PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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© 2014-2017 University of Helsinki

"Durch zweier Zeugen Mund wird alle Wahrheit kund" — August Fick
(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
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PIE



PIE √l- (vb.) ‘angreifen, ergreifen, nehmen, rauben’
(IEW 665)
(Pyysalo)
√lo-
(HEG X:XX)
(HIL. 928)
CLu. la-
(vb.) ‘nehmen’
(DLL. 90)
(CLu. la-at-ta [3sg])
1. PIE *lo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. la-
Lyd. is·l-
(a.) ‘angefangen’ (?)
(LydWb. 135)
(Lyd. islλ [sgDL])
1. PIE *hɑiki·la
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hiki·la
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hiki·la
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *hić·la
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. hić·la
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *his·la
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
4. his·la
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *is·la
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. is·la
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Lyd. is·l
HLu. arḫa la·-
(*vb.2.) ‘take away’
(CHLu. 2.40.11)
(HLu. ARHA la-i [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·lo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·la-
HLu. zanta la·-
(CAPERE*vb.) ‘capture’
(CHLu. 4.2.4)
(HLu. INFRA CAPERE(-)la-ha)
1. PIE *Π·lo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·la-
√lolo-
CLu. lala-
(vb.) ‘nehmen, HHand. 91’
(DLL. 61)
(CLu. la-(a)-la-an-ti [3pl.], la-(a-)la-at-ta)
1. PIE *lolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lala-
HLu. pri lala·-
(vb.) ‘bring before’
(CHLu. 4.4.10)
(HLu. PRAE-i (‘CAPERE’)la-la-ta)
1. PIE *Π·lolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·lala-
OInd. lala-
(a.) ‘wishing, desirous’
(MonWil. 897)
(W. lala-)
1. PIE *LoLo-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *lolo-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. lolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. lala-
√lɑh-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. lā́-
(pr.) ‘ergreifen, mit sich nehmen’
(KEWA 3:99)
(OInd. lā́ti [3sg])
1. PIE *Lḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *Lā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Lā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Lā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Lā́h-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *lā́h-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. lā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OInd. lā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OInd. lā́-
(f.) ‘das Nehmen’
(KEWA 3:99)
(OInd. lā [sgN])
1. PIE *Lḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *Lā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Lā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Lā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Lā́h-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *lā́h-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. lā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OInd. lā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
HLu. arḫa laḫa·-
(vb.) ‘angreifen, HEG L:8’
(CHLu. 2.27.21)
(ARHA MANUS.*218(-)la/i/u?-ha-i)
1. PIE *Π·lḗɑho-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *Π·lā́ɑho-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·lā́ɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·lā́ho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·lā́ho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·lā́ha-
4. Π·lā́ha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. Π·lā́ḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√loi-
(IEW 665 lǝi-)
CLu. lalai-
(vb.) ‘nehmen’
(DLL. 61)
(CLu. la-la-a-i(-ua))
1. PIE *loloi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lalai-
CLu. laa-
(vb.) ‘nehmen’
(DLL. 61)
(CLu. la-a-at-ta [3sg] = Hitt. daš)
1. PIE *loi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lai̯a-
2. lai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → CLu. laa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
CLu. laima-
(pt.) ‘genommen’ (HHand. 90)
(DLL. 61)
(CLu. [l]a?-a-i-um-ma-an [sgA])
1. PIE *loimo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. laima-
√lei-
Dor. λέο-
(pr.) ‘wollen’
(IEW 665)
(if in El. λεοίταν · ἐθελοίτην)
1. PIE *léi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *léo-
2. léo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. λέο-
√lou-
Hitt. lalau-
(vb.) ‘nehmen’
(HHand. 91)
(HItt. lalauna [inf.])
1. PIE *lolou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. lalau-
CLu. lau̯ar-
(vb.) ‘berauben, entblößen’
(HHand. 93)
1. PIE *lou̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lau̯ar-
CLu. lau̯arima-
(pt.) ‘beraubt (oder ‘broken (?)’
(HHand. 93)
1. PIE *lou̯orimo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lau̯arima-


PIE √l- √ol- √el- (sb.) ‘Zweig, Baum, Hein, Temple, Gott’
(IEW 32)
√olk-
Goth. alh-
(f.) ‘Tempel’
(GoEtD. A120.)
1. PIE *olk-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *olx-
2. olx-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alx-
3. alx-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → Goth. alh-
OLith. al̃ka-
(m.) ‘heiliger Hain, Opferstelle’
(LiEtWb. 7)
1. PIE *oĺko-
*oĺ -> ol̃
Circumflex intonation for oĺ
Roĺ›ol̃ → *ol̃ko-
2. ol̃ko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OLith. al̃ka-
OEng. ealh-
(sb.) ‘Tempel’
(ASaxD. 230)
1. PIE *olko
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *olxo
2. olxo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alxa
3. alxa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *alx
4. alx
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *alh
5. alh
*a → ea
Change of *a into ea
Ra=›ea= → OEng. ealh
OHitt. alkešta-
(c.) ‘Zweig, Ast’
(HEG A:17-18)
1. PIE *olkesto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alkesta-
2. alkesta-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → OHitt. alkešta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ḫat·alkešna-
(.) ‘Weißdorn?’
(HEG A:17-18)
1. PIE *Π·olkesno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·alkesna-
2. Π·alkesna-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. Π·alkešna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√elko-
OLith. el̃ka-
(m.) ‘heiliger Hain’
(LiEtWb. 7)
1. PIE *eĺko-
*eĺ -> el̃
Circumflex intonation for eĺ
Reĺ›el̃ → *el̃ko-
2. el̃ko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OLith. el̃ka-
Latv. èlk-
(.) ‘Götze’
(LiEtWb. – XX)
(Latv. èlks)
1. PIE *eĺko
eĺ -› èl
Latvian tone rule eĺ -› èl
RAccLatv10 → *èlko
2. èlko
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *èlka
3. èlka
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Latv. èlk
Latv. èlk-
(.) ‘temple’
(LiEtWb. 7)
(Latv. èlka kalns ‘temple hill’)
1. PIE *eĺko
eĺ -› èl
Latvian tone rule eĺ -› èl
RAccLatv10 → *èlko
2. èlko
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *èlka
3. èlka
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Latv. èlk


PIE √l- √ol- √el- (sb.) ‘Fest, Feier’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√li-
Hitt. ḫašanta·li-
(EZEN4.) ‘ein Fest’
(HHand. 45)
(Hitt. ḫašant- ‘(rechtmäßig) geboren, neugeboren’)
Hitt. puru·li-
(EZEN4.) ‘puruli-Fest’
(HHand. 136)
(Hitt. EZEN4 puruliaš [sgG])
√lio-
Lat. compitā·lio-
(n.pl) ‘the festival of the Lares Compitales’ (OxLatD. 376)
(Lat. compitālia [plNA])
Lat. opā·lio-
(n.pl) ‘Fest der Ops’
(WH. 2:215)
(Lat. opālia)
Lat. saturnā·lio-
(n.pl) ‘Saturnalien’
(WH. 2:483)
(Lat. saturnālia)
Osc. uesul·lio-
(n.pl) ‘Feste der Göttin uesuna’
(WbOU. 851-2)
(Osc. uesulliais)
√litu-
OGaul. litu-
(PN.m.) ‘Lafête’
(DLG. 205)
(OGaul. litus [sgN])
OGaul. litu·geno-
(PN.m.) ‘né de la fête’
(DLG. 205)
(OGaul. litu·genos)
1. PIE *litu·gi̯eɦɑno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *litu·gi̯eɦno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. litu·gi̯eɦno-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *litu·ǵeɦno-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. litu·ǵeɦno-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *litu·ǵeno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. litu·ǵeno-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → OGaul. litu·geno-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
OGaul. litu·genā-
(PN.f.) ‘née de la fête’
(DLG. 205)
(OGaul. litogena)
1. PIE *litu·gi̯eɦɑnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *litu·gi̯eɦɑnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. litu·gi̯eɦɑnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *litu·gi̯eɦnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. litu·gi̯eɦnāh-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *litu·ǵeɦnāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. litu·ǵeɦnāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *litu·ǵenāh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. litu·ǵenāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *litu·ǵenā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. litu·ǵenā-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → OGaul. litu·genā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
Galat. λιτυ·γνᾱτο-
(PN.) ‘-(?)-’
(DLG. 205)
(Galat. λιτυγνατος)
1. PIE *litu·ginēɑɦto-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *litu·gināɑɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. litu·gināɑɦto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *litu·gināɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. litu·gināɦto-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *litu·ǵnāɦto-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. litu·ǵnāɦto-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *litu·ǵnāto-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. litu·ǵnāto-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *litu·gnāto-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. litu·gnāto-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Galat. λιτυ·γνᾱτο-
OGaul. litu·māro-
(PN.) 'Qui donne de grandes fêtes' ?
(DLG. 205)
(OGaul. litu-mari [sgG])
1. PIE *litu·mōro-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → OGaul. litu·māro-
OIr. lith-
(*-u) ‘jour de fête, heureux jour, festival’
(DLG. 205)
1. PIE *litu
VtV → VthV
Lenition of voiceless stop *t
Rt›th → OIr. lithu
Bret. lid-
(.) ‘solennité, cérémonie’
(DLG. 205)
1. PIE *litu
VtV -> VdV
Lenition of VtV into VdV 
Rt›d → Bret. lidu
√liu-
OGaul. nemnaliu-
(vb.) ‘célèbrer’
(DLG. 234)
(OGaul. nemnaliIumi [1sg])
1. PIE *nem·neɑh·liu-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *nem·naɑh·liu-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. nem·naɑh·liu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nem·nah·liu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nem·nah·liu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OGaul. nem·na·liu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√lno- √olno- √elno-
OIr. nemnall-
(sb.) ‘célébration (de la messe)’
(DIL. 477)
1. PIE *nem·neɑh·lno
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *nem·naɑh·lno
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. nem·naɑh·lno
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nem·nah·lno
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nem·nah·lno
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nem·na·lno
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. nem·na·lno
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *nem·na·llo
5. nem·na·llo
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → OIr. nem·na·ll


PIE √l- √ol- √lo- (vb.) ‘sprechen’ (sb.) ‘Zunge, Gerede’
(IEW 306)
√ol-
OIr. ol-
(pret.) ‘inquit’
(IEW 306 [4. el-, ol-])
√lolo-
Hitt. lala-
(c./n.) ‘Zunge; üble Rede, Diffamierung: EME
(HEG 2:19-20)
(Hitt. la-a-la-aš, la-la-aš, la-a-la-an, la-la-a-an, la-la-aš, la-a-li, la-a-lu-uš [plA])
1. PIE *lolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. lala-
Pal. lala-
(c.) ‘Zunge (??); CHD 3:21-5’
(DPal. 62)
(if in Pal. lalan·ta [sgA-Ort])
1. PIE *lolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. lala-
CLu. lala-
(*c.) ‘Zunge, Gerede’
(HHand. 91)
(CLu. EME-an, EME-ti, SHV 207-8, 265)
1. PIE *lolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lala-
Hitt. lala-
(vb.M.) ‘im magischen Spruch’
(HEG 2:20-1)
(Hitt. ma-a-a]n ŠA la-la-an-da me-ma-i nu la-la-at-ta-ru)
1. PIE *lolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. lala-
Hitt. lala-
(vb.) ‘sprechen; CGr2:46, HHand. 91’
(HEG 2:20)
(Hitt. la-la-u-ua-an-zi [inf.])
1. PIE *lolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. lala-
CLu. lala·ša-
(d.c.) ‘god of tongue’
(DLL. 62)
(GhR. 776, RDH. 69, CLuLex. 122, OHP. 1:279, Hitt. la-la-aš-ši [sgD])
1. PIE *lolo·so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lala·sa-
2. lala·sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. lala·ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√lolondɑɦ-
(HEG L:20-1)
Pal. lalanda
(.) ‘Zunge (?)’
(HHand. 91)
1. PIE *lolondɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lolondɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lolondɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lalandɦa-
3. lalandɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Pal. lalanda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lalanda-
(URU.) ‘cf. HEG L:20-1 & context; OGHErg. 92’
(OGH. 240)
(Hitt. la-la-an-ta, la-la-an-da; ma-a-a]n ŠA la-la-an-da me-ma-i nu la-la-at-ta-ru)
1. PIE *lolondɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lolondɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lolondɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lalandɦa-
3. lalandɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. lalanda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. lalandei-
(c.) ‘language’
(CHLu. 2.24.19)
(HLu. ‘LINGUA’-la-ti-i-na [sgA])
1. PIE *lolondɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lolondɦei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lolondɦei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lalandɦei-
3. lalandɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. lalandei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lalandei·u̯ašḫa-
(f.c.)
(HEG 2:2)
(Hitt. la-la-an-ti-ua-aš-ḫa [abs.]; NOMS. 681)
1. PIE *lolondɑɦei·u̯osɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lolondɦei·u̯osho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lolondɦei·u̯osho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lalandɦei·u̯asha-
3. lalandɦei·u̯asha-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *lalandei·u̯asha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. lalandei·u̯asha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *lalandei·u̯ašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. lalandei·u̯ašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. lalandei·u̯ašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√loli-
Hitt. lali-
(c.) ‘tongue’
(HIL. 597)
(Hitt. la-a-li-it)
1. PIE *loli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. lali-
CLu. lali-
(c.) ‘Wort, Rede’ (HEG 2:20) (: ‘langue (?)’)
(DLL. 62)
(CLu. la-li-iš, la-a-li-in [sgA], EME-in-zi)
1. PIE *loli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lali-
HLu. lali-
(I.) – (cf. HEG 2:20)
(CHLu. 10.37.2)
(HLu. Ila-li-sá [sgN])
1. PIE *loli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. lali-
Lyd. laλẽn-
(pt.) ‘aussprechend’
(LydWb. 158)
(Lyd. laλẽnś [pt.])
1. PIE *loli̯en-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lali̯en-
2. lali̯en-
*en → ẽn
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
ReN›ẽN → *lali̯ẽn-
3. lali̯ẽn-
*li̯ -> λ
Change of li̯ into λ
Rli̯›λ → Lyd. laλẽn-


PIE √l- √ol- √el- (vb.) ‘verzaubern, verhexen’ (a.) ‘besessen’ (cf. Goth. wōd- ‘id.’, OHG. wuot- ‘insanitus’)
(IEW 30+33)
√olp-
(HEG I:18, 20-21)
(HW2 A: 60f., HED 1/2: 39, Melchert 1994:104, HIL. 206-7)
Lith. al̃p-
(vb.) ’das Bewußtsein verlieren, ohnmächtig werden’
(LiEtWb. 9)
(For Lith. al̃pti ‘swoon, faint, be ecstatic’ here, see Puhvel (HED 1/2: 39))
1. PIE *oĺp-
*oĺ -> ol̃
Circumflex intonation for oĺ
Roĺ›ol̃ → *ol̃p-
2. ol̃p-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lith. al̃p-
TochB. ālp-
(PN.) (From the Uyghur word for ‘the powerful’)
(DTochB. 55)
1. PIE *ōlp-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → TochB. ālp-
OIcl. alf-
(m.) ‘Albe, Elf’
(ANEtWb. 5-6)
(OIcl. alfr [sgN])
1. PIE *olpo-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›fRestr → *olfo-
2. olfo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. alfa-
OEng. ælf-
(m.) ‘an elf, genius, incubus’
(ASaxD. 14)
(Mikkola & Petersson apud Fraenkel)
1. PIE *olpi-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *olfi-
2. olfi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alfi-
3. alfi-
alfi → ælf
Umlaut a-i -> æ
Ralfi›ælf → OEng. ælf-
OEng. ælf·ādl
(.) ‘Elf-disease’ (ephialtae morbus)
(ASaxD. 14)
1. PIE *olpi̯·oidɑɦlo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *olpi̯·oidɦlo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. olpi̯·oidɦlo
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *olfi̯·oidɦlo
3. olfi̯·oidɦlo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *olfi̯·oidlo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. olfi̯·oidlo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alfi̯·aidla
5. alfi̯·aidla
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *alfi̯·aidl
6. alfi̯·aidl
alfi → ælf
Umlaut a-i -> æ
Ralfi›ælf → *ælf·aidl
7. ælf·aidl
*ai → ā
Monophthongization of *ai into ā
Rai›ā → OEng. ælf·ādl
Hitt. alpant-
(pt.) ‘behext, verzaubert’ (of DUMU ‘child’)
(HEG 1:18)
(Hitt. DUMU-la-aš al-pa-an-za, HHand. 14)
1. PIE *olpont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. alpant-
√elp-
OEng. ilf
(f.) ‘an elf’
(ASaxD. 588)
1. PIE *elp-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *elf-
2. elf-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → OEng. ilf-
OEng. ilfig-
(a.) ‘affected by elves, mad, frantic’
(ASaxD. 588)
1. PIE *elpigɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *elpigɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. elpigɦo
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *elfigɦo
3. elfigɦo
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *elfigo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. elfigo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *elfiga
5. elfiga
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *ilfiga
6. ilfiga
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OEng. ilfig
√olu-
(HEG I:18)
(IEW 30 [diff.])
ORun. alu-
(n.) ‘magic spell’
(ANEtWb. 7)
[Polomé apud HEG A:20, IE&IE 708]
1. PIE *olu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → ORun. alu-
OIcl. ǫl·rūn
(n.) ‘tabu’
(ANEtWb. 7)
1. PIE *olu·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alu·Σ-
2. alu·Σ-
*a — u → ǫ — Ø
Umlaut for a — u
Ralu›ǫl → OIcl. ǫl·Σ-
Hitt. alu̯anzāḫ-
(vb.1.) ‘UḪ7 : verzaubern, verhexen’
(HEG 1:20-21)
1. PIE *olu̯ondɑɦi̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *olu̯ondɑɦi̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. olu̯ondɑɦi̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *olu̯ondɦi̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. olu̯ondɦi̯āh-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *olu̯onjɦāh-
4. olu̯onjɦāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alu̯anjɦāh-
5. alu̯anjɦāh-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *alu̯anjāh-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. alu̯anjāh-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *alu̯anzāh-
7. alu̯anzāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. alu̯anzāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. alu̯anzāḫa-
(c.) ‘Zauber(kraft)’ : ‘sorcery’
(HHand. 14)
1. PIE *olu̯ondɑɦi̯ēɑho-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *olu̯ondɑɦi̯āɑho-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. olu̯ondɑɦi̯āɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *olu̯ondɦi̯āho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. olu̯ondɦi̯āho-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *olu̯onjɦāho-
4. olu̯onjɦāho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alu̯anjɦāha-
5. alu̯anjɦāha-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *alu̯anjāha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. alu̯anjāha-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *alu̯anzāha-
7. alu̯anzāha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. alu̯anzāḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √l- (neg.) ‘no-, un’
(IEW 666)
(Pedersen 1938: 163-4 and Sommer 1947: 65)
√lē-
(CHD L:55f.)
(HED L:77)
Hitt. lē
(neg.) ‘nicht’
(HEG 3:51)
(Hitt. li-e (OS), HIL. 605)
OHG. lā-
(vb.) ‘do not’ (Sommer 1947:65)
(HEG 3:51)
(OHG. lā [ipv2sg] ‘don’t’)
1. PIE *lē-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → OHG. lā-
OHG. lā-
(vb.) ‘lassen’
(HEG 3:51)
(OHG. lā [ipv2sg], lān [inf.])
1. PIE *lē-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → OHG. lā-


PIE √l- √ol- √el- √lo- √le- (sb.) ‘Stein, Fels’
(IEW —)
√olo-
HLu. ala-
(c.) ‘Felsblock’
(CHLu. 10.25.1)
(HLu. á-la-na [sgA])
1. PIE *olo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ala-
OInd. tar·ala-
(m.) ‘der Mittlere Edelstein in einem Halsschmuck’
(KEWA 1:481)
1. PIE *Π·oLo-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *Π·olo-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. Π·olo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. Π·ala-


PIE √l- √lo- √le- (vb.) ‘lösen, freimachen’
(IEW —)
√lo-
Hitt. la-
(vb.M.) ‘lösen, freimachen’
(HIL. 589)
(Hitt. la-at-ta-at)
1. PIE *lo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. la-
CLu. la-
(vb.) ‘lösen, freimachen’
(KUB xxxv 43 Vs. ii 17)
(CLu. la-at-ta [3sg])
1. PIE *lo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. la-
HLu. la-
(I.c.) ‘if ± ‘Salvator’’
(CHLu. 2.27.17)
(HLu. la-sá [sgN])
1. PIE *lo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. la-
Alb. la-
(vb.) ‘lassen’ (: ‘let’)
(HIL. 589)
(Alb. la [pret3sg])
1. PIE *lo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Alb. la-
√loi-
Hitt. lai-
(vb.2.) ‘lösen, freimachen’ [HED 5:31f.]
(HIL. 589)
(Hitt. la-a-i [3sg], la-a-ú [3sg])
1. PIE *loi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. lai-


PIE √l- √lo- √le- ‘schneiden’
(IEW —)
(Pyysalo)
√lo-
OInd. la-
(sb.) ‘cutting’
(MonWil. 891)
(W. la-)
1. PIE *Lo-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *lo-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. lo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. la-
√lɑh-
HLu. laḫa-
(MANUS.*218vb.) ‘infringe’
(CHLu. 2.27.20)
(HLu. ARHA MANUS.*218(-)la/i/u?-ha-i)
1. PIE *leɑho-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑho-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *laho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. laho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laha-
4. laha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. laḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
TochB. la·stāṅk-
(sb.) ‘executioner’s block’ ‹TochB. stānk ‘palace’›
(DTochB. 546)
(TochB. mäkte kertte lastānkmeṃ [Abl])
1. PIE *leɑh·Σ
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑh·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑh·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lah·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lah·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. la·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
TochA. lā·staṅk-
(sb.) ‘idem(?)’
(Poucha 266)
(TochA. lāstaṅk [233 a 3])
1. PIE *lēɑh·Σ
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑh·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑh·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāh·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāh·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochA. lā·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√lɑhmi-
√lɑhni-
Lat. laniā-
(pr1.) ‘zerfleischen, zerstückeln, zerreißen’
(WH. 1:759-60)
(Lat. laniāre)
1. PIE *leɑni̯ēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑni̯ēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑni̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *laɑni̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. laɑni̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lani̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. lani̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lani̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. lani̯ā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. laniā-
Lat. lanio-
(m.) ‘Fleischer, Schlächter, Metzker; Henker’
(WH. 1:759-60)
(Lat. lanius)
1. PIE *leɑni̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑni̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑni̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lani̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lani̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. lanio-
Lat. laniolo-
(n.) ‘Fleischbank’
(WH. 1:760)
(Lat. laniolum)
1. PIE *leɑni̯olo-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑni̯olo-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑni̯olo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lani̯olo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lani̯olo-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. laniolo-
Lat. laniēnā-
(f.) ‘Fleischbank; Zerfleischung’
(WH. 1:760)
(Lat. laniēna)
1. PIE *leɑni̯ēnēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑni̯ēnēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑni̯ēnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *laɑni̯ēnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. laɑni̯ēnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lani̯ēnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. lani̯ēnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lani̯ēnā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. lani̯ēnā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. laniēnā-
Lat. lanistā-
(f.) ‘Gladiatorenmeister; Verhetzer’
(WH. 1:760)
(also ‘Abrichter der Kampfhähne’)
1. PIE *leɑnistēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑnistēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑnistēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *laɑnistāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. laɑnistāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lanistāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. lanistāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. lanistā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)


PIE √lɑh- (vb.) ‘brennen, leuchten, glänzen’ (sb.) ‘Lampe, Laterne, Zeichen, Mal’
(IEW –)
(+ Pyysalo)
√lɑh-
HLu. lāḫ-
(*vb.) ‘burn’
(CHLu. 10.12.14)
(in the causative HLu. FLAMMAE(?)(-)lax-há-nú-wa/i-tax)
1. PIE *lēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. lāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√lɑhNp-
Gr. λελάμπ-
(pf.) ‘leuchten (lassen), glänzen’
(Gr. λέλαμπε [3sg])
1. PIE *leléɑhmp-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *leláɑhmp-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. leláɑhmp-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *leláhmp-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. leláhmp-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lelámp-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lelámp-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. λελάμπ-
Gr. λάμπο-
(vb.) ‘leuchten’
(Gr. λάμπω [1sg])
1. PIE *léɑhmpo-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *láɑhmpo-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. láɑhmpo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *láhmpo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. láhmpo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lámpo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lámpo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. λάμπο-
Gr. λαμπάδ-
(f.) ‘Fackel, Fackellauf’
(GEW 2:79)
1. PIE *leɑhmpéɑhd-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑhmpéɑhd-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑhmpéɑhd-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *laɑhmpáɑhd-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
3. laɑhmpáɑhd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lahmpáhd-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. lahmpáhd-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lampád-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. lampád-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. λαμπάδ-
Gr. λαμπρό-
(a.) ‘leuchtend, glänzend’
(GEW 2:79)
1. PIE *leɑhmpró-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑhmpró-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑhmpró-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lahmpró-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lahmpró-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lampró-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lampró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. λαμπρό-
√lɑhnskiito-
OInd. lāñchita-
(pt.) ‘gekennzeichnet’
(KEWA 3:98)
1. PIE *Lēɑhnski̯ito-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Lāɑhnski̯ito-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Lāɑhnski̯ito-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Lāhnski̯ito-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Lāhnski̯ito-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *lāhnski̯ito-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. lāhnski̯ito-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *lāhnsćito-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. lāhnsćito-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lāhnsćita-
6. lāhnsćita-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lānsćita-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. lānsćita-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *lānsśita-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
8. lānsśita-
*sś → ch
Change of sś to ch
Rsś›ch → *lānchita-
9. lānchita-
*nch → ñch
Palatalization of nasal
Rnch›ñch → OInd. lāñchita-
OInd. lāñchana-
(n.) ‘Zeichen, Mal’
(KEWA 3:98)
1. PIE *Lēɑhnski̯ono-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Lāɑhnski̯ono-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Lāɑhnski̯ono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Lāhnski̯ono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Lāhnski̯ono-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *lāhnski̯ono-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. lāhnski̯ono-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *lāhnsćono-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. lāhnsćono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lāhnsćana-
6. lāhnsćana-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lānsćana-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. lānsćana-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *lānsśana-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
8. lānsśana-
*sś → ch
Change of sś to ch
Rsś›ch → *lānchana-
9. lānchana-
*nch → ñch
Palatalization of nasal
Rnch›ñch → OInd. lāñchana-
√lɑhnterneɑh-
Lat. lanternā-
(f.) ‘Laterne, Lampe’
(WH. 1:760)
1. PIE *lēɑhnternēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑhnternāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑhnternāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāhnternāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāhnternāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lānternā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lānternā
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → Lat. lanternā
(SPIE §2.5.8)
Lat. lanternārio-
(a.) ‘Vorleuchter’
(WH. 1:760)
1. PIE *lēɑhnternēɑhrii̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑhnternāɑhrii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑhnternāɑhrii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāhnternāhrii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāhnternāhrii̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lānternārii̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lānternārii̯o-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *lanternārii̯o-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. lanternārii̯o-
*ii̯o → io
Loss *i̯ between i and o
Rii̯o›io → Lat. lanternārio-
√lɑhnu-
HLu. lāḫnu̯a-
(cs.) ‘make burn/light’
(CHLu. 10.12.14)
(HLu. FLAMMAE(?)(-)lax-há-nú-wa/i-tax)
1. PIE *lēɑhnu̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑhnu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑhnu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāhnu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāhnu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lāhnu̯a-
4. lāhnu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. lāḫnu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√lɑhp-
Lith. lópė-
(f.) ‘Fackel, Licht, Bündel Leuchtspäne’
(LiEtWb. 386)
(Lith. lópē [sgN]
1. PIE *lḗɑhpēhɑ-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *lā́ɑhpēhɑ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lā́ɑhpēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lā́hpēh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lā́hpēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lā́pē-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lā́pē-
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *lṓpē-
(XX:XX)
5. lṓpē-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → *lópē-
6. lópē-
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → Lith. lópė-
Latv. lāpa
(f.) ‘Fackel, Kienfackel’ (ANEtWb. 351)
(LiEtWb. 386)
(Latv. lāpa [sgN])
1. PIE *lēɑhpēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑhpāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑhpāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāhpāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāhpāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lāpā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lāpā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → Latv. lāpa
OPr. lopi-
(.) ‘Flamme’ (Voc. 44)
(LiEtWb. 386)
(OPr. lopis [sgN])
1. PIE *lēɑhpi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑhpi-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑhpi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāhpi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāhpi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lāpi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lāpi-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *lōpi-
(XX:XX)
5. lōpi-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → OPr. lopi-


PIE √lɑh- (vb.) ‘treiben, schlagen’ (sb.) ‘Feldzug; Spitze, Stoß’
(IEW 306-7, LIV2 :235)
(+ Pyysalo)
√lɑh-
(CHD L-N: 4f, HIL. 591)
(Pyysalo Toch + Gr.; Pyysalo 2013:234)
Hitt. laḫa-
(c.) ‘Feldzug, Reise’
(HEG 2:8, CHD 3:4-6)
(Hitt. la-a-aḫ-ḫi)
1. PIE *loɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *loho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. loho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laha-
3. laha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. laḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
TochB. la-
(vb.) ‘emerge, come out’
(DTochB. 552)
(TochB. laṃ [3sg])
1. PIE *leɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. la-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
TochB. la-
(vb.) ‘leave, exit’
(DTochB. 551)
(TochB. lat [2sg], Krause 1952:192)
1. PIE *leɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. la-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Gr. ἐλά-
(vb.tr.) ‘treiben, stoßen’
(Cos. ἐλάτω)
1. PIE *eléɑh-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *eláɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. eláɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eláh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. eláh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *elá-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. elá-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἐλά-
Maced. ἰζ·ελά-
(f.) ‘ἀγαθὴ τύχη : good luck’
(LSJ. 823)
(Hes. ἰζελά · ἀγαθὴ τύχη)
1. PIE *idɑɦi̯·eléɑh-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *idɑɦi̯·eláɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. idɑɦi̯·eláɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *idɦi̯·eláh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. idɦi̯·eláh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *idɦi̯·elá-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. idɦi̯·elá-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *idi̯·elá-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. idi̯·elá-
PIE *di̯ → j
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
Rdi̯›j → *ij·elá-
6. ij·elá-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *iz·elá-
7. iz·elá-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Maced. ἰζ·ελά-
Gr. ἐλήλα-
(pf.M.) ‘getrieben sein’
(Gr. ἐλήλαται [3sg])
1. PIE *elḗleɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *elḗlaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. elḗlaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *elḗlah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. elḗlah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *elḗla-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. elḗla-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἐλήλα-
√lɑhi-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. laḫi-
(c.) ‘Nadel; in MUNUSŠU.GI-Ritual’
(HEG 2:13)
(CHD 3:7, Stefanini (1983:149
1. PIE *loɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lohi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lohi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lahi-
3. lahi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. laḫi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
RV. lā́ya-
(m/n.) ‘Geschoß, Pfeil’
(WbRV. 1187)
1. PIE *Lóɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Lóhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Lóhi̯o-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *lóhi̯o-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. lóhi̯o-
PIE *óhCV → ā́hCV
Brugmann’s Law for *óhCV
RóHCV›ā́HCV → *lā́hi̯o-
(SPIE §2.3.7)
4. lā́hi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lā́hi̯a-
5. lā́hi̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lā́i̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. lā́i̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. lā́ya-
CLu. laḫei-
(vb.) ‘ins Feld/den Krieg ziehen, reisen’
(DLL. 61)
(CLu. la-aḫ-ḫi-i[n]-ta-ri [3pl])
1. PIE *leɑhei-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑhei-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑhei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lahei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lahei-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. laḫei-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. laḫei̯a-
(vb.) ‘ins Feld/den Krieg ziehen, reisen’
(HIL. 590)
(Hitt. la-aḫ-ḫi-ia-mi, la-aḫ-ḫi-ia-az-zi, la-aḫ-ḫi-ia-at-tén)
1. PIE *leɑhei̯o
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑhei̯o
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑhei̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lahei̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lahei̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lahei̯a
4. lahei̯a
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. laḫei̯a
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. lalḫei̯a-
(c.) ‘marche, voyage: Feldzug, Reise, HHand. 91’
(DLL. 61)
(CLu. la-al-ḫi-ia-an [sgA])
1. PIE *lolɑhei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lolhei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lolhei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lalhei̯a-
3. lalhei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. lalḫei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. laḫei̯a-
(I.) ‘-(?)-’
(CHLu. 10.40.1)
(HLu. Ila-hi-ia-sá [sgG])
1. PIE *leɑhei̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑhei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑhei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lahei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lahei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lahei̯a-
4. lahei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. laḫei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. laḫ·laḫei̯a-
(vb.A.) ‘erregt sein’
(HEG 2:11,13)
(Hitt. la-aḫ-la-aḫ-ḫi-ia-u-e-ni)
1. PIE *leɑh·leɑhei̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑh·laɑhei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑh·laɑhei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lah·lahei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lah·lahei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lah·lahei̯a-
4. lah·lahei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. laḫ·laḫei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√lɑhn-
TochB. lan-
(vb.) ‘emerge : hinausgehen’
(DTochB. 551)
(TochB. ostmeṃ lantsi [inf.] camñcer [2sg] ‘you can leave home’)
1. PIE *leɑhn-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑhn-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑhn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lahn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lahn-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. lan-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
TochB. lalña-
(.) ‘leaving, going out, exit : Skt. niryāṇam’
(DTochB. 552)
(TochB. lalñe-)
1. PIE *lolɑhni̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lolhni̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lolhni̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lalhni̯a-
3. lalhni̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lalni̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lalni̯a-
*ni̯ → ñ
Palatalization of *n before i̯
Rni̯›ñ → TochB. lalña-
Arm. elane-
(vb.) ‘ausgehen, hinaufsteigen’
(GEW 2:481)
(Arm. elanem [1sg])
1. PIE *eleɑhne-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *elaɑhne-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. elaɑhne-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *elahne-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. elahne-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Arm. elane-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√lɑhs-
Gr. ἔλασ-
(s.ao.) ‘treiben’
Gr. ἤλασα [1sg])
1. PIE *éleɑhss-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *élaɑhss-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. élaɑhss-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *élahss-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. élahss-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *élass-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. élass-
*ss → s
Degemination of *ss
Rss›s → *élas-
5. élas-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἔλασ-
√lɑht-
Gr. ἐλατήρ-
(m.) ‘Treiber, Wagenlenker’
(GEW 2:482)
1. PIE *eleɑhtḗr
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *elaɑhtḗr
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. elaɑhtḗr
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *elahtḗr
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. elahtḗr
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *elatḗr
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. elatḗr
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἐλατήρ


PIE √lɑh- (vb.) ‘waschen, strömen’ (sb.) ‘Wasserrinne, Wasserlauf’
(IEW 309-10)
(+ Pyysalo)
√ēlɑho-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. ēlḫa-
(vb.) ‘reinwaschen’
(HEG 2:5)
(CLu. e-el-ḫa-a-du [3sg], KUB 35 39 II 4;3, DLL. 36)
1. PIE *ēlɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēlho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēlho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēlha-
3. ēlha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ēlḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OIcl. āl-
(m.) ‘Wasserrinne, Streifen am rücken eines Tieres’
(ANEtWb. 6)
(OIcl. āll [sgN])
1. PIE *ēlɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēlho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēlho-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ēlo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. ēlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēla-
4. ēla-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → OIcl. āla-
Far. āl-
(m.) ‘schmaler Wasserlauf’
(ANEtWb. 6)
(Far. ālur [sgN])
1. PIE *ēlɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēlho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēlho-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ēlo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. ēlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēla-
4. ēla-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → Far. āla-
CLu. ēlēlḫa-
(.) ‘reinwaschen’ (die Götter)
(HEG 2:5)
(CLu. e-le-el-ḫa-(a-)-an-du [3pl], KUB 35 39 II 4,10,26
1. PIE *ēlēlɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēlēlho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēlēlho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēlēlha-
3. ēlēlha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ēlēlḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√ēlɑhi-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. ēlēlḫai-
(vb.) ‘(ab)waschen’ (HHand. 61)
(DLL. 36)
(CLu. [e?-l]e-el-ha-a-i-t[i] [3sg
1. PIE *ēlēlɑhoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēlēlhoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēlēlhoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēlēlhai-
3. ēlēlhai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ēlēlḫai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OIcl. æla-
(vb.) ‘schnell strömen’
(ANEtWb. 681)
1. PIE *ēlɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēlhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēlhi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ēli̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. ēli̯o-
*ēRC → eRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ēRC
RēRC›eRC → *eli̯o-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
4. eli̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eli̯a-
5. eli̯a-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *ili̯a-
6. ili̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → OIcl. ilja-


PIE √lɑh- (vb.) ‘geben’ (sb.) ‘Opfer’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + RV.)
√lēɑh-
Hitt. lāḫ·ura-
() ((GIŠ)c.) ‘Opfertisch, Opferschrank’
(HEG 2:16)
(Hitt. la-aḫ-ḫu-ra-aš [sgN], la-ḫu-u-ra-aš, la-aḫ-ḫu-ra-an, HED 5:13f.)
1. PIE *lēɑh·uro-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑh·uro-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑh·uro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāh·uro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāh·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lāh·ura-
4. lāh·ura-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. lāḫ·ura-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. lāḫ·ura-
(URU.) ‹cf. above; Hitt. GIŠura- ‘Tablett,Tisch’ ›
(OGH. 237)
(Hitt. la-aḫ-ḫu-u-ra KBo 16 97 Rs. 18 [All], DINGIRLUM; Orakelanfrage)
1. PIE *lēɑh·uro-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑh·uro-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑh·uro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāh·uro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāh·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lāh·ura-
4. lāh·ura-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. lāḫ·ura-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. lāḫ·urama-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGH. 237)
(Hitt. la-ḫu-u-ra-ma-aš [“Vorratshaus (É NA4KIŠIB) zur Zeit der Königs Telipinu.”])
1. PIE *lēɑh·uromo-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑh·uromo-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑh·uromo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāh·uromo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāh·uromo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lāh·urama-
4. lāh·urama-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. lāḫ·urama-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. lāḫ·urei̯a-
(c.) ‘Opfertisch, Opferschrank’
(HEG 2:16)
(Hitt. la-a-ḫu-ri-ia [L], KBo 11 18 V 12)
1. PIE *lēɑh·urei̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑh·urei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑh·urei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāh·urei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāh·urei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lāh·urei̯a-
4. lāh·urei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. lāḫ·urei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. lāḫ·uruma-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGH. 237)
(Hitt. la-aḫ-ḫu-ru-ma-aš)
1. PIE *lēɑh·urumo-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑh·urumo-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑh·urumo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāh·urumo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāh·urumo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lāh·uruma-
4. lāh·uruma-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. lāḫ·uruma-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√lēɑhtR-
RV. a·lātr̥ṇá-
(a.) ‘nicht herausgebend’
(WbRV. 121)
1. PIE *Π·Lēɑhtr̥nó-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·Lāɑhtr̥nó-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·Lāɑhtr̥nó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·Lāhtr̥nó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·Lāhtr̥nó-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *Π·lāhtr̥nó-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. Π·lāhtr̥nó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·lāhtr̥ná-
5. Π·lāhtr̥ná-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·lātr̥ná-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. Π·lātr̥ná-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. Π·lātr̥ṇá-


PIE √lɑhn- (sb.) ‘Lache, Morast, usw.’
(IEW 653-4)
(+ Pyysalo)
√lēɑhn-
OIcl. lōn-
(f.) ‘Strandmeer’
(ANEtWb. 366)
1. PIE *lēɑhnēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑhnāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑhnāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāhnāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāhnāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lānā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lānā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *lōnō
(XX:XX)
5. lōnō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *lōna
6. lōna
*-a -u
Change of root final -a into -u
R=a›=u → *lōnu
7. lōnu
*-u → Ø
Loss of -u in root-final position
R=u›=0 → OIcl. lōn
Hitt. lāḫni-
(c.) ‘ein drinkbar Substanz’
(HEG 2, 14)
(Hitt. la-aḫ-ni-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *lēɑhni-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑhni-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑhni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāhni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāhni-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. lāḫni-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ·lāḫnid šeḫ-
(vb.) ‘mit Laḫni- bespringen’
(HEG 2, 14)
(Hitt. la-aḫ-ni-it [sgI])
1. PIE *lēɑhnidɑh·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑhnidɑh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑhnidɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāhnidh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāhnidh·Σ-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *lāhnid·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. lāhnid·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. lāḫnid·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Latv. lāni-
(f.) ‘Morast’
(ANEtWb. 366)
(Latv. lānis)
1. PIE *lēɑhniɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑhniɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑhniɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāhnih-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāhnih-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Latv. lāni-
(SPIE §2.1.4)


PIE √lɑhu- √leɑhu- √lēɑhu- (vb.) ‘gießen, schütten; baden, waschen, spülen’
(IEW 692)
(WP. 2:441)
√lēɑhu-
Hitt. lāḫu-
(vb.2.) ‘to pour (water)’ (Polomè 1965:39n.171)
(HEG L:4)
(Hitt. la-a-ḫu-i [3sg], KBo. 17 1 I 16)
1. PIE *lēɑhu-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑhu-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāhu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāhu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. lāḫu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. lāḫu-
(vb.1.) ‘gießen, schütten’ (CHD 3:13-15)
(HEG L:3)
(Hitt. la-aḫ-ḫu-tén [2pl])
1. PIE *lēɑhu-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑhu-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāhu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāhu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. lāḫu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lat. lāu-
(pf.) ‘baden, waschen, spülen’
(WH. 1:773-)
(Lat. lāuī [1sg])
1. PIE *lēɑhu
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑhu
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑhu
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāhu
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāhu
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. lāu
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Hitt. lāḫu-
(c.) ‘ein Gefäß für Waschwasser, HHand. 90’
(HEG L:4,15)
(Hitt. a-ar-ru-ma-aš [G] la-a-aḫ-ḫu-uš [sgN], KUB 3 94 II 17)
1. PIE *lēɑhu-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑhu-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāhu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāhu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. lāḫu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√leɑhuo-
Hitt. laḫu̯a-
(vb.) ‘gießen, schütten’
(HEG 2:3)
(Hitt. la-a-aḫ-ḫu-ua-tén [2pl], la-ḫu-an-zi, la-ḫu-ua-an-zi [3pl])
1. PIE *leɑhu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lahu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lahu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lahu̯a-
4. lahu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. laḫu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lat. lauo-
(pr.) ‘baden, waschen, spülen’
(WH. 1:773-)
(Lat. lauō [1sg], lauĕre [inf.])
1. PIE *leɑhu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lahu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lahu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lau̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lau̯o-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. lauo-
√lɑhuo-
Hitt. lelḫu̯a-
(vb.2.) ‘gießen, schütten’
(HEG L:57-58)
(Hitt. le-e-el-ḫu-an-zi [3pl])
1. PIE *lelɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lelhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lelhu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lelhu̯a-
3. lelhu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. lelḫu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√lɑhun-
CLu. laḫunei-
(vb.) ‘waschen, schütten’
(DLL. 61)
(CLu. la-ḫu-ni-ḫa [1sg])
1. PIE *leɑhunei-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑhunei-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑhunei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lahunei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lahunei-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. laḫunei-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√lelɑhun·dɑɦo-
Hitt. lelḫun·da-
(vb.) ‘gießen’
(HEG 2:58)
(Hitt. li-el-ḫu-u-un-da-an-zi, le-el-ḫu-u-un-ta-an-zi)
1. PIE *lelɑhun·dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lelhun·dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lelhun·dɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lelhun·dɦa-
3. lelhun·dɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *lelhun·da-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. lelhun·da-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. lelḫun·da-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. lelḫun·dai-
(DUG.c.) (ein Gefäß) ‹ if ‘pouring-vessel’ (?) ›
(CHD 3:60)
(Hitt. li-el-ḫu-u-un-da-in [sgA])
1. PIE *lelɑhun·dɑɦoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lelhun·dɦoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lelhun·dɦoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lelhun·dɦai-
3. lelhun·dɦai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *lelhun·dai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. lelhun·dai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. lelḫun·dai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √lɦɑbɑɦ- √loɦɑbɑɦ- √leɦɑbɑɦ- (sb.) ‘Elfenbein, Elephant’
(IEW –)
√loɦɑbɑɦ-
(CHD 3:12f.)
‹OAnat. preserves ḫ+Stop, no ḫ -> Ø; Melchert 1994:249›
CLu. laḫba-
(GKL.) ‘Elfenbein : ivory, HHand. 90’
(DLL. 61)
(CLu. la-aḫ-pa-aš [plD?] ú-nu-ua-an-du)
1. PIE *loɦɑbɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *loɦbɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. loɦbɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laɦbɦa-
3. laɦbɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *laɦba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. laɦba-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. laḫba-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. laḫba-
(sb.) ‘Elfenbein : MA-KU-UT KAxUD AM.SI’
(HEG 2:14)
(Hitt. la-aḫ-pa-aš-ma-aš kurakiš)
1. PIE *loɦɑbɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *loɦbɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. loɦbɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laɦbɦa-
3. laɦbɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *laɦba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. laɦba-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. laḫba-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√leɦɑbɑɦeɑhnt-
(GEW 1:XX)
Gr. ἐ·λέφαντ-
(.) ‘Elfenbein, Elefantenzahn’
(GEW 2:165)
1. PIE *e·léɦɑbɑɦeɑhnt-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *e·léɦɑbɑɦaɑhnt-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. e·léɦɑbɑɦaɑhnt-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *e·léɦbɦahnt-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. e·léɦbɦahnt-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *e·lébɦahnt-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. e·lébɦahnt-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *e·lébɦant-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. e·lébɦant-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *e·léphant-
6. e·léphant-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἐ·λέφαντ-
LinB. ἐ·λεπαντ-
(.) ‘elephant’
(GEW 1:493)
(LinB. e-re-pa [sgN], e-re-pa-to [sgG])
1. PIE *e·leɦɑbɑɦeɑhnt-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *e·leɦɑbɑɦaɑhnt-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. e·leɦɑbɑɦaɑhnt-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *e·leɦbɦahnt-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. e·leɦbɦahnt-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *e·lebɦahnt-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. e·lebɦahnt-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *e·lebɦant-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. e·lebɦant-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *e·lephant-
6. e·lephant-
*ph → p
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *ph
Rph›p → *e·lepant-
7. e·lepant-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. ἐ·λεπαντ-
LinB. ἐ·λεπαντεjο-
(a.) ‘made of ivory’
(DMycGr. 393)
(LinB. e-re-pa-te-jo)
1. PIE *e·leɦɑbɑɦeɑhntei̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *e·leɦɑbɑɦaɑhntei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. e·leɦɑbɑɦaɑhntei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *e·leɦbɦahntei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. e·leɦbɦahntei̯o-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *e·lebɦahntei̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. e·lebɦahntei̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *e·lebɦantei̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. e·lebɦantei̯o-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *e·lephantei̯o-
6. e·lephantei̯o-
*ph → p
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *ph
Rph›p → *e·lepantei̯o-
7. e·lepantei̯o-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *e·lepantejo-
8. e·lepantejo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. ἐ·λεπαντεjο-


PIE √li- (vb.) ‘umwinden, binden’ (sb.) ‘Flachs, Lein, Netz, usw.’
(IEW 691)
(+ Pyysalo)
√li-
Hitt. ali-
() ((SÍG)c.) (eine bestimmte Wolle und deren Fäden)
(HEG 1:16)
(Hitt. ališ, alin, alit, EHS. 203, HHand. 14
1. PIE *oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ali-
Hitt. ḫul·ali-
(SÍGn.) ‘Binde, Wickel’
(HHand. 53)
1. PIE *hɑul·oli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hul·oli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hul·oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hul·ali-
3. hul·ali-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫul·ali-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫul·ali-
(vb.) ‘umwinden, umwickeln’
(HIL. 415)
1. PIE *hɑul·oli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hul·oli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hul·oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hul·ali-
3. hul·ali-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫul·ali-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OInd. āli-
(pf.) ‘binden’
(KEWA 1:555)
(in OInd. ālita- ‘gebunden’)
1. PIE *ōLi-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *ōli-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. ōli-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → OInd. āli-
√leio-
CLu. pu̯·alei̯a-
(.) ‘a garment for the leg or foot?:
(CHD P:369)
(CLu. pu-wa-li-ia-an-za [sgNA], HIL. 791)
1. PIE *pu̯·olei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. pu̯·alei̯a-
Hitt. pu̯·alei̯a-
(.) ‘a garment for the leg or foot?’
(CHD P:369)
(Hitt. pu-ua-li-ia [sgNA], HIL. 791)
1. PIE *pu̯·olei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pu̯·alei̯a-
√lino-
Lith. lìna-
(m.sg) ‘Flachsstengel, einzelne Flachspflanze’
(LiEtWb. 373)
(Lith. lìnas [sgN], linaĩ [plN])
1. PIE *líno-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *lìno-
2. lìno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lith. lìna-
LinB. λινο-
(n.) ‘Lein’
(GEW 2:125-6)
(LinB. ri-no = λίνον)
1. PIE *lino-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. λινο-
Gr. λίνο-
(n.) ‘Lein(pflanze), Flachs, Linnen, Faden, Netz’
(GEW 2:125-6)
(Gr. λίνο-)
1. PIE *líno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. λίνο-
Lith. lìna-
(m4.pl) ‘Lein, Flachs’
(LiEtWb. 373)
(Lith. linaĩ [pl])
1. PIE *líno-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *lìno-
2. lìno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lith. lìna-
√lolinoi-
CLu. lalinai-
(vb.) (beschreibt Kleidungstücke) (CHD 3:28)
(HEG 2:24)
(in CLu. la-li-i-na-i-me-iš [pt.])
1. PIE *lolinoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lalinai-
CLu. lalinaimi-
(pt.) ‘bzw. Kleidungstücke, HHand. 91’
(DLL. 62)
(CLu. la-li-i-na-i-me-iš [sgN], la-li-na-i-me-en-zi [plN])
1. PIE *lolinoimi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lalinaimi-
Hitt. lalinita-
(n.) ‘ein Schmuckstück an Kleidungsstücken’
(HEG 2:24)
(Hitt. la-li-ni-ta; but (HHand. 91) lalinimi-)
1. PIE *lolinito-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. lalinita-
√liso-
Hitt. ališa-
(n.) ‘eine Gewebe’
(HHand. 14)
(Hitt. a-li-e-š-ša)
1. PIE *oliso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alisa-
2. alisa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ališa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ḫul·ališke/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘umwinden’
(HHand. 53)
(Hitt. ḫu-u-la-li-iš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *hɑul·oliski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hul·oliski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hul·oliski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *hul·olisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. hul·olisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hul·alisḱe/a-
4. hul·alisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *hul·aliske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. hul·aliske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hul·ališke/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. hul·ališke/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫul·ališke/a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫul·ališn-
(N.act.) ‘Umfang’
(HHand. 53)
(Hitt. ḫu-la-li-eš-ni [L])
1. PIE *hɑul·olisn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hul·olisn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hul·olisn-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hul·alisn-
3. hul·alisn-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hul·ališn-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hul·ališn-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫul·ališn-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫul·ališar-
(n.) ‘Umfang’
(HHand. 53)
(Hitt. ḫu-la-li-eš-šar)
1. PIE *hɑul·olisor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hul·olisor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hul·olisor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hul·alisar-
3. hul·alisar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hul·ališar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hul·ališar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫul·ališar-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √li- √oli- √eli- (sb.) ‘liquid’
(IEW 305)
(+ Pyysalo)
√oli-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. ali-
(c.) ‘mer (?)’
(DLL. 25-6)
(CLu. a-li-in [sgA])
1. PIE *oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ali-
Arm. ołoł-
(sb.) ‘inundation, flood’
(EtDiArm. 528)
(Arm. ołoł)
1. PIE *oli̯oli̯ò
*li̯ → ł
Change of *li̯ into ł
Rli̯›ł → *ołołò
2. ołołò
*o → Ø
Loss of *ò
Rò›0 → Arm. ołoł
Arm. ołołe-
(vb.) ‘overflow, inundate, flood; rinse’
(EtDiArm. 528)
(Arm. ołołem)
1. PIE *oli̯oli̯e-
*li̯ → ł
Change of *li̯ into ł
Rli̯›ł → Arm. ołołe-
Arm. ołołane-
(vb.) ‘overflow, inundate, flood; rinse’
(EtDiArm. 528)
(Arm. ołołanem)
1. PIE *oli̯oli̯ēɑhne-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *oli̯oli̯āɑhne-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. oli̯oli̯āɑhne-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oli̯oli̯āhne-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. oli̯oli̯āhne-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oli̯oli̯āne-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. oli̯oli̯āne-
*li̯ → ł
Change of *li̯ into ł
Rli̯›ł → *ołołāne-
5. ołołāne-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Arm. ołołane-


PIE √li- √loi- √lei- (vb.) ‘beruhigen, besänftigen’ (sb.) ‘Befriedigung, Versöhnung’
(IEW 661-662)
√li-
CLu. lei-
(vb.) ‘‹besänftigen(?); cf. figura etymologica -›’
(KUB xxv 37+ Vs. I 37)
(CLu. [ ]x lîlun lîla liuni [1pl.], HHand. 95)
CLu. lei-
(vb.) ‘‹besänftigen(?), obj. lali-’
(KUB xxv 37+ Vs. I 38)
(CLu. [ ] lîûnni lâlin [sgA])
√lilo-
(CHD 3:57)
Hitt. lila-
(c.) ‘Versöhnung, Befriedigung’
(HEG L:56-7)
(Hitt. li-i-la [Dir], li-e-la-aš [G], li-la-an, li-la!, Otten WdO 2, 477f.)
1. PIE *lilo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. lila-
Hitt. lila-
(vb.1.) ‘beruhigen, besänftigen’
(HEG L:56)
(in Hitt. li-la-an-zi [3pl], li-la-an-du(-an))
1. PIE *lilo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. lila-
CLu. lila-
(c.) ‘Versöhnung, Befriedigung’
(HHand. 94)
1. PIE *lilo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lila-
CLu. lila-
(vb.) ‘entsühnen, beruhigen, besänftigen’
(DLL. 62)
(CLu. li-la-an-t[i] [3pl.?])
1. PIE *lilo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lila-
√lin-
(IEW 661-662)
OIcl. lina-
(vb.) ‘besänftigen, beruhigen’
(ANEtWb. 357)
(OIcl. lina [inf.])
1. PIE *lino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. lina-
Lat. dē·līnio-
(vb.) ‘beschänftigen, beschwichtigen’
(WH. 2:338)
(Lat. dē·līniō [1sg])
1. PIE *Π·leinio-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → Lat. Π·līnio-
OIcl. linna-
(vb.) ‘aufhören, ruhen’
(ANEtWb. 358)
1. PIE *linu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *linu̯a-
2. linu̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OIcl. linva-


PIE √lis- √lois- √leis- (vb.) ‘glänzen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + HLu.)
√lois-
HLu. ARHA’ laiši·-
(vb.) ‘XX’
(CHLu. 11.f-g.51)
(HLu. ARHA’ OCCIDENS(-)la/i/u-i-si-ti-i [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·loisi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·laisi-
2. Π·laisi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. Π·laiši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OLat. loisio-
(m.) ‘Gentiin. aus Capua’
(WbOU. 436)
1. PIE *loisi̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OLat. loisio-
Hitt. laišai̯a-
(SAR) ‘eine Heilpflanze, HHand. 90’
(HEG 2:16)
(Hitt. la-a-i-ša-ia ‘in der medizinischen Aufzählung KUB LI 18 Vs. 15)
1. PIE *loisoii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laisaii̯a-
2. laisaii̯a-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *laisaia-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. laisaia-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → *laisai̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. laisai̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. laišai̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Osc. loisāri-
(f.) ‘Monatsname, Attr. von eídúís’
(WbOU. 436)
(Osc. lúisari-)
1. PIE *loisēɑhri-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *loisāɑhri-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. loisāɑhri-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *loisāhri-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. loisāhri-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Osc. loisāri-
(SPIE §2.1.4)


PIE √lgɑɦ- √logɑɦ- √logɑɦ- (vb.) ‘neigen, beugen, liegen, usw.’
(IEW 658-659)
√logɑɦ-
Hitt. lag-
(vb.2.) ‘neigen, beugen, (Zähne) schief schlagen’
(HEG 2:16)
(Hitt. la-a-ki, la-a-ak)
1. PIE *logɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *logɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. logɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lagɦ-
3. lagɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. lag-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Goth. lag-
(pret.) ‘lie: κεῖσθαι, κατακεῖσθαι’
(GoEtD. L39.)
(Goth. lag [3sg])
1. PIE *logɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *logɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. logɦ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *log-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. log-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. lag-
Hitt. lag-
(vb.M.) ‘sich neigen, wanken; HED 5:33’
(HHand. 90-1)
(Hitt. la-ga-a-ri, la-ga-a-ru, la-a-ga-a-ru)
1. PIE *logɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *logɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. logɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lagɦ-
3. lagɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. lag-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√lilogɑɦ-
Hitt. lilag-
(vb.2.) ‘fällen, niederhauen (Bäume), CHD 3:58’
(HEG 2:57)
(Hitt. LÚMEŠ-uš GIŠ-ru mān li-la-ak-ki [3sg])
1. PIE *lilogɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lilogɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lilogɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lilagɦ-
3. lilagɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. lilag-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lilag-
(vb.2.) ‘beugen’
(HEG 2:17)
(EHS 570)
1. PIE *lilogɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lilogɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lilogɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lilagɦ-
3. lilagɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. lilag-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√lelogɑɦ-
Gr. λέλοχ-
(pf.) ‘in λελοχυῖα · λεχὼ γενομένη’
(GEW 2:110)
(Hes. λελοχυῖα · λεχὼ γενομένη)
1. PIE *lélogɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lélogɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lélogɦ-
*gɦ → kh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›kh → *lélokh-
3. lélokh-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. λέλοχ-


PIE √lgɑɦi- √logɑɦi- √legɑɦi- (vb.) ‘glänzen, brennen’
(IEW —)
(Pyysalo; or PIE √lgiɑɦ- (?)
√logɑɦi-
Hitt. lak·šina-
(c.) ‘Gegenstand aus Kupfer oder Bronze’
(HHand. 91)
(for suffix, cf. Hitt. URUDUuaršini- (c.) ‘kupfernes Gefäß’
1. PIE *logɑɦi·sino-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *logɦi·sino-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. logɦi·sino-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *loǵɦ·sino-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. loǵɦ·sino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laǵɦ·sina-
4. laǵɦ·sina-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *lagɦ·sina-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. lagɦ·sina-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *lag·sina-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. lag·sina-
gs -› ks
Devoicing of gs to ks
Rgs›ks → *lak·sina-
7. lak·sina-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. lak·šina-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lak·šini-
(c.) (Gegenstand aus Kupfer)
(HHand. 91)
1. PIE *logɑɦi·sini-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *logɦi·sini-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. logɦi·sini-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *loǵɦ·sini-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. loǵɦ·sini-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laǵɦ·sini-
4. laǵɦ·sini-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *lagɦ·sini-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. lagɦ·sini-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *lag·sini-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. lag·sini-
gs -› ks
Devoicing of gs to ks
Rgs›ks → *lak·sini-
7. lak·sini-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. lak·šini-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√logɑɦio-
HLu. lazali-
() ((FLAMMAE.a.) ‘sacrificial for burning’
(CHLu. 9.1.11)
(FLAMMAE(?)’)la/i/u-za-li-na, (“FLAMMAE(?)+LA/I/U”)la/i/u-za-li-ha-wa/i); Not “luzali-” (vs. CHLu. 406, 628).
1. PIE *logɑɦi̯oli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *logɦi̯oli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. logɦi̯oli-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *loj́ɦoli-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. loj́ɦoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laj́ɦali-
4. laj́ɦali-
*j́ɦ → zɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to zɦ
Rj́ɦ›zɦ → *lazɦali-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. lazɦali-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. lazali-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√logɑɦiɑh-
Gr. λόχη-
(f.) ‘Flamme’
(ModGr. λόχη-)
1. PIE *lógɑɦi̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lógɑɦi̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lógɑɦi̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lógɦi̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lógɦi̯āh-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *lóǵɦāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. lóǵɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lóǵɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. lóǵɦā-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *lóḱhā-
6. lóḱhā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *lókhā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. lókhā-
ā –> ē (Att)
Attican change of ā –› ē
Rā›ēAtt → *lókhē-
8. lókhē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. λόχη-


PIE √lm- √lom- √lm- (sb.) ‘Menge’ (a.) ‘groß, ganz’ (vb.) ‘mengen’
(IEW —)
(Pyysalo)
√lom-
Hitt. lam-
(vb.2.M.) ‘≈ sich vermengen: mingle (?)’
(HEG 2:13)
(Hitt. la-am-ta-ti [Pret3sg.], cf. CHD 3:30 AN ku-la-am-ta-ti HEG: ‘unverständliches’, EHS 385)
1. PIE *lom-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. lam-
Lith. ap·lama-
(adv.bs.) ‘im großen und ganzen, in allgemeinen’
(LiEtWb. 13)
(Lith. aplamaĩ, aplamaĩs; Due to semantics not to Lith. lamìnti usw. (vs. LiEtWb. 338))
1. PIE *op·lomo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lith. ap·lama-


PIE √lm- √lom- √lem- (sb.) ‘Stelle, Platz, Moment, Punkt’ (vb.) ‘sitzen’
(IEW —)
(Gr. καιρό- ‘Zeit(punkt), Gelegenheit’ Hom. καίριο- ‘am rechten Orten eintreffend’)
√lom-
TochB. lam-
(sb.) ‘se trouver’
(DTochB. 654-5)
(TochB. lam-)
1. PIE *lom-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochB. lam-
TochB. lama-
(vb.) ‘sitzen werden’
(LIV 2:411)
(TochB. lamaṣ [3sg])
1. PIE *lomo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochB. lama-
TochA. lame-
(sb.) ‘Stelle, Platz: place, realm, level’
(LÉDT 53)
(HEG 2:30)
1. PIE *lomoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lamai-
2. lamai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *lamē-
3. lamē-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochA. lame-
√lem-
TochB. lyam-
(pret.) ‘sitzen; saß’
(LIV 2:411)
(TochB. lyama)
1. PIE *lem-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *li̯am-
2. li̯am-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. lyam-
TochA. lyäm-
(pret.) ‘sitzen; saß’
(LIV 2:411)
(TochA. lyäm)
1. PIE *lem-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *li̯am-
2. li̯am-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochA. lyam-
√lōm-
TochB. lām-
(vb.) ‘sitzen werden’
(LIV 2:411)
(TochB. lāmaṃ [3sg])
1. PIE *lōm-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → TochB. lām-
√lomo-
(HEG 2:26)
(CHD 3:30f.)
CLu. lama·mi-
(pt.c.) ‘Bestand(?), Art Gefäß(?)’ (aus Edelmetall)
(DLL. 62)
(CLu. lam-ma-mi-iš [pt.])
1. PIE *lomo·mi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lama·mi-
√lomin-
HLu. lamini
(adv.) ‘at the moment, at the time: zum Zeitpunkt’
(HEG 2:30)
(HLu. la-mi-ni-’ [sgL], HEG: la-mi-ni-à)
1. PIE *lomini
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. lamini
√lomn-
Hitt. lamn-
(n.) ‘momentum’
(HEG 2:29)
(Hitt. lam-na-aš, lam-ni-i)
1. PIE *lomn-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. lamn-
√lomor-
Hitt. lamar-
(n.) ‘Moment, Zeitpunkt, Augenblick, Stunde’
(HEG 2:29)
(Hitt. lam-mar [sgNA])
1. PIE *lomor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. lamar-
Hitt. lamar-
(adv.) ‘sofort’ (CHD 3:36-7)
(HEG 2:29)
(Hitt. lam-mar [sgA])
1. PIE *lomor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. lamar-
Hitt. lamar·ḫandat-
(c.) ‘Bestimmung des rechten Zeitpunkt
(HEG 2:30)
(Hitt. la-mar-ḫan-da-at-ti-eš [sgN]; CHD 3:37)
1. PIE *lomor·hɑendɑɦot
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *lomor·hɑandɑɦot
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. lomor·hɑandɑɦot
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lomor·handɦot
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lomor·handɦot
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lamar·handɦat
4. lamar·handɦat
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *lamar·handat
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. lamar·handat
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. lamar·ḫandat
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. lamar·ḫandataši-
(a.) ‘auf die Festsetzung des Zeitpunkts bezüglich’
(HEG 2:30)
(CLu. la-mar-ḫa-an-da-at-ta-aš-ši-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *lomor·hɑendɑɦotosi
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *lomor·hɑandɑɦotosi
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. lomor·hɑandɑɦotosi
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lomor·handɦotosi
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lomor·handɦotosi
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lamar·handɦatasi
4. lamar·handɦatasi
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *lamar·handatasi
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. lamar·handatasi
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *lamar·handataši
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. lamar·handataši
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. lamar·ḫandataši
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √lm- √lom- √lem- (sb.) ‘Hand’ (a.) ‘stark’
(IEW 806)
√lōm-
OEng. lōm·lǣca-
(vb.) ‘to use often, repeat, frequent’
(ASaxD. 646)
OIr. lām-
(f.) ‘Hand’
(DIL. 419)
(Grundr2 1:479; also Corn. lof, Cymr. llaw)
1. PIE *lōmēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lōmāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lōmāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lōmāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lōmāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lōmā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lōmā
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *lāmā
5. lāmā
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *lama
6. lama
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OIr. lam
OEng. lōma·n-
(sb. *n-st.?) ‘a tool’
(ASaxD. 646)
1. PIE *lōmo·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OEng. lōma·n-
√lomi-
Hitt. lamei̯a-
(URU.) ‘Grenzstadt zwischen Kizuwatna und Ḫatti’
(OGH. 242)
(in Akd. la-mi-iaKI, la-mi-ia, OGHErg. 93)
1. PIE *lomei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. lamei̯a-
HLu. lami-
(vb.) ‘strengthen’
(CHLu. 2.24.3)
(HLu. PUGNUS(-)la/i/u-mi-ha [1sg])
1. PIE *lomi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. lami-
HLu. lami-
(a.) ‘strong (?)’
(CHLu. 2.24.2)
(HLu. PUGNUS(-)la/i/u-mi)
1. PIE *lomi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. lami-
HLu. lami·taia-
(a.) ‘strong’
(CHLu. 1.1.19,25)
(HLu. PUGNUS(-)la/i/u-mi-tà-ia, PUGNUS(-)la/i/u-mi-tà-ia-’)
1. PIE *lomi·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. lami·Σ
√lēm-
OIcl. lām-
(m.) ‘Hand’
(ANEtWb. 345)
1. PIE *lēmo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lēma
2. lēma
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *lāma
3. lāma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OIcl. lām


PIE √ln- √lon- √len- (a.) ‘lang’ (vb.) ‘verlangen’
(IEW 196-7)
(Pyysalo: OAnat. + IE)
√olono-
Hitt. alana-
(URU.) ‘zwischen KUR ID Ḫulaja- und Ḫatti’
(OGH. 5-6)
(Hitt. a-la-na-aš [sgN]; ‘am Fuß des Berges Arlanta’)
1. PIE *olono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. alana-
Hitt. alana·a-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGHErg. 2)
(Hitt. a-la-na-a-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *olono·i̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alana·i̯a-
2. alana·i̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → Hitt. alana·a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
HLu. alana·ma-
(.) ‘Begehrlichkeit, Gier: envy’ (Phoen. b-ḥmdt)
(CHLLu. 1.1.71)
(HLu. (“VAS”)á-la/i/u-na-ma-ti [Abl]
1. PIE *olono·mo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. alana·ma-
HLu. alana·zai-
(vb.) ‘begehren: covet: Phoen. yḥmd’
(CHLu. 1.1.65 Hu)
(VAS)á-la/i/u-na-za-ia [3sg])
1. PIE *olono·gi̯ɑɦoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *olono·gi̯ɦoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. olono·gi̯ɦoi-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *olono·j́ɦoi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. olono·j́ɦoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alana·j́ɦai-
4. alana·j́ɦai-
*j́ɦ → zɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to zɦ
Rj́ɦ›zɦ → *alana·zɦai-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. alana·zɦai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. alana·zai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√lengiɑɦ-
(IEW 196-7)
(WP. 2:224)
OFr. a·linga
(prep.) ‘entlang, längs: along’
(Hh 64b, Rh 599b)
1. PIE *o·lengi̯ɑɦō
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·lengi̯ɦō
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·lengi̯ɦō
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *o·lenǵɦō
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. o·lenǵɦō
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *o·lengɦō
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. o·lengɦō
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *o·lengō
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. o·lengō
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·lengō
6. a·lengō
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *a·lingō
7. a·lingō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → OFr. a·linga
√longiɑɦo-
(Pyysalo)
Lat. longo-
(a.) ‘lang; weit entfernt; langwierig’
(WH. 1:820-1)
(Lat. longus [sgN], EM. 531-2)
1. PIE *longi̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *longi̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. longi̯ɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *lonǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. lonǵɦo-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *longɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. longɦo-
ngɦ -› gn
Change of ngɦ into gn
Rngɦ›gn → Lat. longo-
OGaulG. λονγο·σταλητ-
(VN.) ‘-(?)-’ (Aude)
(IEW 197)
(Gaul. λονγο·σταλητες [plN])
1. PIE *longi̯ɑɦo·steɑhleit-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *longi̯ɑɦo·staɑhleit-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. longi̯ɑɦo·staɑhleit-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *longi̯ɦo·stahleit-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. longi̯ɦo·stahleit-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *lonǵɦo·stahleit-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. lonǵɦo·stahleit-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lonǵɦo·staleit-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. lonǵɦo·staleit-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *longɦo·staleit-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. longɦo·staleit-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *longo·staleit-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. longo·staleit-
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → *longo·stalēt-
8. longo·stalēt-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → OGaulG. λονγο·σταλητ-
OGaulG. λονγο·σταλητο-
(ON.) ‘a coin inschr. of the Volci, ACSS 2:285’
(GoEtD. L3.)
(OGaul. λονγο·σταλητων [plG])
1. PIE *longi̯ɑɦo·steɑhleito-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *longi̯ɑɦo·staɑhleito-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. longi̯ɑɦo·staɑhleito-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *longi̯ɦo·stahleito-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. longi̯ɦo·stahleito-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *lonǵɦo·stahleito-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. lonǵɦo·stahleito-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lonǵɦo·staleito-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. lonǵɦo·staleito-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *longɦo·staleito-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. longɦo·staleito-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *longo·staleito-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. longo·staleito-
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → *longo·stalēto-
8. longo·stalēto-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → OGaulG. λονγο·σταλητο-
OIr. long-
(a.) ‘lang’
(DIL. 440)
1. PIE *longi̯ɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *longi̯ɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. longi̯ɦo
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *lonǵɦo
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. lonǵɦo
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *longɦo
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. longɦo
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *longo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. longo
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → OIr. long
Goth. lang-
(a.) ‘lang’ (: ‘long’)
(GoEtD. L3.)
(Goth. laggai hveilai, swa lagga swe)
1. PIE *longi̯ɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *longi̯ɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. longi̯ɦo
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *lonǵɦo
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. lonǵɦo
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *longɦo
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. longɦo
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *longo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. longo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *langa
6. langa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Goth. lang


PIE √lp- √olp- √elp- (sb.) ‘Wolke, Öl, Fett, Käse’ (vb.) ‘XX’
(IEW –)
√olp-
(Pyysalo 2013:88n206)
(HW2 A: 60, HEG 1:18-19, HED 1/2: 37-8, HIL. 204-5)
Hitt. alpa-
(c.) ‘Wolke’ (Akd. URPU)
(HEG 1:18)
(Hitt. al-pa-aš, al-pa-a-aš, al-pa-an)
1. PIE *olpo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. alpa-
Hitt. alparama-
(.) ‘Wolkenbank, EHS 179, ‹cf. arama- ‘hoch’ (?)›
(HEG 1:19)
(Hitt. al-pa-ra-mi-it, HIL. 204)
1. PIE *olporomo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. alparama-
√elpos-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. ἔλποσ-
(n.) ‘Öl, Fett’ ‹ without Gr. h- ! ›
(GEW 1:503)
(Hes. ἔλπος · ἔλαιον, στέαρ)
1. PIE *élpos-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἔλποσ-
CLu. alpaši-
(GKL.c.) ‘Art Gebäck’ (HEG I:18, HHand. 14)
(DLL. 26)
(CLu. al-pa-aš-ši-iš [sgN] ‘nom de patisserie’)
1. PIE *olposi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alpasi-
2. alpasi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. alpaši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. alpaši-
(URU.) “Im Land Waliwanta › Ananta.”
(OGH. 10)
(Hitt. al-pa-aš-ši-ia [All])
1. PIE *olposi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alpasi-
2. alpasi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. alpaši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√olpɑh-
(Pyysalo)
Ion.-Att. ὄλπη-
(f.) ‘Ölflasche’
(Gr. ὄλπη)
1. PIE *ólpēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ólpāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ólpāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ólpāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ólpāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ólpā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ólpā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
Rā›ē → *ólpē-
5. ólpē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. ὄλπη-
Hitt. alpāḫ-
(vb.2.intr.) ‘spucken’ (tr.) ‘ausspucken’
(HED 1:30-31)
1. PIE *olpēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *olpāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. olpāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *olpāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. olpāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alpāh-
4. alpāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. alpāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√olopɑh-
Hitt. alapāḫ-
(vb.2.intr.) ‘spucken’ (tr.) ‘ausspucken’
(HEG 1:15)
(HHand. 13)
1. PIE *olopēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *olopāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. olopāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *olopāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. olopāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alapāh-
4. alapāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. alapāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. alapāḫant-
(pt.) ‘ausgespuckt’
(HED 1:30-31)
1. PIE *olopēɑhont-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *olopāɑhont-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. olopāɑhont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *olopāhont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. olopāhont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alapāhant-
4. alapāhant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. alapāḫant-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. alapāḫiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘spit, spit at’
(HED 1:30-31)
1. PIE *olopēɑhiski̯e/o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *olopāɑhiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. olopāɑhiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *olopāhiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. olopāhiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *olopāhisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. olopāhisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alapāhisḱe/a-
5. alapāhisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *alapāhiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. alapāhiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *alapāhiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. alapāhiške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. alapāḫiške/a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√olpi-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. alpi-
(c.) ‘Wolke’ (Akd. URPU)
(HEG 1:18)
(Hitt. al-pí-it)
1. PIE *olpi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. alpi-
OIcl. elf-
(f.*-ô) ‘Fluß’
(ANEtWb. 100)
(OIcl. elfr)
1. PIE *olpi-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›fRestr → *olfi-
2. olfi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alfi-
3. alfi-
*a – i → e – Ø
Umlaut for *a – i
Ralfi›elf → OIcl. elf-
Gr. ὄλπιδ-
(f.) ‘Ölflasche’
(GEW 1:503)
‹ without Gr. h- ! ›
1. PIE *ólpiɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ólpiɦd-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ólpiɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *ólpid-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. ólpid-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄλπιδ-
√olobɑɦ-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. alabāḫ-
(vb.2.intr.) ‘spucken’
(HEG I:15)
(HHand. 13)
1. PIE *olobɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *olobɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. olobɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *olobɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. olobɦāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alabɦāh-
4. alabɦāh-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *alabāh-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. alabāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. alabāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√olbɑɦ-
Hitt. albāḫ-
(vb.2.intr.) ‘spucken’
(HHand. 13)
(HEG I:15, HED)
1. PIE *olbɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *olbɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. olbɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *olbɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. olbɦāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *albɦāh-
4. albɦāh-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *albāh-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. albāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. albāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. alban-
(pt.n.) ‘said of GA.KIN.AG ‘cheese’
(HIL. 205)
(‹thus Hitt. alpan(t)- not to Hitt. alpant- ‘bewitched’)
1. PIE *olbɑɦon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *olbɦon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. olbɦon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *albɦan-
3. albɦan-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. alban-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. ἔλφοσ-
(n.) ‘Butter, Kuhquark’
(Gr. ἔλφος · βούτυρον)
1. PIE *élbɑɦos-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *élbɦos-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. élbɦos-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *élphos-
3. élphos-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἔλφοσ-


PIE √lepɑh- √lopɑh- √lebɑɦ- √lobɑɦ- (vb.) ‘brennen, glänzen, glühen’ (sb.) ‘Zeus, Fieber, Fackel, Funken’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo 2013:88)
√lopɑh-
(HEG 2:32)
(Oettinger 1979:443, HIL. 601f.)
Hitt. lap-
(vb.1.) ‘glühen, entflammt sein, brennen’
(CHD 3:39f.)
(Hitt. la-ap-zi, la-ap-ta, la-a-ap-ta [3sg], HHand. 92)
1. PIE *lopɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *loph-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. loph-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laph-
3. laph-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. lap-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lapa-
(URUDU.) (Metallwerkzeug) ‘Zange, Brandeisen?’
(CHD 3:40)
(Hitt. la-a-ap-pa, la-ap-pa-za, la-a-ap-pí-it)
1. PIE *lopɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lopho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lopho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lapha-
3. lapha-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. lapa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. laba·LÚ-
(LÚ.c.*) (trésorier)
(NOMS. 688)
(in la-pa-LÚ)
1. PIE *lobɑɦo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lobɦo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lobɦo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *labɦa·Σ-
3. labɦa·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. laba·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√lebɑɦ-
Lyd. lef-
(d.c.) ‘Zeus’
(Melchert 1994:334)
(Lyd. lefś = Zeus)
1. PIE *lebɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lebɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lebɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *leb-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. leb-
PIE *b → f
Orthographic change of *b into f
Rb›f → Lyd. lef-
√lopɑhi-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. lapei̯a-
(c.) ‘Fieber’ (: ‘fever’)
(HEG 2:32)
(Hitt. la-ap-pí-aš [sgN], la-ap-pí-ia-an [sgA], HIL. 601)
1. PIE *lopɑhei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lophei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lophei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laphei̯a-
3. laphei̯a-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. lapei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. labei̯a-
(GIŠ.) ‘Funken’ oder ‘Feuerholz’
(HEG 2:32)
1. PIE *lobɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lobɦei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lobɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *labɦei̯a-
3. labɦei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. labei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lapei̯a-
(GIŠ.c.) ‘Kienspan, Feuerholz’ (?) (CHD 3:44)
(HHand. 92)
(Hitt. la-ap-pí-ia-aš)
1. PIE *lopɑhei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lophei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lophei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laphei̯a-
3. laphei̯a-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. lapei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Dor. λοφίδ-
(f.) ‘Fackel’ [= torch]
(GEW 2:139)
(Cypr. λοφίς)
1. PIE *lopɑhíɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lophíɦd-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lophíɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *lophíd-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. lophíd-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. λοφίδ-
√lopɑhin-
Hitt. lapina-
(.) ‘Docht, o.ä., Gegenstand im Ritual’
(HEG 2:43)
(Hitt. SÍGi-ia-at-na! la-ap-pí-na-an i[(ia-an)-zi)
1. PIE *lopɑhino-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lophino-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lophino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laphina-
3. laphina-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. lapina-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lapina-
(vb.dn.) ‘erglühen lassen, anzünden’
(HEG 2:32)
(Hitt. la-ap-pí-na-an-zi [3pl] Objekt šašanus ‘Lampen’)
1. PIE *lopɑhino-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lophino-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lophino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laphina-
3. laphina-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. lapina-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√lopɑhn-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. λοφνίδ-
(f.) ‘Fackel : torch’
(Gr. λοφνίς)
1. PIE *lopɑhníɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lophníɦd-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lophníɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *lophníd-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. lophníd-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. λοφνίδ-
Hitt. lapnu̯ant-
(vb.) ‘anzündend, zu Glühen bringend’
(HEG 2:32)
(CHD 3:44)
1. PIE *lopɑhnu̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lophnu̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lophnu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laphnu̯ant-
3. laphnu̯ant-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. lapnu̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lapnuške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘glühen’
(HEG 2:32)
(Hitt. lapnuškiuan [sup])
1. PIE *lopɑhnuski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lophnuski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lophnuski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *lophnusḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. lophnusḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laphnusḱe/a-
4. laphnusḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *laphnuske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. laphnuske/a-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *lapnuske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. lapnuske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. lapnuške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√lobɑɦono-
(Pyysalo)
(HEG 2:33)
CLu. lab·ana-
(GKL.c.) ‘Sommerweide, Alm’ (DLL. 62)
(CHD 3:40f.)
(CLu. la-pa-na-an-(na) [sgA])
1. PIE *lobɑɦ·ono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lobɦ·ono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lobɦ·ono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *labɦ·ana-
3. labɦ·ana-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. lab·ana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lab·ana-
(URU.c.) ‘Summer-Pasture’
(OGH. 243)
(Hitt. la-pa-na [Stf.] “Götter von Taramika, Kunkunija, Wijanawanta, Tiura, Pirwašuwa’)
1. PIE *lobɑɦ·ono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lobɦ·ono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lobɦ·ono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *labɦ·ana-
3. labɦ·ana-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. lab·ana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lab·ana
(d.c.) ‘with dala-, dapalua-’
(OHP. 1:279)
(Hitt. la-pa-na [Abs.])
1. PIE *lobɑɦ·ono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lobɦ·ono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lobɦ·ono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *labɦ·ana-
3. labɦ·ana-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. lab·ana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lab·anaa-
(d.) ‘XX’
(OHP. 1:279)
(Hitt. la-pa-na-a-an [sgA])
1. PIE *lobɑɦ·onoi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lobɦ·onoi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lobɦ·onoi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *labɦ·anai̯a-
3. labɦ·anai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *labɦ·anaa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. labɦ·anaa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. lab·anaa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lab·ana·ila-
(m.c.) (roi de l’Ulliwi au temps de Naram-Sin)
(NOMS. 684)
(Hitt. la-pa-na-i-la “nom amorréen”)
1. PIE *lobɑɦ·ono·ilo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lobɦ·ono·ilo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lobɦ·ono·ilo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *labɦ·ana·ila-
3. labɦ·ana·ila-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. lab·ana·ila-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√lobɑɦoni-
HLu. labani-
(vb.tr.) ‘(sommer)weiden (obj. die Pferde)’
(HEG 2:34)
(HLu. la-pa-ni-wa/i [1sg])
1. PIE *lobɑɦoni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lobɦoni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lobɦoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *labɦani-
3. labɦani-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. labani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. labani·uania
(GKL.) ‘Sommerweide-Salzlecke; DLL. 63’
(HEG 2:33)
(Hitt. šal-li GKLla-a-pa-ni GKLua-a-ni-ia pé-en-na-an-zi)
1. PIE *lobɑɦoni·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lobɦoni·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lobɦoni·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *labɦani·Σ
3. labɦani·Σ
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. labani·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √lor- (vb.) ‘burgeon, prosper, flourish, love’ (a.) ‘dear, beloved’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√lor-
Hitt. ga·lar-
(a.) ‘NU.SIG5: ungünstig, unheilvoll: nefas
(HIL. 497)
(Hitt. kal-la-ra-an, kal-la-ri, kal-la-ri-it)
1. PIE *gɦɑe·lor-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *gɦɑa·lor-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. gɦɑa·lor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦa·lor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦa·lor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦa·lar-
4. gɦa·lar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ga·lar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. ga·lar-
(GKL.n.) ‘nefas’ ‹to HLu. lar- ≈ ‘SIG5’›
(DLL. 53)
(CLu. gal-la-ar(mašmaškan) [sgNA])
1. PIE *gɦɑe·lor-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *gɦɑa·lor-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. gɦɑa·lor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦa·lor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦa·lor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦa·lar-
4. gɦa·lar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. ga·lar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ga·lar-
(n.) ‘Unglück: nefas’
(HHand. 69)
(Hitt. kal-la-ar, gal-la-ar, HiuA. 46)
1. PIE *gɦɑe·lor-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *gɦɑa·lor-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. gɦɑa·lor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦa·lor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦa·lor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦa·lar-
4. gɦa·lar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ga·lar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√loro-
(Pyysalo)
(HLu. r = TochB. r -› PIE *r, not †T !)
HLu. arḫa lara·-
(vb.) ‘to burgeon, prosper, flourish’
(CHLu. 10.14.6)
(HLu. ARHA-’ la+ra/i-ta, Sultanhan §6)
1. PIE *Π·loro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·lara-
HLu. lara-
(LÚ.c.) ‘Lara-’
(CHLu. 4.9.1)
(HLu. la+ra/i+a-sa)
1. PIE *loro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. lara-
HLu. lara·ḫireia-
(“VAS”.) ‘-(?)-’
(CHLu. 11.1.fg4)
(HLu. “VAS”(-)la+ra/i-hi-ri+i-ia-zi-ha)
1. PIE *loro·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. lara·Σ-
TochB. lara-
(a.) ‘dear, beloved’
(DTochB. 548)
(TochB. larepi, lareṃ)
1. PIE *loro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochB. lara-
TochB. lāra-
(a.) ‘dear, beloved’
(DTochB. 548)
(TochB. lāre)
1. PIE *lōro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lōra-
2. lōra-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → TochB. lāra-
Hitt. trḫu·lara-
(LÚ.c.) ‘prince de Gurgum sous Tiglatpileser’
(NOMS. 1258)
(in Ass. tar-ḫu-la-ra, ta-ar-ḫu-la-ra)
1. PIE *trhɑu·loro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *trhu·loro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. trhu·loro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *trhu·lara-
3. trhu·lara-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. trḫu·lara-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√loroi-
Hitt. dug·lari-
(c.) ‘eine Opfergabe, Art Flüßigkeit?’
(HHand. 180)
1. PIE *dɑɦugɑɦ·lori-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦugɦ·lori-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦugɦ·lori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦugɦ·lari-
3. dɦugɦ·lari-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dug·lari-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
TochB. ·lāre yām-
(vb.tr.) ‘to love’
(DTochB. 548)
1. PIE *lōroi·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lōrai·Σ-
2. lōrai·Σ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *lārai·Σ-
3. lārai·Σ-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *lārē·Σ-
4. lārē·Σ-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. lāre·Σ-
TochB. lare·ṣa-
(a.) ‘dear, beloved’
(DTochB. 548)
(TochB. lareṣṣe)
1. PIE *loroi·si̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *larai·si̯a-
2. larai·si̯a-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
Rsi̯›ṣ → *larai·ṣa-
3. larai·ṣa-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *larē·ṣa-
4. larē·ṣa-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. lare·ṣa-
TochB. lare·yok-
(a.) ‘love-like, dear’
(DTochB. 548)
1. PIE *loroi·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *larai·Σ-
2. larai·Σ-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *larē·Σ-
3. larē·Σ-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. lare·Σ-
√loromo-
HLu. larama-
(I.pt.) ‘‹≈ prosperous›’
(CHLu. 4.1.1)
(HLu. la+ra/i+a-ma-sa)
1. PIE *loromo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. larama-
HLu. larama·ši-
(I.pt.a.gen.) ‘‹of Larama-›’
(CHLu. 4.4.1b)
(HLu. la+ra/i+a-ma-si-i-sa)
1. PIE *loromo·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *larama·si-
2. larama·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. larama·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√loron-
Hitt. ga·laran-
(n.) ‘Ünglück, Überbelastung’
(HHand. 69)
(Hitt. kal-la-ra-an-ni, gal-la-ra-an-ni)
1. PIE *gɦɑe·loron-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *gɦɑa·loron-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. gɦɑa·loron-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦa·loron-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦa·loron-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦa·laran-
4. gɦa·laran-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ga·laran-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. ga·larani-
(GKL.) ‘nefas’
(DLL. 53)
(CLu. gal-la-ra-an-ni [sgD])
1. PIE *gɦɑe·loroni
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *gɦɑa·loroni
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. gɦɑa·loroni
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦa·loroni
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦa·loroni
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦa·larani
4. gɦa·larani
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. ga·larani
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. larant-
(URU.)
(OGHErg. 94)
(Hitt. la!-ra-an-ta [Stf.]; “Nach A. Archi Hrsg. eher atranta zu lesen.”)
1. PIE *loront-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. larant-
HLu. ARHA·laranu-
(vb.) ‘cause to prosper/live’
(CHLu. 1.1.4)
(HLu. la+ra/i-a-nu-ha [1sg])
1. PIE *Π·loronu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·laranu-


PIE √les- √los- (vb.) ‘glänzen’ (a.) ‘glänzend’ (sb.) ‘Fieber, Komet’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√los-, √les-
OInd. a·las-
(a.) ‘not shining’
(MonWil. 94)
1. PIE *hɑe·Los-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑa·Los-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑa·Los-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ha·Los-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ha·Los-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *ha·los-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. ha·los-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ha·las-
5. ha·las-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OInd. a·las-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√loso-, √leso-
(Pyysalo 2103:272)
HLu. laša·laša-
(vb.) ‘lasalasa-’
(CHLu. 9.1.11)
(HLu. (‘FLAMMAE(?)’)la/i/u-sà-la-/i-/u-sà-ta)
1. PIE *loso·loso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lasa·lasa-
2. lasa·lasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. laša·laša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OInd. lasa-
(a.) [in mng.] ‘shining’
(MonWil. 899)
1. PIE *Loso-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *loso-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. loso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. lasa-
OInd. lasa-
(m.) [in mng.] ‘fever’ (in a camel)
(MonWil. 899)
1. PIE *Loso-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *loso-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. loso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. lasa-
Hitt. lešala-
(MULc.) ‘Komet, Stefanini (1983 [JNES 42]:150’
(HEG II:54)
(Hitt. taku-kan MUL le-eš-šal-la-aš [sgN] uizzi nu-ši-kan ḫaparnuatar-šet para meki lalukešzi, CHD 3:72)
1. PIE *lesolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lesala-
2. lesala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. lešala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lilašala-
(XX.) with NA4ZI.KIN = ‘Kultstein, Kultmal’
(HEG L:56-7)
(Hitt. NA4ZI.KIN li-la-aš-ša-al-la ku-ua-pí nu A-NA dMA[Ḫ-)
1. PIE *lilosolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lilasala-
2. lilasala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. lilašala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lašanu-
(vb.) ‘beschreibt die rituelle Reinigung von Tieren’
(HHand. 96)
1. PIE *losonu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lasanu-
2. lasanu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. lašanu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√losi-
HLu. ARHA’ lasi·-
(OCCIDENS.vb.) ‘- (?) -’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. OCCIDENS(-)la/i/u-si-ta)
1. PIE *Π·losi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·lasi-
2. Π·lasi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. Π·laši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √ls- √los- √les- (vb.) ‘lesen, auflesen, aufpicken, sammeln’
(IEW 680)
(WP. 2:440)
√les-
Lith. lès-
(vb.) ‘mit dem Schnabel aufpicken, Körner lesen’
(LiEtWb. 359)
(Lith. lèsti [inf.], lesù [1sg])
1. PIE *lés-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → Lith. lès-
Hitt. leš-
(vb.) ‘(auf)lesen, sammeln, aufräumen’
(HEG 2:64)
(Hitt. li-i]š-šu-u-ua-an-zi [inf.], le-eš-šu-u-ua-an-zi)
1. PIE *les-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. leš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√leso-
Hitt. leša-
(vb.) ‘lesen, auflesen, sammeln’ (CHD 2:72)
(HEG 2:64)
(Hitt. li-iš-ša-ta-ri [3sg], li-iš–ša-an-zi)
1. PIE *leso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lesa-
2. lesa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. leša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Goth. lisa-
(pr.) ‘sammeln, lesen, GoElB. 208, HbGo. 230’
(GoEtD. L42.)
(Goth. lisand Mat 6,26 CA, lisanda Mat 7,16 CA)
1. PIE *leso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lesa-
2. lesa-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → Goth. lisa-
HLu. ARHA leša·-
(vb.) ‘separate, delimit’ (HEG 2:64): ‘einebnen’
(5.2.2)
(HLu. ARHA li-sa-ha [1sg])
1. PIE *Π·leso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·lesa-
2. Π·lesa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. Π·leša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. leša·dU-
(m.c.) ‹‘if ‘chosen by the Storm god’ vel sim›
(NOMS. 700)
(Hitt. liš-ša-dU [abs.])
1. PIE *leso·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lesa·Σ
2. lesa·Σ
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. leša·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√lesoi-
Hitt. lešai-
(vb.1.M.) ‘lesen, auflesen, sammeln, aufräumen’
(HEG 2:64)
(Hitt. li-ša-iz-zi [3sg])
1. PIE *lesoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lesai-
2. lesai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. lešai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šara lešai·-
(vb.) ‘auflesen, aufräumen’
(HEG 2:64)
1. PIE *Π·lesoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·lesai-
2. Π·lesai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. Π·lešai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√lesu-
Goth. ga·lesu-
(pret.pl.) ‘assemble, collect’
(GoEtWb. 233)
(Go. galesun [3pl], Joh 6,13 CA)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·lēsu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·lēsu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦo·lēsu-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *go·lēsu-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. go·lēsu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ga·lēsu-
4. ga·lēsu-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → Goth. ga·lesu-
Hitt. lešu̯a-
(vn.bs.) ‘to collect’
(HHand. 95)
(Hitt. le-eš-šu-u-ua-an-zi, li-i]š-šu-u-ua-an-zi)
1. PIE *lesu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lesu̯a-
2. lesu̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. lešu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√los-
Goth. las-
(pret.) ‘συλλέγειν, συνάγειν: colligere, congregare’
(GoEtD. L42.)
(Goth. las SkB 7,18 (Enb, bei Streitberg fehlt Lesung Bennetts);
1. PIE *los-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. las-
Latv. lasî-
(vb.) ‘gather, select’
(LiEtWb. 359)
(Latv. lasît [inf.], IE&IE 725)
1. PIE *losiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *losiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. losiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *losií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. losií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *losī́-
4. losī́-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lasī́-
5. lasī́-
*ī́ → î
Change of ī́ into î
Rī́›î → Latv. lasî-
Lith. lasý-
(vb.) ‘herauspicken, auslesen, wählen’
(LiEtWb. 341,359)
(Lith. lasýti [inf.])
1. PIE *losiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *losiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. losiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *losií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. losií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *losī́-
4. losī́-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lasī́-
5. lasī́-
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
Rī́›ý → Lith. lasý-


PIE √ldɑɦ- √lodɑɦ- √ledɑɦ- (sb.) ‘Frucht’
(IEW –)
(HEG X:XX)
√lōdɑɦ-
HLu. ARHA lāda·-
(vb.) ‘prosper (?)’
(CHLu. 10.16.1)
(HLu. ARHA la-tà-ta)
1. PIE *Π·lōdɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·lōdɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·lōdɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·lōdɦa-
3. Π·lōdɦa-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·lādɦa-
4. Π·lādɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. Π·lāda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OIcl. lōð-
(n.) ‘Ertrag, Frucht’
(ANEtWb. 362)
1. PIE *lōdɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lōdɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lōdɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *lōdo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. lōdo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lōda
4. lōda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *lōd
5. lōd
*d -› ð
Change of d into ð
Rd›ð → OIcl. lōð
LycA. lada-
(c.) ‘Frau’
(Pedersen 1945:15-6)
(LycA. lada [sgN])
1. PIE *lōdɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lōdɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lōdɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lōdɦa-
3. lōdɦa-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *lādɦa-
4. lādɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *lāda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. lāda-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → LycA. lada-
OIcl. lōð-
(f.) ‘Ertrag, Frucht’
(ANEtWb. 362)
1. PIE *lōdɑɦēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lōdɑɦāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lōdɑɦāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lōdɦāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lōdɦāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lōdɦā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lōdɦā
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *lōdā
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. lōdā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *lōdō
(XX:XX)
6. lōdō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *lōda
7. lōda
*-a -u
Change of root final -a into -u
R=a›=u → *lōdu
8. lōdu
*d -› ð
Change of d into ð
Rd›ð → *lōðu
9. lōðu
*-u → Ø
Loss of -u in root-final position
R=u›=0 → OIcl. lōð
Russ. láda-
(c.) ‘Gemahl(in)’
(REW 2:5)
(Russ. láda [sgN])
1. PIE *lṓdɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lṓdɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lṓdɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lṓdɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lṓdɦāh-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *lā́dɦāh-
4. lā́dɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lā́dɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. lā́dɦā-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *lā́dā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. lā́dā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *lā́da-
7. lā́da-
*ā́ → a
Change of *ā́ into á
Rā́›á → Russ. láda-
Russ. ládi-
(vb.) ‘passen, stimmen, usw.’
(LiEtWb. 328)
(Russ. ládit’ [inf.])
1. PIE *lṓdɑɦiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *lṓdɑɦiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. lṓdɑɦiíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lṓdɦiíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lṓdɦiíh-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *lā́dɦiíh-
4. lā́dɦiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lā́dɦií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. lā́dɦií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *lā́dɦī́-
6. lā́dɦī́-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *lā́dī́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. lā́dī́-
*ā́ → a
Change of *ā́ into á
Rā́›á → *ládī́-
8. ládī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → Russ. ládí-
√lēdɑɦ-
Goth. un·led-
(a.*-a) ‘arm, πένης, πτωχός, mendicus, pauper’
(GoEtD. U31.)
(Goth. unleds, Luk 16,20, unledai [plN] Mat 11,5, unledam [plD], Joh 13,29)
1. PIE *un·lēdɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *un·lēdɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. un·lēdɦo-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *un·lēdo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. un·lēdo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *un·lēda-
4. un·lēda-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → Goth. un·leda-
Goth. un·ledan-
(a.) ‘arm, πένης, πτωχός, mendicus, pauper’
(GoEtD. U31.)
(Goth., unledans [plA] Joh 12,8 CA, unledane [plG] Gal 2,10 B)
1. PIE *un·lēdɑɦono
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *un·lēdɦono
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. un·lēdɦono
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *un·lēdono
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. un·lēdono
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *un·lēdana
4. un·lēdana
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *un·lēdan
5. un·lēdan
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → Goth. un·ledan


PIE √ldɑɦ- √oldɑɦ- √eldɑɦ- (sb.) ‘Fluß, Wasser, usw.’
(IEW 32)
(Krahe: Unsere ältesten Flußnamen, Wiesbaden 1964:35)
√oldɑɦo-
(HEG 1:20)
Hitt. alda-
(ÍD.) ‘›Lawazantija, ›Manuzuḫi, ›Tarman[na’
(OGH. 523)
(Hitt. a-al-da, a-al-ta; OGHErg. 205)
1. PIE *oldɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oldɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. oldɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aldɦa-
3. aldɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. alda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. alda-
(ÍD.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGH. 523)
(Hitt. al-da, al-ta-aš-š[a [sgN])
1. PIE *oldɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oldɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. oldɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aldɦa-
3. aldɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. alda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√eldɑɦi-
Lith. eldijà-
(f.) ‘Flusskahn’
(LiEtWb. 120)
1. PIE *eldɑɦii̯ḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *eldɑɦii̯ā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. eldɑɦii̯ā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eldɦii̯ā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. eldɦii̯ā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *eldɦii̯ā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. eldɦii̯ā́
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *eldii̯ā́
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. eldii̯ā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *eldii̯ṓ
(XX:XX)
6. eldii̯ṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → *eldii̯à
7. eldii̯à
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Lith. eldijà
√oldɑɦon-
OIcl. alda·n-
(f.) ‘Welle; Talsohle, durch welche ein Bach fließt’
(ANEtWb. 5)
1. PIE *oldɑɦon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oldɦon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. oldɦon-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *oldon-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. oldon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. aldan-
Hitt. aldana-
(.) ‘Quelle, Wasserbasin, Brunnen’
(HHand. 14)
1. PIE *oldɑɦono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oldɦono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. oldɦono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aldɦana-
3. aldɦana-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. aldana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aldana-
(URU.) ‘im Kriegzug gegen Tumana› Šapituwa’
(OGH. 10-11)
(Hitt. al-ta-an-na [Stf.]; OGHErg. 3, DKašk. 94)
1. PIE *oldɑɦono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oldɦono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. oldɦono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aldɦana-
3. aldɦana-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. aldana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aldani-
(TÚL.) ‘Quelle, Wasserbasin, Brunnen’
(HEG 1:20)
(HHand. 14)
1. PIE *oldɑɦoni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oldɦoni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. oldɦoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aldɦani-
3. aldɦani-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. aldani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aldani-
(PÚ.) ‘Hurrischer Bereich’
(OGH. 523)
(Hitt. al-da-ni-iš, al-ta-an-ni-iš)
1. PIE *oldɑɦoni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oldɦoni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. oldɦoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aldɦani-
3. aldɦani-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. aldani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. aldani·ma-
(pt.) ‘-(?)-; ‹uncertain!›’
(DLL. 26)
(CLu. al-ta-an-ni-ma)
1. PIE *oldɑɦoni·mo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oldɦoni·mo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. oldɦoni·mo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aldɦani·ma-
3. aldɦani·ma-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. aldani·ma-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√oldɑɦi-
OCS. ladi-
(f.) ‘Schiff’
(Sadnik √7)
1. PIE *oldɑɦiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *oldɑɦiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. oldɑɦiíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oldɦiíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. oldɦiíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aldɦiíh-
4. aldɦiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aldɦií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. aldɦií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *aldɦī́-
6. aldɦī́-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *aldī́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. aldī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *oldī́-
8. oldī́-
*old → lād
Slavic metathesis of old to lād
Rold›lād → *lādī́-
9. lādī́-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *ladī́-
10. ladī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *ladí-
11. ladí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → OCS. ladi-
Lith. aldijà-
(f.) ‘Flusskahn’
(LiEtWb. 120)
1. PIE *oldɑɦii̯ḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *oldɑɦii̯ā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. oldɑɦii̯ā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oldɦii̯ā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. oldɦii̯ā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oldɦii̯ā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. oldɦii̯ā́
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aldɦii̯ā́
5. aldɦii̯ā́
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *aldii̯ā́
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. aldii̯ā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *aldii̯ṓ
(XX:XX)
7. aldii̯ṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → *aldii̯à
8. aldii̯à
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Lith. aldijà
OCS. ladiji-
(.) ‘Kahn’
(Sadnik √7)
1. PIE *oldɑɦeii̯ei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oldɦeii̯ei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. oldɦeii̯ei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aldɦeii̯ei-
3. aldɦeii̯ei-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *aldeii̯ei-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. aldeii̯ei-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *oldeii̯ei-
5. oldeii̯ei-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *oldīi̯ī-
6. oldīi̯ī-
*old → lād
Slavic metathesis of old to lād
Rold›lād → *lādīi̯ī-
7. lādīi̯ī-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *lādījī-
8. lādījī-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *ladījī-
9. ladījī-
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. ladiji-
OCS. ladijica-
(f.) ‘Schifflein’
(REW 52)
1. PIE *oldɑɦeii̯eikuɑhi̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *oldɑɦeii̯eikuɑhi̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. oldɑɦeii̯eikuɑhi̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oldɦeii̯eikuhi̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. oldɦeii̯eikuhi̯āh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aldɦeii̯eikuhi̯āh-
4. aldɦeii̯eikuhi̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aldɦeii̯eikui̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. aldɦeii̯eikui̯ā-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *aldɦeii̯eiki̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. aldɦeii̯eiki̯ā-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *aldeii̯eiki̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. aldeii̯eiki̯ā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *oldeii̯eiki̯ā-
8. oldeii̯eiki̯ā-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *oldīi̯īki̯ā-
9. oldīi̯īki̯ā-
*old → lād
Slavic metathesis of old to lād
Rold›lād → *lādīi̯īki̯ā-
10. lādīi̯īki̯ā-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *lādījīkjā-
11. lādījīkjā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *ladījīkja-
12. ladījīkja-
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. ladijikja-


PIE √lu- √lou- √leu- (sb.) ‘Art Messer, Klinge, o.ä.’ (vb.) ‘brechen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√luo-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. lu̯a-
(stem?) ‘Art Messer, Klinge (?)’
(HHand. 96)
1. PIE *lu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. lu̯a-
Hitt. peru·lu̯a-
(NA4.vb.) ‘mit Stein ‹Hitt. piru-› mahlen’
(HHand. 132)
(CHD P: 314f., Hitt. pí-ru-lu-u-ua-ri [3sg] in VBoT 58 i (30))
1. PIE *peru·lu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. peru·lu̯a-
√lumpo-
(CHD 3:85)
(HEG L:76-77)
AV. lumpá-
(pr.) ‘zerbrechen, beschädigen, unterdrücken’
(KEWA 2:108)
(AV. lumpáti)
1. PIE *Lumpó-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *lumpó-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. lumpó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → AV. lumpá-
Hitt. lumpaša-
(.) ‘-(?)-’
(HHand. 95)
(Hitt. l]umpaša-)
1. PIE *lumposo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lumpasa-
2. lumpasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. lumpaša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lumpaštei-
(c.) ‘Gram, Bedaurern, Ärgernis (?)’
(HEG 2:76)
1. PIE *lumpostei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lumpastei-
2. lumpastei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. lumpaštei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. lumpaštei-
(c.) ‘etwas Unangenehmes, HHand. 95’
(DLL. 64)
(CLu. lu-um-pa-aš–ti-in [sgA])
1. PIE *lumpostei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lumpastei-
2. lumpastei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. lumpaštei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√lup-
AV. lup-
(pf.) ‘zerbrechen, beschädigen, unterdrücken’
(KEWA 2:108)
(in AV. luptá-)
1. PIE *Lup-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → AV. lup-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
CLu. lupaštei-
(GKL.c.) ‘Ärgernis’ (= lumpašti-) (HHand. 96)
(DLL. 64)
(CLu. lu-up-pa-aš-ti-iš [sgN], lu-up-pa-aš-ti-in)
1. PIE *lupostei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lupastei-
2. lupastei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. lupaštei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lupaštei-
(c.) ‘Ärgernis (o.ä.); ‹but note Hitt. -p-!›‘
(HEG L:76)
(Hitt. lu-pa-aš-tin [sgA])
1. PIE *lupastei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. lupaštei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√lōur-
TochB. laur-
(m.sg) ‘spike (of iron, piercing a skull)’
(DTochB. 563)
(TochB. laursa [Perl] eñcwaññe tarne räskre tsopyeṃne)
1. PIE *lōur-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *lāur-
2. lāur-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → TochB. laur-
√louor-
Hitt. lau̯ari-
(GKL.) ‘Einzelteil o.ä (?), HEG 2:47’
(DLL. 63)
(Hitt. la-ua-ri-i-iš[(-))
1. PIE *lou̯ori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. lau̯ari-
CLu. lau̯arima-
(GKL.pt.) ‘broken (?) ‹or ‘beraubt (?)’›’
(DLL. 63)
(CLu. [la]-ua-ar-ri-ma [plNA])
1. PIE *lou̯orimo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lau̯arima-
Hitt. lau̯aru-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘briser’ (: ‘break’)
(DLL. 63)
(Hitt. la-u-ua-ar-ru-na [inf.])
1. PIE *lou̯oru-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. lau̯aru-


PIE √lu- √lou- √leu- (vb.) ‘gießen, waschen, baden’ (sb.) ‘Bade’
(IEW 692)
(+ Pyysalo: TochB.)
√lou-
Gr. λέλου-
(pr.A.) ‘bathe’
(Gr. λέλουμαι [1sg])
1. PIE *lélou-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. λέλου-
√louo-
Gr. λόο-
(pr.) ‘waschen’
(Gr. λόω [1sg])
1. PIE *lóu̯o-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *lóo-
2. lóo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. λόο-
LinB. λεϝο·τροχοϝο-
(m.) ‘Badediener’
(HEG 2:5)
(LinB. re-wo-to-ro-ko-wo)
1. PIE *leu̯o·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. λεϝο·Σ-
TochB. lyāwa-
(vb.) ‘anoint’ (Buddha’s body)
(DTochB. 567)
1. PIE *lēu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lēu̯a-
2. lēu̯a-
PIE *ē → i̯ ā
Change of *ē into i̯ā
Rē›i̯ā → *li̯āu̯a-
3. li̯āu̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *lyāu̯a-
4. lyāu̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. lyāwa-
√lu-
CLu. lu-
(vb.) ‘- (?) -’ (‘gießen ?’)
(HHand. 95)
(DLL. 61, CLu. lu-(ú)-un-ni [1pl]))
Gr. λίλυ-
(n.) = τὸ ὕδωρ (“Libyischen”)
(HEG 2:73)
(Hes. λίλυ · τὸ ὕδωρ)
1. PIE *lílu-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. λίλυ-
CLu. lu̯a-
(vb.) ‘-(?)-’, (‘gießen’ ?)
(HHand. 96)
(DLL. 64, CLu. lu-u-ua-an-da [3pl])
1. PIE *lu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lu̯a-
CLu. lilu̯a-
(vb.) ‘gießen, schütten’
(DLL. 63)
(CLu. li-lu-u-ua [ipv2sg])
1. PIE *lilu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lilu̯a-


PIE √luɑh- (vb.) ‘waschen, reinigen’
(IEW 835-836)
(Pyysalo: Arm. + Anat.)
√luɑh-
(IEW 835-836)
Arm. lvana-
(pr.) ‘wash, cleanse, bathe’
(ArmGr. 454)
(Arm. lvanam [1sg])
1. PIE *lu̯ēɑhnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lu̯āɑhnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lu̯āɑhnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lu̯āhnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lu̯āhnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lu̯ānā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lu̯ānā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *lu̯ana-
5. lu̯ana-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Arm. lvana-
√luɑh-
(HEG 2:64-5)
(HIL 613-4, HED 5:102, CHD 3:73)
CLu. luḫa-
(c.) ‘‹not ‘Licht’ but ‘Reinheit’ (?)›’
(DLL. 135)
(CLu. lu-u-ḫa-aš [N], lu-u-ḫa-an [sgA])
1. PIE *luɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *luho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. luho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *luha-
3. luha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. luḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. luḫa-
(c.) ‘‹not ‘Licht’ but ‘Reinheit’ vel sim. (?)›’
(HHand. 95)
(Hitt. lu-u-ḫa [sgD])
1. PIE *luɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *luho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. luho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *luha-
3. luha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. luḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Kpd. luḫa·tuman-
(I.c.)
(NOMS. 701)
(Kpd. lu-ḫa-tù-ma-an)
1. PIE *luɑho·tumon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *luho·tumon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. luho·tumon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *luha·tuman-
3. luha·tuman-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Kpd. luḫa·tuman-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. luḫa·[…]šan[-
(URU.)
(OGH. 249)
(Hitt. [x IK]U Feld auf dem Weg nach URUlu-u[ḫ- ]-ša-an-[)
1. PIE *luɑho·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *luho·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. luho·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *luha·Σ-
3. luha·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. luḫa·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √lubɑɦ- √leubɑɦ- √loubɑɦ- (vb.) ‘lieben’ (sb.) ‘Liebe’
(IEW 685-)
√leubɑɦ-
OCS. ljubŭ-
(a.) ‘lieb, wert’
(Sadnik √488)
(OCS. ljubŭ [sgN])
1. PIE *leubɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *leubɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. leubɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *leubɦa
3. leubɦa
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *leuba
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. leuba
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *leubo
5. leubo
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *leubu
6. leubu
eu → i̯u
Change of *eu into i̯u
Reu›i̯u → *li̯ubu
7. li̯ubu
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *ljubu
8. ljubu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. ljubŭ
Goth. liuba·leik-
(a.) ‘lovely : προφιλής’
(GoEtD. L49.)
(Goth. liuba-leiks)
1. PIE *leubɑɦo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *leubɦo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. leubɦo·Σ-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *leubo·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. leubo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *leuba·Σ-
4. leuba·Σ-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → Goth. liuba·Σ-
Russ. ljuba-
(PN.f.dim.) ‘Ljuba’
(REW 2:77)
(Russ. liuba [sgN])
1. PIE *leubɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *leubɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. leubɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *leubɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. leubɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *leubɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. leubɦā-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *leubā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. leubā-
eu → i̯u
Change of *eu into i̯u
Reu›i̯u → *li̯ubā-
6. li̯ubā-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *ljubā-
7. ljubā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Russ. ljuba-
OInd. lobha-
(m.) ‘Gier, Habsucht: eager desire’
(KEWA 3:107)
1. PIE *Leubɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Leubɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Leubɦo-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *leubɦo-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. leubɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *leubɦa-
4. leubɦa-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *laubɦa-
5. laubɦa-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *lōbɦa-
6. lōbɦa-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *lōbha-
7. lōbha-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → OInd. lobha-
OCS. ljubo
(adv.n.) ‘vel : or’
(Sadnik √488)
(in OCS. ljubo – ljubo ‘vel — vel’)
1. PIE *leubɑɦos-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *leubɦos-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. leubɦos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *leubɦas-
3. leubɦas-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *leubas-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. leubas-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *leubos-
5. leubos-
eu → i̯u
Change of *eu into i̯u
Reu›i̯u → *li̯ubos-
6. li̯ubos-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → OCS. ljubos-


PIE √ludɑɦ- √loudɑɦ- √leudɑɦ- (vb.) ‘(für sich) halten, hemmen, hindern’ (sb.) ‘Hälter’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. & CLu.)
√ ludɑɦ-
(HEG K:543-4)
(Hamp 1978: Cymr. adludd ‘obstacle’; cf. EtDiPC. 245 for OIr. lod ‘fence’ etc.)
RV. ni·rúdhya-
(absol.) ‘(Feinde, Mangel) fernhalten, abwehren’
(WbRV. 1176)
(RV. nirúdhya; EWA 2:467)
1. PIE *Π·lúdɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·lúdɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·lúdɦi̯o-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *Π·rúdɦi̯o-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. Π·rúdɦi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·rúdɦi̯a-
4. Π·rúdɦi̯a-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *Π·rúdhi̯a-
5. Π·rúdhi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·rúdhya-
Hitt. kata·luzei-
(GIŠn.) ‘Schwelle, Türstütz : treshold’
(HHand. 76)
(Hitt. kat-ta-lu-uz-zi, kat-ta-lu-uz-zi-ia-aš)
1. PIE *Π·ludɑɦi̯ei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ludɦi̯ei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ludɦi̯ei-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *Π·lujɦei-
3. Π·lujɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *Π·lujei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·lujei-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. Π·luzei-
Hitt. šarazi kata·luzei-
(n.) ‘lintel, HED 4:124-5’
(HIL. 536)
1. PIE *Π·ludɑɦi̯ei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ludɦi̯ei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ludɦi̯ei-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *Π·lujɦei-
3. Π·lujɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *Π·lujei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·lujei-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. Π·luzei-
CLu. kata·luzeiša-
(GIŠn.) ‘Schwelle, Türstütz : seuil’
(DLL. 54)
(CLu. kat-ta-lu-uz-[zi]-ša [sgNA
1. PIE *Π·ludɑɦi̯eiso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ludɦi̯eiso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ludɦi̯eiso-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *Π·lujɦeiso-
3. Π·lujɦeiso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·lujɦeisa-
4. Π·lujɦeisa-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *Π·luzɦeisa-
5. Π·luzɦeisa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·luzɦeiša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. Π·luzɦeiša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. Π·luzeiša-
(SPIE §4.6.3)

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