PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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© 2014-2015 University of Helsinki

"Durch zweier Zeugen Mund wird alle Wahrheit kund" — August Fick
(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
Contact PIE Lexicon Project

PIE



PIE √l- (vb.) ‘angreifen, ergreifen, nehmen, rauben’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo)
√lo-
(HEG X:XX)
(HIL. 928)
CLu. la-
(vb.) ‘nehmen’
(DLL. 90)
(CLu. la-at-ta [3sg])
1. PIE *lo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. la-
Lyd. is·l-
(a.) ‘angefangen’ (?)
(LydWb. 135)
(Lyd. islλ [sgDL])
1. PIE *hɑiki·la
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hiki·la
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hiki·la
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *hić·la
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. hić·la
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *his·la
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
4. his·la
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *is·la
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. is·la
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Lyd. is·l
HLu. arḫa la·-
(*vb.2.) ‘take away’
(CHLu. 2.40.11)
(HLu. ARHA la-i [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·lo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·la-
HLu. zanta la·-
(CAPERE*vb.) ‘capture’
(CHLu. 4.2.4)
(HLu. INFRA CAPERE(-)la-ha)
1. PIE *Π·lo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·la-
CLu. lala-
(vb.) ‘nehmen, HHand. 91’
(DLL. 61)
(CLu. la-la-an-ti [3pl])
1. PIE *lolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lala-
√lɑh-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. lā́-
(pr.) ‘ergreifen, mit sich nehmen’
(KEWA 3:99)
(OInd. lā́ti [3sg])
1. PIE *Lḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *Lā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Lā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Lā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Lā́h-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *lā́h-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. lā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OInd. lā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OInd. lā́-
(f.) ‘das Nehmen’
(KEWA 3:99)
(OInd. lā [sgN])
1. PIE *Lḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *Lā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Lā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Lā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Lā́h-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *lā́h-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. lā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OInd. lā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
HLu. arḫa laḫa·-
(vb.) ‘angreifen, HEG L:8’
(CHLu. 2.27.21)
(ARHA MANUS.*218(-)la/i/u?-ha-i)
1. PIE *Π·lḗɑho-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *Π·lā́ɑho-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·lā́ɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·lā́ho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·lā́ho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·lā́ha-
4. Π·lā́ha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. Π·lā́ḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√loi-
CLu. lalai-
(vb.) ‘nehmen’
(DLL. 61)
(CLu. la-la-a-i(-ua))
1. PIE *loloi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lalai-
CLu. laima-
(pt.) ‘genommen, HHand. 90’
(DLL. 61)
1. PIE *loimo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. laima-
√lou-
Hitt. lalau-
(vb.) ‘nehmen’
(HHand. 91)
(HItt. lalauna [inf.])
1. PIE *lolou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. lalau-
CLu. lau̯ar-
(vb.) ‘berauben, entblößen’
(HHand. 93)
1. PIE *lou̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lau̯ar-
CLu. lau̯arima-
(pt.) ‘beraubt (oder ‘broken (?)’
(HHand. 93)
1. PIE *lou̯orimo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lau̯arima-


√l- √ol- √el- ‘Zweig, Baum, Hein, Temple, Gott’
(IEW XX)
√olk-
Goth. alh-
(f.) ‘Tempel’
(GoEtD. 27)
1. PIE *olk-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *olx-
2. olx-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alx-
3. alx-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → Goth. alh-
OLith. al̃ka-
(m.) ‘heiliger Hain, Opferstelle’
(LiEtWb. 7)
1. PIE *oĺko-
*oĺ -> ol̃
Circumflex intonation for oĺ
Roĺ›ol̃ → *ol̃ko-
2. ol̃ko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OLith. al̃ka-
OEng. ealh-
(sb.) ‘Tempel’
(ASaxD. 230)
1. PIE *olko
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *olxo
2. olxo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alxa
3. alxa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *alx
4. alx
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *alh
5. alh
*a → ea
Change of *a into ea
Ra=›ea= → OEng. ealh
OHitt. alkešta-
(c.) ‘Zweig, Ast’
(ḪEG1:17-8),
1. PIE *olkesto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alkesta-
2. alkesta-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → OHitt. alkešta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ḫat·alkešna-
(.) ‘Weißdorn?’
(HEG I:17-18)
1. PIE *Π·olkesno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·alkesna-
2. Π·alkesna-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. Π·alkešna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√elko-
OLith. el̃ka-
(m.) ‘heiliger Hain’
(LiEtWb. 7)
1. PIE *eĺko-
*eĺ -> el̃
Circumflex intonation for eĺ
Reĺ›el̃ → *el̃ko-
2. el̃ko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OLith. el̃ka-
Latv. èlk-
(.) ‘Götze’
(Latv. èlks)
1. PIE *eĺko
eĺ -› èl
Latvian tone rule eĺ -› èl
RAccLatv10 → *èlko
2. èlko
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *èlka
3. èlka
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Latv. èlk
Latv. èlk-
(.) ‘temple’
(LiEtWb. 7)
(Latv. èlka kalns ‘temple hill’)
1. PIE *eĺko
eĺ -› èl
Latvian tone rule eĺ -› èl
RAccLatv10 → *èlko
2. èlko
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *èlka
3. èlka
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Latv. èlk


√l- √ol- √el- "Fest, Feier’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√li-
Hitt. ḫašanta·li-
(EZEN4.) ‘ein Fest’
(HHand. 45)
(Hitt. ḫašant- ‘(rechtmäßig) geboren, neugeboren’)
Hitt. puru·li-
(EZEN4.) ‘puruli-Fest’
(HHand. 136)
(Hitt. EZEN4 puruliaš [sgG])
√lio-
Lat. compitā·lio-
(n.pl) ‘XX’
(Lat. compitālia [plNA])
Lat. opā·lio-
(n.pl) ‘Fest der Ops’
(WH. 2:215)
(Lat. opālia)
Lat. saturnā·lio-
(n.pl) ‘Saturnalien’ (WH. 2:483)
(Lat. saturnālia)
Lat. sat·urnā·lio-
Osc. uesul·lio-
(n.pl) ‘Feste der Göttin uesuna’ (WbOU. 851-2)
(Osc. uesulliais)
Osc. uesul·lio-
√litu-
OGaul. litu-
(PN.m.) ‘Lafête’
(DLG. 205)
(OGaul. litus [sgN])
OGaul. litu·geno-
(PN.m.) ‘né de la fête’
(DLG. 205)
(OGaul. litu·genos)
1. PIE *litu·gi̯eɦɑno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *litu·gi̯eɦno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. litu·gi̯eɦno-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *litu·ǵeɦno-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. litu·ǵeɦno-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *litu·ǵeno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. litu·ǵeno-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → OGaul. litu·geno-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
OGaul. litu·genā-
(PN.f.) ‘née de la fête’
(DLG. 205)
(OGaul. litogena)
1. PIE *litu·gi̯eɦɑnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *litu·gi̯eɦɑnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. litu·gi̯eɦɑnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *litu·gi̯eɦnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. litu·gi̯eɦnāh-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *litu·ǵeɦnāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. litu·ǵeɦnāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *litu·ǵenāh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. litu·ǵenāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *litu·ǵenā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. litu·ǵenā-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → OGaul. litu·genā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
Galat. λιτυ·γνᾱτο-
(PN.) ‘XX’
(DLG. 205)
(Galat. λιτυγνατος)
1. PIE *litu·ginēɑɦto-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *litu·gināɑɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. litu·gināɑɦto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *litu·gināɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. litu·gināɦto-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *litu·ǵnāɦto-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. litu·ǵnāɦto-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *litu·ǵnāto-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. litu·ǵnāto-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *litu·gnāto-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. litu·gnāto-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Galat. λιτυ·γνᾱτο-
OGaul. litu·māro-
(PN.) 'Qui donne de grandes fêtes' ?
(DLG. 205)
(OGaul. litu-mari [sgG])
1. PIE *litu·mōro-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → OGaul. litu·māro-
OIr. lith-
(*-u) ‘jour de fête, heureux jour, festival’
(DLG. 205)
1. PIE *litu
VtV → VthV
Lenition of voiceless stop *t
Rt›th → OIr. lithu
Bret. lid-
(.) ‘solennité, cérémonie’
(DLG. 205)
1. PIE *litu
VtV -> VdV
Lenition of VtV into VdV 
Rt›d → Bret. lidu
√liu-
OGaul. nemnaliu-
(vb.) ‘célèbrer’
(DLG. 234)
(OGaul. nemnaliIumi [1sg])
1. PIE *nem·neɑh·liu-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *nem·naɑh·liu-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. nem·naɑh·liu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nem·nah·liu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nem·nah·liu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OGaul. nem·na·liu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√lno- √olno- √elno-
OIr. nemnall-
(sb.) ‘célébration (de la messe)’
(DIL. 477)
1. PIE *nem·neɑh·lno
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *nem·naɑh·lno
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. nem·naɑh·lno
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *nem·nah·lno
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. nem·nah·lno
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *nem·na·lno
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. nem·na·lno
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *nem·na·llo
5. nem·na·llo
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → OIr. nem·na·ll


PIE √lɑh- (vb.) ‘brennen, leuchten, glänzen’ (sb.) ‘Lampe, Laterne, Zeichen, Mal’
(IEW –)
(+ Pyysalo)
√lɑh-
HLu. lāḫ-
(*vb.) ‘burn’
(CHLu. 10.12.14)
(in the causative HLu. FLAMMAE(?)(-)lax-há-nú-wa/i-tax)
1. PIE *lēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. lāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√lɑhNp-
Gr. λελάμπ-
(pf.) ‘leuchten (lassen), glänzen’
(Gr. λέλαμπε [3sg])
1. PIE *leléɑhmp-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *leláɑhmp-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. leláɑhmp-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *leláhmp-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. leláhmp-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lelámp-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lelámp-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. λελάμπ-
Gr. λάμπο-
(vb.) ‘leuchten’
(Gr. λάμπω [1sg])
1. PIE *léɑhmpo-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *láɑhmpo-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. láɑhmpo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *láhmpo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. láhmpo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lámpo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lámpo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. λάμπο-
Gr. λαμπάδ-
(f.) ‘Fackel, Fackellauf’
(GEW 2:79)
1. PIE *leɑhmpéɑhd-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑhmpéɑhd-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑhmpéɑhd-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *laɑhmpáɑhd-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
3. laɑhmpáɑhd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lahmpáhd-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. lahmpáhd-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lampád-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. lampád-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. λαμπάδ-
Gr. λαμπρό-
(a.) ‘leuchtend, glänzend’
(GEW 2:79)
1. PIE *leɑhmpró-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑhmpró-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑhmpró-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lahmpró-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lahmpró-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lampró-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lampró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. λαμπρό-
√lɑhnskiito-
OInd. lāñchita-
(pt.) ‘gekennzeichnet’
(KEWA 3:98)
1. PIE *Lēɑhnski̯ito-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Lāɑhnski̯ito-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Lāɑhnski̯ito-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Lāhnski̯ito-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Lāhnski̯ito-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *lāhnski̯ito-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. lāhnski̯ito-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *lāhnsćito-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. lāhnsćito-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lāhnsćita-
6. lāhnsćita-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lānsćita-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. lānsćita-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *lānsśita-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
8. lānsśita-
*sś → ch
Change of sś to ch
Rsś›ch → *lānchita-
9. lānchita-
*nch → ñch
Palatalization of nasal
Rnch›ñch → OInd. lāñchita-
OInd. lāñchana-
(n.) ‘Zeichen, Mal’
(KEWA 3:98)
1. PIE *Lēɑhnski̯ono-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Lāɑhnski̯ono-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Lāɑhnski̯ono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Lāhnski̯ono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Lāhnski̯ono-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *lāhnski̯ono-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. lāhnski̯ono-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *lāhnsćono-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. lāhnsćono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lāhnsćana-
6. lāhnsćana-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lānsćana-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. lānsćana-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *lānsśana-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
8. lānsśana-
*sś → ch
Change of sś to ch
Rsś›ch → *lānchana-
9. lānchana-
*nch → ñch
Palatalization of nasal
Rnch›ñch → OInd. lāñchana-
√lɑhnterneɑh-
Lat. lanternā-
(f.) ‘Laterne, Lampe’
(WH. 1:760)
1. PIE *lēɑhnternēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑhnternāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑhnternāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāhnternāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāhnternāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lānternā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lānternā
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → Lat. lanternā
(SPIE §2.5.8)
Lat. lanternārio-
(a.) ‘Vorleuchter’
(WH. 1:760)
1. PIE *lēɑhnternēɑhrii̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑhnternāɑhrii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑhnternāɑhrii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāhnternāhrii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāhnternāhrii̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lānternārii̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lānternārii̯o-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *lanternārii̯o-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. lanternārii̯o-
*ii̯o → io
Loss *i̯ between i and o
Rii̯o›io → Lat. lanternārio-
√lɑhnu-
HLu. lāḫnu̯a-
(cs.) ‘make burn/light’
(CHLu. 10.12.14)
(HLu. FLAMMAE(?)(-)lax-há-nú-wa/i-tax)
1. PIE *lēɑhnu̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑhnu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑhnu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāhnu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāhnu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lāhnu̯a-
4. lāhnu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. lāḫnu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√lɑhp-
Lith. lópė-
(f.) ‘Fackel, Licht, Bündel Leuchtspäne’
(LiEtWb. 386)
(Lith. lópē [sgN]
1. PIE *lḗɑhpēhɑ-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *lā́ɑhpēhɑ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lā́ɑhpēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lā́hpēh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lā́hpēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lā́pē-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lā́pē-
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *lṓpē-
(XX:XX)
5. lṓpē-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → *lópē-
6. lópē-
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → Lith. lópė-
Latv. lāpa
(f.) ‘Fackel, Kienfackel’ (ANEtWb. 351)
(LiEtWb. 386)
(Latv. lāpa [sgN])
1. PIE *lēɑhpēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑhpāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑhpāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāhpāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāhpāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lāpā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lāpā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → Latv. lāpa
OPr. lopi-
(.) ‘Flamme’ (Voc. 44)
(LiEtWb. 386)
(OPr. lopis [sgN])
1. PIE *lēɑhpi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑhpi-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑhpi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāhpi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāhpi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lāpi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lāpi-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *lōpi-
(XX:XX)
5. lōpi-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → OPr. lopi-


PIE √lɑh- (vb.) ‘treiben, schlagen’ (sb.) ‘Feldzug; Spitze, Schoß’
(IEW 306-7, LIV2 :235)
(+ Pyysalo)
√lɑh-
(CHD L-N: 4f, HIL. 591)
(Pyysalo Toch + Gr.; Pyysalo 2013:234)
Hitt. laḫa-
(c.) ‘Feldzug, Reise’
(HEG 2:8, CHD 3:4-6)
(Hitt. la-a-aḫ-ḫi)
1. PIE *loɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *loho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. loho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laha-
3. laha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. laḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
TochB. la-
(vb.) ‘emerge, come out’
(DTochB. 552)
(TochB. laṃ [3sg])
1. PIE *leɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. la-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
TochB. la-
(vb.) ‘leave, exit’
(DTochB. 551)
(TochB. lat [2sg], Krause 1952:192)
1. PIE *leɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. la-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Gr. ἐλά-
(vb.tr.) ‘treiben, stoßen’
(Cos. ἐλάτω)
1. PIE *eléɑh-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *eláɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. eláɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eláh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. eláh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *elá-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. elá-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἐλά-
Maced. ἰζ·ελά-
(f.) ‘ἀγαθὴ τύχη : good luck’
(LSJ. 823)
(Hes. ἰζελά · ἀγαθὴ τύχη)
1. PIE *idɑɦi̯·eléɑh-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *idɑɦi̯·eláɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. idɑɦi̯·eláɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *idɦi̯·eláh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. idɦi̯·eláh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *idɦi̯·elá-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. idɦi̯·elá-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *idi̯·elá-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. idi̯·elá-
PIE *di̯ → j
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
Rdi̯›j → *ij·elá-
6. ij·elá-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *iz·elá-
7. iz·elá-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Maced. ἰζ·ελά-
Gr. ἐλήλα-
(pf.M.) ‘getrieben sein’
(Gr. ἐλήλαται [3sg])
1. PIE *elḗleɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *elḗlaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. elḗlaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *elḗlah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. elḗlah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *elḗla-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. elḗla-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἐλήλα-
√lɑhi-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. laḫi-
(c.) ‘Nadel; in MUNUSŠU.GI-Ritual’
(HEG 2:13)
(CHD 3:7, Stefanini (1983:149
1. PIE *loɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lohi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lohi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lahi-
3. lahi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. laḫi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
RV. lā́ya-
(m/n.) ‘Geschoß, Pfeil’
(WbRV. 1187)
1. PIE *Lóɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Lóhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Lóhi̯o-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *lóhi̯o-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. lóhi̯o-
PIE *óhCV → ā́hCV
Brugmann’s Law for *óhCV
RóHCV›ā́HCV → *lā́hi̯o-
(SPIE §2.3.7)
4. lā́hi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lā́hi̯a-
5. lā́hi̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lā́i̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. lā́i̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. lā́ya-
Hitt. laḫlaḫei̯a-
(vb.1.M.) ‘erregt/ängstlich sein, sich sorgen’
(HEG 2:13)
1. PIE *leɑhleɑhei̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑhlaɑhei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑhlaɑhei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lahlahei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lahlahei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lahlahei̯a-
4. lahlahei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. laḫlaḫei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√lɑhn-
TochB. lan-
(vb.) ‘emerge : hinausgehen’
(DTochB. 551)
(TochB. ostmeṃ lantsi [inf.] camñcer [2sg] ‘you can leave home’)
1. PIE *leɑhn-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑhn-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑhn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lahn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lahn-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. lan-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
TochB. lalña-
(.) ‘leaving, going out, exit : Skt. niryāṇam’
(DTochB. 552)
(TochB. lalñe-)
1. PIE *lolɑhni̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lolhni̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lolhni̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lalhni̯a-
3. lalhni̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lalni̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lalni̯a-
*ni̯ → ñ
Palatalization of *n before i̯
Rni̯›ñ → TochB. lalña-
Arm. elane-
(vb.) ‘ausgehen, hinaufsteigen’
(GEW 2:481)
(Arm. elanem [1sg])
1. PIE *eleɑhne-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *elaɑhne-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. elaɑhne-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *elahne-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. elahne-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Arm. elane-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√lɑhs-
Gr. ἔλασ-
(s.ao.) ‘treiben’
Gr. ἤλασα [1sg])
1. PIE *éleɑhss-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *élaɑhss-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. élaɑhss-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *élahss-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. élahss-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *élass-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. élass-
*ss → s
Degemination of *ss
Rss›s → *élas-
5. élas-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἔλασ-
√lɑht-
Gr. ἐλατήρ-
(m.) ‘Treiber, Wagenlenker’
(GEW 2:482)
1. PIE *eleɑhtḗr
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *elaɑhtḗr
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. elaɑhtḗr
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *elahtḗr
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. elahtḗr
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *elatḗr
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. elatḗr
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἐλατήρ


PIE √lɑh- (vb.) ‘waschen, strömen’ (sb.) ‘Wasserrinne, Wasserlauf’
(IEW 309-10)
(+ Pyysalo)
√ēlɑho-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. ēlḫa-
(vb.) ‘reinwaschen’
(HEG 2:5)
(CLu. e-el-ḫa-a-du [3sg], KUB 35 39 II 4;3, DLL 36)
1. PIE *ēlɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēlho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēlho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēlha-
3. ēlha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ēlḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OIcl. āl-
(m.) ‘Wasserrinne, Streifen am rücken eines Tieres’
(ANEtWb. 6)
(OIcl. āll [sgN])
1. PIE *ēlɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēlho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēlho-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ēlo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. ēlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēla-
4. ēla-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → OIcl. āla-
Far. āl-
(m.) ‘schmaler Wasserlauf’
(ANEtWb. 6)
(Far. ālur [sgN])
1. PIE *ēlɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēlho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēlho-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ēlo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. ēlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēla-
4. ēla-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → Far. āla-
CLu. ēlēlḫa-
(.) ‘reinwaschen’ (die Götter)
(HEG 2:5)
(CLu. e-le-el-ḫa-(a-)-an-du [3pl], KUB 35 39 II 4,10,26
1. PIE *ēlēlɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēlēlho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēlēlho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēlēlha-
3. ēlēlha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ēlēlḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√ēlɑhi-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. ēlēlḫai-
(vb.) ‘(ab)waschen’ (HHand. 61)
(DLL. 36)
(CLu. [e?-l]e-el-ha-a-i-t[i] [3sg
1. PIE *ēlēlɑhoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēlēlhoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēlēlhoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēlēlhai-
3. ēlēlhai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ēlēlḫai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OIcl. æla-
(vb.) ‘schnell strömen’
(ANEtWb 681)
1. PIE *ēlɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ēlhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ēlhi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ēli̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. ēli̯o-
*ēRC → eRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ēRC
RēRC›eRC → *eli̯o-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
4. eli̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eli̯a-
5. eli̯a-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *ili̯a-
6. ili̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → OIcl. ilja-


PIE √lɑh- (vb.) ‘geben’ (sb.) ‘Opfer’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + RV.)
√lēɑh-
Hitt. lāḫ·ura-
() ((GIŠ)c.) ‘Opfertisch, Opferschrank’
(HEG 2:16)
(Hitt. la-aḫ-ḫu-ra-aš [sgN], la-ḫu-u-ra-aš, la-aḫ-ḫu-ra-an, HED 5:13f.)
1. PIE *lēɑh·uro-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑh·uro-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑh·uro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāh·uro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāh·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lāh·ura-
4. lāh·ura-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. lāḫ·ura-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. lāḫ·ura-
(URU.) ‹cf. above; Hitt. GIŠura- ‘Tablett,Tisch’ ›
(OGH. 237)
(Hitt. la-aḫ-ḫu-u-ra KBo 16 97 Rs. 18 [All], DINGIRLUM; Orakelanfrage)
1. PIE *lēɑh·uro-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑh·uro-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑh·uro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāh·uro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāh·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lāh·ura-
4. lāh·ura-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. lāḫ·ura-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. lāḫ·urama-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGH. 237)
(Hitt. la-ḫu-u-ra-ma-aš [“Vorratshaus (É NA4KIŠIB) zur Zeit der Königs Telipinu.”])
1. PIE *lēɑh·uromo-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑh·uromo-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑh·uromo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāh·uromo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāh·uromo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lāh·urama-
4. lāh·urama-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. lāḫ·urama-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. lāḫ·urei̯a-
(c.) ‘Opfertisch, Opferschrank’
(HEG 2:16)
(Hitt. la-a-ḫu-ri-ia [L], KBo 11 18 V 12)
1. PIE *lēɑh·urei̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑh·urei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑh·urei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāh·urei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāh·urei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lāh·urei̯a-
4. lāh·urei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. lāḫ·urei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. lāḫ·uruma-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGH. 237)
(Hitt. la-aḫ-ḫu-ru-ma-aš)
1. PIE *lēɑh·urumo-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑh·urumo-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑh·urumo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāh·urumo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāh·urumo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lāh·uruma-
4. lāh·uruma-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. lāḫ·uruma-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√lēɑhtR-
RV. a·lātr̥ṇá-
(a.) ‘nicht herausgebend’
(WbRV. 121)
1. PIE *Π·Lēɑhtr̥nó-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·Lāɑhtr̥nó-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·Lāɑhtr̥nó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·Lāhtr̥nó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·Lāhtr̥nó-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *Π·lāhtr̥nó-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. Π·lāhtr̥nó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·lāhtr̥ná-
5. Π·lāhtr̥ná-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·lātr̥ná-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. Π·lātr̥ná-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. Π·lātr̥ṇá-


PIE √lɑhn- ‘Lache, Morast, usw.’
(IEW 653-4)
(+ Pyysalo)
√lēɑhn-
OIcl. lōn-
(f.) ‘Strandmeer’
(ANEtWb. 366)
1. PIE *lēɑhnēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑhnāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑhnāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāhnāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāhnāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lānā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lānā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *lōnō
(XX:XX)
5. lōnō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *lōna
6. lōna
*-a -u
Change of root final -a into -u
R=a›=u → *lōnu
7. lōnu
*-u → Ø
Loss of -u in root-final position
R=u›=0 → OIcl. lōn
Hitt. lāḫni-
(c.) ‘ein drinkbar Substanz’
(HEG 2, 14)
(Hitt. la-aḫ-ni-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *lēɑhni-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑhni-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑhni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāhni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāhni-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. lāḫni-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ·lāḫnid šeḫ-
(vb.) ‘mit Laḫni- bespringen’
(HEG 2, 14)
(Hitt. la-aḫ-ni-it [sgI])
1. PIE *lēɑhnidɑh·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑhnidɑh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑhnidɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāhnidh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāhnidh·Σ-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *lāhnid·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. lāhnid·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. lāḫnid·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Latv. lāni-
(f.) ‘Morast’
(ANEtWb. 366)
(Latv. lānis)
1. PIE *lēɑhniɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lāɑhniɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lāɑhniɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lāhnih-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lāhnih-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Latv. lāni-
(SPIE §2.1.4)


√lɦɑbɑɦ- √loɦɑbɑɦ- √leɦɑbɑɦ- (sb.) ‘Elfenbein, Elephant’
(IEW XX)
√loɦɑbɑɦ-
(CHD 3:12f.)
‹OAnat. preserves ḫ+Stop, no ḫ -> Ø; Melchert 1994:249›
CLu. laḫba-
(GKL.) ‘Elfenbein : ivory, HHand. 90’
(DLL. 61)
(CLu. la-aḫ-pa-aš [plD?] ú-nu-ua-an-du)
1. PIE *loɦɑbɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *loɦbɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. loɦbɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laɦbɦa-
3. laɦbɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *laɦba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. laɦba-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. laḫba-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. laḫba-
(sb.) ‘Elfenbein : MA-KU-UT KAxUD AM.SI’
(HEG 2:14)
(Hitt. la-aḫ-pa-aš-ma-aš kurakiš)
1. PIE *loɦɑbɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *loɦbɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. loɦbɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laɦbɦa-
3. laɦbɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *laɦba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. laɦba-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. laḫba-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√leɦɑbɑɦeɑhnt-
(GEW 1:XX)
Gr. ἐ·λέφαντ-
(.) ‘Elfenbein, Elefantenzahn’
(GEW 2:165)
1. PIE *e·léɦɑbɑɦeɑhnt-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *e·léɦɑbɑɦaɑhnt-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. e·léɦɑbɑɦaɑhnt-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *e·léɦbɦahnt-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. e·léɦbɦahnt-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *e·lébɦahnt-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. e·lébɦahnt-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *e·lébɦant-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. e·lébɦant-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *e·léphant-
6. e·léphant-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἐ·λέφαντ-
LinB. ἐ·λεπαντ-
(.) ‘elephant’
(XX:XX)
(LinB. e-re-pa [sgN], e-re-pa-to [sgG])
1. PIE *e·leɦɑbɑɦeɑhnt-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *e·leɦɑbɑɦaɑhnt-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. e·leɦɑbɑɦaɑhnt-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *e·leɦbɦahnt-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. e·leɦbɦahnt-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *e·lebɦahnt-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. e·lebɦahnt-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *e·lebɦant-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. e·lebɦant-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *e·lephant-
6. e·lephant-
*ph → p
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *ph
Rph›p → *e·lepant-
7. e·lepant-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. ἐ·λεπαντ-
LinB. ἐ·λεπαντεjο-
(a.) ‘made of ivory’
(XX:XX)
(LinB. e-re-pa-te-jo)
1. PIE *e·leɦɑbɑɦeɑhntei̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *e·leɦɑbɑɦaɑhntei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. e·leɦɑbɑɦaɑhntei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *e·leɦbɦahntei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. e·leɦbɦahntei̯o-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *e·lebɦahntei̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. e·lebɦahntei̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *e·lebɦantei̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. e·lebɦantei̯o-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *e·lephantei̯o-
6. e·lephantei̯o-
*ph → p
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *ph
Rph›p → *e·lepantei̯o-
7. e·lepantei̯o-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *e·lepantejo-
8. e·lepantejo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. ἐ·λεπαντεjο-


PIE √li- (vb.) ‘umwinden, binden’ (vb.) ‘Flachs, Lein, Netz, usw.’
(IEW 691)
(+ Pyysalo)
√li-
Hitt. ali-
() ((SÍG)c.) (eine bestimmte Wolle und deren Fäden)
(HEG 1:16)
(Hitt. ališ, alin, alit, EHS. 203, HHand. 14
1. PIE *oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ali-
Hitt. ḫul·ali-
(SÍGn.) ‘Binde, Wickel’
(HHand. 53)
1. PIE *hɑul·oli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hul·oli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hul·oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hul·ali-
3. hul·ali-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫul·ali-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫul·ali-
(vb.) ‘umwinden, umwickeln’
(HIL. 415)
1. PIE *hɑul·oli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hul·oli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hul·oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hul·ali-
3. hul·ali-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫul·ali-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OInd. āli-
(pf.) ‘binden’
[KEWA I:555]
(in OInd. ālita- ‘gebunden’)
1. PIE *ōLi-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *ōli-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. ōli-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → OInd. āli-
√leio-
CLu. pu̯·alei̯a-
(.) ‘a garment for the leg or foot?:
(CHD P:369)
(CLu. pu-wa-li-ia-an-za [sgNA], HIL. 791)
1. PIE *pu̯·olei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. pu̯·alei̯a-
Hitt. pu̯·alei̯a-
(.) ‘a garment for the leg or foot?’
(CHD P:369)
(Hitt. pu-ua-li-ia [sgNA], HIL. 791)
1. PIE *pu̯·olei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. pu̯·alei̯a-
√lino-
Lith. lìna-
(m.sg) ‘Flachsstengel, einzelne Flachspflanze’
(LiEtWb. 373)
(Lith. lìnas [sgN], linaĩ [plN])
1. PIE *líno-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *lìno-
2. lìno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lith. lìna-
LinB. λινο-
(n.) ‘Lein’
(GEW 2:125-6)
(LinB. ri-no = λίνον)
1. PIE *lino-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. λινο-
Gr. λίνο-
(n.) ‘Lein(pflanze), Flachs, Linnen, Faden, Netz’
(GEW 2:125-6)
(Gr. λίνο-)
1. PIE *líno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. λίνο-
Lith. lìna-
(m4.pl) ‘Lein, Flachs’
(LiEtWb. 373)
(Lith. linaĩ [pl])
1. PIE *líno-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *lìno-
2. lìno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lith. lìna-
√lolinoi-
CLu. lalinai-
(vb.) (beschreibt Kleidungstücke) (CHD 3:28)
(HEG 2:24)
(in CLu. la-li-i-na-i-me-iš [pt.])
1. PIE *lolinoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lalinai-
CLu. lalinaimi-
(pt.) ‘bzw. Kleidungstücke, HHand. 91’
(DLL. 62)
(CLu. la-li-i-na-i-me-iš [sgN], la-li-na-i-me-en-zi [plN])
1. PIE *lolinoimi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lalinaimi-
Hitt. lalinita-
(n.) ‘ein Schmuckstück an Kleidungsstücken’
(HEG 2:24)
(Hitt. la-li-ni-ta; but (HHand. 91) lalinimi-)
1. PIE *lolinito-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. lalinita-
√liso-
Hitt. ališa-
(n.) ‘eine Gewebe’
(HHand. 14)
(Hitt. a-li-e-š-ša)
1. PIE *oliso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alisa-
2. alisa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ališa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ḫul·ališke/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘umwinden’
(HHand. 53)
(Hitt. ḫu-u-la-li-iš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *hɑul·oliski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hul·oliski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hul·oliski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *hul·olisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. hul·olisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hul·alisḱe/a-
4. hul·alisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *hul·aliske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. hul·aliske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hul·ališke/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. hul·ališke/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫul·ališke/a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫul·ališn-
(N.act.) ‘Umfang’
(HHand. 53)
(Hitt. ḫu-la-li-eš-ni [L])
1. PIE *hɑul·olisn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hul·olisn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hul·olisn-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hul·alisn-
3. hul·alisn-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hul·ališn-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hul·ališn-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫul·ališn-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫul·ališar-
(n.) ‘Umfang’
(HHand. 53)
(Hitt. ḫu-la-li-eš-šar)
1. PIE *hɑul·olisor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hul·olisor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hul·olisor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hul·alisar-
3. hul·alisar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hul·ališar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hul·ališar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫul·ališar-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √li-, √oli-, √eli- ‘liquid’
(IEW 305)
(+ Pyysalo)
√oli-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. ali-
(c.) ‘mer (?)’
(DLL 25-6)
(CLu. a-li-in [sgA])
1. PIE *oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ali-
Arm. ołoł-
(sb.) ‘inundation, flood’
(EtDiArm. 528)
(Arm. ołoł)
1. PIE *oli̯oli̯ò
*li̯ → ł
Change of *li̯ into ł
Rli̯›ł → *ołołò
2. ołołò
*o → Ø
Loss of *ò
Rò›0 → Arm. ołoł
Arm. ołołe-
(vb.) ‘overflow, inundate, flood; rinse’
(EtDiArm. 528)
(Arm. ołołem)
1. PIE *oli̯oli̯e-
*li̯ → ł
Change of *li̯ into ł
Rli̯›ł → Arm. ołołe-
Arm. ołołane-
(vb.) ‘overflow, inundate, flood; rinse’
(EtDiArm. 528)
(Arm. ołołanem)
1. PIE *oli̯oli̯ēɑhne-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *oli̯oli̯āɑhne-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. oli̯oli̯āɑhne-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oli̯oli̯āhne-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. oli̯oli̯āhne-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oli̯oli̯āne-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. oli̯oli̯āne-
*li̯ → ł
Change of *li̯ into ł
Rli̯›ł → *ołołāne-
5. ołołāne-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Arm. ołołane-


PIE √lis- √lois- √leis- ‘glänzen’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + HLu.)
√lois-
HLu. ARHA’ laiši·-
(vb.) ‘XX’
(CHLu. 11.f-g.51)
(HLu. ARHA’ OCCIDENS(-)la/i/u-i-si-ti-i [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·loisi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·laisi-
2. Π·laisi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. Π·laiši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OLat. loisio-
(m.) ‘Gentiin. aus Capua’
(WbOU. 436)
1. PIE *loisi̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OLat. loisio-
Hitt. laišai̯a-
(SAR) ‘eine Heilpflanze, HHand. 90’
(HEG 2:16)
(Hitt. la-a-i-ša-ia ‘in der medizinischen Aufzählung KUB LI 18 Vs. 15)
1. PIE *loisoii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laisaii̯a-
2. laisaii̯a-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *laisaia-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. laisaia-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → *laisai̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. laisai̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. laišai̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Osc. loisāri-
(f.) ‘Monatsname, Attr. von eídúís’
(WbOU. 436)
(Osc. lúisari-)
1. PIE *loisēɑhri-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *loisāɑhri-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. loisāɑhri-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *loisāhri-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. loisāhri-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Osc. loisāri-
(SPIE §2.1.4)


PIE √lgɑɦi- √logɑɦi- √legɑɦi- ‘glänzen, brennen’
(IEW —)
(Pyysalo; or PIE √lgiɑɦ- (?)
√logɑɦi-
Hitt. lak·šina-
(c.) ‘Gegenstand aus Kupfer oder Bronze’
(HHand. 91)
(for suffix, cf. Hitt. URUDUuaršini- (c.) ‘kupfernes Gefäß’
1. PIE *logɑɦi·sino-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *logɦi·sino-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. logɦi·sino-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *loǵɦ·sino-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. loǵɦ·sino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laǵɦ·sina-
4. laǵɦ·sina-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *lagɦ·sina-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. lagɦ·sina-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *lag·sina-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. lag·sina-
gs -› ks
Devoicing of gs to ks
Rgs›ks → *lak·sina-
7. lak·sina-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. lak·šina-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lak·šini-
(c.) (Gegenstand aus Kupfer)
(HHand. 91)
1. PIE *logɑɦi·sini-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *logɦi·sini-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. logɦi·sini-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *loǵɦ·sini-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. loǵɦ·sini-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laǵɦ·sini-
4. laǵɦ·sini-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *lagɦ·sini-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. lagɦ·sini-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *lag·sini-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. lag·sini-
gs -› ks
Devoicing of gs to ks
Rgs›ks → *lak·sini-
7. lak·sini-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. lak·šini-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√logɑɦio-
HLu. lazali-
() ((FLAMMAEa.) ‘sacrificial for burning’
(CHLu. XX)
(FLAMMAE(?)’)la/i/u-za-li-na, (“FLAMMAE(?)LA/I/U”)la/i/u-za-li-ha-wa/i); Not “luzali-” (vs. CHLu. 406, 628).
1. PIE *logɑɦi̯oli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *logɦi̯oli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. logɦi̯oli-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *loj́ɦoli-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. loj́ɦoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laj́ɦali-
4. laj́ɦali-
*j́ɦ → zɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to zɦ
Rj́ɦ›zɦ → *lazɦali-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. lazɦali-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. lazali-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√logɑɦi̯ɑh-
Gr. λόχη-
(f.) ‘Flamme’
(ModGr. λόχη-)
1. PIE *lógɑɦi̯oēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lógɑɦi̯oāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lógɑɦi̯oāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lógɦi̯oāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lógɦi̯oāh-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *lóǵɦoāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. lóǵɦoāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lóǵɦoā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. lóǵɦoā-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *lóḱhoā-
6. lóḱhoā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *lókhoā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. lókhoā-
ā –> ē (Att)
Attican change of ā –› ē
Rā›ēAtt → *lókhoē-
8. lókhoē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. λόχοη-


PIE √lp-, √olp-, √elp- (vb.) ‘Wolke, Öl, Fett, Käse’ (sb.) ‘XX’
(IEW –)
√olp-
(Pyysalo 2013:88n206)
(HW2 A: 60, HEG 1:18-19, HED 1/2: 37-8, HIL. 204-5)
Hitt. alpa-
(c.) ‘Wolke’ (Akd. URPU)
(ḪEG1:18)
(Hitt. al-pa-aš, al-pa-a-aš, al-pa-an)
1. PIE *olpo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. alpa-
Hitt. alparama-
(.) ‘Wolkenbank, EHS 179, ‹cf. arama- ‘hoch’ (?)›
(HEG 1:19)
(Hitt. al-pa-ra-mi-it, HIL. 204)
1. PIE *olporomo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. alparama-
√elpos-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. ἔλποσ-
(n.) ‘Öl, Fett’ ‹ without Gr. h- ! ›
(GEW 1:503)
(Hes. ἔλπος · ἔλαιον, στέαρ)
1. PIE *élpos-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἔλποσ-
CLu. alpaši-
(GKLc.) ‘Art Gebäck, HEG I:18, HHand. 14’
(DLL 26)
(CLu. al-pa-aš-ši-iš [sgN] ‘nom de patisserie’)
1. PIE *olposi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alpasi-
2. alpasi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. alpaši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. alpaši-
(URU.) “Im Land Waliwanta › Ananta.”
(OGH. 10)
(Hitt. al-pa-aš-ši-ia [All])
1. PIE *olposi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alpasi-
2. alpasi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. alpaši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√olpɑh-
(Pyysalo)
Ion.-Att. ὄλπη-
(f.) ‘Ölflasche’
(Gr. ὄλπη)
1. PIE *ólpēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ólpāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ólpāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ólpāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ólpāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ólpā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ólpā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
Rā›ē → *ólpē-
5. ólpē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. ὄλπη-
Hitt. alpāḫ-
(vb.2.intr.) ‘spucken’ (tr.) ‘ausspucken’
(HED 1:XX)
1. PIE *olpēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *olpāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. olpāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *olpāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. olpāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alpāh-
4. alpāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. alpāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√olopɑh-
Hitt. alapāḫ-
(vb.2.intr.) ‘spucken’ (tr.) ‘ausspucken’
(HEG 1:15)
(HHand. 13)
1. PIE *olopēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *olopāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. olopāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *olopāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. olopāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alapāh-
4. alapāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. alapāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. alapāḫant-
(pt.) ‘XX’
(HEG 1:XX)
1. PIE *olopēɑhont-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *olopāɑhont-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. olopāɑhont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *olopāhont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. olopāhont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alapāhant-
4. alapāhant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. alapāḫant-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. alapāḫiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘XX’
(HEW 1:XX)
1. PIE *olopēɑhiski̯e/o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *olopāɑhiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. olopāɑhiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *olopāhiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. olopāhiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *olopāhisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. olopāhisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alapāhisḱe/a-
5. alapāhisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *alapāhiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. alapāhiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *alapāhiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. alapāhiške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. alapāḫiške/a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√olpi-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. alpi-
(c.) ‘Wolke’ (Akd. URPU)
(HEG 1:18)
(Hitt. al-pí-it)
1. PIE *olpi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. alpi-
OIcl. elf-
(f.*-ô) ‘Fluß’
(ANEtWb. 100)
(OIcl. elfr)
1. PIE *olpi-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›fRestr → *olfi-
2. olfi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alfi-
3. alfi-
*a – i → e – Ø
Umlaut for *a – i
Ralfi›elf → OIcl. elf-
Gr. ὄλπιδ-
(f.) ‘Ölflasche’
(GEW 1:503)
‹ without Gr. h- ! ›
1. PIE *ólpiɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ólpiɦd-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ólpiɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *ólpid-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. ólpid-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄλπιδ-
√olobɑɦ-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. alabāḫ-
(vb.2.intr.) ‘spucken’
(HEG I:15)
(HHand. 13)
1. PIE *olobɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *olobɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. olobɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *olobɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. olobɦāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alabɦāh-
4. alabɦāh-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *alabāh-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. alabāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. alabāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√olbɑɦ-
Hitt. albāḫ-
(vb.2.intr.) ‘spucken’
(HHand. 13)
(HEG I:15, HED)
1. PIE *olbɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *olbɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. olbɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *olbɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. olbɦāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *albɦāh-
4. albɦāh-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *albāh-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. albāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. albāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. alban-
(pt.n.) ‘said of GA.KIN.AG ‘cheese’
(HIL. 205)
(‹thus Hitt. alpan(t)- not to Hitt. alpant- ‘bewitched’)
1. PIE *olbɑɦon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *olbɦon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. olbɦon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *albɦan-
3. albɦan-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. alban-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. ἔλφοσ-
(n.) ‘Butter, Kuhquark’
(Gr. ἔλφος · βούτυρον)
1. PIE *élbɑɦos-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *élbɦos-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. élbɦos-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *élphos-
3. élphos-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἔλφοσ-


PIE √l- √ol- √el- ‘XX’ (cf. Goth. wōd- ‘besessen’ OHG. wuot- ‘insanitus’)
(IEW XX + 30)
√olp-
(HEG I:18, 20-21)
(HW2 A: 60f., HED 1/2: 39, Melchert 1994:104, HIL. 206-7)
Lith. al̃p-
(vb.) ’das Bewußtsein verlieren, ohnmächtig werden’
(LiEtWb. 9)
(For Lith. al̃pti ‘swoon, faint, be ecstatic’ here, see Puhvel (HED 1/2: 39))
1. PIE *oĺp-
*oĺ -> ol̃
Circumflex intonation for oĺ
Roĺ›ol̃ → *ol̃p-
2. ol̃p-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lith. al̃p-
TochB. ālp-
(PN) (From the Uyghur word for ‘the powerful’)
(DTochB. 55)
1. PIE *ōlp-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → TochB. ālp-
OIcl. alf-
(m.) ‘Albe, Elf’
(ANEtWb. 5-6)
(OIcl. alfr [sgN])
1. PIE *olpo-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›fRestr → *olfo-
2. olfo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. alfa-
OEng. ælf-
(m.) ‘an elf, genius, incubus’
(ASaxD. 14)
(Mikkola & Petersson apud Fraenkel)
1. PIE *olpi-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *olfi-
2. olfi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alfi-
3. alfi-
alfi → ælf
Umlaut a-i -> æ
Ralfi›ælf → OEng. ælf-
OEng. ælf·ādl
(.) ‘Elf-disease’ (ephialtae morbus)
(ASaxD. 14)
1. PIE *olpi̯·oidɑɦlo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *olpi̯·oidɦlo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. olpi̯·oidɦlo
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *olfi̯·oidɦlo
3. olfi̯·oidɦlo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *olfi̯·oidlo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. olfi̯·oidlo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alfi̯·aidla
5. alfi̯·aidla
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *alfi̯·aidl
6. alfi̯·aidl
alfi → ælf
Umlaut a-i -> æ
Ralfi›ælf → *ælf·aidl
7. ælf·aidl
*ai → ā
Monophthongization of *ai into ā
Rai›ā → OEng. ælf·ādl
Hitt. alpant-
(pt.) ‘behext, verzaubert’ (of DUMU ‘child’)
(HEG 1:18)
(Hitt. DUMU-la-aš al-pa-an-za, HHand. 14)
1. PIE *olpont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. alpant-
√elp-
OEng. ilf
(f.) ‘an elf’
(ASaxD. 588)
1. PIE *elp-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *elf-
2. elf-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → OEng. ilf-
OEng. ilfig-
(a.) ‘affected by elves, mad, frantic’
(ASaxD. 588)
1. PIE *elpigɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *elpigɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. elpigɦo
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *elfigɦo
3. elfigɦo
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *elfigo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. elfigo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *elfiga
5. elfiga
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *ilfiga
6. ilfiga
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OEng. ilfig
√olu-
(HEG I:18)
(IEW. 30 [diff.])
ORun. alu-
(n.) ‘magic spell’
(ANEtWb. 7)
[Polomé apud HEG A:20, IE&IE 708]
1. PIE *olu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → ORun. alu-
OIcl. ǫl·rūn
(n.) ‘tabu’
(ANEtWb. 7)
1. PIE *olu·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alu·Σ-
2. alu·Σ-
*a — u → ǫ — Ø
Umlaut for a — u
Ralu›ǫl → OIcl. ǫl·Σ-
Hitt. alu̯anzāḫ-
(vb.1.) ‘UḪ7 : verzaubern, verhexen’
(HEG 1:20-21)
1. PIE *olu̯ondɑɦi̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *olu̯ondɑɦi̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. olu̯ondɑɦi̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *olu̯ondɦi̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. olu̯ondɦi̯āh-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *olu̯onjɦāh-
4. olu̯onjɦāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alu̯anjɦāh-
5. alu̯anjɦāh-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *alu̯anjāh-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. alu̯anjāh-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *alu̯anzāh-
7. alu̯anzāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. alu̯anzāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. alu̯anzāḫa-
(c.) ‘Zauber(kraft)’ : ‘sorcery’
(HHand. XX)
1. PIE *olu̯ondɑɦi̯ēɑho-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *olu̯ondɑɦi̯āɑho-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. olu̯ondɑɦi̯āɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *olu̯ondɦi̯āho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. olu̯ondɦi̯āho-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *olu̯onjɦāho-
4. olu̯onjɦāho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alu̯anjɦāha-
5. alu̯anjɦāha-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *alu̯anjāha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. alu̯anjāha-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *alu̯anzāha-
7. alu̯anzāha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. alu̯anzāḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √lepɑh- √lopɑh- √lebɑɦ- √lobɑɦ- (vb.) ‘brennen, glänzen, glühen’ (sb.) ‘Zeus, Fieber, Fackel, Funken’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo 2013:88)
√lopɑh-
(HEG 2:32)
(Oettinger 1979:443, HIL. 601f.)
Hitt. lap-
(vb.1.) ‘glühen, entflammt sein, brennen’
(CHD 3:39f.)
(Hitt. la-ap-zi, la-ap-ta, la-a-ap-ta [3sg], HHand. 92)
1. PIE *lopɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *loph-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. loph-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laph-
3. laph-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. lap-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lapa-
(URUDU.) (Metallwerkzeug) ‘Zange, Brandeisen?’
(CHD 3:40)
(Hitt. la-a-ap-pa, la-ap-pa-za, la-a-ap-pí-it)
1. PIE *lopɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lopho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lopho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lapha-
3. lapha-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. lapa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. laba·LÚ-
(LÚ.c.*) (trésorier)
(NOMS. 688)
(in la-pa-LÚ)
1. PIE *lobɑɦo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lobɦo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lobɦo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *labɦa·Σ-
3. labɦa·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. laba·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√lebɑɦ-
Lyd. lef-
(d.c.) ‘Zeus’
(Melchert 1994:334)
(Lyd. lefś = Zeus)
1. PIE *lebɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lebɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lebɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *leb-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. leb-
PIE *b → f
Orthographic change of *b into f
Rb›f → Lyd. lef-
√lopɑhi-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. lapei̯a-
(c.) ‘Fieber’ (: ‘fever’)
(HEG 2:32)
(Hitt. la-ap-pí-aš [sgN], la-ap-pí-ia-an [sgA], HIL. 601)
1. PIE *lopɑhei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lophei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lophei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laphei̯a-
3. laphei̯a-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. lapei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. labei̯a-
(GIŠ.) ‘Funken’ oder ‘Feuerholz’
(HEG 2:32)
1. PIE *lobɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lobɦei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lobɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *labɦei̯a-
3. labɦei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. labei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lapei̯a-
(GIŠc.) ‘Kienspan, Feuerholz’ (?) (CHD 3:44)
(HHand. 92)
(Hitt. la-ap-pí-ia-aš)
1. PIE *lopɑhei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lophei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lophei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laphei̯a-
3. laphei̯a-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. lapei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Dor. λοφίδ-
(f.) ‘Fackel’ [= torch]
(GEW 2:139)
(Cypr. λοφίς)
1. PIE *lopɑhíɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lophíɦd-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lophíɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *lophíd-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. lophíd-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. λοφίδ-
√lopɑhin-
Hitt. lapina-
(.) ‘Docht, o.ä., Gegenstand im Ritual’
(HEG 2:43)
(Hitt. SÍGi-ia-at-na! la-ap-pí-na-an i[(ia-an)-zi)
1. PIE *lopɑhino-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lophino-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lophino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laphina-
3. laphina-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. lapina-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lapina-
(vb.dn.) ‘erglühen lassen, anzünden’
(HEG 2:32)
(Hitt. la-ap-pí-na-an-zi [3pl] Objekt šašanus ‘Lampen’)
1. PIE *lopɑhino-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lophino-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lophino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laphina-
3. laphina-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. lapina-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√lopɑhn-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. λοφνίδ-
(f.) ‘Fackel : torch’
(Gr. λοφνίς)
1. PIE *lopɑhníɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lophníɦd-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lophníɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *lophníd-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. lophníd-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. λοφνίδ-
Hitt. lapnu̯ant-
(vb.) ‘anzündend, zu Glühen bringend’
(HEG 2:32)
(CHD 3:44)
1. PIE *lopɑhnu̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lophnu̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lophnu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laphnu̯ant-
3. laphnu̯ant-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. lapnu̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lapnuške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘XX’
(HEG 2:32)
(Hitt. lapnuškiuan [sup])
1. PIE *lopɑhnuski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lophnuski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lophnuski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *lophnusḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. lophnusḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *laphnusḱe/a-
4. laphnusḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *laphnuske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. laphnuske/a-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *lapnuske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. lapnuske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. lapnuške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √lor- (vb.) ‘burgeon, prosper, flourish, love’ (a.) ‘dear, beloved’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√loro-
(Pyysalo)
(HLu. r = TochB. r -› PIE *r, not †T !)
HLu. arḫa lara·-
(vb.) ‘to burgeon, prosper, flourish’
(CHLu. 10.14.6)
(HLu. ARHA-’ la+ra/i-ta, Sultanhan §6)
1. PIE *Π·loro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·lara-
HLu. lara-
(LÚ.c.) ‘Lara-’
(CHLu. 4.9.1)
(HLu. la+ra/i+a-sa)
1. PIE *loro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. lara-
HLu. lara·ḫireia-
(“VAS”.) ‘-(?)-’
(CHLu. 11.1.fg4)
(HLu. “VAS”(-)la+ra/i-hi-ri+i-ia-zi-ha)
1. PIE *loro·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. lara·Σ-
TochB. lara-
(a.) ‘dear, beloved’
(DTochB. 548)
(TochB. larepi, lareṃ)
1. PIE *loro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochB. lara-
TochB. lāra-
(a.) ‘dear, beloved’
(DTochB. 548)
(TochB. lāre)
1. PIE *lōro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lōra-
2. lōra-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → TochB. lāra-
Hitt. trḫu·lara-
(LÚ.c.) ‘prince de Gurgum sous Tiglatpileser’
(NOMS. 1258)
(in Ass. tar-ḫu-la-ra, ta-ar-ḫu-la-ra)
1. PIE *trhɑu·loro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *trhu·loro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. trhu·loro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *trhu·lara-
3. trhu·lara-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. trḫu·lara-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√loroi-
Hitt. dug·lari-
(c.) ‘eine Opfergabe, Art Flüßigkeit?’
(HHand. 180)
1. PIE *dɑɦugɑɦ·lori-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦugɦ·lori-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦugɦ·lori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦugɦ·lari-
3. dɦugɦ·lari-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. dug·lari-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
TochB. ·lāre yām-
(vb.tr.) ‘to love’
(DTochB. 548)
1. PIE *lōroi·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lōrai·Σ-
2. lōrai·Σ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *lārai·Σ-
3. lārai·Σ-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *lārē·Σ-
4. lārē·Σ-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. lāre·Σ-
TochB. lare·ṣa-
(a.) ‘dear, beloved’
(DTochB. 548)
(TochB. lareṣṣe)
1. PIE *loroi·si̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *larai·si̯a-
2. larai·si̯a-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
Rsi̯›ṣ → *larai·ṣa-
3. larai·ṣa-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *larē·ṣa-
4. larē·ṣa-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. lare·ṣa-
TochB. lare·yok-
(a.) ‘love-like, dear’
(DTochB. 548)
1. PIE *loroi·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *larai·Σ-
2. larai·Σ-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *larē·Σ-
3. larē·Σ-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. lare·Σ-


PIE √les-, √los- (vb.) ‘glänzen’ (a.) ‘glänzend’ (sb.) ‘Fieber, Komet’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√los-, √les-
OInd. a·las-
(a.) ‘not shining’
(MonWil. 94)
1. PIE *hɑe·Los-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑa·Los-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑa·Los-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ha·Los-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ha·Los-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *ha·los-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. ha·los-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ha·las-
5. ha·las-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OInd. a·las-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√loso-, √leso-
(Pyysalo 2103:272)
HLu. laša·laša-
(vb.) ‘lasalasa-’
(CHLu. 9.1.11)
(HLu. (‘FLAMMAE(?)’)la/i/u-sà-la-/i-/u-sà-ta)
1. PIE *loso·loso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lasa·lasa-
2. lasa·lasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. laša·laša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OInd. lasa-
(a.) [in mng.] ‘shining’
(MonWil. 899)
1. PIE *Loso-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *loso-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. loso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. lasa-
OInd. lasa-
(m.) [in mng.] ‘fever’ (in a camel)
(MonWil. 899)
1. PIE *Loso-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *loso-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. loso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. lasa-
Hitt. lešala-
(MULc.) ‘Komet, Stefanini (1983 [JNES 42]:150’
(HEG II:54)
(Hitt. taku-kan MUL le-eš-šal-la-aš [sgN] uizzi nu-ši-kan ḫaparnuatar-šet para meki lalukešzi, CHD 3:72)
1. PIE *lesolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lesala-
2. lesala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. lešala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lilašala-
(.) ‘with NA4ZI.KIN = ‘Kultstein, Kultmal’
(XX:XX)
(Hitt. NA4ZI.KIN li-la-aš-ša-al-la ku-ua-pí nu A-NA dMA[Ḫ-)
1. PIE *lilosolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lilasala-
2. lilasala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. lilašala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. lašanu-
(vb.) ‘beschreibt die rituelle reinigung von Tieren’
(ḪHand. 96)
1. PIE *losonu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lasanu-
2. lasanu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. lašanu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√losi-
HLu. ARHA’ lasi·-
(OCCIDENSvb.) ‘- (?) -’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. OCCIDENS(-)la/i/u-si-ta)
1. PIE *Π·losi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·lasi-
2. Π·lasi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. Π·laši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √ldɑɦ- √lodɑɦ- √ledɑɦ- ‘Frucht’
(XX:XX)
(HEG X:XX)
√lōdɑɦ-
HLu. ARHA lāda·-
(vb.) ‘prosper (?)’
(CHLu. 10.16.1)
(HLu. ARHA la-tà-ta)
1. PIE *Π·lōdɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·lōdɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·lōdɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·lōdɦa-
3. Π·lōdɦa-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·lādɦa-
4. Π·lādɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. Π·lāda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OIcl. lōð-
(n.) ‘Ertrag, Frucht’
(ANEtWb. 362)
1. PIE *lōdɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lōdɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lōdɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *lōdo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. lōdo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lōda
4. lōda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *lōd
5. lōd
*d -› ð
Change of d into ð
Rd›ð → OIcl. lōð
LycA. lada-
(c.) ‘Frau’
(Pedersen 1945:15-6)
(LycA. lada [sgN])
1. PIE *lōdɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lōdɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. lōdɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lōdɦa-
3. lōdɦa-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *lādɦa-
4. lādɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *lāda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. lāda-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → LycA. lada-
OIcl. lōð-
(f.) ‘Ertrag, Frucht’
(ANEtWb. 362)
1. PIE *lōdɑɦēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lōdɑɦāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lōdɑɦāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lōdɦāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lōdɦāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lōdɦā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. lōdɦā
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *lōdā
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. lōdā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *lōdō
(XX:XX)
6. lōdō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *lōda
7. lōda
*-a -u
Change of root final -a into -u
R=a›=u → *lōdu
8. lōdu
*d -› ð
Change of d into ð
Rd›ð → *lōðu
9. lōðu
*-u → Ø
Loss of -u in root-final position
R=u›=0 → OIcl. lōð
Russ. láda-
(c.) ‘Gemahl(in)’
(REW 2:5)
(Russ. láda [sgN])
1. PIE *lṓdɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *lṓdɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. lṓdɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lṓdɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lṓdɦāh-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *lā́dɦāh-
4. lā́dɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lā́dɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. lā́dɦā-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *lā́dā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. lā́dā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *lā́da-
7. lā́da-
*ā́ → a
Change of *ā́ into á
Rā́›á → Russ. láda-
Russ. ládi-
(vb.) ‘passen, stimmen, usw.’
(LiEtWb. 328)
(Russ. ládit’ [inf.])
1. PIE *lṓdɑɦiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *lṓdɑɦiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. lṓdɑɦiíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lṓdɦiíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lṓdɦiíh-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *lā́dɦiíh-
4. lā́dɦiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lā́dɦií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. lā́dɦií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *lā́dɦī́-
6. lā́dɦī́-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *lā́dī́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. lā́dī́-
*ā́ → a
Change of *ā́ into á
Rā́›á → *ládī́-
8. ládī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → Russ. ládí-
√lēdɑɦ-
Goth. un·led-
(a.*-a) ‘arm, πένης, πτωχός, mendicus, pauper’
(GoEtD. U-31)
(Goth. unleds, Luk 16,20, unledai [plN] Mat 11,5, unledam [plD], Joh 13,29)
1. PIE *un·lēdɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *un·lēdɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. un·lēdɦo-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *un·lēdo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. un·lēdo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *un·lēda-
4. un·lēda-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → Goth. un·leda-
Goth. un·ledan-
(a.) ‘arm, πένης, πτωχός, mendicus, pauper’
(GoEtD. U-31)
(Goth., unledans [plA] Joh 12,8 CA, unledane [plG] Gal 2,10 B)
1. PIE *un·lēdɑɦono
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *un·lēdɦono
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. un·lēdɦono
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *un·lēdono
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. un·lēdono
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *un·lēdana
4. un·lēdana
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *un·lēdan
5. un·lēdan
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → Goth. un·ledan


PIE √ldɑɦ- √oldɑɦ- √eldɑɦ- ‘Gewässer’
(IEW. 32)
√oldɑɦ-
Hitt. alda-
(ÌD.) ‘XX’
(HEG 1:20)
(AM, Laroche, RHA 69, 79, Tischler HEG A:20)
1. PIE *oldɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oldɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. oldɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aldɦa-
3. aldɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. alda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√oldɑɦi-
OCS. ladi-
(f.) ‘Schiff’
(Sadnik √7)
1. PIE *oldɑɦiɑ́-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *oldɑɦií-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. oldɑɦií-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oldɦií-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. oldɦií-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aldɦií-
4. aldɦií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *aldɦī́-
5. aldɦī́-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *aldī́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. aldī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *oldī́-
7. oldī́-
*old → lād
Slavic metathesis of old to lād
Rold›lād → *lādī́-
8. lādī́-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *ladī́-
9. ladī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *ladí-
10. ladí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → OCS. ladi-
Lith. aldijà-
(f.) ‘Flusskahn’
(LiEtWb. 120)
1. PIE *oldɑɦii̯ḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *oldɑɦii̯ā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. oldɑɦii̯ā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oldɦii̯ā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. oldɦii̯ā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oldɦii̯ā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. oldɦii̯ā́
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aldɦii̯ā́
5. aldɦii̯ā́
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *aldii̯ā́
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. aldii̯ā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *aldii̯ṓ
(XX:XX)
7. aldii̯ṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → *aldii̯à
8. aldii̯à
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Lith. aldijà
OCS. ladiji-
(.) ‘Kahn’
(Sadnik √7)
1. PIE *oldɑɦeii̯ei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oldɦeii̯ei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. oldɦeii̯ei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aldɦeii̯ei-
3. aldɦeii̯ei-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *aldeii̯ei-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. aldeii̯ei-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *oldeii̯ei-
5. oldeii̯ei-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *oldīi̯ī-
6. oldīi̯ī-
*old → lād
Slavic metathesis of old to lād
Rold›lād → *lādīi̯ī-
7. lādīi̯ī-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *lādījī-
8. lādījī-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *ladījī-
9. ladījī-
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. ladiji-
OCS. ladijica-
(f.) ‘Schifflein’
(REW 52)
1. PIE *oldɑɦeii̯eikuɑhi̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *oldɑɦeii̯eikuɑhi̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. oldɑɦeii̯eikuɑhi̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oldɦeii̯eikuhi̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. oldɦeii̯eikuhi̯āh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aldɦeii̯eikuhi̯āh-
4. aldɦeii̯eikuhi̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aldɦeii̯eikui̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. aldɦeii̯eikui̯ā-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *aldɦeii̯eiki̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. aldɦeii̯eiki̯ā-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *aldeii̯eiki̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. aldeii̯eiki̯ā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *oldeii̯eiki̯ā-
8. oldeii̯eiki̯ā-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *oldīi̯īki̯ā-
9. oldīi̯īki̯ā-
*old → lād
Slavic metathesis of old to lād
Rold›lād → *lādīi̯īki̯ā-
10. lādīi̯īki̯ā-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *lādījīkjā-
11. lādījīkjā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *ladījīkja-
12. ladījīkja-
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. ladijikja-
√oldɑɦon-
OIcl. aldan-
(f.) ‘Welle’
(ANEtWb. 5)
1. PIE *oldɑɦon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oldɦon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. oldɦon-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *oldon-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. oldon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. aldan-
OIcl. aldan-
(f.) Talsohle, durch welche ein Bach fließt’
(ANEtWb. 5)
1. PIE *oldɑɦon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oldɦon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. oldɦon-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *oldon-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. oldon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. aldan-
Hitt. aldani-
(TÚL.) ‘Quelle, Wasserbasin, Brunnen’
(HEG 1:20)
1. PIE *oldɑɦoni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oldɦoni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. oldɦoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aldɦani-
3. aldɦani-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. aldani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. aldani-
(.) ‘Quelle’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *oldɑɦoni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *oldɦoni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. oldɦoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aldɦani-
3. aldɦani-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. aldani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√eldɑɦi-
Lith. eldijà-
(f.) ‘Flusskahn’
(WP 1:92)
1. PIE *√eldɑɦii̯ḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *√eldɑɦii̯ā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. √eldɑɦii̯ā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *√eldɦii̯ā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. √eldɦii̯ā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *√eldɦii̯ā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. √eldɦii̯ā́
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *√eldii̯ā́
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. √eldii̯ā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *√eldii̯ṓ
(XX:XX)
6. √eldii̯ṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → *√eldii̯à
7. √eldii̯à
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Lith. eldijà


PIE √lu- √lou- √leu- (sb.) ‘Art Messer, Klinge, o.ä.’ (vb.) ‘brechen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√luo-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. lu̯a-
(stem?) ‘Art Messer, Klinge (?)’
(HHand. 96)
1. PIE *lu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. lu̯a-
Hitt. peru·lu̯a-
(NA4vb.) ‘mit Stein ‹Hitt. piru-› mahlen’
(HHand. 132)
(CHD P: 314f., Hitt. pí-ru-lu-u-ua-ri [3sg] in VBoT 58 i (30))
1. PIE *peru·lu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. peru·lu̯a-
√lōur-
TochB. laur-
(m.sg) ‘spike (of iron, piercing a skull)’
(DTochB. 563)
(TochB. laursa [Perl] eñcwaññe tarne räskre tsopyeṃne)
1. PIE *lōur-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *lāur-
2. lāur-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → TochB. laur-
√louor-
Hitt. lau̯ari-
(GKL.) ‘Einzelteil o.ä (?), HEG 2:47’
(DLL. 63)
(Hitt. la-ua-ri-i-iš[(-))
1. PIE *lou̯ori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. lau̯ari-
CLu. lau̯arima-
(GKLpt.) ‘broken (?) ‹or ‘beraubt (?)’›’
(DLL. 63)
(CLu. [la]-ua-ar-ri-ma [plNA])
1. PIE *lou̯orimo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lau̯arima-
Hitt. lau̯aru-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘briser’ (: ‘break’)
(DLL. 63)
(Hitt. la-u-ua-ar-ru-na [inf.])
1. PIE *lou̯oru-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. lau̯aru-


PIE √lu- √lou- √leu- (vb.) ‘gießen, waschen, baden’ (sb.) ‘Bade’
(IEW 692)
(+ Pyysalo: TochB.)
√lou-
Gr. λέλου-
(pr.A.) ‘bathe’
(Gr. λέλουμαι [1sg])
1. PIE *lélou-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. λέλου-
√louo-
Gr. λόο-
(pr.) ‘waschen’
(Gr. λόω [1sg])
1. PIE *lóu̯o-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *lóo-
2. lóo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. λόο-
LinB. λεϝο·τροχοϝο-
(m.) ‘Badediener’
(HEG 2:5)
(LinB. re-wo-to-ro-ko-wo)
1. PIE *leu̯o·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. λεϝο·Σ-
TochB. lyāwa-
(vb.) ‘anoint’ (Buddha’s body)
(DTochB. 567)
1. PIE *lēu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lēu̯a-
2. lēu̯a-
PIE *ē → i̯ ā
Change of *ē into i̯ā
Rē›i̯ā → *li̯āu̯a-
3. li̯āu̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *lyāu̯a-
4. lyāu̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. lyāwa-
√lu-
CLu. lu-
(vb.) ‘- (?) -’ (‘gießen ?’)
(HHand. 95)
(DLL. 61, CLu. lu-(ú)-un-ni [1pl]))
Gr. λίλυ-
(n.) = τὸ ὕδωρ (“Libyischen”)
(HEG 2:73)
(Hes. λίλυ · τὸ ὕδωρ)
1. PIE *lílu-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. λίλυ-
CLu. lu̯a-
(vb.) ‘-(?)-’, (‘gießen’ ?)
(HHand. 96)
(DLL. 64, CLu. lu-u-ua-an-da [3pl])
1. PIE *lu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lu̯a-
CLu. lilu̯a-
(vb.) ‘gießen, schütten’
(DLL. 63)
(CLu. li-lu-u-ua [ipv2sg])
1. PIE *lilu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. lilu̯a-


√lubaɦ- √leubɑɦ- √loubɑɦ- (vb.) ‘lieben’ (sb.) ‘Liebe’
(IEW. 685-)
√leubɑɦ-
OCS. ljubŭ-
(a.) ‘lieb, wert’
(Sadnik √488)
(OCS. ljubŭ [sgN])
1. PIE *leubɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *leubɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. leubɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *leubɦa
3. leubɦa
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *leuba
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. leuba
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *leubo
5. leubo
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *leubu
6. leubu
eu → i̯u
Change of *eu into i̯u
Reu›i̯u → *li̯ubu
7. li̯ubu
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *ljubu
8. ljubu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. ljubŭ
Goth. liuba·leik-
(a.) ‘lovely : προφιλής’
(GoEtD. 235)
(Goth. liuba-leiks)
1. PIE *leubɑɦo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *leubɦo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. leubɦo·Σ-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *leubo·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. leubo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *leuba·Σ-
4. leuba·Σ-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → Goth. liuba·Σ-
Russ. ljuba-
(PN.f.dim.) ‘Ljuba’
(XX:XX)
(Russ. liuba [sgN])
1. PIE *leubɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *leubɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. leubɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *leubɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. leubɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *leubɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. leubɦā-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *leubā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. leubā-
eu → i̯u
Change of *eu into i̯u
Reu›i̯u → *li̯ubā-
6. li̯ubā-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *ljubā-
7. ljubā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Russ. ljuba-
OInd. lobhas-
(n.) ‘desire’
(GoEtD. 235)
1. PIE *Leubɑɦos-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Leubɦos-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Leubɦos-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *leubɦos-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. leubɦos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *leubɦas-
4. leubɦas-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *laubɦas-
5. laubɦas-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *lōbɦas-
6. lōbɦas-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *lōbhas-
7. lōbhas-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → OInd. lobhas-
OCS. ljubo
(adv.n.) ‘vel : or’
(Sadnik √488)
(in OCS. ljubo – ljubo ‘vel — vel’)
1. PIE *leubɑɦos-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *leubɦos-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. leubɦos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *leubɦas-
3. leubɦas-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *leubas-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. leubas-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *leubos-
5. leubos-
eu → i̯u
Change of *eu into i̯u
Reu›i̯u → *li̯ubos-
6. li̯ubos-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → OCS. ljubos-


PIE √ludɑɦ- √loudɑɦ- √leudɑɦ- (vb.) ‘(für sich) halten, hemmen, hindern’ (sb.) ‘Hälter’
(Hamp 1978: Cymr. adludd ‘obstacle’; cf. EtDiPC. 245 for OIr. lod ‘fence’ etc.)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. & CLu.)
√ ludɑɦ-
(HEG K:543-4)
(EWA 2:467)
RV. ni·rúdhya-
(absol.) ‘(Feinde, Mangel) fernhalten, abwehren’
(WbRV. 1176)
(RV. nirúdhya)
1. PIE *Π·lúdɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·lúdɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·lúdɦi̯o-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *Π·rúdɦi̯o-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. Π·rúdɦi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·rúdɦi̯a-
4. Π·rúdɦi̯a-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *Π·rúdhi̯a-
5. Π·rúdhi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·rúdhya-
Hitt. kata·luzei-
(GIŠn.) ‘Schwelle, Türstütz : treshold’
(HHand. 76)
(Hitt. kat-ta-lu-uz-zi, kat-ta-lu-uz-zi-ia-aš)
1. PIE *Π·ludɑɦi̯ei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ludɦi̯ei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ludɦi̯ei-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *Π·lujɦei-
3. Π·lujɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *Π·lujei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·lujei-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. Π·luzei-
Hitt. šarazi kata·luzei-
(n.) ‘lintel, HED 4:124-5’
(HIL. 536)
1. PIE *Π·ludɑɦi̯ei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ludɦi̯ei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ludɦi̯ei-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *Π·lujɦei-
3. Π·lujɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *Π·lujei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·lujei-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. Π·luzei-
CLu. kata·luzeiša-
(GIŠn.) ‘Schwelle, Türstütz : seuil’
(DLL. 54)
(CLu. kat-ta-lu-uz-[zi]-ša [sgNA
1. PIE *Π·ludɑɦi̯eiso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ludɦi̯eiso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ludɦi̯eiso-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *Π·lujɦeiso-
3. Π·lujɦeiso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·lujɦeisa-
4. Π·lujɦeisa-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *Π·luzɦeisa-
5. Π·luzɦeisa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·luzɦeiša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. Π·luzɦeiša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. Π·luzeiša-
(SPIE §4.6.3)

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