̯ó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. indrɦii̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *indrɦii̯á-
3. indrɦii̯á-
CrC → Cr̥C
Syllabification of *r in CrC
Rr›r̥ → *indr̥ɦii̯á-
4. indr̥ɦii̯á-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *indr̥ii̯á-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. indr̥ii̯á-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. indr̥iyá-


PIE √in- (sb.) ‘Brechung, Böse, Krankheit’
(IEW 818)
√inɑh
Goth. faír·ina-
(f.) ‘(Be)Schuld(igung), Vorwurf’
(GoEtD. F13.)
(Goth. fairina)
1. PIE *Π·inēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·ināɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·ināɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ināh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·ināh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·inā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·inā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *Π·inō
(XX:XX)
5. Π·inō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → Goth. Π·ina
OHG. fir·ina
(f.) ‘Verbrechen’
(IEW 818)
(OHG. firina)
1. PIE *Π·inēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·ināɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·ināɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ināh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·ināh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·inā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·inā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *Π·inō
(XX:XX)
5. Π·inō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → OHG. Π·ina
OHG. fir·inō-
(vb.) ‘sündigen’
(XX:XX)
(OHG. firinōn [inf.])
1. PIE *Π·inēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·ināɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·ināɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ināh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·ināh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·inā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·inā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → OHG. Π·inō-
(XX:XX)
√inon-
Hitt. inan-
(n.) ‘Krankheit, Erkrankung’
(HHand. 61)
(Hitt. i-na-an [NA], i-na-na-aš [G], i-na-ni [DL])
1. PIE *inon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. inan-
√inos-
gAv. aenah-
(n.) ‘Gewalt-, Übel-, Untat, Frevel’
(AIWb. 21)
(gAv. aēnah-)
1. PIE *einos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *einas-
2. einas-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *einah-
3. einah-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *ainah-
4. ainah-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → gAv. aenah-
gAv. aenah-
(n.) ‘Übeltäter, Frevler’
(AIWb. 21-2)
(gAv. aēnah-)
1. PIE *einos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *einas-
2. einas-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *einah-
3. einah-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *ainah-
4. ainah-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → gAv. aenah-
gAv. aenah-
(vb.dn.) ‘einem (Gläubigen) Gewalt anzutun’
(AIWb. 21)
(gAv. aēnah-)
1. PIE *einos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *einas-
2. einas-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *einah-
3. einah-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *ainah-
4. ainah-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → gAv. aenah-
RV. enás-
(n.) ‘Frevel, Sünde, Gewalttat, Bedrängnis’
(WbRV. 300)
1. PIE *einós-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *einás-
2. einás-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *ainás-
3. ainás-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *ēnás-
4. ēnás-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → RV. enás-
√inti-
LAv. inti-
(f.) ‘Vergewaltigung, Kränkung, Qual’
(AIWb. 367)
(LAv. inti [sgI])
√inu-
OInd. inó-
(pr.) ‘auf etwas eindringen, bewältigen’
(WbRV. 217)
(OInd. inóti, inuhí)
1. PIE *ineú-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *inaú-
2. inaú-
aú → ṓ
Monophthongization of *aú
Raú›ṓ → *inṓ-
3. inṓ-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → OInd. inó-
LAv. inao-
(pr.) ‘vergewaltigen, kränken’
(AIWb. 21)
(LAv. inaoiti [3sg])
1. PIE *ineu-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *inau-
2. inau-
*au → ao
Opening of *au
Rau›ao → LAv. inao-


PIE √ibɑɦ- √oibɑɦ- √eibɑɦ ‘Land, Gau’
(IEW —)
√oibɑɦ-
OHG. eiba-
(f.) ‘Gau, Land; ‹in compounds›
(XX:XX)
(OHG. Weter·eiba)
1. PIE *oibɑɦēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *oibɑɦāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. oibɑɦāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oibɦāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. oibɦāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oibɦā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. oibɦā
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *oibā
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. oibā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aibā
6. aibā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *aibō
(XX:XX)
7. aibō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *aiba
8. aiba
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
Rai›ei → OHG. eiba
√ibɑɦoi-
TochA. ype-
(sb.) ‘terra, regio, imperium’
(Poucha 250)
(TochA. ype, ypeyā)
1. PIE *oibɑɦoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oibɦoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. oibɦoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aibɦai-
3. aibɦai-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *aibai-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. aibai-
*b → p
Loss of voice of media *b
Rb›p → *aipai-
5. aipai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *ēpē-
6. ēpē-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochA. epe-
√ibɑɦoni-
HLu. ibani·ši-
(URBSc.a.gen.) ‘of ipani-’
(CHLu. 2.11.5)
(HLu. i-pa-ni-si-ná(URBS) [sgA])
1. PIE *ibɑɦoni·si-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ibɦoni·si-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ibɦoni·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ibɦani·si-
3. ibɦani·si-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ibani·si-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ibani·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. ibani·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √ir- √oir- √eir- (sb.) ‘Krankheit, Wunde, Böse’
(IEW 332-3)
√irɑhuo-
(HEG I:369)
(Pyysalo: Here)
CLu. eirḫu̯a-
(sb.) (eine Krankheit ?)
(DLL. 36-7)
(CLu. [e-e]r-ḫu-ua-an-zi [plN])
1. PIE *eirɑḫu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eirḫu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eirḫu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. eirḫu̯a-
CLu. eirḫu̯a·lei̯a-
(a.) (an der erḫuwa leiden)
(DLL. 36-7)
(CLu. e-er-ḫu-u-ua-al-li-ia-an, [e-er-ḫ]u-u-ua-li-ia-an-zi [plN])
1. PIE *eirɑḫu̯o·lei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eirḫu̯o·lei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eirḫu̯o·lei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. eirḫu̯a·lei̯a-
CLu. irḫu̯a·ša-
(a.gen.)
(DLL. 36-7)
(CLu. ir-ḫu-u-ua-aš-ša)
1. PIE *irɑḫu̯o·so-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *irḫu̯o·so-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. irḫu̯o·so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *irḫu̯a·sa-
3. irḫu̯a·sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. irḫu̯a·ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√irmo-
(HEG 1:169, 370)
(HEDict. I:160)
Hitt. irma-
(a.) ‘krank’ (Sum. GIG)
(HEG 1:169, 370)
(Hitt. ir-ma-)
1. PIE *irmo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. irma-
OEng. irma-
(vb.) ‘to make miserable/wretched, afflict, wex’
(ASaxD. 599)
(OEng. irman [inf.])
1. PIE *irmo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OEng. irma-
OInd. īrma-
(m.n.) ‘Wunde’
(EWA 3:28-29)
(OInd. īrma-)
1. PIE *írmo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. írma-
√irmol-
CLu. irmala-
(GKL.a.) ‘krank’ (‘malade’)
(DLL. 52)
1. PIE *irmolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. irmala-
Hitt. irmala-
(a.) ‘krank’
(HHand. 32, 63)
1. PIE *irmolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. irmala-
Hitt. irmalei̯a-
(vb.fient.) ‘erkranken, krank werden’
(HHand. 32)
(Hitt. ir-ma-li-ia-at-ta-at)
1. PIE *irmolei̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. irmalei̯a
Hitt. irmalei̯ant-
(pt.) ‘krank sein, erkranken’
(HEG 1:370)
1. PIE *irmolei̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. irmalei̯ant-
Hitt. irmalei̯au̯ar
(n.) ‘Erkrankung’
(HEG 1:370)
1. PIE *irmolei̯ou̯or
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. irmalei̯au̯ar
√irmon-
Hitt. irman-
(n.) ‘Krankheit’
(HHand. 32)
(Hitt. irman, erman-)
1. PIE *irmon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. irman-
OInd. dakṣina·irmaṇ-
(a.) ‘auf der rechten Seite verwundet’
(KEWA 1:558)
(in OInd. dakṣinerman)
1. PIE *Π·irmon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·irman-
2. Π·irman-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → OInd. Π·irmaṇ-
Hitt. irmanei̯a-
(vb.) ‘erkranken’
(HEG 1:371)
1. PIE *irmonei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. irmanei̯a-
√irmingɑɦ-
OEng. irming-
(a.) ‘poor, mean, wretched, a wretch’
(ASaxD. 599)
1. PIE *irmingɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *irmingɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. irmingɦo
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *irmingo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. irmingo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *irminga
4. irminga
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OEng. irming
√iruo-
(HEG I:369)
(Pyysalo)
CLu. eiru̯a-
(c.) ‘eine Krankheit ?’
(DLL. 36-7)
(CLu. e-er-ua-an-zi [plN])
1. PIE *eiru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. eiru̯a-
CLu. eiru̯a·lei̯a-
(.) ‘an der erḫuwa-Krankheit leiden’
(DLL. 36-7)
(CLu. e-er-ua-al-li-ia-an [sgA])
1. PIE *eiru̯o·lei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. eiru̯a·lei̯a-
Hitt. iru̯alei̯a-
(.) ‘an der erḫuwa-Krankheit leiden’
(DLL. 36-7)
(Hitt. ir-ua-al-li-i[a-an]
1. PIE *iru̯o·lei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. iru̯a·lei̯a-
CLu. iru̯alei̯a-
(.) ‘an der erḫuwa-Krankheit leiden’
(DLL. 36-7)
(CLu. ir-ua-li-ia-ti [sgI])
1. PIE *iru̯o·lei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. iru̯a·lei̯a-
CLu. iru̯a·ša-
(a.) ‘of irua-’
(DLL. 36-7)
(CLu. ir-ua-aš-š[a])
1. PIE *iru̯o·so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *iru̯a·sa-
2. iru̯a·sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. iru̯a·ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √ios- √ies- √is- (sb.) ‘Mund, Sprache’ (vb.) ‘sprechen, schwören’ (a.) ‘rauschend’
(IEW 784-5)
(Pyysalo 2013:78-9)
√ois-
(HW2 A: 48f.)
(HEG I:6-8 & 371, HED A:17, HIL. 200f.)
Hitt. aiš-
(n.) ‘Mund, Maul’ (EHS 160)
(HEG 1:6-8)
(OHitt. a-i-iš [sgN], Hitt. a-iš [id.], a-i-iš-ši [sgDL])
1. PIE *ois-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ais-
2. ais-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aiš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√is-
Hitt. iš-
(n.) ‘Mund, Maul’ (Sum. KAxU)
(HEG I:371)
(Hitt. iš-ša-aš, iš-ši-i-i, iš-ša-az, iš-ša-a, iš-ši-it)
1. PIE *is-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. iš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ioso-
CLu. aaša-
(vb.) ‘sprechen, DLLAdd. 45’
(DLL. 33)
(CLu. a-aš-ša-at-ta, a-a-aš-ša-an-ta, Laroche RHA 23:45)
1. PIE *oi̯oso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ai̯asa-
2. ai̯asa-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *aasa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. aasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. aaša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. aaša-
(n.) ‘Mund’ (DLLAdd. 45)
(DLL. 33)
(CLu. a-a-aš-ša-(-a)-ti [plNA+refl.], a-aš-ša-at-ta)
1. PIE *oi̯oso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ai̯asa-
2. ai̯asa-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *aasa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. aasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. aaša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aaša-
(*c.) ‘Mund’
(HED 1:17)
(Hitt. KAxU-an [sgA])
1. PIE *oi̯oso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ai̯asa-
2. ai̯asa-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *aasa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. aasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aaša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. aaša·ma-
(pt.) ‘gesagt’
(DLL. 33)
(CLu. a-a-aš-ša-am-ma-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *oi̯oso·mo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ai̯asa·ma-
2. ai̯asa·ma-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *aasa·ma-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. aasa·ma-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. aaša·ma-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. aašant-
(n.) ‘XX’
(KLuN 100)
(CLu. a-a-aš–ša-an-t [plNA])
1. PIE *oi̯osont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ai̯asant-
2. ai̯asant-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *aasant-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. aasant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. aašant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√iesɑh-
Lat. dē·ierā-
(pr.1.) ‘heilig beschwören’
(Lat. dēierāre [inf.])
1. PIE *Π·i̯esēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·i̯esāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·i̯esāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·i̯esāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·i̯esāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·i̯esā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·i̯esā-
*VsV → VrV
Rhotacism of *s between vowels
RVsV›VrV → *Π·i̯erā-
5. Π·i̯erā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. Π·ierā-
Lat. pe·ierā-
(vb.1.) ‘falsch schwören’
(WH. 2:274-5)
(Lat. peierāre [inf.])
1. PIE *Π·i̯esēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·i̯esāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·i̯esāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·i̯esāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·i̯esāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·i̯esā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·i̯esā-
*VsV → VrV
Rhotacism of *s between vowels
RVsV›VrV → *Π·i̯erā-
5. Π·i̯erā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. Π·ierā-
√iosi-
CLu. aašei̯a-
(GN.c.) KLuN. 453-41638, GhR. 309, RDH. 72
(OHP. 50-51)
(CLu. a-aš-ši-ia-zi [plN])
1. PIE *oi̯osei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ai̯asei̯a-
2. ai̯asei̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *aasei̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. aasei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. aašei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. aašei̯a·ta-
(d?.) ‘CLuLex. 36’
(OHP. 50-51)
(CLu. a-aš-ši-ia-at-ta [?])
1. PIE *oi̯osei̯o·to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ai̯asei̯a·ta-
2. ai̯asei̯a·ta-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *aasei̯a·ta-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. aasei̯a·ta-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. aašei̯a·ta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ist-
Gr. γραικ·ιστί
(adv.) ‘in Greek: ‹to Gr. γραικ-ός›’
(LSJ. 358-9)
1. PIE *Π·istí-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·ιστί-


PIE √it- √oit- √eit- (sb.) ‘Wässer, Quelle’
(IEW —)
(Pyysalo: Gr. + OAnat.)
√eitisKeɑh-
Gr. εἰτ·ισκαί
(f.pl.) Hes. = ‘πηγή’
(LSJ. 498)
(Gr. εἰτισκαί)
1. PIE *eit·iskeɑhí
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *eit·iskaɑhí
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. eit·iskaɑhí
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eit·iskahí
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. eit·iskahí
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *eit·iskaí
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. eit·iskaí
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. εἰτ·ισκαί
√eit·mori-
(HEG I:447)
Hitt. eit·mari-
(c.) ‘ein im Kult verwendetes Gefäß’
(HHand. 68)
(Hitt. e-et-ma-ri-e-eš [plN])
1. PIE *eit·mori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. eit·mari-
Hitt. it·mari-
(d.) ‘-(?)-, RDH. 83, CLuLex. 96’
(OHP. 1:208)
(Hitt. it-ma-ri-aš, it-ma-ri-uš [plA])
1. PIE *it·mori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. it·mari-
CLu. eitmari-
(d.) ‘‹fountain·pure(?) ≈ šuppiluliuma (?)›
(OHP. 1:208)
(CLu. i-it-ma-ri-in-zi [plN])
1. PIE *eit·mori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. eit·mari-
CLu. eitmaria-
(dc.) ‘ein im Kult verwendetes Gefäß’
(DLL. 53)
(CLu. i-it-ma-ri-an-za [plA])
1. PIE *eit·morio-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. eit·maria-


PIE √idɑɦ- (sb.) ‘Gott’ (a.) ‘gut’ (vb.) ‘ehren’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√idɑɦo-
OIcl. iða·vǫll-
(st.m.) ‘Wohnsitz [vǫll = ‘Feld’] der Götter’
(ANEtWb. 283)
(OIcl. iðavǫllr [sgN])
1. PIE *idɑɦo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *idɦo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. idɦo·Σ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *ido·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. ido·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ida·Σ-
4. ida·Σ-
*d -› ð
Change of d into ð
Rd›ð → OIcl. iða·Σ-
√idɑɦi-
Maced. ἰζ·ελά-
(f.) ‘ἀγαθὴ τύχη : good luck’
(LSJ. 823)
(Hes. ἰζελά · ἀγαθὴ τύχη)
1. PIE *idɑɦi̯·eléɑh-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *idɑɦi̯·eláɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. idɑɦi̯·eláɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *idɦi̯·eláh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. idɦi̯·eláh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *idɦi̯·elá-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. idɦi̯·elá-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *idi̯·elá-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. idi̯·elá-
PIE *di̯ → j
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
Rdi̯›j → *ij·elá-
6. ij·elá-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *iz·elá-
7. iz·elá-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Maced. ἰζ·ελά-
√idɑɦiist-
HLu. izišta-
(vb.) ‘to honour’
(CHLu. 2.6.34)
(HLu. i-zi-i-sa-ta-i [3sg])
1. PIE *idɑɦi̯isto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *idɦi̯isto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. idɦi̯isto-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *ijɦisto-
3. ijɦisto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ijɦista-
4. ijɦista-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ijista-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ijista-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *izista-
6. izista-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. izišta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. izištanu-
(GN.cs.) ‘Aspects 12 n. 5, Klinger (1996:245), RDH. 26’
(OHP. 1:209)
(Hitt. iz-zi-iš-ta-nu, H. Otten (1976-80 [RIA 5]:227-8))
1. PIE *idɑɦi̯istonu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *idɦi̯istonu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. idɦi̯istonu-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *ijɦistonu-
3. ijɦistonu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ijɦistanu-
4. ijɦistanu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ijistanu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ijistanu-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *izistanu-
6. izistanu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. izištanu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. izištar-
(sb.) ‘honour’
(CHLu. 2.22.15)
(HLu. i-zi-i-sa-ta+ra/i-wa/i-ma-za)
1. PIE *idɑɦi̯istor
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *idɦi̯istor
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. idɦi̯istor
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *ijɦistor
3. ijɦistor
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ijɦistar
4. ijɦistar
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ijistar
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ijistar
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *izistar
6. izistar
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. izištar
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. izištu-
(vb.) ‘honour’
(CHLu. 1.1.48)
(HLu. i-zi-sa-tu-na [inf.])
1. PIE *idɑɦi̯istu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *idɦi̯istu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. idɦi̯istu-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *ijɦistu-
3. ijɦistu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *ijistu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ijistu-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *izistu-
5. izistu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. izištu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √idɑɦ- (vb.) ‘lay waste, desolate, destroy’ (a.) ‘empty, vain, idle, bad’ (sb.) ‘disease, pain’
(IEW 12)
(Pyysalo)
√idɑɦol-
(HEG I:442-444)
(HIL. 487f., Puhvel HED 1/2: 487f., Kimball 1999:218)
Hitt. idala-
(a.) ‘böse’
(HIL. 487)
(Hitt. i-da-a-la-az [sgAbl])
1. PIE *idɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *idɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. idɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *idɦala-
3. idɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. idala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OHG. ītal-
(a.) ‘vanus, inanis = ModHG. eitel’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *eidɑɦolo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eidɦolo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eidɦolo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *eidolo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. eidolo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eidala
4. eidala
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *īdala
5. īdala
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *īdal
6. īdal
*d → t
OHG sound shift of *d
Rd›tHG → OHG. ītal
OSax. īdal-
(a.) ‘eitel, leer’
(ASächsWb. 39)
1. PIE *eidɑɦolo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eidɦolo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eidɦolo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *eidolo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. eidolo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eidala
4. eidala
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *īdala
5. īdala
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OSax. īdal
OEng. īdel-
(a.) ‘empty, not possessing, (de)void, vain, idle’
(ASaxD. 586)
1. PIE *eidɑɦolo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eidɦolo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eidɦolo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *eidolo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. eidolo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eidala
4. eidala
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *īdala
5. īdala
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *īdal
6. īdal
*al → el
Rising of a into e before l-
R=al›=el → OEng. īdel
OEng. ādel-
(f.) ‘disease, pain, consumption, morbus, languor’
(ASaxD. 7)
1. PIE *oidɑɦolo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oidɦolo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. oidɦolo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *oidolo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. oidolo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aidala
4. aidala
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *aidal
5. aidal
*ai → ā
Monophthongization of *ai into ā
Rai›ā → *ādal
6. ādal
*al → el
Rising of a into e before l-
R=al›=el → OEng. ādel
Hitt. idalam-
(a.) ‘böse, schlecht’
(HIL. 487)
(Hitt. i-da-a-la-mu-uš [plA])
1. PIE *idɑɦolom-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *idɦolom-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. idɦolom-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *idɦalam-
3. idɦalam-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. idalam-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. idalu-
(a.) ‘böse, schlecht’ (Sum. ḪUL)
(HEG I:442-4)
1. PIE *idɑɦolu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *idɦolu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. idɦolu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *idɦalu-
3. idɦalu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. idalu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. idalau̯āḫ-
(vb.) ‘Böses tun, schädigen’
(EHS 425, 427)
(HdO 190)
1. PIE *idɑɦolou̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *idɑɦolou̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. idɑɦolou̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *idɦolou̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. idɦolou̯āh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *idɦalau̯āh-
4. idɦalau̯āh-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *idalau̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. idalau̯āh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. idalau̯āḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√idɑɦi-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. ARHA idi·-
(MANUSvb.) ‘delete’ (Phoen. mḥ)
(CHLu. 1.1.73)
(HLu. ARHA MANUS(-)i-ti-tu, ARHA “*69”(-)i-ti-tu)
1. PIE *Π idɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π idɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π idɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. Π idi·-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OSax. īdil-
(a.) ‘leer, eitel’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *eidɑɦilo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eidɦilo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eidɦilo-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *eidilo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. eidilo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eidila-
4. eidila-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → OSax. īdila-
HLu. idiu-
(vb.) ‘delete’
(CHLu. 1.1.63)
(ARHA “*69”(-)i-ti-wa/i [3sg])
1. PIE *idɑɦiu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *idɦiu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. idɦiu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. idiu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√idɑhl-
OEng. ælf·ādl-
(.) ‘Elf-disease’ (ephialtae morbus)
(ASaxD. 14)
1. PIE *olpi̯·oidɑɦlo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *olpi̯·oidɦlo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. olpi̯·oidɦlo
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *olfi̯·oidɦlo
3. olfi̯·oidɦlo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *olfi̯·oidlo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. olfi̯·oidlo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alfi̯·aidla
5. alfi̯·aidla
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *alfi̯·aidl
6. alfi̯·aidl
alfi → ælf
Umlaut a-i -> æ
Ralfi›ælf → *ælf·aidl
7. ælf·aidl
*ai → ā
Monophthongization of *ai into ā
Rai›ā → OEng. ælf·ādl
OEng. ādlia-
(vb.) ail, be sick, languish, aegrotare’
(ASaxD. 7)
1. PIE *oidɑɦli̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oidɦli̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. oidɦli̯o-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *oidli̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. oidli̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aidli̯a-
4. aidli̯a-
*ai → ā
Monophthongization of *ai into ā
Rai›ā → *ādli̯a-
5. ādli̯a-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OEng. ādlia-
OEng. īdlia-
(vb.) ‘to become vain/idle, come to nought, empty’
(ASaxD. 586)
1. PIE *eidɑɦli̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eidɦli̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eidɦli̯o-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *eidli̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. eidli̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eidli̯a-
4. eidli̯a-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *īdli̯a-
5. īdli̯a-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OEng. īdlia-


PIE √idɑɦ- (vb.) ‘machen’
(IEW —)
√idɑɦ-
OIcl. ið-
(f.ō) ‘Arbeit, Verrichtung’
(ANEtWb. 282)
1. PIE *idɑɦēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *idɑɦāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. idɑɦāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *idɦāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. idɦāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *idɦā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. idɦā
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *idā
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. idā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *idō
(XX:XX)
6. idō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *ida
7. ida
*-a -u
Change of root final -a into -u
R=a›=u → *idu
8. idu
*d -› ð
Change of d into ð
Rd›ð → *iðu
9. iðu
*-u → Ø
Loss of -u in root-final position
R=u›=0 → OIcl. ið
OIcl. īð-
(f.*i) ‘Arbeit, Verrichtung; Falk-Torp 27’
(ANEtWb. 283)
1. PIE *eidɑɦi
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eidɦi
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eidɦi
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *eidi
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. eidi
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *īdi
4. īdi
*d -› ð
Change of d into ð
Rd›ð → OIcl. īði
OIcl. iðja-
(vb.) ‘sich mit etwas befassen, arbeiten’
(ANEtWb. 283)
(OIcl. iðja [inf.])
1. PIE *idɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *idɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. idɦi̯o-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *idi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. idi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *idi̯a-
4. idi̯a-
*d -› ð
Change of d into ð
Rd›ð → *iði̯a-
5. iði̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → OIcl. iðja-
HLu. izi-
(vb.) ‘make’ (Phoen. p‘l)
(CHLu. 1.1.67)
(HLu. i-zi-ta5)
1. PIE *idɑɦi̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *idɦi̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. idɦi̯i-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *ijɦi-
3. ijɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *iji-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. iji-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → HLu. izi-
OEng. idig-
(a.) ‘busy, active’
(ASaxD. 586)
1. PIE *idɑɦigɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *idɦigɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. idɦigɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *idigɦo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. idigɦo
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *idigo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. idigo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *idiga
5. idiga
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OEng. idig
OIcl. iði·n-
(m.) ‘Rühriger (Riesenname)’
(ANEtWb. 283)
(OIcl. iði [sgN])
1. PIE *idɑɦi·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *idɦi·n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. idɦi·n-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *idi·n-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. idi·n-
*d -› ð
Change of d into ð
Rd›ð → OIcl. iði·n-
OIcl. iðin-
(a.) ‘eifrig’
(ANEtWb. 283)
(OIcl. iðinn [sgN])
1. PIE *idɑɦino
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *idɦino
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. idɦino
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *idino
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. idino
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *idina
4. idina
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *idin
5. idin
*d -› ð
Change of d into ð
Rd›ð → OIcl. iðin
OIcl. iðn-
(f.ō) ‘Beschäftigung, Arbeit (gerere)’
(ANEtWb. 283)
(OIcl. iðn [sgN])
1. PIE *idɑɦnēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *idɑɦnāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. idɑɦnāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *idɦnāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. idɦnāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *idɦnā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. idɦnā
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *idnā
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. idnā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *idnō
(XX:XX)
6. idnō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *idna
7. idna
*-a -u
Change of root final -a into -u
R=a›=u → *idnu
8. idnu
*d -› ð
Change of d into ð
Rd›ð → *iðnu
9. iðnu
*-u → Ø
Loss of -u in root-final position
R=u›=0 → OIcl. iðn
OIcl. iðna-
(vb.) ‘arbeiten, betreiben: studere’
(ANEtWb. 283)
(OIcl. iðna [inf.])
1. PIE *idɑɦno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *idɦno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. idɦno-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *idno-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. idno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *idna-
4. idna-
*d -› ð
Change of d into ð
Rd›ð → OIcl. iðna-


PIE √iu- (vb.) ‘befehlen’ (sb.) ‘Befehl, Befehlshaber, Priester’
(IEW 511)
(+ Pyysalo)
√iu-
(Pyysalo)
RV. adhvar·yú-
(m.) ‘der die Opferfeier leitende Priester’
(WbRV. 49f.)
1. PIE *Π·i̯ú-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·yú-
√iou·uekuo-
TochB. yau·yekä-
(sb.) ‘verbal orders, documents’ (?)
(DTochB. 514)
(TochB. yauyekänta; cf. TochB. wek- (m.sg) ‘vox’ (DTochB. 607, wek)
1. PIE *i̯ōu·u̯eiku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *i̯ōu·u̯eiku̯a-
2. i̯ōu·u̯eiku̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *i̯āu·u̯eiku̯a-
3. i̯āu·u̯eiku̯a-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯āu·u̯i̯aiku̯a-
4. i̯āu·u̯i̯aiku̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *i̯āu·u̯i̯aika-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. i̯āu·u̯i̯aika-
*u̯I → I
Loss of *u̯ before palatal *i̯/i
Ru̯I›I → *i̯āu·i̯aika-
6. i̯āu·i̯aika-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *i̯āu·i̯ēka-
7. i̯āu·i̯ēka-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → *i̯au·i̯ēka-
8. i̯au·i̯ēka-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *i̯au·i̯eka-
9. i̯au·i̯eka-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. yau·yeka-
√iouo-
(Pyysalo)
RV. ā́dhvar·yava-
(n.) ‘Dienst des adhvaryú-’
(WbRV. 178)
1. PIE *Π·i̯ou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·i̯au̯a-
2. Π·i̯au̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *Π·i̯ava-
3. Π·i̯ava-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·yava-
Hitt. a.i̯au̯a·la-
(c.N.ag.) ‘ein Repräsentant (des Königs)’
(HEG II:5-6)
1. PIE *o.i̯ou̯o·lo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a.i̯au̯a·la-
CLu. a.i̯au̯a·la-
(c.N.ag.) ‘Repräsentant (des Königs)’ (OGH. 3)
(DLL. 24)
(CLu. LUGAL a-ia-ua-la-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *o.i̯ou̯o·lo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. a.i̯au̯a·la-
√iudɑɦ-
(IEW 511)
(WP. 1:204)
Lat. iubeo-
(vb.) ‘befehlen : ‘order, command’
(Lat. iubeō [1sg])
1. PIE *i̯udɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *i̯udɦei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. i̯udɦei̯o-
*dɦ → f
Affricativization of dental *dɦ
Rdɦ›f → *i̯ufei̯o-
3. i̯ufei̯o-
*f → b
Change of *f into b
Rf›b → *i̯ubei̯o-
4. i̯ubei̯o-
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
Rei̯o›eo → *i̯ubeo-
5. i̯ubeo-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. iubeo-
Lat. iuss-
(pf.) ‘befehlen : ‘order, command’
(WH. 1:724-5)
1. PIE *i̯udɑɦs-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *i̯udɦs-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. i̯udɦs-
CHs → Cs
Loss of *h between stop and *s
RCHs›Cs → *i̯uds-
3. i̯uds-
*ds → ss
Assimilation of *ds
Rds›ss → *i̯uss-
4. i̯uss-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. iuss-
Lat. iusso-
(n.) ‘Befehl’
(WH. 1:724-5)
(Class. iussi)
1. PIE *i̯udɑɦso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *i̯udɦso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. i̯udɦso-
CHs → Cs
Loss of *h between stop and *s
RCHs›Cs → *i̯udso-
3. i̯udso-
*ds → ss
Assimilation of *ds
Rds›ss → *i̯usso-
4. i̯usso-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. iusso-
√ioudɑɦ-
(Pyysalo)
OLat. ioubeo-
(vb.) ‘jemandem etwas heißen, befehlen’
(WH. 1:724-5)
(OLat. ioubeatis [2pl])
1. PIE *i̯oudɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *i̯oudɦei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. i̯oudɦei̯o-
*dɦ → f
Affricativization of dental *dɦ
Rdɦ›f → *i̯oufei̯o-
3. i̯oufei̯o-
*f → b
Change of *f into b
Rf›b → *i̯oubei̯o-
4. i̯oubei̯o-
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
Rei̯o›eo → *i̯oubeo-
5. i̯oubeo-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OLat. ioubeo-
OLat. iouss-
(pf.) ‘befehlen : ‘order, command’
(in OLat. ioussi [1sg])
1. PIE *i̯oudɑɦs-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *i̯oudɦs-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. i̯oudɦs-
CHs → Cs
Loss of *h between stop and *s
RCHs›Cs → *i̯ouds-
3. i̯ouds-
*ds → ss
Assimilation of *ds
Rds›ss → *i̯ouss-
4. i̯ouss-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OLat. iouss-
TochB. yot·kolau-
(sb.) ± ‘foreman, director’
(DTochB. 512)
1. PIE *i̯oudɑɦ·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *i̯oudɦ·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. i̯oudɦ·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *i̯audɦ·Σ-
3. i̯audɦ·Σ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *i̯aud·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. i̯aud·Σ-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *i̯aut·Σ-
5. i̯aut·Σ-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōt·Σ-
6. i̯ōt·Σ-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯ot·Σ-
7. i̯ot·Σ-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. yot·Σ-


PIE √iu- √iou- √ieu- (sb.) ‘Same, Saat’
(IEW —)
(Pyysalo)
√eiuo-
Hitt. eiu̯a-
(n.) (eine Feldfrucht, Abart der Gerste)
(HHand. 34)
(Hitt. e-ua-an, e-u-ua-an [sgNA], e-ua-aš [sgG])
1. PIE *eiu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. eiu̯a-
Hitt. eiu̯ali-
(a.) ‘fruchtbar’ (?)
(HHand. 34)
(Hitt. euali-)
1. PIE *eiu̯oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. eiu̯ali-
√iuo-
(Pyysalo)
Goth. fra·iw-
(n.) ‘Same: σπόρος, σπέρμα: seed’
(GoEtD. F76.)
(Goth. fraiw [sgN])
1. PIE *pro·iu̯o
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *fro·iu̯o
2. fro·iu̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *fra·iu̯a
3. fra·iu̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *fra·iu̯
4. fra·iu̯
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. fra·iw
Hitt. iu̯a·zeba
(d.) ‘XX’ (GhR. 258, fn. 45)
(OHP. 1:209)
(Hitt. di-ua-zi-pa [Abs.])
1. PIE *iu̯o·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. iu̯a·Σ
Hitt. iu̯a·šḫa·x[…
(URU.) ‘I., Kašara, Ḫuršama, Arzawa, den Ḫurriern’
(OGH. 158)
(Hitt. i-ua-aš-ḫa-x[)
1. PIE *iu̯o·sɑho·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *iu̯o·sho·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. iu̯o·sho·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *iu̯a·sha·Σ
3. iu̯a·sha·Σ
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *iu̯a·šha·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. iu̯a·šha·Σ
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. iu̯a·šḫa·Σ
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. iu̯a·dališa-
(URU.) ‘›Tumana; cf. Hitt. tališ-
(OGH. 158)
(Hitt. i-ua-ta-al-li-iš-ša [stf.])
1. PIE *iu̯o·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. iu̯a·Σ
HLu. iu̯ala·ši-
(a.) ‘ephit. of sun-god’ ‹for -la-, see Hitt. euali- -›
(CHLu. 6.3.11)
(HLu. i-wa/i-x-si[...])
1. PIE *iu̯olo·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *iu̯ala·si-
2. iu̯ala·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. iu̯ala·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)

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