PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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© 2014-2017 University of Helsinki

"Durch zweier Zeugen Mund wird alle Wahrheit kund" — August Fick
(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
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PIE



PIE √m- √mo- √me- (vb.) ‘wachsen, gedeihen, reifen’ (a.) ‘reif’ (a.) ‘viel’
(IEW —)
(Pyysalo)
√mo
(HEG 2:91, 166)
(CHD L/N:113f.)
Hitt. ma-
(vb.2.A.) ‘wachsen, gedeihen, reifen, HHand. 97’
(HEG 2:91, 166)
(Hitt. ma-a-i [3sg], ma-a-ú [ipv3sg])
1. PIE *mo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ma-
TochB. mā·ma-
(a.) ‘unripe, raw’
(DTochB. 448)
(TochB. māme = mā- ‘un-’ + me- ‘ripe’)
1. PIE *Π·mo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochB. Π·ma-
LycC. μα-
(PN.m.)
(NdLyk. 138)
(Kapd. μας [sgN])
1. PIE *mo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ma-
2. ma-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LycC. μα-
HLu. ma-
(a.) ‘viel: many, much; HEG 2:181’
(CHLu. 1.1.57)
(HLu. ma-pa-wa/i ‘und viel’, ma-ua/i-za ‘für uns viel’)
1. PIE *mo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ma-


PIE √mɑhl- (sb.) ‘Wein, Weinrebe, Weinstock, Bacchae’ (a.) ‘trunken’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo: Toch. + Arm.)
√mɑhlo
(Pyysalo 2013:156)
(cf. HEG L-M: 89f. for Lat. mālo- ‘Apfel’)
Hitt. māḫla-
(GIŠc.) ‘Weinrebe, Zweig des Weinstocks’
(HHand. 96)
(Hitt. ma-a-aḫ-la-aš)
1. PIE *mōɑhlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mōhlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mōhlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mōhla-
3. mōhla-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *māhla-
4. māhla-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. māḫla-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Pal. māḫla-
(c.) ‘Weinstock ?, HHand. 96’
(DPal. 62)
1. PIE *mōɑhlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mōhlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mōhlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mōhla-
3. mōhla-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *māhla-
4. māhla-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Pal. māḫla-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
TochB. māla-
(sb.) ‘a kind of intoxicating drink’
(DTochB. 449)
1. PIE *mōɑhlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mōhlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mōhlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mōhla-
3. mōhla-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *māhla-
4. māhla-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. māla-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
LydG. μώλακ-
(c.) ‘Wein’
(HEG 2:89)
(Lyd. μῶλαξ · λυδοὶ τὸν οἶνον; εἶδος οἴνου)
1. PIE *mṓɑhlok-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mṓhlok-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mṓhlok-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mṓhlak-
3. mṓhlak-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mṓlak-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. mṓlak-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LydG. μώλακ-
TochB. ·mālatsai-
(a.) ‘drunken’
(DTochB. 449)
1. PIE *mōɑhlo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mōhlo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mōhlo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mōhla·Σ-
3. mōhla·Σ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *māhla·Σ-
4. māhla·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. māla·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√mɑhli-
(Pyysalo 2013:156)
Arm. mał·zmay-
(sb.) ‘Weinglas’
(ArmGr. 1:196)
1. PIE *mēɑhli̯·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *māɑhli̯·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. māɑhli̯·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *māhli̯·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. māhli̯·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *māli̯·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. māli̯·Σ-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *mali̯·Σ-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. mali̯·Σ-
*li̯ → ł
Change of *li̯ into ł
Rli̯›ł → Arm. mał·Σ-
Arm. moło·zmay-
(sb.) ‘Weinglas’
(ArmGr. 1:196)
1. PIE *moɑhli̯o·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mohli̯o·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mohli̯o·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *moli̯o·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. moli̯o·Σ-
*li̯ → ł
Change of *li̯ into ł
Rli̯›ł → Arm. moło·Σ-
√meɑhlnón-
(Pyysalo 2013:156)
Maced. μιμαλλόν-
(f.pl) ‘αἱ βάκχαι’
(LSJ. 1135)
(μιμαλλόνες [plN])
1. PIE *mimeɑhlnón-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *mimaɑhlnón-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. mimaɑhlnón-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mimahlnón-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mimahlnón-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mimalnón-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. mimalnón-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *mimallón-
5. mimallón-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Maced. μιμαλλόν-


PIE √mɑhu- (vb.) ‘abreißen, schälen, abstreifen, stülpen, anziehen’
(IEW 743)
(LIV2. 445)
√mḗɑhu-
Lith. móvė-
(pret.) ‘abstreifen, abreißen, schälen, stülpen’
(LiEtWb. 420)
(Lith. móviau [1sg])
1. PIE *mḗɑhu̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *mā́ɑhu̯ēhɑ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. mā́ɑhu̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mā́hu̯ēh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mā́hu̯ēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mā́u̯ē-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. mā́u̯ē-
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *mṓu̯ē-
(XX:XX)
5. mṓu̯ē-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → *móu̯ē-
6. móu̯ē-
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → *móu̯ė-
7. móu̯ė-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. móvė-
√mēɑhui-
Hitt. māḫu̯i-
(vb.M.) ‘‹cf. the context StBoT 22 +CHD!’-›
(HHand. 96)
(Hitt. ma-aḫ-ḫu-it-ta [3sg]; Oettinger StBoT 22 [1976]:16f. + CHD M:113)
1. PIE *mēɑhui-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *māɑhui-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. māɑhui-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *māhui-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. māhui-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. māḫui-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lith. máuja-
(pr.) ‘abreißen’
(LiEtWb. 420)
(Lith. máuju [1sg])
1. PIE *mḗɑhui̯o-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *mā́ɑhui̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. mā́ɑhui̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mā́hui̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mā́hui̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mā́ui̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. mā́ui̯o-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
Rā́RC›áRC → *máui̯o-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. máui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *máui̯a-
6. máui̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Lith. máuja-
Lith. maujó-
(vb.) ‘stülpen, abstreifen, abreißen, schälen’
(LiEtWb. 417)
1. PIE *mēɑhui̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *māɑhui̯ḗɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. māɑhui̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *māɑhui̯ā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. māɑhui̯ā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *māhui̯ā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. māhui̯ā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *māui̯ā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. māui̯ā́-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *maui̯ā́-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
6. maui̯ā́-
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *maui̯ṓ-
(XX:XX)
7. maui̯ṓ-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → *maui̯ó-
8. maui̯ó-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Lith. maujó-
CLu. mamḫu̯i-
(vb.M.) ‘‹a ritual substi[tute] is m. for a man(?)›’
(HHand. 99)
(CLu. tarpas[… mamḫuitari [3sg] ziti [sgD])
1. PIE *momɑhu̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *momhu̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. momhu̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mamhu̯i-
3. mamhu̯i-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. mamḫu̯i-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. mamḫu̯išta-
(NA4.) ‘ein Gegenstand aus Stein ‹a tool/weapon(?)›’
(HEG 2:115)
(Hitt. ma-am-ḫu-iš-t[a/g[a(-)], HHand. 99, CHD M: 139)
1. PIE *momɑhu̯isto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *momhu̯isto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. momhu̯isto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mamhu̯ista-
3. mamhu̯ista-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *mamhu̯išta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. mamhu̯išta-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. mamḫu̯išta-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √mehɑ- (sb.) ‘time, age’
(IEW –)
√mehɑn-
(Pyysalo 2013:33)
Hitt. meḫn-
(n.) ‘Zeit’
(HEG 2, 171)
(Hitt. me-eḫ-ni [sgL])
1. PIE *mehɑn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mehn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mehn-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. meḫn-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Goth. aldo·min-
(obl.) ‘γῆρας : old age’
(GoEtD. A116.)
1. PIE *Π·mehɑn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·mehn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·mehn-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·men-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·men-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → Goth. Π·min-
√mehɑun-
(Pyysalo)
(CHD LN:239)
Hitt. meḫu̯en-
(n.obl.) ‘Zeit’
(HEG 2:171-4)
(Hitt. me-e-ḫu-e-ni [sgL])
1. PIE *mehɑu̯en-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mehu̯en-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mehu̯en-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. meḫu̯en-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. meḫun-
(n.obl.) ‘Zeit’
(HEG 2:171-4)
(Hitt. me-e-ḫu-na-aš [sgG], me-e-ḫu-ni [L], HuIdg. 48-9)
1. PIE *mehɑun-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mehun-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mehun-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. meḫun-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫandaiši meḫuni·
(phr.) ‘in the heat of the noon’
(StBoT 18:98)
(Hitt. ḫa-an-ta-i-ši me-e-ḫu-n[i] (KBo 3.22 obv. 19), HIL. 341)
1. PIE *Π·mehɑuni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·mehuni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·mehuni-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·meḫuni-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OIcl. mund-
(n.) ‘Zeitpunkt’
(ANEtWb. 395)
1. PIE *mhɑundɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mhundɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mhundɦo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mundɦo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. mundɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *mundo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. mundo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *munda
5. munda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OIcl. mund
OSwed. mund-
(.) ‘Zeitpunkt’
(ANEtWb. 395)
(OSwed. munder)
1. PIE *mhɑundɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mhundɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mhundɦo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mundɦo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. mundɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *mundo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. mundo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *munda
5. munda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OSwed. mund
√mehɑur-
Hitt. meḫur-
(n.) ‘Zeit’
(HEG 2:171-4)
(Hitt. me-e-ḫur, me-ḫu-ur [sgN], HED 6:111)
1. PIE *mehɑur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mehur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mehur-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. meḫur-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. meḫuri-
(n.pl) ‘Zeit’
(HIL. 656)
(Hitt. me-ḫur-riḪI.A, Kretschmer apud Hrozný 1917:70n3 › PIE *mē- ‘to measure’)
1. PIE *mehɑuri-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mehuri-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mehuri-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. meḫuri-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √mi- √mei- √moi- (a.) ‘klein, schwach’ (vb.) ‘zu Grunde richten, verkleiner, vermindern’
(IEW 711)
(+ Seebold + Pyysalo)
√mi-
(Seebold 1988:510)
(Pyysalo 2013:149)
LAv. maya-
(pr.) ‘zu Grunde richten’
(AIWb. 1141)
(LAv. maya [3sg])
1. PIE *mei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mei̯a-
2. mei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *mai̯a-
3. mai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. maya-
Hitt. a·mei̯ant-
(pt.a.) ‘klein, schwach’
(HEG 1:22)
(Hitt. a-mi-ia-an-za [sgN], a-mi-ia-an-te-es [plN])
1. PIE *o·mei̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a·mei̯ant-
Hitt. a·mei̯antešar-
(n.) ‘miniature bread’
(HIL. 207-8)
(Hitt. a-mi-an-te-es-sar [sgNA], HW2 A: 66f.)
1. PIE *o·mei̯ontesor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·mei̯antesar-
2. a·mei̯antesar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. a·mei̯antešar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√min-
Osc. min-
(a.) ‘klein’
(WH. 2:92)
(Osc. min [sgN])
Gr. μινύ·ωρο-
(a.) ‘kurze Zeit lebend’
(Gr. μινύωρος)
1. PIE *minú·i̯ōro-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *minú·ōro-
2. minú·ōro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μινύ·ωρο-
Gr. μινυ.ανθήσ-
(a.) ‘kurze Zeit blühend’
(LSJ. 1135)
1. PIE *minu.hɑendɑɦḗs-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *minu.hɑandɑɦḗs-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. minu.hɑandɑɦḗs-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *minu.handɦḗs-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. minu.handɦḗs-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *minu.andɦḗs-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. minu.andɦḗs-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *minu.anthḗs-
5. minu.anthḗs-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μινυ.ανθήσ-
Gr. μινύ·θο-
(vb.tr.) ‘verkleinern, vermindern’
(Gr. μινύθω)
1. PIE *minú·dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *minú·dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. minú·dɦo-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *minú·tho-
3. minú·tho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μινύ·θο-
√mis-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. mišti-
(c.) ‘Kleinigkeit, Geringfügigkeit’ (Gerätschaften)
(HEG 2:217)
(CLu. mi-iš-ti-in, and HHand. 106)
1. PIE *misti-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. mišti-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. mišti-
(GKLc.) ‘ein äußerlich geringfügiger Körperteil
(DLL. 71)
(CLu. mi-eš-te-en)
1. PIE *misti-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. mišti-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Osc. mistri-
(a.) ‘kleinerer, minoris’
(WbOU. 478)
(Osc. mistreis [sgG])


PIE √min- √moin- √mein- (vb.) ‘jagen’ (sb.) ‘Jäger, Pfahl, Bogen, Baum’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√mein-
(Pyysalo)
(HIL. 667-, CHD L-N:290, HHand. 105)
Latv. mìena-
(pr.) ‘(einen Pfahl) einjagen, bepfählen’
(LiEtWb. 451)
1. PIE *meíno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *meína-
2. meína-
eí -› ìe
Change of eí to ìe
Reí›ìe → Latv. mìena-
Hitt. meinei̯a-
(LÚc.) ‘Bogenschütze, Jäger’
(HEG 2:198)
(Hitt. me-ne-ia-aš, me-e-ni-aš, me-e-ni-i[aš], mi-ni-ia-aš, me-ne-an, mi-ni-ia-an, me-ne-ia-ša)
1. PIE *meinei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. meinei̯a-


PIE √mis- √mois- √meis- (sb.) ‘Fleisch, Aas, Lockspeise’
(IEW 697 + 725)
√meis-
Lith. meisa-
(f.) ‘Fleisch : meat’
(LiEtWb. 427)
1. PIE *meisēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *meisāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. meisāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *meisāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. meisāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *meisā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. meisā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *meisō
(XX:XX)
5. meisō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *meisa
6. meisa
*ei -> ie
Change of *ei into ie
Rei›ie → Lith. miesa
√mis-
CLu. miš-
(n?.) ‘Fleisch, HHand. 106’
(DLL. 71)
1. PIE *mis-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. miš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. ā́·miṣ-
(n.) ‘(rohes) Fleisch’ ; ‘Aas, Lockspeise’
(WbRV. 181)
1. PIE *Π·mis-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *Π·miš-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. Π·miš-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. Π·miṣ-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
LAv. ā·miš-
(n.) ‘Fleisch’
(EWA 1:170-1)
(AIWb. —)
1. PIE *Π·mis-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → LAv. Π·miš-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
TochB. misa-
(f.pl.tant.) ‘meat, flesh : Fleisch’
(DTochB. 464)
1. PIE *miseɑh
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *misaɑh
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. misaɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *misah
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. misah
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. misa
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Alb. mishn-
(m./n.pl) ‘Fleisch’
(AlbEtD. 267)
(Alb. mishna)
1. PIE *misn-
*s → sh
Change of *s into sh
Rs›sh → Alb. mishn-
Alb. mishr-
(m./n.pl) ‘Fleisch’
(AlbEtD. 267)
(Alb. mishra)
1. PIE *misr-
*s → sh
Change of *s into sh
Rs›sh → Alb. mishr-
Gr. μισ·τύλλο-
(vb.) ‘Fleisch zertstückeln’
(Gr. μιστύλλω)
1. PIE *mis·túlno-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *mis·túllo-
2. mis·túllo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μισ·τύλλο-
Hitt. miš·tilia-
(a.) ‘Spezifierung einer Mahlzeit, HHand. 106’
(HEG 2:218)
1. PIE *mis·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. miš·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √mis- √mois- √meis- (sb.) ‘Kleinvieh, Schaf(bock)’
(IEW 747)
√meis-
Gr. μει·αγωγό-
(m.) ‘der das Kleinvieh auf die Waage bringt’
(GEW 2:195)
(Gr. μειαγωγός)
1. PIE *meis·Σ-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *meih·Σ-
2. meih·Σ-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *mei·Σ-
3. mei·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μει·Σ-
Gr. μει·αγωγέο-
(cs.A.) ‘das Kleinvieh auf die Waage bringen’
(GEW 2:195)
(Gr. μει·αγωγέω)
1. PIE *meis·Σ-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *meih·Σ-
2. meih·Σ-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *mei·Σ-
3. mei·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μει·Σ-
√meiso-
RV. meṣá-
(m.) ‘Widder, Schafbock : male sheep, ram’
(WbRV. 1064)
(KEWA 2:689, EWA 2:380)
1. PIE *meisó-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *meišó-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. meišó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *meišá-
3. meišá-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *maišá-
4. maišá-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *mēšá-
5. mēšá-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *mēṣá-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
6. mēṣá-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → RV. meṣá-
LAv. maeša-
(m.) ‘Schaf’ (: ‘sheep’)
(AIWb. 1109)
(LAv. maeša-)
1. PIE *meiso-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *meišo-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. meišo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *meiša-
3. meiša-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *maiša-
4. maiša-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → LAv. maeša-
Gr. μείο-
(n.) ‘Kleinvieh, lamb, sheep’ (LSJ. 1093)
(GEW 2:195)
(Gr. μει̃ον)
1. PIE *meíso-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *meího-
2. meího-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *meío-
3. meío-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μείο-
√meisi-
LAv. dawrā·maeši-
(m.) ‘EN eines Gläubigen’
(AIWb. 680)
(dawra ‘feist, fett’)
1. PIE *Π·meisi-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *Π·meiši-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. Π·meiši-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *Π·maiši-
3. Π·maiši-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → LAv. Π·maeši-
√meisiɑ́h-
(WbRV. 1064)
LAv. maešī-
(f.) ‘Schaf, Schafmutter’
(AIWb. 1109)
1. PIE *meisiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *meisiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. meisiíh-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *meišiíh-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. meišiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *meišií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. meišií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *meišī́-
5. meišī́-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *maišī́-
6. maišī́-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → *maešī́-
7. maešī́-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → LAv. maešī-
LAv. maešina-
(a.) ‘vom Schaf herrührend, ovillus’
(AIWb. 1109)
1. PIE *meisino-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *meišino-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. meišino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *meišina-
3. meišina-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *maišina-
4. maišina-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → LAv. maešina-
√moist-
(HEG 2:96)
(CHD L/N:119)
Hitt. maišta-
(SÍG.c.) ‘Garnsträhne ≈ bale of wool, MA 511’
(HHand. 97)
(Hitt. SÍGma-iš-ta-an [sgA] ma-ši-ua-an-ta-an)
1. PIE *moisto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *maista-
2. maista-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. maišta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. maišta·arpa-
(.) ‘ein Dämon bzw. Schadstoff; ‹uncertain!›’
(HHand. 97)
(Hitt. maištarpa-)
1. PIE *moisto·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *maista·Σ-
2. maista·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. maišta·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √ml- √mol- √mel- (sb.) ‘Honig’
(IEW 723-724)
√moli-
(HEG M:207f.)
Hitt. mali-
(fc.) ‘Honey HEG 2:208’
(NOMS. 726)
(Hitt. ma-li-[iš] [sgN])
1. PIE *moli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mali-
Hitt. mali-
(URU.) ‘Vgl. ›Kilišra’
(OGHErg. 99)
(Hitt. ma-li)
1. PIE *moli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mali-
HLu. mali-
(URU.) ‘-(?)- = malatiya- (?)’
(CHLu. 5.11.1)
(HLu. MAx-LIx(URBS); Malatya 10)
1. PIE *moli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. mali-
Kpd. mali·u̯ašḫi-
() ((f)c.) ‘‹≈ ‘honey+sacred(?)’›
(NOMS. 723)
(Kpd. ma-li-ua-áš-ḫa/i)
1. PIE *moli·u̯osɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moli·u̯oshi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. moli·u̯oshi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mali·u̯ashi-
3. mali·u̯ashi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *mali·u̯ašhi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. mali·u̯ašhi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Kpd. mali·u̯ašḫi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√molni-
(But note the counterexamples!)
(Hitt. uiln- & Hitt. [...] GI(.)URU? iš-ka-at-ta (-)ša-al-nu-a[n(-)...], HEG Š:781)
CLu. mali-
(fc.) ‘auteur de rituel, arzawienne’
(NOMS. 726)
(in Hitt. ma-al-li-i)
1. PIE *moli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. mali-
CLu. mali-
(n.) ‘Honig; HEG 2:209’
(DLL. 66)
(CLu. ma-al-li [sgN])
1. PIE *moli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. mali-
√meln-
Lat. mell-
(n.obl.) ‘Honig’
(WH. 2:61f.)
(Lat. mel, mellis [G])
1. PIE *meln-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → Lat. mell-
OGaul. mell-
(PNm.) ‘‹Honig(?)›’
(ACSS. 2:539)
meln-
1. PIE *meln-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → OGaul. mell-
√meliri- √moliri-
(Pyysalo)
(SPIE :250)
Arm. mełr-
(sb.) ‘Honig’
(ArmGr. 1:473)
(Arm. mełr [sgN])
1. PIE *melirì-
*li → ł
Change of *li into ł
Rli›ł → *mełrì-
2. mełrì-
*i → Ø
Loss of unaccented *i
Rì›0 → Arm. mełr-
HLu. maliri·mi-
(pt.a.) ‘honeyed’
(CHLu. 4.4.1.)
(HLu. ma-li-ri+i-mi-i-sá)
1. PIE *moliri·mi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. maliri·mi-


PIE √mel- √mol- (sb.) ‘μένος : Mut, Körperschaft / Denken, Geistesstärke’
(IEW 720)
(Pyysalo: Germ.)
√mol-
(HEG 2:100)
Hitt. mal-
(n.) ‘Mut, Körperschaft’ / ‘Denken, Geistesstärke’
(HHand. 97)
(Hitt. ma-a-al, ma-al, Rieken 1999:49)
1. PIE *mol-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mal-
CLu. mal-
(n.) ‘though, idea’
(CHD LN:124,128)
(CLu. ma-a-li-i [sgD, HIL. 631)
1. PIE *mol-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. mal-
Hitt. mal·nigal-
(c.) ‘reine Hittite’
(NOMS. 730)
(Hitt. ma-al-ni-gal)
1. PIE *mol·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mal·Σ-
√melo-
(XX:XX)
Gr. μέλο-
(pr.) ‘am Herzen liegen, besorgt sein, kümmern’
(GEW 2:204-5)
(Gr. μέλει μοι [sgD])
1. PIE *mélo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μέλο-
Pis. μηλα-
(PN.c.)
(HEG 2:100)
(Pis. μηλας)
1. PIE *mēlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mēla-
2. mēla-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Pis. μηλα-
√molo-
Hitt. mala-
(vb.) ‘gutheißen, billigen, CHD L-N:126-7’
(HEG 2:103)
(Hitt. ma-a-la-a-ši, ma-la-ši [2sg], ma-l[a]-a-i, ma-a-la-i, ma-a-la-an-zi)
1. PIE *molo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mala-
Hitt. mala-
(f.c.)
(NOMS. 720.2)
(Hitt. ma-a-la-aš)
1. PIE *molo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mala-
Kpd. mala-
(LÚ.c.)
(NOMS. 720.1)
(Kpd. ma-lá(-áš))
1. PIE *molo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Kpd. mala-
Kpd. mala·u̯ašḫi-
() ((f.)c.) –
(NOMS. 723)
(Kpd. ma-lá-ua-áš-ḫi)
1. PIE *molo·u̯osɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *molo·u̯oshi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. molo·u̯oshi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mala·u̯ashi-
3. mala·u̯ashi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *mala·u̯ašhi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. mala·u̯ašhi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Kpd. mala·u̯ašḫi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Kpd. mala·u̯ašḫina-
() ((f.)c.) –
(NOMS. 724)
(Kpd. ma-lá-ua-áš-ḫi-na)
1. PIE *molo·u̯osɑhino-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *molo·u̯oshino-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. molo·u̯oshino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mala·u̯ashina-
3. mala·u̯ashina-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *mala·u̯ašhina-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. mala·u̯ašhina-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Kpd. mala·u̯ašḫina-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. mala·zidi-
(LÚ.c.) (officier de Muršili II)
(NOMS. 725)
(Hitt. ma-la-zi-ti-in, ma-la-LÚ-in)
1. PIE *molo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mala·Σ-
HLu. mala·zidi-
(LÚ.c.) (prince)
(NOMS. 725)
(HLu. ma-la-ZITi-i)
1. PIE *molo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. mala·Σ-
Goth. a·mal-
(PN.m.) ‘tapfer, tätig: active, brave’
(GoEtWb. 6)
(Goth. amals [sgN])
1. PIE *o·molo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·mala
2. a·mala
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Goth. a·mal
Goth. a·mala·bairgan-
(PN.) ‘tapfer·bergend’
(GoEtWb. 11)
(Goth. amalabairga)
1. PIE *o·molo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. a·mala·Σ-
√moloi-
CLu. malai-
(vb.) ‘denken, erwägen’
(HHand. 98)
1. PIE *moloi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. malai-
Hitt. malai-
(vb.) ‘billigen, gutheißen, offiziel anerkennen’
(HHand. 97)
(Hitt. ma-la-a-iš, ma-la-a-it, ma-la-a-iš)
1. PIE *moloi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. malai-
Hitt. malaimi-
(.) ‘-(?)-’
(HHand. 97)
1. PIE *moloi·mi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. malai·mi-
CLu. malai·mi-
(pt.) ‘gebilligt’ (?) (Kontext nicht erhalten)
(HHand. 97)
(CLu. ma-la-a-i-mi-in[(-) [sgA])
1. PIE *moloi·mi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. malai·mi-
LycA. meleimi-
(pt.) ‘für die Genehmigungen’
(HEG 2:103)
(Lyc. meleime [plD?])
Hitt. malai·uri-
(LÚ.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 721)
(Hitt. ma-la-a-i-u-ri-eš [sgN])
1. PIE *moloi·uri-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malai·uri-
2. malai·uri-
* a i u → a i̯ u
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *u
Raiu›ai̯u → Hitt. malai̯·uri-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
Hitt. malai·dum-
(.) (Bez. eines Kleidungstücks)
(HEG 2:101)
(Akd. kusītum ma-al-a-i-tum)
1. PIE *moloi·dɑɦum-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moloi·dɦum-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. moloi·dɦum-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malai·dɦum-
3. malai·dɦum-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. malai·dum-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√moli-
(IEW 720)
CLu. mali-
(vb.) ‘denken, überlegen’ (HIL. 632)
(HHand. 97)
(CLu. ma!-li-ui5, ma-li-ši [DLL. 56, sub ku-li-])
1. PIE *moli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. mali-
CLu. mali-
(vb.) ‘billigen, denken, überlegen’(DLL. 56, ku-li-)
(HHand. 97)
(CLu. ma!-li-ui5, ma-li-ši)
1. PIE *moli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. mali-
CLu. mali-
(n.) ‘Gedanke, Idee, Absicht’
(HHand. 98)
(DLL. 66, CLu. ma-al-li [sgN])
1. PIE *moli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. mali-
CLu. mali-
(vb.) ‘denken, erwägen, billigen’ (HEG 2:106)
(HHand. 98)
(CLu. ma!-li-ui5 [1sg], ma-li-ši [2sg], DLL. 56 ku-li-wi)
1. PIE *moli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. mali-
LycA. mali-
(sb.) ‘Rat’
(NdLyc. 139)
(Lyc. mali [sgN])
1. PIE *moli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → LycA. mali-
√molio-
Hitt. mali̯a-
(d.) ‘XX’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *moli̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mali̯a-
√molim-
CLu. malima·ši-
(a.gen.) ‘XX’
(HEG 2:106)
(CLu. ma!-li-im-ma-aš-ši)
1. PIE *molimo·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malima·si-
2. malima·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. malima·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. malimi-
(pr.) ‘gebilligt’ (?)
(GEW 2:103)
1. PIE *molimi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. malimi-
√molios-
Hitt. malii̯ašḫa-
(c.N.act.) ‘Zustimmung, Billigung, Einverständnis’
(HEG 2:104,106)
(Hitt. [ma-l]i-ia-aš-ḫa-aš [sgN/G?])
1. PIE *molii̯osɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *molii̯osho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. molii̯osho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malii̯asha-
3. malii̯asha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *malii̯ašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. malii̯ašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. malii̯ašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. malii̯ašḫa-
(c.N.act.) ‘Zustimmung, Billigung, Einverständnis’
(HHand. 97, 98)
(CLu. ma-li-ia-aš-ḫa-az [Abl])
1. PIE *molii̯osɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *molii̯osho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. molii̯osho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malii̯asha-
3. malii̯asha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *malii̯ašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. malii̯ašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. malii̯ašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. mali̯eške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘billigen’ (HEG 104)
(HHand. 97)
(Hitt. ma-li-eš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *moli̯eski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *moli̯esḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. moli̯esḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mali̯esḱe/a-
3. mali̯esḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *mali̯eske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. mali̯eske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. mali̯eške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√moliio-
LycA. malija-
(d.) Aθηνᾶ
(BLyk 3:35)
(in Lyc. mal[ija]-)
1. PIE *molii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malii̯a-
2. malii̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → LycA. malija-
LycA. malija
(sb.) ‘Rat’ (Lyk&Hitt. 29)
(BLyk. 3:36)
(Lyc. malija [sgN], LuPG 54, NdLyc. 139)
1. PIE *molii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malii̯a-
2. malii̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → LycA. malija-
LycA. malijahi
(a.) ‘of Athene’
(BLyk. 3:36)
(Lyc. malijahi)
1. PIE *molii̯osi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malii̯asi-
2. malii̯asi-
PIE *s → h
Change of fricative *s into h
Rs›h → *malii̯ahi-
3. malii̯ahi-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → LycA. malijahi-
Car. μαλια-
(URUf.) ‘X’
(NdLyc. 139)
(Kar. μαλια [sgN])
1. PIE *molii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malii̯a-
2. malii̯a-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *malia-
3. malia-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Car. μαλια-
Car. μελια-
(URUf.) ‘X’
(NdLyc. 139)
(Kar. μελια [sgN])
1. PIE *melii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *melii̯a-
2. melii̯a-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *melia-
3. melia-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Car. μελια-
LycC. μαλιευ-
(sb.) ‘Demos’
(NdLyc. 139)
(Lyc. μαλιευς [sgN])
1. PIE *molii̯eu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malii̯eu-
2. malii̯eu-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *malieu-
3. malieu-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LycC. μαλιευ-
LycC. μαλιο-
(d.)
(BLyk 4:54)
1. PIE *molii̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malii̯u-
2. malii̯u-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *maliu-
3. maliu-
* u → o
Change of *u into o
Ru›o → *malio-
4. malio-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LycC. μαλιο-
√molon-
Hitt. ·malan ḫar-
(vb.) ‘einverstanden sein’
(HEG 2:105)
(Hitt. ma-la-a-an ḫarti)
1. PIE *molon·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. malan·Σ-
Hitt. malan-
(pt.a.n.) ‘having mal-’
(HEG 2:105)
(Hitt. ma-a-la-an [sgA])
1. PIE *molon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. malan-
Hitt. malant-
(pt.) ‘gebilligt’
(HHand. 97, 98)
(Hitt. ma-a-la-an-t, ma-la-an-t-, ma-la-a-an-t-)
1. PIE *molont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. malant-
Hitt. malant-
(a.) ‘kraftstrotzend, kraftvoll, mutig, stark’
(HEG 2:105)
(Hitt. ma-a-la-an-ta-an [sgA])
1. PIE *molont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. malant-
√molsK-
(IEW 719 [diff.])
OSax. malsk-
(a.) ‘stolz : proud, haughty’
(GoEtD. U37.)
1. PIE *molski̯o
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *molsḱo
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. molsḱo
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *molsko
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. molsko
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malska
4. malska
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OSax. malsk
Goth. un·tila·malsk-
(a.) ‘προπετής : unbesonnen : reckless’
(GoEtD. U37.)
1. PIE *Π·Π·molski̯o
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *Π·Π·molsḱo
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. Π·Π·molsḱo
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *Π·Π·molsko
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·Π·molsko
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·Π·malska
4. Π·Π·malska
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Goth. Π·Π·malsk
OEng. malscr-
(f.) ‘bewitching, fascination’
(ASaxD. 666)
(OEng. malscra)
1. PIE *molskirēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *molskirāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. molskirāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *molskirāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. molskirāh
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *molsḱrāh
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. molsḱrāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *molsḱrā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. molsḱrā
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *molskrā
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. molskrā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malskrā
7. malskrā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *malskrō
(XX:XX)
8. malskrō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *malskra
9. malskra
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OEng. malscra
OEng. malscrid
(a.) ‘fascinated, spell-bound, mazed, charmed’
(ASaxD. 666)
(OEng. malscred, malscrid)
1. PIE *molskiredɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *molskiredɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. molskiredɦo-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *molsḱredɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. molsḱredɦo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *molskredɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. molskredɦo-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *molskredo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. molskredo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malskreda-
6. malskreda-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *malskrida-
7. malskrida-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OEng. malscrida-
OEng. malscrung-
(f.) ‘bewitching, fascination’
(ASaxD. 666)
1. PIE *molskirungɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *molskirungɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. molskirungɦo-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *molsḱrungɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. molsḱrungɦo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *molskrungɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. molskrungɦo-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *molskrungo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. molskrungo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malskrunga-
6. malskrunga-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OEng. malscrunga-
OEng. malscrung-
(a.) ‘fascinatus’
(ASaxD. 666)
1. PIE *molskirungɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *molskirungɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. molskirungɦo-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *molsḱrungɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. molsḱrungɦo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *molskrungɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. molskrungɦo-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *molskrungo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. molskrungo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malskrunga-
6. malskrunga-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OEng. malscrunga-
√molouo-
Hitt. malau̯a-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘zu billigen’
(HHand. 97)
(Hitt. ma--la-ua-an-zi)
1. PIE *molou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. malau̯a-


PIE √ml- √mol- √mel- (vb.) ‘brennen, glänzen, erscheinen’ (a.) ‘gelb, weiß’
(IEW 750)
(Pyysalo: CLu. + Russ. + Gr. [WP. 2:303,310])
√mōlu-
Dor. μώλυ-
(n.) ‘Allium Nigrum, gelbblühende Knoblauch’
(GEW 2:282)
(Arc. μῶλυ)
1. PIE *mṓlu-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. μώλυ-
Gr. μώλυ-
(n.) ‘ein fabelhaftes Wunderkraut’
(GEW 2:282)
(Hom. μῶλυ)
1. PIE *mṓlu-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μώλυ-
Gr. μώλυ·ζα-
(f.) ‘N. einer Knoblauchart’
(GEW 2:282-3)
(Gr. μώλυζα)
1. PIE *mṓlu·Σ
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μώλυ·Σ
√molu-
CLu. malu̯ana-
(.) ‘-(?)-’ ‹uncertain!›
(HHand. 98)
1. PIE *molu̯ono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. malu̯ana-
CLu. malu̯ara-
(GKL.) ‘in Zsh. mit ‘brennen’’
(HEG 2:111)
(DLL. 67, CLu. ma-al-ua-ra-an-zi [plN], ma-al-ua-ra-an-za [plA])
1. PIE *molu̯oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. malu̯ara-
Russ. moloví-
(vb.) ‘scheinen, vorkommen’
(REW 2:150)
(Rus. molovít’ [inf.])
1. PIE *molu̯iɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *molu̯iíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. molu̯iíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malu̯iíh-
3. malu̯iíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *malu̯ií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. malu̯ií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *malu̯ī́-
5. malu̯ī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *molu̯ī́-
6. molu̯ī́-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *molvī́-
7. molvī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → Russ. molví-


PIE √ml- √mol- √mel- (vb.) ‘mahlen, zerkleinern, zermalmen’
(IEW 716ff.)
(Friedrich 1922:159)
√mol-
Hitt. mal-
(vb.2.) ‘mahlen, zerkleinern’
(HHand. 97)
(HEG 2:102; Hitt. ma-al-li [3sg])
1. PIE *mol-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mal-
OLat. mol-
(pret.) ‘mahlen’
(WH. 2:104)
(in OLat. moltum)
Hitt. memal-
(N.) ‘Grütze, Schrot(mehl)’ (ZÌ(.DA))
(HEG 2:191)
(Hitt. me-e-ma-al, me-ma-al, me-ma-la-aš [G])
1. PIE *memol-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. memal-
RV. marmar-
(int.) ‘zermalmen’
(WbRV. 1060)
(RV. marmartu [3sg], RV. 2.23.6.)
1. PIE *molmol-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *mormor-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. mormor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → RV. marmar-
√mole/o-
Hitt. mala-
(pr.2.) ‘mahlen, zerkleinern’ (CHD L-N:125-6)
(HIL. 632)
(Hitt. m[a-al-l]a-a-i, ma-al-la-i, ma-al-la-an-zi, ma-la-an-zi)
1. PIE *molo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mala-
Hitt. arḫa mala·-
(vb.) ‘wegmahlen, durch Zermahlen beseitigen’
(HHand. 97)
1. PIE *Π·molo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·mala-
Lat. molo-
(pr.3.) ‘mahlen’
(IEW 716)
(Lat. molō, molĕre)
Lat. re·molo-
(n.) ‘Kleie’ (Gl.)
(WH. 2:104)
(Lat. remolum)
OIr. mol-
(m.) ‘axe/roue de Moulin, mill wheel, Mühlstange’
(LEIA M-61)
(OIr. mol-)
1. PIE *molo
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → OIr. mol
Lat. mole·mōnio-
(n.) ‘Pflanze mit Brechen erregender Wirkung’
(WH. 2:101)
1. PIE *mole·mōnii̯o-
*ii̯o → io
Loss *i̯ between i and o
Rii̯o›io → Lat. mole·mōnio-
√molɑh-
Lat. molā
(f.) ‘Mühlstein, Mühle’
(WH. 2:104)
1. PIE *molēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *molāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. molāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *molāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. molāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. molā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. molā-
(f.) ‘Opferschrot : roasted grits of spelt’
(HED M-23)
(PFest. mola etiam uocatur far tostum)
1. PIE *molēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *molāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. molāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *molāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. molāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. molā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. in·molā-
(pr.1.) ‘opfern’
(WH. 2:105)
(Lat. immolare)
1. PIE *Π·molēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·molāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·molāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·molāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·molāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. Π·molā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OInd. marmarā-
(f.) ‘coarse ground meal’
(MonWil. 791)
1. PIE *molmolēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *molmolāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. molmolāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *molmolāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. molmolāh-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *mormorāh-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. mormorāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *marmarāh-
5. marmarāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OInd. marmarā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
CLu. mamalḫ-
(vb.) ‘zerdrücken, zerbrechen’ (√mamalḫu-)
(HHand. 98)
1. PIE *momolɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *momolh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. momolh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mamalh-
3. mamalh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. mamalḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lat. in·molāu-
(pf.) ‘opfern’
(WH. 2:105)
1. PIE *Π·molēɑhu
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·molāɑhu
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·molāɑhu
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·molāhu
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·molāhu
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. Π·molāu
(SPIE §2.1.4)
CLu. malāḫu-
(vb.) ‘zerdrücken, zerbrechen’
(DLL. 65)
(CLu. ma-a-la-ḫu-u-ta)
1. PIE *molēɑhu-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *molāɑhu-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. molāɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *molāhu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. molāhu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malāhu-
4. malāhu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. malāḫu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √mldɑɦ- √moldɑɦ- √meldɑɦ- (sb.) ‘Spitze, Kopf, Höhe, usw.’
(IEW 721-722)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + CLu.)
√moldɑɦ-
Hitt. maldani-
(GKL.c.) ‘künstlicher Hügel, Belagerungsrampe’ (?)
(HHand. 98)
1. PIE *moldɑɦoni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moldɦoni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. moldɦoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *maldɦani-
3. maldɦani-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. maldani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. maldani-
(GKL.c.) “er (Ulikumi) erhebt sich wie ein M.”
(DLL. 66)
1. PIE *moldɑɦoni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moldɦoni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. moldɦoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *maldɦani-
3. maldɦani-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. maldani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. ka·mǝrǝδa-
(n.) ‘Kopf’
(AIWb. 440)
(to Pahl. ka·māl- (sb.) ‘Kopf, AIWb. 440)
1. PIE *Π·ml̥dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ml̥dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ml̥dɦo-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
Rl̥›r̥ → *Π·mr̥dɦo-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. Π·mr̥dɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·mr̥dɦa-
4. Π·mr̥dɦa-
*r̥ → ǝr
Change of *r̥ into ǝr
Rr̥›ǝr → *Π·mǝrdɦa-
5. Π·mǝrdɦa-
*r → rǝ
Anaptyxis of ǝ (Schwa)
Rr›rǝ → *Π·mǝrǝdɦa-
6. Π·mǝrǝdɦa-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·mǝrǝda-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. Π·mǝrǝda-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → LAv. Π·mǝrǝδa-
LAv. ϑri.ka·mǝrǝδa-
(a.) ‘mit Drei Köpfen’
(AIWb. 806)
1. PIE *Π·ml̥dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ml̥dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ml̥dɦo-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
Rl̥›r̥ → *Π·mr̥dɦo-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. Π·mr̥dɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·mr̥dɦa-
4. Π·mr̥dɦa-
*r̥ → ǝr
Change of *r̥ into ǝr
Rr̥›ǝr → *Π·mǝrdɦa-
5. Π·mǝrdɦa-
*r → rǝ
Anaptyxis of ǝ (Schwa)
Rr›rǝ → *Π·mǝrǝdɦa-
6. Π·mǝrǝdɦa-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·mǝrǝda-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. Π·mǝrǝda-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → LAv. Π·mǝrǝδa-
MidPers. mardā-
(f.) ‘Scheitel, Vorderkopf’
(KEWA 2:666)
MidPers. mardā-
1. PIE *moldɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *moldɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. moldɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moldɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. moldɦāh-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *mordɦāh-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. mordɦāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mardɦāh-
5. mardɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mardɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. mardɦā-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → MidPers. mardā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)


PIE √mldɑɦ- √moldɑɦ- √meldɑɦ- (vb.) ‘rezitieren, geloben, bitten, verkünden’
(IEW 722)
√moldɑɦ-
(HEG 2:109f.)
(CHD LN:132ff.)
Hitt. mald-
(vb.2.) [Mg.] ‘rezitieren, geloben’
(HHand. 98)
(Hitt. ma-a-al-di, ma-al-di [3sg], SHV 444)
1. PIE *moldɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moldɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. moldɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *maldɦ-
3. maldɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. mald-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. malda-
(vb.2.) ‘rezitieren, geloben’
(HEG 2:109)
(Hitt. ma-al-ta-i [3sg], ma-al-da-aḫ-ḫi [1sg])
1. PIE *moldɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moldɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. moldɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *maldɦa-
3. maldɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. malda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. maldant-
(pt.) ‘rezitieren, geloben’
(HIL. 636)
(Hitt. ma-al-ta-an-t=)
1. PIE *moldɑɦont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moldɦont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. moldɦont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *maldɦant-
3. maldɦant-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. maldant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lith. maldà-
(f.) ‘Bitte, Gebet’
(LiEtWb. 432)
1. PIE *moldɑɦḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *moldɑɦā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. moldɑɦā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moldɦā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. moldɦā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *moldɦā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. moldɦā́
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *maldɦā́
5. maldɦā́
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *maldā́
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. maldā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *maldṓ
(XX:XX)
7. maldṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → Lith. maldà
Lith. maldúo-
(pr.) ‘melden’
(LiEtWb. 401)
(Lith. maldúoti [inf.])
1. PIE *moldɑɦṓɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moldɦṓh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. moldɦṓh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *moldɦṓ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. moldɦṓ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *maldɦṓ-
4. maldɦṓ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *maldṓ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. maldṓ-
*ṓ → úo
Change of ṓ into úo
Rṓ›úo → Lith. maldúo-
Lith. maldáu-
(pr.) ‘wiederholt bitten, anflehen’
(LiEtWb. 401)
1. PIE *moldɑɦéɑhu-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *moldɑɦáɑhu-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. moldɑɦáɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moldɦáhu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. moldɦáhu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *moldɦáu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. moldɦáu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *maldɦáu-
5. maldɦáu-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → Lith. maldáu-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
Lith. maldý-
(iter.) ‘wiederholt bitten, anflehen’
(IEW 722)
(Lith. maldýti [inf.])
1. PIE *moldɑɦiɑ́h
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *moldɑɦiíh
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. moldɑɦiíh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moldɦiíh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. moldɦiíh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *moldɦií
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. moldɦií
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *moldɦī́
5. moldɦī́
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *maldɦī́
6. maldɦī́
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *maldī́
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. maldī́
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
Rī́›ý → Lith. maldý
√meldɑɦ-
Lith. mel̃d-
(pr.) ‘bitten, beten’
(LiEtWb. 431)
(Lith. mel̃sti [inf.])
1. PIE *meldɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *meldɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. meldɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → Lith. meld-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
OEng. meld-
(f.) ‘declaration, proclamation’
(ASaxD. 677)
(P. ‘Bekanntmachung’)
1. PIE *meldɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *meldɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. meldɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *meld-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. meld-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → OEng. mild-
Lith. meldúo-
(vb.) ‘(bei der Polizei an)melden’
(LiEtWb. 401)
1. PIE *meldɑɦṓɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *meldɦṓh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. meldɦṓh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *meldɦṓ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. meldɦṓ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *meldṓ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. meldṓ-
*ṓ → úo
Change of ṓ into úo
Rṓ›úo → Lith. meldúo-
OSax. meldō-
(vb.) ‘declare, betray, proclaim’
(ASaxD. 677)
(P. ‘angeben, erzählen’)
1. PIE *meldɑɦẽɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *meldɦẽh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. meldɦẽh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *meldɦẽ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. meldɦẽ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *meldẽ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. meldẽ-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → OSax. mild-
OEng. melda-
(vb.) ‘to announce, declare’
(ASaxD. 677)
1. PIE *meldɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *meldɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. meldɦo-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *meldo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. meldo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *melda-
4. melda-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → OEng. milda-
OEng. meldia-
(vb.) ‘to declare, announce, tell: verkünden’
(ASaxD. 677)
1. PIE *meldɑɦeio-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *meldɦeio-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. meldɦeio-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *meldeio-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. meldeio-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *meldeia-
4. meldeia-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *meldīa-
5. meldīa-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → OEng. mildīa-
Lith. meldžia-
(pr.) ‘bitten, beten’
(LiEtWb. 431)
(Lith. meldžiù [1sg])
1. PIE *meldɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *meldɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. meldɦi̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → džɦi
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i̯
Rdɦi̯›džɦi → *meldžɦio-
(SPIE §XX)
3. meldžɦio-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *meldžio-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. meldžio-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lith. meldžia-


PIE √mn- √mon- √men- (vb.) ‘sehen’
(IEW 726-8)
√men-
(Rieken 1999:56: Hitt.)
(HIL. 666)
Hitt. men-
(c.) ‘Gesicht, Wange’
(HEG 2:196)
(Hitt. me-nu-uš-ša [plA])
Lat. men·cep-
(a.) ‘mente captus’
(WH. 2:68)
RV. man-
(ao.M.) ‘sich halten für, sich dünken’
(WbRV. 992)
1. PIE *men-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. man-
gAv. mǝ̄n-
(ao.M.) ‘denken, meinen sich vorstellen’
(AIWb. 1121)
1. PIE *men-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → gAv. man-
Lat. memen-
(pf.) ‘sich erinnern, gedenken’
(WH. 2:65)
√mon-
(HEG M-115)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. [opt.ptcl] ‘wish-’)
Hitt. man
(ptcl.) ‘optative, irrealis and potentialis’
(CHD M-139ff.)
(Hitt. ma-an, HIL. 638, CHD L-N: 143)
1. PIE *mon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. man-
Goth. man-
(pret.pr.) ‘meinen, glauben : δοκῶ’
(GoEtD. M80.)
(Goth. man [pr1sg])
1. PIE *mon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. man-
OEng. man-
(pret.) ‘remember, be mindful of, think’
(ASaxD. 700)
1. PIE *mon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OEng. man-
Gr. μέμον-
(pf.) ‘im Sinne haben, gedenken, streben’
(Gr. μέμονα)
1. PIE *mémon-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μέμον-
LAv. maman-
(pf.) ‘denken meinen, sich vorstellen’
(AIWb. 1121)
(LAv. mamanāite [du (f.)])
1. PIE *memon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *meman-
2. meman-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → LAv. maman-
√mono-
HLu. mana-
(pret.) ‘anschauen, HEG M-113’
(CHLu. 469)
(HLu. LITUUS+na-)
1. PIE *mono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. mana-
CLu. mana-
(pret.) ‘sehen’
(HEG M-113)
(CLu. ma-na-a[-ta? [3sg])
1. PIE *mono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. mana-
Kataon. μανα-
(PN.m.) ‘-(?)-’
(NdLyc. 141)
1. PIE *mono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mana-
2. mana-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Kataon. μανα-
Lith. ìš·mana-
(m.) ‘Verstand’
(XX:XX)
(Hübschmann 1885:118, ìšmanas [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·mono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lith. Π·mana-
CLu. mamana-
(or Pal.?, HHand. 99, HEG M-112) ‘schauen
(DLL. 67, CHD LN:138)
(Hitt. ma-am-ma-an-na-tén [2pl])
1. PIE *momono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. mamana-
HLu. mamana-
(vb.) ‘anschauen’
(HEG M-113)
(HLu. LITUUS.LITUUS-na)
1. PIE *momono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. mamana-
√monɑh-
CLu. manāḫ·u̯ani-
(.) ‘ein Teil des Kopfes, neben SAG.DU, IGI.ḪIA’
(HEG 2:253)
1. PIE *monēɑh·u̯oni-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *monāɑh·u̯oni-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. monāɑh·u̯oni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *monāh·u̯oni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. monāh·u̯oni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *manāh·u̯ani-
4. manāh·u̯ani-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. manāḫ·u̯ani-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Kibyr. μανᾱ-
(PN.f.) ‘-(?)-’
(NdLyc. 141)
(Kibyr. μανα [sgN])
1. PIE *monēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *monāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. monāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *monāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. monāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *manāh-
4. manāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *manā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. manā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Kibyr. μανᾱ-
OSax. manō-
(vb.) ‘mahnen, treiben’
(ASächsWb. 50)
1. PIE *monēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *monāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. monāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *monāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. monāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *monā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. monā-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *manā-
5. manā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → OSax. manō-
(XX:XX)
RV. manā́-
(f.) ‘Ergebenheit, Anhänglichkeit’
(WbRV. 996)
1. PIE *monḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *monā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. monā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *monā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. monā́h
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *manā́h
4. manā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. manā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√moniɑh-
(Pyysalo)
(HIL. 639, Oettinger 1979a: 458, CHD L-N 163ff.)
Hitt. mani̯āḫ-
(vb.2.) ‘beaufsichtigen : supervise, oversee’
(HHand. 99)
1. PIE *moni̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *moni̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. moni̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moni̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. moni̯āh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mani̯āh-
4. mani̯āh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. mani̯āḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Latv. at·maņa-
(f.) ‘Besinnung, Bewußtsein’
(LiEtWb. 455)
1. PIE *Π·moni̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·moni̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·moni̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·moni̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·moni̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·moni̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·moni̯ā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·mani̯ā
5. Π·mani̯ā
*ni̯ → ņ
Change of ni̯ into ņ (palatalization)
Rni̯›ņ → *Π·maņā
6. Π·maņā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → Latv. Π·maņa
Latv. sa·maņa-
(f.) ‘Einsicht, Verstand, Scharfsinn, Aufmerksamkeit’
(LiEtWb. 455)
1. PIE *Π·moni̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·moni̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·moni̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·moni̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·moni̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·moni̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·moni̯ā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·mani̯ā
5. Π·mani̯ā
*ni̯ → ņ
Change of ni̯ into ņ (palatalization)
Rni̯›ņ → *Π·maņā
6. Π·maņā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → Latv. Π·maņa
OPr. manioth-
(PN.) ‘-(?)-’
(APrPN. 55)
(OPr. manyoth)
1. PIE *moni̯ēɑhtɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *moni̯āɑhtɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. moni̯āɑhtɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moni̯āhth-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. moni̯āhth-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *moni̯āth-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. moni̯āth-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mani̯āth-
5. mani̯āth-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *mani̯ōth-
(XX:XX)
6. mani̯ōth-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → *maniōth-
7. maniōth-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → OPr. manioth-
OPr. manioth·kaym-
(ON.) ‘jetzt Mandtkeim Kr. Fischhausen’
(APrON. 94)
(OPr. manioth·kaym-)
1. PIE *moni̯ēɑhtɑh·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *moni̯āɑhtɑh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. moni̯āɑhtɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moni̯āhth·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. moni̯āhth·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *moni̯āth·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. moni̯āth·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mani̯āth·Σ-
5. mani̯āth·Σ-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *mani̯ōth·Σ-
(XX:XX)
6. mani̯ōth·Σ-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → *maniōth·Σ-
7. maniōth·Σ-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → OPr. manioth·Σ-
√monon-
(Pyysalo
RV. manána-
(a.) ‘bedächtig’
(WbRV. 993)
1. PIE *monóno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *manóna-
2. manóna-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. manána-
Kpd. manana-
(LÚ.c.) ‘bedächtig (?)’
(NOMS. 738)
1. PIE *monono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Kpd. manana-
RV. mananā́-
(f.) ‘Andacht’
(WbRV. 993)
1. PIE *mononḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *mononā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. mononā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mononā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mononā́h-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mananā́h-
4. mananā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. mananā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)


PIE √mn- √mon- √men- (a.) ‘gereinigt, heilig’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo 2014:XX)
√monoi-
CLu. manai-
(a.) ‘beschreibt Vorratskörbe’
(HHand. 99)
(HEG 2:118, Hitt. GIPISAN SA5 ma-an-na-[iš?], GIPISAN ma!-an-na-iš)
1. PIE *monoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. manai-
CLu. manai·mi-
(GKLpt.) ‘(rituell) gereinigt ?’
(HEG 2:118)
(CLu. ma-an-na-i-mi-iš [sgN], HHand. 99)
1. PIE *monoi·mi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. manai·mi-
√meniɑh-
OIr. meini·stir-
(f.) ‘coffre contenant les ustensiles du culte’
(LEIA M-29)
1. PIE *mení·Σ-
ení → einí
Epenthesis of í
Reni›einí → OIr. meini·Σ-
OIr. meini·stir-
(f.) ‘objet sacré’
(LEIA M-29)
1. PIE *mení·Σ-
ení → einí
Epenthesis of í
Reni›einí → OIr. meini·Σ-
√monouo-
Hitt. manau̯a-
(n.) ‘Gegenstand aus Silber; HHand. 99’
(HEG 2:99)
(Hitt. 1 ma-na-ua KUBABBAR[...)
1. PIE *monou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. manau̯a-
Hitt. tarḫu·manau̯a-
(dmfc.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 1259)
(Hitt. dU-ma-na-ua; NOMS. 1259 also HLu. W-ma-na-[ua] (prince))
1. PIE *Π·monou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·manau̯a-
CLu. manau̯a·laimi-
(pt.) ‹‘-(?)-’; for the suffix, see šar·laimi-›
(DLL. 68)
(CLu. ma-an-na-u-ua-al-la-a-i-i[m-mi-iš] [sgN]; HHand. 99)
1. PIE *monou̯o·loimi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. manau̯a·laimi-


PIE √mn- √mon- √men- (vb.) ‘verwalten, zuteilen, übergeben, einhändigen’
(IEW –)
√monio- √mōnio-
LAv. fra·mainya-
(n.) ‘Praevalenz, Vormacht über [G]’
(AIWb. 987)
1. PIE *pro·moni̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pra·mani̯a-
2. pra·mani̯a-
*pR → fR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
RpR›fR → *fra·mani̯a-
3. fra·mani̯a-
*ani → aini
Anaptyxis of *i
RanI›ainI → *fra·maini̯a-
4. fra·maini̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. fra·mainya-
Lat. merci·mōnio-
(n.) ‘commercial enterprise’
(OxLatD. 1101)
1. PIE *Π·mōnii̯o-
*ii̯o → io
Loss *i̯ between i and o
Rii̯o›io → Lat. Π·mōnio-
Lat. uadi·mōnio-
(n.) ‘Bürgschaftsleistung’
(OxLatD. 2002)
1. PIE *Π·mōnii̯o-
*ii̯o → io
Loss *i̯ between i and o
Rii̯o›io → Lat. Π·mōnio-
√mōniēɑh-
(CHD LN:163ff.)
(HIL. 638)
Hitt. māni̯āḫ-
(vb.2.) ‘verwalten, zuteilen, übergeben, einhändigen’
(HEG 2:119)
(Hitt. ma-ni-ia-aḫ-ḫi)
1. PIE *mōnii̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *mōnii̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. mōnii̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mōnii̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mōnii̯āh-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *mānii̯āh-
4. mānii̯āh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. mānii̯āḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. māni̯āḫa-
(N.act.) ‘Verwaltung(sbezirk)’
(HHand. 99)
1. PIE *mōnii̯ēɑho-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *mōnii̯āɑho-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. mōnii̯āɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mōnii̯āho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mōnii̯āho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mōnii̯āha-
4. mōnii̯āha-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *mānii̯āha-
5. mānii̯āha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. mānii̯āḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. māni̯āḫan-
(n.) ‘Verwaltung’ (HEG 2:121)
(HHand. 99)
1. PIE *mōnii̯ēɑhon-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *mōnii̯āɑhon-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. mōnii̯āɑhon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mōnii̯āhon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mōnii̯āhon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mōnii̯āhan-
4. mōnii̯āhan-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *mānii̯āhan-
5. mānii̯āhan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. mānii̯āḫan-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. māni̯āḫi̯at-
(c.) ‘Zuteilung, Zuweisung, Übergabe’
(HHand. 99)
1. PIE *mōnii̯ēɑhi̯ot-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *mōnii̯āɑhi̯ot-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. mōnii̯āɑhi̯ot-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mōnii̯āhi̯ot-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mōnii̯āhi̯ot-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mōnii̯āhi̯at-
4. mōnii̯āhi̯at-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *mānii̯āhi̯at-
5. mānii̯āhi̯at-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. mānii̯āḫi̯at-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lat. casti·mōniā-
(f.) ‘ceremonial purity or purification’
(OxLatD. 282)
1. PIE *Π·mōnii̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·mōnii̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·mōnii̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·mōnii̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·mōnii̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·mōnii̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·mōnii̯ā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. Π·mōniiā-
Lat. caeri·mōniā-
(f.) ‘religiöse Handlung, heilige Verehrung’
(WH. 1:132)
1. PIE *Π·mōnii̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·mōnii̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·mōnii̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·mōnii̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·mōnii̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·mōnii̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·mōnii̯ā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. Π·mōniiā-


PIE √mn- √mon- √men- (vb.) ‘gehen, kommen’
√mono- √meno-
Hitt. mena-
(GIŠc.) ‘Akd. daltu : Tür ‹Lat. iānuā- (f.) ‘Türe’›’
(HEG 2:194, 196)
(Hitt. me-na-an [sgA])
1. PIE *meno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mena-
Osc. co·mono-
(n.) ‘comitium ‹RV. ni·yā́na- (n.) ‘Herbeikommen›’
[WbOU. 414)
(Osc. comonei [sgD])
1. PIE *koɑh·mono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *koh·mono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. koh·mono-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ko·mono-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. ko·mono-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Osc. co·mono-
√mone-
OBret. mone-
(vb.sb.) ‘aller’
(LEIA M-36)
(OBret. monet)
MidCymr. moni-
(pr.) ‘komm (her), wohlan’
(LIV. 438)
1. PIE *mone-
R=e-›=i- → MidCymr. moni-
OIr. muini-
(pr.) ‘vient’
(LEIA M-35)
(OIr. muinithir [3sg])
1. PIE *mone-
one -> oine
Anaptyxis *one to oine
Rone›oine → *moine-
2. moine-
R=e-›=i- → OIr. moini-
Bret. mon-
(vb.) ‘aller’
(LEIA M-36)
(Bret. mont [inf.])
√mene-
OPr. menen-
(cs.) ‘führen’
(APrS. 377)
(OPr. menentwey [inf.])
Umbr. menes-
(1fut.) ‘kommen werden’
(WbOU. 143-4)
(Umbr. menes [2sg])
√meni-
Hitt. meni-
(.) ‘Kreislauf, Umkreis’ (?)
(HHand. 105)
Hitt. udu·meni-
(.) ‘a wind or direction of wind’
(HIL. 1079)
(Hitt. ú-du-me-ni)
Hitt. taras·meni-
(.) ‘‹the moist wind (?)›’
(HEG T:153)
Hitt. taras·meni-
√mnɑh-
Umbr. ku·mnā-
(.) ‘super comitio’
(DTochB. 6)
(Umbr. super kumne)
1. PIE *Π·mnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·mnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·mnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·mnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·mnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Umbr. Π·mnā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OIr. to·mna-
(.) ‘sont venus’
(LEIA M:35)
OIr. tomnaiter [3pl])
1. PIE *Π·mnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·mnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·mnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·mnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·mnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·mnā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·mnā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OIr. Π·mna-
OIr. dia to·mna-
(.) ‘si vient’
(LEIA M-35)
(dia tomna)
1. PIE *Π·mnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·mnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·mnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·mnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·mnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·mnā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·mnā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OIr. Π·mna-
Umbr. ku·mnāh·clo-
(sb.) ‘in conventu’
(DTochB. 6)
Umbr. kumnahklo-)
1. PIE *Π·mnēɑh·klo-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·mnāɑh·klo-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·mnāɑh·klo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·mnāh·klo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·mnāh·klo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·mnā·klo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·mnā·klo-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Umbr. Π·mnā·clo-


PIE √mon- √men- (sb.) ‘Menge’ (adv.) ‘much’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√mono-
HLu. mana
(adv.) ‘much (?)’
(CHLu. 10.14.14)
(HLu. ma-na)
1. PIE *mono
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. mana
√meno-
Lith. mãž·mena-
(f.) ‘kleine Menge’
(LiEtWb. 422)
1. PIE *mɦɑégi·meno-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *mɦɑági·meno-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. mɦɑági·meno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mɦági·meno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mɦági·meno-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *mɦáj́·meno-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. mɦáj́·meno-
á → à
Emergence of gravis PLith. à
RLiAcc1 → *mɦàj́·meno-
5. mɦàj́·meno-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *màj́·meno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. màj́·meno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *màj́·mena-
7. màj́·mena-
*j́ → ž
From Satem *j́ to ž
Rj́›ž → Lith. màž·mena-
(SPIE §4.8.4)


PIE √mno- (vb.) ‘liegen, bleiben’ (a.) ‘befindlich, liegend’
(IEW 729)
(+ Tischler)
√mno-
(Tischler)
Hitt. šra·mna-
(a.) ‘oben befindlich’
(HEG S:874ff.)
(HHand. 144)
1. PIE *sro·mno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sra·mna-
2. sra·mna-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šra·mna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. μίμνο-
(pr.) ‘(ver)bleiben, (er)warten, standhalten’
(Gr. μίμνω)
1. PIE *mí·mno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μί·μνο-
OInd. ni·mna-
(a.) ‘tief liegend’
(AiGr. 2/2:777)
1. PIE *ni·mno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. ni·mna-
RV. ni·mná-
(n.) ‘Niederung, Tiefe’
(KEWA 2:166)
1. PIE *ni·mnó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. ni·mná-
√mni-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. šra·mni-
(adv.) ‘von oben herab’
(HHand. 144)
1. PIE *sro·mni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sra·mni-
2. sra·mni-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šra·mni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Car. μνι·εσυτη-
(.) ‘Demot’
(NdLyk. 150)
(Kar. μνιεσυτης [sgN]
1. PIE *mni·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Car. μνι·Σ-
Gr. μνία-
(m.) ‘σ. Demeter’
(GEW 2:245)
1. PIE *mníeɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *mníaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. mníaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mníah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mníah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mnía-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. mnía-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μνία-


PIE √moni- √meni- (sb.) ‘Bach, Fluß, Salbe, Eiter’ (vb.) ‘mästen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo 2014:XX)
√moni-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. mani-
(c.) ‘Eiter : pus, suppuration’
(HEG 2, 119)
(Hitt. ma-ni-iš)
1. PIE *moni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mani-
Alb. manj-
(vb.) ‘mästen’
(WH. 2:7)
(Alb. manj [1sg])
1. PIE *moni̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mani̯a
2. mani̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *mani̯
3. mani̯
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Alb. manj
OSax. meni-
(sb.) ‘Bach, Fluß : brook’
(ASächsWb. 51)
1. PIE *moni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mani-
2. mani-
*ani → eni
Umlaut *ani to eni
Rani›eni → OSax. meni-
OInd. manīka-
(n.) ‘eye-salve, collyrium’
(MonWil. 787)
1. PIE *monihɑ́ku̯o-
PIE *iḫɑ́ → iḫí
Distant assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
RiHɑ́›iHí → *monihíku̯o-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. monihíku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *manihíku̯a-
3. manihíku̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *maniíku̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. maniíku̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *maniíka-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. maniíka-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → OInd. manī́ka-
√meni-
OIr. mein·bligi-
(pr.) ‘il foisonne, il fourmille’
(LEIA M, 30)
(OIr. meinbligid [3sg])
1. PIE *meni·Σ-
*eni → ein
Epenthesis of i
Reni›ein → OIr. mein·Σ-


PIE √mnt- √mont- √ment- (sb.) ‘Schädigung, Tote, Feind(lichkeit), o.ä.’
(IEW —)
(or PIE *mondɑɦ-)
√monT-
(HEG 2:128)
(CHD LN:176)
Hitt. mant-
(c.) ‘Schädigung, Gift, Zauberei’ (?)
(HHand. 100)
(Hitt. ma(?)-an-za [sgN])
1. PIE *mont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mant-
Hitt. manta-
(ERÍN.MEŠ.) ‘‹cf. above›; ‘›Ḫimuwa’
(OGH. 259)
(Hitt. ma-an-da [Stf.])
1. PIE *monto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. manta-
TochB. a·māntatte
(a.) ‘not-evil-minded’
(DTochB. 18)
(·atte = ‘mind’ (?))
1. PIE *hɑe·mōnto·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑa·mōnto·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑa·mōnto·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ha·mōnto·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ha·mōnto·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ha·mōnta·Σ-
4. ha·mōnta·Σ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ha·mānta·Σ-
5. ha·mānta·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. a·mānta·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√menT-
LycA. mẽte-
(sb.) ‘Schädigung’
(HEG 2:128)
(Lyc. mẽtẽ [sgA])
1. PIE *mente-
*en → ẽn
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
ReN›ẽN → *mẽnte-
2. mẽnte-
*nt → ñt
Change of *n into ñ before t
Rnt›ñt → LycA. mẽñte-
√monTol-
(HEG 2:126)
Hitt. mantala-
(a.) ‘feindlich, schädlich’ (HHand. 100)
(DLL. 68)
(Hitt. ma-(a)-an-ta-(a)-al-la [plNA?])
1. PIE *montolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mantala-
TochB. mantalai·cce
(a.) ‘evil-minded’
(DTochB. 440)
1. PIE *montolōi·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mantalōi·Σ
2. mantalōi·Σ
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *mantalāi·Σ
3. mantalāi·Σ
āi → ai
Orthographic change of āi into ai
Rāi›ai → TochB. mantalai·Σ
Hitt. mantali-
(SISKUR.c./n.) ‘Totenritual’ (?)
(HHand. 100)
(Hitt. SISKURma-an-tal-li [n.])
1. PIE *montoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mantali-
Hitt. mantali-
(a.) ‘verfeindete’ (with ‘Zungen’)
(HEG 2:126)
(Hitt. ma-an-ta-al-li-i-e-eš EMEḪI.A-eš)
1. PIE *montoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mantali-
CLu. mantali-
(GKL.c./n.) (eine Art Totenritual, HHand. 100)
(DLL. 68)
(CLu. ma-an-tal-li-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *montoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. mantali-
CLu. mantaleia-
(GKL.a.) ‘verfeindet, verleumderisch’ (?)
(HHand. 100)
(Hitt. SISKURma-an-tal-li-ia-an-za)
1. PIE *montoleio-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. mantaleia-
Hitt. mantalašami-
(SISKUR.pt.) ‘zum mantali-Ritual bestimmt’
(DLL. 127)
(CLu. ma-an-tal-la-aš-ša-am-mi-iš)
1. PIE *montolosomi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mantalasami-
2. mantalasami-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. mantalašami-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
TochB. mantālo
(sb.) ‘evil-mindedness, malice’
(DTochB. 440)
1. PIE *montōlou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mantōlau-
2. mantōlau-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *mantālau-
3. mantālau-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *mantālō-
4. mantālō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. mantālo-
√menTli-
Lyd. mẽtli-
(.) ‘etwas Negatives’
(LydWb. 164)
(Lyd. mẽtli)
1. PIE *mentli-
*en → ẽn
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
ReN›ẽN → *mẽntli-
2. mẽntli-
*nt → ñt
Change of *n into ñ before t
Rnt›ñt → Lyd. mẽñtli-
Lyd. mẽtli-
(pr.) ‘eine Fluchtformel, etwas negatives’
(LydWb. 164)
(Lyd. mẽtlid [3pers])
1. PIE *mentli-
*en → ẽn
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
ReN›ẽN → *mẽntli-
2. mẽntli-
*nt → ñt
Change of *n into ñ before t
Rnt›ñt → Lyd. mẽñtli-


PIE √mr- √mor- √mer- (vb.) ‘verschwinden’
(IEW 735)
√mer-
(CHD LN:295)
(HED M:148f.)
Hitt. mer-
(vb.1.) ‘verschwinden, verlorengehen, absterben’
(HEG M:199)
(Hitt. me-er-zi [3sg], me-er-ta [3sg], me-ri-ir [3pl], me-er-ta-at [3sg])
RV. mára-
(pr.) ‘sterben’
(WbRV. 1054)
(RV. márate, maranti)
1. PIE *méro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *méra-
2. méra-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → RV. mára-
√mor-
Hitt. mar-
(vb.1.&2.) ‘verschwinden, verlorengehen, absterben’
(HEG M:199)
(Hitt. mar-ta, mar-ta-ri [3sg])
1. PIE *mor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mar-
Gr. μόρο-
(m.) ‘violent death’
(LSJ. 1147)
1. PIE *móro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μόρο-
RV. pra·mará-
(m.) ‘Tot’
(WbRV. 877)
1. PIE *pro·moró-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pra·maró-
2. pra·maró-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. pra·mará-
√mernu-
Hitt. mernu-
(cs.1.) ‘verschwinden lassen, unterschlagen’
(HEG 2:201)
(Hitt. me-er-nu-un [1sg])
√mornu-
Hitt. marnu-
(cs.1.) ‘verschwinden lassen, unterschlagen’ (?)
(HHand. 105)
(Hitt. m]a-ar-nu-ši [2sg], oder kum]arnu- ‘erzürnen’)
1. PIE *mornu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. marnu-
HLu. marnu̯a-
(vb.cs.) ‘destroy’ (‘zerstören, auflöschen’)
(CHLu. 2.70.g*1.2)
(in HLu. ...]DELERE p[á?]+ra/i-nu-u[a/i-...)
1. PIE *mornu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. marnu̯a-


PIE √mr- √mor- √mer- (vb.) ‘richten’
(IEW 969)
(Pyysalo: Anat. + Italo-Celt.)
√mor-
LycA. mar-
(vb.) ‘order, command’
(DLycLg. 37)
(LycA. martti [3sg])
1. PIE *mor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → LycA. mar-
LycA. mara
(n.pl.) ‘Gesetz, Anordnung’
(DLycLG. 39)
(LycA. mara [plA], HEG 2:113)
1. PIE *moro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → LycA. mara-
√mer-
LycB. mera-
(n.pl.) ‘law(s)’
(DLycLG. 39)
(LycA. mere [plDL])
1. PIE *mero-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → LycB. mera-
√mori-
Hitt. marei-
(c.) ‘-(?)-; ‹uncertain!›’
(HHand. 101)
1. PIE *morei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. marei-
Hitt. marei-
(m.c.) (trésorier)
(NOMS. 761)
(Hitt. mar-ri-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *morei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. marei-
Hitt. marei̯a-
(d.) ‘-(?)-’
(OHP. 1:299)
(Hitt. maaria [Abs])
1. PIE *morei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. marei̯a-
Hitt. marei̯a-
(m.c.)
(HEG 2:134)
(Hitt. ma-ri-ia, ma-ri-ia-aš, -an; NOMS. 762)
1. PIE *morei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. marei̯a-
√morotei-
HLu. maratei-
(.) ‘order’
(CHLu. 11.1.b4)
(HLu. (“LOQUI”)ma-ra+a-ti-na)
1. PIE *morotei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. maratei-
Hitt. maratei-
(m.c.)
(NOMS. 760)
(Hitt. ma-ra-at-ti-ia [sgD])
1. PIE *morotei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. maratei-
√moro-
LycA. mara·za-
(sb.) ‘Befehlshaber/Richter: judge, arbitrator’
(DLycLg. 37)
(LycA. maraza [sgN], HEG M:113, 188,)
1. PIE *moro·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → LycA. mara·Σ
LycA. mara·zija-
(n.pl.) ‘law-court’
(DLycLg. 37)
(LycA. marazija [plNA], LuPG 54)
1. PIE *moro·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → LycA. mara·Σ
√mert-
MidIr. merta-
(vb.) ‘einrichten’ ‹Bret. merzou- ‘gewahr werden’›
(IEW 969)
(MidIr. mertaid [3sg], also Vann. ar-merhein (vb.) ‘einrichten’; IEW 969)
1. PIE *mertēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *mertāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. mertāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mertāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mertāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mertā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. mertā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → MidIr. merta-
OIr. air·mert
(f.) ‘Verbot’
(IEW 969)
(also Cymr. ar·merth- ‘Verbereitung’)
1. PIE *Π·mertēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·mertāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·mertāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·mertāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·mertāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·mertā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·mertā
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *Π·merta
5. Π·merta
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OIr. Π·mert
√merts-
Umbr. mers-
(n.) ‘Recht, iūs’
(WbOU. 461)
(WH. 2:100)
1. PIE *merts-
*ts → s
Loss of dental in *ts
Rts›s → Umbr. mers-
OIr. mers-
(f.) ‘amende : fine, penalty’
(LEIA M-31)
(OIr. mersi [sgD])
1. PIE *mertsēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *mertsāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. mertsāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mertsāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mertsāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mertsā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. mertsā
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *mertsa
5. mertsa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OIr. merts


PIE √mr- √mor- √mer- ‘glänzen’
(IEW 737)
√mor-
(CHD LN:185)
Hitt. mar-
(c.?) ‘Morgenröte, Sonnenlicht, Tageslicht’
(HEG M:135)
(Hitt. mar-ri [sgL] IGI-anda = Akd. A-NA S˛E-RI)
1. PIE *mor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mar-
OGaul. mor-
(.) ‘Gallische Münze’
(ACSS. 2:627)
(OGaul. mor.)
√moro-
(HEG 2:135)
Russ. már-
(m.) ‘Sonnenglut; trockener Nebel, Schlaf’
(REW 2:97)
(Russ. már [sgN])
1. PIE *mṓro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mṓra-
2. mṓra-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *mā́ra-
3. mā́ra-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *mā́ro-
4. mā́ro-
*ā́ → a
Change of *ā́ into á
Rā́›á → Russ. máro-
Hitt. mara·pši-
(a.) ‘Epitheton des Wettergottes, dU’
(HHand. 100)
(HEG 2:131, dU ma-ra-ap-ši, A-NA dU Ma-ra-ap-še da-a[-i])
1. PIE *moro·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mara·Σ
Gr. μόρο·ξο-
(m.) ‘Ton zum Bleichen (der Kleider)’
(GEW 2:256)
(Gr. μόροξος [sgN])
1. PIE *móro·Σ
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μόρο·Σ
Gr. μόρο·χθο-
(m.) ‘Ton zum Bleichen (der Kleider)’
(GEW 2:256)
(Gr. μόροχθος [sgN])
1. PIE *móro·Σ
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μόρο·Σ
√mero-
Lat. mero-
(a.) ‘unvermischt, lauter, bloß, rein, echt’
(WH. 2:78)
(Lat. merus, mera, merum)
Lat. mero-
(n.) ‘reiner Wein’
(WH. 2:78)
(Lat. merum)
Lat. mer·enda-
(f.) ‘vesperbrot, zwischen vier und fünf Uhr’
(WH. 2:75)
(compare Lat. cal·enda(e))
OIr. ē·mer-
(a.) ‘nicht glänzend, nicht hell’ (Stokes BB25:257)
(WH. 2:78)
Π·mero
1. PIE *Π·mero
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → OIr. Π·mer


PIE √mrgɑɦu- √morgɑɦu- √mergɑɦu- (a.) ‘rot, braun, dunkel’
(IEW 733-4)
(Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√morgɑɦu-
(HIL. 648)
Gr. πολύ·μορφο-
(a.) ‘vielgestaltig’
(Gr. πολύμορφος)
1. PIE *Π·morgɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·morgɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·morgɦu̯o-
*gɦu/u̯ → bɦ
Bilabialization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
RgɦU›bɦ → *Π·morbɦo-
3. Π·morbɦo-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *Π·morpho-
4. Π·morpho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·μορφο-
Hitt. margu̯ai̯a-
(DINGIR) ‘BW von Erdgottheiten’
(HEG 2:153)
1. PIE *morgɑɦu̯oii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *morgɦu̯oii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. morgɦu̯oii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *margɦu̯aii̯a-
3. margɦu̯aii̯a-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *margɦu̯aia-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. margɦu̯aia-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → *margɦu̯ai̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
5. margɦu̯ai̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. margu̯ai̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. μόρφνο-
(a.) ‘dunkelfarbig (?)’
(Gr. μόρφνος, epith. of an eagle, LSJ. 1147)
1. PIE *mórgɑɦuno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mórgɦuno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mórgɦuno-
*gɦu/u̯ → bɦ
Bilabialization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
RgɦU›bɦ → *mórbɦno-
3. mórbɦno-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *mórphno-
4. mórphno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μόρφνο-


PIE √mrs- √mors- √mers- (a.) ‘falsch, umsonst, vergeblich’
(IEW 736-7)
√mrs-
RV. mŕ̥sā
(adv.) ‘umsonst, vergeblich’
(WbRV. 1062)
(RV. mŕ̥ṣā [sgI], KEWA 2:678)
1. PIE *mŕ̥sē
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → RV. mŕ̥sā
AV. mŕ̥sā
(adv.) ‘in falscher Weise’
(WbRV. 1062)
(Burrow 1964:76)
1. PIE *mŕ̥sē
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → AV. mŕ̥sā
√morso-
(HEG 2:143-4)
(CHD LN:195f.)
Hitt. marša-
(a.) ‘falsch, unzuverlässig, unberechenbar’
(HEG 2:143)
(Hitt. mar-ša-an [c.sgA], mar-ša = KBo 5.2.iv.64)
1. PIE *morso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *marsa-
2. marsa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. marša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. marša-
(a.) ‘falsch, unzuverlässig, unberechenbar’
(DLL. 69)
(CLu. ma-ar-ša-ta)
1. PIE *morso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *marsa-
2. marsa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. marša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. maršāḫ-
(vb.) ‘verfälschen, irreführen’
(HHand. 101)
(Hitt. mar-ša-a-aḫ-ḫa-an-t-)
1. PIE *morsēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *morsāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. morsāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *morsāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. morsāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *marsāh-
4. marsāh-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *maršāh-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. maršāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. maršāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√morsi-
(IEW 736)
OHitt. maršei-
(vb.1.) ‘falsch (betrügerisch) werden’, HHand. 101’
(HEG 2:144)
(OHitt. mar-še-e-ir [2pl])
1. PIE *morsei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *marsei-
2. marsei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → OHitt. maršei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √mort- (vb.) ‘≈ schlagen(?)’
(IEW 735-6)
√mort-
Lat. mort·ārio-
(n.) ‘Mörser’, suffix as in Lat. alt·ārio-
(HEG 2:130)
(Lat. mortārium [sgNA])
CLu. marta-
(sb.) ‘-(?)-’ (cf. below) (HHand. 102)
(DLL. 69)
(CLu. ma-a-ar-da-a-ti [sgI] dûpiti [3sg] ‘strikes with CLu. marta-)
1. PIE *morto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. marta-
CLu. a·marta-
(vb.) ‘‹schlagen vel sim. (?)›’
(HHand. 15)
(CLu. harraninzi arudi ‘eagles with their wing(s)’ am-mar-ta-an-du [3pl])
1. PIE *o·morto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. a·marta-


PIE √mru- √moru- √meru- (a.) ‘rot, braun, dunkel’
√moruoi-
(HEG 2:152)
(HIL. 650f., CHD L-N: 201f.)
CLu. maru̯ai-
(vb.1.) ‘rot erhellen (Blitz)’
(DLL. 69)
(CLu. ma-ru-ua-a-it [3sg])
1. PIE *moru̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. maru̯ai-
CLu. maru̯ai-
(dMEŠ.) ‘CLuLex. 142, REL. 93’
(OHP. 1:300)
(CLu. mar-ua-a-in-z[i] [plN])
1. PIE *moru̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. maru̯ai-
HLu. maru̯ai-
(d.) ‘HLu. pá = ma(x)’’
(CHLu. 489)
(HLu. (DEUS)pá?+ra/i-wa/i-i-zi, KLuN. §490)
1. PIE *moru̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. maru̯ai-
CLu. maru̯ai̯a-
(a.) ‘BW von Erdgottheiten, HHand. 102’
(HEG 2:152)
(KLuN. §285, CLu. mar-ua-ia-an-za)
1. PIE *moru̯oii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *maru̯aii̯a-
2. maru̯aii̯a-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *maru̯aia-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. maru̯aia-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → CLu. maru̯ai̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
√morugɑɦ-
Gr. μέμορυχ-
(pf.) ‘(rauch)geschwärt, beschmutzt sein’
(GEW 2:257)
(Gr. μεμορυχμένος [pf.pt.])
1. PIE *mémorugɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mémorugɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mémorugɦ-
*gɦ → kh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›kh → *mémorukh-
3. mémorukh-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μέμορυχ-
Gr. μόρυχο-
(a.) ‘BN. des Dionysos in Sizilien’
(IEW 734)
(Gr. μόρυχος · σκοτεινός),
1. PIE *mórugɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mórugɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mórugɦo-
*gɦ → kh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›kh → *mórukho-
3. mórukho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μόρυχο-
Gr. μόρυξ-
(ao.) ‘beschmieren’
(Gr. μορύξαις [opt2sg])
1. PIE *mórugɑɦs-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mórugɦs-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mórugɦs-
*gɦ → kh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›kh → *mórukhs-
3. mórukhs-
*khs → ks
Loss of *h between *k and *s
Rkhs›ks → *móruks-
4. móruks-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μόρυξ-


PIE √mru- √moru- √meru- (sb.) ‘Misch(masch)’ (adv.) ‘durchaus’
(IEW —)
√moruɑh- √meruɑh-
Lith. marvà-
(f.) ‘Mischmasch, alles durcheinander’
(LiEtWb. 413)
1. PIE *moru̯ḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *moru̯ā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. moru̯ā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moru̯ā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. moru̯ā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *moru̯ā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. moru̯ā́
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *maru̯ā́
5. maru̯ā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *maru̯ṓ
(XX:XX)
6. maru̯ṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → *maru̯à
7. maru̯à
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. marvà
OIr. merbal-
(m.f.) ‘égarement, confusion (mentale)’
(LEIA M-40)
1. PIE *meru̯ēɑhlo
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *meru̯āɑhlo
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. meru̯āɑhlo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *meru̯āhlo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. meru̯āhlo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *meru̯ālo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. meru̯ālo
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *meru̯alo
5. meru̯alo
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → *meru̯al
6. meru̯al
ru̯ → rb
Change of ru̯ → rb
Rru̯›rb → OIr. merbal
HLu. maruḫa
(adv.) ‘durchaus, HEG 2:125’
(CHLu. 10.14.36)
(HLu. ma-ru-ha)
1. PIE *moruɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moruho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. moruho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *maruha-
3. maruha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. maruḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√morui-
CLu. maru̯ai-
(vb.) ‘ver-, durcheinandermengen’ (DLL. 69)
(HEG 2:151)
(CLu. nu ša-ra-az-zi kat-te-ir-ra-ia an-da ma-ru-ua-a-it nu ne-pí-is te-kán-na)
1. PIE *moru̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. maru̯ai-
Hitt. maru̯eili-
(m.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 769)
(Hitt. ma-ar-ui-li-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *moru̯eili-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. maru̯eili-
Hitt. maru̯eišna-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGH. 264)
(Hitt. mar-ui5-eš-na-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *moru̯eisno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *maru̯eisna-
2. maru̯eisna-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. maru̯eišna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √mos- √mes- (sb.) ‘Gott (RV. devá- ‘id.’), Götze (gAv. daēva- ‘id.’) Altar, Tempel’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√moso-
LycB. masa-
(.) ‘Gott’
(HEG 2:155)
(LycB. masa [sgN])
1. PIE *moso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → LycB. masa-
Hitt. maša-
(LÚc.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 770)
(Hitt. ma-ša [All])
1. PIE *moso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *masa-
2. masa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. maša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√mosoi-
(Pyysalo)
LycB. masai-
(sb.) ‘Gott’
(LuPG 57)
(LycB. masaiz)
1. PIE *mosoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → LycB. masai-
√meseieɑhn-
Arm. mehean-
(sb.) ‘Götzenbild, Altar, Tempel’
(ArmGr. 191)
(Arm. mehean)
1. PIE *mesei̯ēɑhnì
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *mesei̯āɑhnì
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. mesei̯āɑhnì
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mesei̯āhnì
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mesei̯āhnì
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mesei̯ānì
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. mesei̯ānì
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *mehei̯ānì
5. mehei̯ānì
*ei̯ā → eā
Loss *i̯ between e and ā
Rei̯ā›eā → *meheānì
6. meheānì
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *meheanì
7. meheanì
*i → Ø
Loss of unaccented *i
Rì›0 → Arm. mehean
√mosigɑɦo-
(IEW 713)
Gr. μοιχό-
(m.) ‘Götzendiener, Ehebrecher’
(GEW 2:249)
1. PIE *mosigɑɦó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mosigɦó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mosigɦó-
*gɦ → kh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›kh → *mosikhó-
3. mosikhó-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *mohikhó-
4. mohikhó-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *moikhó-
5. moikhó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μοιχό-
Gr. κατα·μοιχό-
(m.) ‘Götzendiener, Ehebrecher’
(GEW 2:249)
1. PIE *keɑhteɑh·mosigɑɦó-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑhtaɑh·mosigɑɦó-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑhtaɑh·mosigɑɦó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kahtah·mosigɦó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kahtah·mosigɦó-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kata·mosigɦó-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kata·mosigɦó-
*gɦ → kh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›kh → *kata·mosikhó-
5. kata·mosikhó-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *kata·mohikhó-
6. kata·mohikhó-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *kata·moikhó-
7. kata·moikhó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. κατα·μοιχό-
Gr. μοίχαο-
(pr.) ‘Götzendienst treiben, verfälschen’
(GEW 2:249)
1. PIE *mosígɑɦeɑhi̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *mosígɑɦaɑhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. mosígɑɦaɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mosígɦahi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mosígɦahi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mosígɦai̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. mosígɦai̯o-
*gɦ → kh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›kh → *mosíkhai̯o-
5. mosíkhai̯o-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *mohíkhai̯o-
6. mohíkhai̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *mohíkhao-
7. mohíkhao-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *moíkhao-
8. moíkhao-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μοίχαο-
√mosoni-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. mašani-
(c.) ‘Gott’ (HHand. 102)
(DLL. 69)
(CLu. ma-aš-ša-ni-ia [D], ma-aš-ša-ni-in-[zi])
1. PIE *mosoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *masani-
2. masani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. mašani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. mašani-
(c.) ‘Gott’
(HEG 2:155)
(HLu. DEUS-ni-ša [sgN])
1. PIE *mosoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *masani-
2. masani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. mašani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. ani·mašani-
(f.c.)
(NOMS. 73)
(Hitt. an-ni-ma-aš-ša-an-ni-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *oni·mosoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ani·masani-
2. ani·masani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. ani·mašani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. kuišḫa·mašani-
(d.c.) ‘GhR. 307, CLuLex. 119, H. Otten (1980-3 [RIA 6]:301)’
(OHP. 1:244)
(CLu. ku-iš-ḫa-ma-aš-ša-ni-eš [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·mosoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·masani-
2. Π·masani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. Π·mašani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ura·mašani-
(d.c.) ‘-(?)-’ (GhR. 307 n. 96)
(OHP. 1:540)
(Hitt. u-ra-am-ma-aš-ša-ni [Abs])
1. PIE *uro·mosoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ura·masani-
2. ura·masani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ura·mašani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. urza·mašani-
(d.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(OHP. 1:543)
(Hitt. ur-za-ma-aš-ša-ni [Abs])
1. PIE *urdɑɦi̯o·mosoni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *urdɦi̯o·mosoni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. urdɦi̯o·mosoni-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *urjɦo·mosoni-
3. urjɦo·mosoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *urjɦa·masani-
4. urjɦa·masani-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *urja·masani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. urja·masani-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *urza·masani-
6. urza·masani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. urza·mašani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. mašanei̯a-
(a.) ‘göttlich’
(HHand. 102)
1. PIE *mosonei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *masanei̯a-
2. masanei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. mašanei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. mašanei̯aši-
(a.) ‘göttlich’ (HHand. 102)
(DLL. 69)
(CLu. ma-aš–ša-ni-ia-aš-ši)
1. PIE *mosonei̯o·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *masanei̯a·si-
2. masanei̯a·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. mašanei̯a·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√meseni-
Arm. mehen-
(sb.) ‘Götzenbild, Altar, Tempel’
(ArmGr. 191)
(Arm. mehen [sgN], meheni [sgG])
1. PIE *mesenì
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *mehenì
2. mehenì
*i → Ø
Loss of unaccented *i
Rì›0 → Arm. mehen
√mosor-
HLu. mašara-
(c.) ‘cf. Sid. maśara [plD]: θεοι̃ς πα̃σι HEG 2:155’
(CHLu. 11.1.d7)
(HLu. *472(-)ma-sa5+ra/i-zi-ha-wa/i-mu!)
1. PIE *mosoro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *masara-
2. masara-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. mašara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Car. μάσαρι-
(c.) (karische Name des Dionysos)
(HEG 2:156)
(Car. μάσαρις [Stephanus v. Byz])
1. PIE *mósori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mósari-
2. mósari-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *másari-
3. másari-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Car. μάσαρι-
√mososi-
LycB. masasi-
(a.gen.) ‘of god’
(HEG 2:155)
(LycB. masasi [sgG])
1. PIE *mososi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → LycB. masasi-


PIE √msɑh- √mosɑh- √mesɑh- (sb.) ‘Wachstum, Wohlstand’
(HEG 2:91)
(Pyysalo: To CLu. mašana- ‘Gott’)
√mosɑh-
CLu. mašḫa·ḫiša-
(n.) ‘≈ Wachstum, Wohlstand’, HHand. 103’
(DLL. 70)
(CLu. ma-aš-ḫa(-a)-ḫi-ša)
1. PIE *mosɑho·ɦɑiso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mosho·ɦiso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mosho·ɦiso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *masha·ɦisa-
3. masha·ɦisa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *mašha·ɦiša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. mašha·ɦiša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. mašḫa·ḫiša-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. mašḫa·nei-
(cs.) ‘make grow: wachsen lassen/machen’
(CHLu. 10.14.22)
(HLu. ma-sa-ha-ni-i-ti [3sg], KLuN. §98)
1. PIE *mosɑho·nei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mosho·nei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mosho·nei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *masha·nei-
3. masha·nei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *mašha·nei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. mašha·nei-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. mašḫa·nei-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OGaul. meseri·aco-
(.) ‘-(?)-; ‹a guess by form, uncertain!›’
(ACSS. 2:574)
1. PIE *mesɑheri·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mesheri·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mesheri·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OGaul. meseri·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
CLu. mašḫari·ša-
(n.) ‘eine erwünschte Sache, HHand. 103’
(DLL. 70)
(CLu. ma-aš-ḫa-re-eš-ša)
1. PIE *mosɑhori·so-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moshori·so-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. moshori·so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mashari·sa-
3. mashari·sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *mašhari·ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. mašhari·ša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. mašḫari·ša-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Kpd. mašḫ·ili-
(I.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 778)
(Kpd. maš-ḫi-li)
1. PIE *mosɑh·ili-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mosh·ili-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mosh·ili-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mash·ili-
3. mash·ili-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *mašh·ili-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. mašh·ili-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Kpd. mašḫ·ili-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √mdɑɦ- √modɑɦ- √medɑɦ- (sb.) ‘Honig, Wein’ (a.) ‘süß’
(IEW 707)
√medɑɦo-
OCS. medŭ-
(m.) ‘méli : Honig’ (*o-stem !)
(REW 2:110)
(OCS. medŭ, meda [sgG])
1. PIE *medɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *medɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. medɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *medɦa
3. medɦa
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *meda
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. meda
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *medo
5. medo
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *medu
6. medu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. medŭ
OCS. medo·točĭnŭ-
(a.) ‘honigtriefend, honigsüss’
(Sadnik √497)
1. PIE *medɑɦo·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *medɦo·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. medɦo·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *medɦa·Σ
3. medɦa·Σ
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *meda·Σ
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. meda·Σ
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → OCS. medo·Σ
OGaul. medo·briga-
(ON.) ‘Metburg’
(ACSS. 526)
1. PIE *medɑɦo·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *medɦo·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. medɦo·Σ
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → OGaul. medo·Σ
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
√medɑɦu-
HLu. medu-
(n./c.?) ‘wine’
(CHLu. 7.2/2.fr2)
(in HLu. (‘VITIS’)mi-t[u-...]x)
1. PIE *medɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *medɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. medɦu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. medu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OCS. medŭ-
(m.) ‘Honig’
(Sadnik 497)
(OCS. medŭ [N], medu [G])
1. PIE *medɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *medɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. medɦu-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *medu-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. medu-
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. medŭ-
Gr. μέθυ-
(n.) ‘Rauschtrank, Wein’ (LSJ. 1091)
(GEW 2:191)
(Gr. μέθυ, μέθυος)
1. PIE *médɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *médɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. médɦu-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *méthu-
3. méthu-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μέθυ-
OGaul. medu-
(PN.) ‘Honig’
(ACSS. 2:534)
1. PIE *medɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *medɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. medɦu-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → OGaul. medu-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
√modɑɦu-
CLu. matu-
(n.) ‘Traubenschaft, Honigwein, CLu. -dd-!’
(DLL. 70)
(CLu. ma-ad-du [sgN], HHand. 103)
1. PIE *modɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *modɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. modɦu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *madɦu-
3. madɦu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. madu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. madu-
(NINDA.) ‘Süßbrot’ (?), HHand. 103’
(HEG M:165)
(Hitt. INA É dIM ... 1 NINDAma-du[-)
1. PIE *modɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *modɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. modɦu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *madɦu-
3. madɦu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. madu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. madu-
(UINUM.m.?) ‘wine’
(CHLu. 10.14.26)
(HLu. ma-tu-sá, (“X”)ma-tu-sa-pa-wa/i-tu-ta)
1. PIE *modɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *modɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. modɦu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *madɦu-
3. madɦu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. madu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. matu-
(a.) ‘süß, CLu -dd-!’
(HEG M:165)
(CLu. ma-ad-du)
1. PIE *modɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *modɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. modɦu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *madɦu-
3. madɦu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. madu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √mu- (vb.) ‘wachsen, mächtig werden, übermächtigen’ (sb.) ‘Same, Lebenssaft’
(IEW —)
(Pyysalo)
√mu-
HLu. mu-
(vb.tr.) ‘conquer’
(CHLu. 10.5.2)
(HLu. (*273)mu(wa)-tá)
Car. μυ-
(PN.m.) ‘-(?)-’
(NdLyc. 160)
(Kar. μυς)
1. PIE *mu-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Car. μυ-
HLu. zaḫa·mu-
(PN.)
(CHLu. 2.27.17)
(HLu. za-ha-mu-sa)
1. PIE *di̯eɑɦo·mu-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *di̯aɑɦo·mu-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. di̯aɑɦo·mu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *di̯aɦo·mu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. di̯aɦo·mu-
PIE *di̯ → j
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
Rdi̯›j → *jaɦo·mu-
4. jaɦo·mu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *jaɦa·mu-
5. jaɦa·mu-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *zaɦa·mu-
6. zaɦa·mu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. zaḫa·mu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√muto-
(Pyysalo)
OIcl. moð-
(n.) ‘Same, Frucht; (auch ‘Heuabfall’)’
(ANEtWb. 391)
1. PIE *muto
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *muþo
2. muþo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *muþa
3. muþa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *muþ
4. muþ
*þ → ð
Change of þ into ð
R=þ›=ð → OIcl. muð
Hitt. muta-
(m.c.) ‘(devin)’
(NOMS. 826.2)
(Hitt. mu-ut-ta [Abs.])
1. PIE *muto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. muta-
HLu. muta-
(vb.) ‘≈ conquer (?)’
(CHLu. 10.5.2)
(HLu. mu-tá-‘)
1. PIE *muto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. muta-
Hitt. muta·ḫila-
(GIŠ.) ‘ein Baum oder hölzernes Gerät’
(HHand. 108)
(Hitt. EZEN GIŠmu-ut-ta-ḫi-la-aš [sgG] EZEN ŠU.KIN ‘Sichel’)
1. PIE *muto·hɑilo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *muto·hilo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. muto·hilo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *muta·hila-
3. muta·hila-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. muta·ḫila-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. muta·nani-
(m.c.) ‘MUTA-brother’
(NOMS. 828)
(Hitt. mu-ut-ta-na-ni-iš)
1. PIE *muto·noni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. muta·nani-
√mute/oi-
CLu. mutei-
(c.) ‘having overpowering might’ (?)
(HIL. 681)
(CLu. [m]u-ut-ti-iš [sgN])
HLu. mutei-
(.) ‘Kraft’
(CHLu. 10.45.3)
(HLu. mu-ti-na [sgA])
Hitt. mutaa-
(m.c.) (homme d’Ura)
(NOMS. 862.3)
(in Akd. mu-ut-ta-a)
1. PIE *mutoi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mutai̯a-
2. mutai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → Hitt. mutaa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
√mutol-
LycB. mutala-
(a.) ‘mighty: mächtig’
(DLycLg. 122)
(HEG 2:240; LycB. mutala [plNA])
1. PIE *mutolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → LycB. mutala-
Hitt. mutali-
(m.c.) ‘roi hittite, fils de Muršili II’
(NOMS. 837.2)
(Hitt. mu-ut-ta-al-li)
1. PIE *mutoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mutali-
√mutel-
OGaul. mutelio-
(PN.m.) ‘-(?)-; ‹a guess by form!›’
(ACSS 2:664)
OGaul. mutellio-
(PN.m.) ‘-(?)-’
(ACSS 2:664)
1. PIE *mutelnio-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → OGaul. mutellio-
√mutlein-
LycA. mutlei-
(I.) ‘≈ Muwatali-’
(DLycLg. 100)
(Lyc. mutlẽi [sgN], Lyk&Hitt. 37, LuPG 116, HIL. 682)
√muton-
(Pyysalo)
(OGaul. a guess by form)
Hitt. mutan-
(n.) ‘Abfall (?), HHand. 108; vgl. μύτων’
(HEG 2:237)
(Hitt. A-NA UR.GI7ḪI.A ŠAḪḪI.A-ma mu-ú-da-na e-et-ri-eš-mi-it)
1. PIE *muton-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mutan-
Hitt. mutana
(URU.) ‘Im Bezirk von ›Ulušna; HEG 2:237’
(OGH. 277)
(Hitt. mu-ut-ta-na [Stf.])
1. PIE *mutono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mutana-
Hitt. mutana·u̯ani-
(a.) (Spezifierung/Benennung eines Feldes)
(DLL. 72)
(Hitt. A.ŠÀ mu-ut-ta-na-ua-an-ni-eš)
1. PIE *mutono·u̯oni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mutana·u̯ani-
CLu. mutana·u̯ani-
(GKL.a.) (Spezifierung eines Feldes, HHand. 108)
(DLL. 72)
(CLu. A.ŠÀ mu-ut-ta-na-ua-an-ni-eš)
1. PIE *mutono·u̯oni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. mutana·u̯ani-
OGaul. muteno-
(ON.n.) ‘in Pannonia superior ‹uncertain!›’
(ACSS. 2:664)
OGaul. muteneiā-
(PN.f.) ‘-(?)-’ ‹uncertain!›
(ACSS. 2:664)
1. PIE *mutenei̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *mutenei̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. mutenei̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mutenei̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mutenei̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mutenei̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. mutenei̯ā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OGaul. muteneiā-
√muuo-
(HEG NM:238-43)
(HED M-196 ‘fluid, sperm, potency, power, might’)
Hitt. muu̯a-
(c.) ‘Lebenssaft, Same, Bohne’ (HHand. 108)
(HEG 2:238-43)
(Hitt. mu-u-ua-an [sgA], A.A-an, mu-u-ua-aš [plDL?])
1. PIE *muu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. muu̯a-
Hitt. muu̯a-
(c.) ‘victory’
(HED M-196)
(Hitt. muwas [sgN])
1. PIE *muu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. muu̯a-
LycB. muwa-
(n.) ‘might, power’
(DLycLg. 122)
(LycB. muwa [pl])
1. PIE *muu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *muu̯a-
2. muu̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → LycB. muwa-
CLu. muu̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘stark sein, überwältigen’ (HHand. 109)
(DLL. 72)
(CLu. mu-u-ua-an-ti [3pl])
1. PIE *muu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. muu̯a-
CLu. muu̯a-
(pr.2.) ‘overpower’ (vel sim.)
(HIL. 681)
(CLu. mu-u-ua-i [3sg])
1. PIE *muu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. muu̯a-
HLu. muu̯a-
(pr.2.A.) ‘overpower, conquer’
(CLu. 10.14.32)
(HLu. mu-wa/i-i [3sg] = Sultanhan §32)
1. PIE *muu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. muu̯a-
HLu. muu̯a-
(pret.A.) ‘conquer’
(CLu. 10.14.44)
(HLu. mu-ua/i-ta [3sg])
1. PIE *muu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. muu̯a-
LycB. muwa-
(vb.) ‘overpower’
(DLycLg. 122)
(LycB. muwati, muwaxa)
1. PIE *muu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *muu̯a-
2. muu̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → LycB. muwa-
√muuoi-
CLu. muu̯ai-
(vb.) ‘stark sein, überwältigen’ (HHand. 109)
(DLL. 72)
(CLu. mu-u-ua-i [ipv2sg])
1. PIE *muu̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. muu̯ai-
HLu. IREL+RA/I·muu̯ai-
(I.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(CHLu. 10.36.32)
(HLu. IREL+RA/I-mu-wa/i-ia-’)
1. PIE *Π·muu̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·muu̯ai-
√muuont-
Hitt. muu̯ant-
(*pt.) ‘powerful’
(HED M-197)
(Hitt. A.A.-an-za; Or with *e?, cf. Lyc. muẽtẽ [sgA], HIL. 682, HEG 2:240)
1. PIE *muu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. muu̯ant-
HLu. muu̯anta-
(.) ‘enforcement, conquest’
(CHLu. 10.12.29)
(HLu. mu-wa/i-tax; for *n, see also Pis. μουαντιανος NdLyc. 160)
1. PIE *muu̯onto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. muu̯anta-
HLu. ura·muu̯anta-
(I.)
(CHLu. 10.36.3)
(HLu. IMAGNUS-RA/I-mu-wa/i-ta)
1. PIE *uro·muu̯onto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ura·muu̯anta-
√muuotei-
CLu. muu̯atei-
(a.) ‘having overpowering might’ (?)
(HIL. 681)
(CLu. mu-u-ua-at-ti-in)
1. PIE *muu̯otei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. muu̯atei-
Hitt. muu̯atei-
(f.c.) fille de Suppiluliuma I, épouse de Mašḫuilua-
(NOMS. 838)
(Hitt. mu-u-ua-at-ti-in)
1. PIE *muu̯otei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. muu̯atei-
Hitt. muu̯atei-
(d.) (Cult in uša-)
(OHP. 1:320)
(Hitt. mu-ua-at-ti-iš [N])
1. PIE *muu̯otei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. muu̯atei-
Hitt. muu̯atei-
(PÚ.) ‘›Kizzuwatna’
(OGH. 540)
(Hitt. mu-u-ua-at-ti-in-na [sgA])
1. PIE *muu̯otei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. muu̯atei-
HLu. pana·muu̯atei-
(I.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(CHLu. 6.1.1)
(HLu. pa-na-mu-wa/i-ti-sa)
1. PIE *Π·muu̯otei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·muu̯atei-
Kpd. puna·muu̯atei-
(I.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 1051)
(Kpd. pu-na-mu-ua-ti)
1. PIE *Π·muu̯otei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Kpd. Π·muu̯atei-
Hitt. muu̯atei̯a-
(c.) ‘ein Dämonisches Wesen’
(HHand. 108)
1. PIE *muu̯otei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. muu̯atei̯a-
√muuotoli-
Hitt. muu̯atali
(d.) ‘NIR.GAL; A. Goetze, Kizz. 68, RDH. 110’
(OHP. 1:319)
(Hitt. mu-ua-at-ta-al-li [Abs.])
1. PIE *muu̯otoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. muu̯atali-
Hitt. muu̯atali-
(a.) ‘Ehrfurcht einflößend, furchterregend’
(HHand. 108)
(Hitt. [m]u-ua-ta-li [sgNA], mu-u-ua-at-ta-a[l-l]i-iš)
1. PIE *muu̯otoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. muu̯atali-
Hitt. muu̯atali-
(m.c.) (prince de la famille de Suppiluliuma Ier)
(NOMS. 837)
(Hitt. mu-u-ua-at-ta-al-li = NIR.GÁL)
1. PIE *muu̯otoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. muu̯atali-
HLu. muu̯atali-
(FORTIS.a.) ‘mighty’
(CHLu. 2.1.5)
(HLu. (FORTIS)mu-[wa/i]-ta-[la/li-ti])
1. PIE *muu̯otoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. muu̯atali-
HLu. muu̯atali-
(PN.) ‘prince de Gurgum, NOMS. 837.4’
(CHLu. 4.2.1)
(HLu. mu-wa/i-ta-la/i/u-i-sa)
1. PIE *muu̯otoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. muu̯atali-
HLu. muu̯atali·ši-
(a.gen.) ‘of Muwatali-’
(CHLu. 4.1.1)
(HLu. [mu]-wa/i-ta-li-si)
1. PIE *muu̯otoli·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *muu̯atali·si-
2. muu̯atali·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. muu̯atali·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √mu- √mou- √meu- (vb.) ‘eilen, fliegen, fallen’ (sb.) ‘Pferde’ (num.) ‘vier’ (adv.) ‘über’
(IEW 743)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + CLu. + OIcl.)
√mōu-
CLu. māu̯a-
(num.) ‘vier’ (HHand. 103, HEG 2:168)
(DLL. 70)
(CLu. ma-a-u-ua-a-ti (partati))
1. PIE *mōu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mōu̯a-
2. mōu̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → CLu. māu̯a-
HLu. māu̯a-
(*num.) ‘vier’ ‹not *miwa- vs. HIL. 661›
(CHLu. 3.10.6)
(HLu. “4”-wa/i-zi [pl])
1. PIE *mōu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mōu̯a-
2. mōu̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → HLu. māu̯a-
OIcl. mō-
(m.) ‘Pferdename’
(ANEtWb. 392)
1. PIE *mōu̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mōu̯a
2. mōu̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *mōu̯
3. mōu̯
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *mōv
4. mōv
-v → Ø
Loss of -v in root-final position
R=v›=0 → OIcl. mō
√mou-
TochB. mla·mo-
(a.) ‘overflowing; ‹i.e. flowing [mla] over [mo-]›
(DTochB. 479)
1. PIE *Π·mou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·mau-
2. Π·mau-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *Π·mō-
3. Π·mō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. Π·mo-
Hitt. mau̯ala-
(URU.) ‘begibt sich nach Ḫarharanta, ›Parmana-’
(OGH. 267)
(Hitt. ma?-ua-al-la)
1. PIE *mou̯olo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mau̯ala-
CLu. mau̯ala·ša-
(.) ‘-(?)-’
(HHand. 103)
(CLu. ma-a-ú?-[u]a-al-la-aš-ša [or ma-a-ḫu-[u]a-al-la-aš-ša)
1. PIE *mou̯olo·so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mau̯ala·sa-
2. mau̯ala·sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. mau̯ala·ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. mau̯ali-
(a.) ‘im Vierergespann laufend’ (HEG 2:168)
(DLL. 70)
(CLu. ma-ua-al-li-in [sgA]: parall. ANŠU.KUR.RA)
1. PIE *mou̯oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mau̯ali-
√mou·oni-
(HEG M: 177-181)
CLu. mau̯·anei-
(vb.) ‘im Viergespann laufen; CHD M:211’
(DLL. 70)
(CLu. ma-a-u-ua-ni-in-ta [3pl])
1. PIE *mou̯·onei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. mau̯·anei-
√mou·ori-
CLu. mau̯·ari-
(.) ‘vier/Ross + ARI (?)’
(HHand. 103)
(CLu. mauarr[i-)
1. PIE *mou̯·ori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. mau̯·ari-
√mou·osɑhi-
Kpd. mau̯·ašḫi-
() ((f.)c.) ‘vier/Ross + ashi- (?)’
(NOMS. 795)
(Kpd. ma-ua-áš-ḫi)
1. PIE *mou̯·osɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mou̯·oshi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mou̯·oshi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mau̯·ashi-
3. mau̯·ashi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *mau̯·ašhi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. mau̯·ašhi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Kpd. mau̯·ašḫi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√mu-
Hitt. mu-
(vb.1.A.M.intr.) ‘fallen, HHand. 107’
(HEG 2:166-8)
(Hitt. mu-uḫ-ḫi [1sg], mu-uḫ-ḫu-un, HuIdg. 227, DLar. 140)
LycA. mu·pm̃ma-
(a.) ‘fourfold; HIL. 661)
(DLycLg. 41)
(LycA. mu-pm̃me [plDL])
√muo-
(HED 6:188)
(CHD III:329)
Hitt. mu̯a-
(vb.1.M.) ‘fallen’ (HEG 2:225)
(HEG 2:167)
(Hitt. mu-ua-a-an-ta-ru [3pl])
1. PIE *mu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mu̯a-
Hitt. mumu̯ant-
(pt.) ‘flying’
(HEG 2:230)
(Hitt. mu-ga-a-u-ua-aš ud-da-a-ar mu-um-mu-ua-a-a[n] e-eš-tu)
1. PIE *mumu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mumu̯ant-
Hitt. mu̯aneiant-
(pt.) ‘in Vierergespann laufend’
(HEG 2:223)
(Hitt. mu-u-ua-ni[ia-an-te-eš] [plN], HHand. 109)
1. PIE *mu̯oneiont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mu̯aneiant-


PIE √mun- (sb.) ‘Hand, Mittel, Schütz’ (vb.) ‘schützen’
(IEW 741+743)
(Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√muni-
(IEW 743)
OIr. muin
(sb.) ‘patronage, protection’
(LEIA M-72)
(EtDiPC. 277-8)
1. PIE *muni-
*uni → uin
Epenthesis of i
Runi›uin → OIr. muin-
√mundɑɦ-
(IEW 741)
OSax. mund-
(.) ‘Hand’
(ASaxD. 700)
1. PIE *mundɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mundɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mundɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → OSax. mund-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
OEng. mund-
(f.) ‘hand(ful), protection, guardianship’
(ASaxD. 700)
(OEng. mund, munde)
1. PIE *mundɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mundɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mundɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → OEng. mund-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
OHG. munt-
(.) ‘palmus, cubitus, protectio, protector’
(ASaxD. 700)
1. PIE *mundɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mundɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mundɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *mund-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. mund-
*d → t
OHG sound shift of *d
Rd›tHG → OHG. munt-
OSax. mundō-
(pr.) ‘to protect, shelter, guard’
(ASaxD. 700)
1. PIE *mundɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *mundɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. mundɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mundɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mundɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mundɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. mundɦā-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *mundā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. mundā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → OSax. mundō-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. nek·munda·dar-
(n.) ‘Mittellosigkeit : destitutiton’
(HEG 2:309)
(Hitt. a[-ši-u]a-an-ta-tar ne-ek-mu-un-ta-ta[r-ra piyandu
1. PIE *Π·mundɑɦo·dɑɦor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·mundɦo·dɦor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·mundɦo·dɦor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·mundɦa·dɦar-
3. Π·mundɦa·dɦar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. Π·munda·dar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √mur- (sb.) ‘Traube, Wein’
(IEW 970-971)
√mur-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. mur·šili-
(LÚ.c.) ‘roi de l’ancien royaume; ‹i.e. Bachhus ?›’
(NOMS. 823)
(Hitt. mur·šili- as Hitt. hatu·šili- etc.)
Dor. μύρ·σιλι-
(PN.m.?) ‘Mursili’
(XX:XX)
(Alkm. Μύρσιλ[.. [P. Oxy XVIII [1941] nro. 2165])
1. PIE *múr·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. μύρ·Σ-
√muro-
ModPersL. mul-
(sb.) ‘Wein’
(KEWA 2:677)
1. PIE *muro
r -› l
Change of r to l
Rr›l → *mulo
2. mulo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mula
3. mula
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → ModPersL. mul
Gr. μύρο-
(n.) ‘sweet oil, unguent, perfume’
(LSJ. 1155)
1. PIE *múro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μύρο-
Phryg. μυρό-
(FlN.) ‘-(?)-’
(HEG M:200)
(Phryg. μυρός)
1. PIE *muró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Phryg. μυρό-
CLu. mura-
(a.) (qualifiziert ‘Ritual’, in Arzawa, HHand. 108)
(HEG M:232)
(DLL. 72, in SÍSKUR mu-u-ra-an-za [plA] iianzi)
1. PIE *muro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. mura-
Hitt. mura-
(URU.) “Ḫašamili, Mann von M.”
(OGHErg. 107)
(Hitt. mu-ra [Stf.])
1. PIE *muro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mura-
Hitt. mura·ši-
(URU.a.gen.) ‘›Ḫarziuna; HEG M:233’
(OGH. 275)
(Hitt. mu-ra-aš-ši-i[š?])
1. PIE *muro·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mura·si-
2. mura·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. mura·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√murmur-
(IEW 748)
Hitt. murmura-
(m.c.) (cf. above & below)
(NOMS. 822)
(Hitt. mu-ur-mu-ra-aš)
1. PIE *murmuro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. murmura-
RV. murmurā-
(ÍD.f.) ‘Name eines Flusses’
(EWA 2:411)
1. PIE *murmurēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *murmurāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. murmurāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *murmurāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. murmurāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. murmurā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√muri-
(Tischler)
Hitt. muri-
(c.) ‘Traube von Wein, Früchten, HHand. 108)
(HEG 2:233)
(Hitt. GEŠTI-aš mu-ri-eš, e-ip-pí-ia-aš mu-ú-ri-iš, mu-u-ri-uš)
Hitt. muri̯a-
(vb.M.) ‘sich zusammenkauern, HHand. 108’
(HEG 2:233-4)
(Hitt. mu-u-ri-at-ta [3sg]),
1. PIE *muri̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. muri̯a-
Dor. μυρινᾱ-
(ON.f.) ‘Traube’
(HEG 2:233)
(Cret. μυρινα, Plin. myrina)
1. PIE *murinēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *murināɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. murināɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *murināh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. murināh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *murinā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. murinā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. μυρινᾱ-

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