PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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© 2014-2017 University of Helsinki

"Durch zweier Zeugen Mund wird alle Wahrheit kund" — August Fick
(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
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PIE



PIE √mɑhl- (sb.) ‘Wein, Weinrebe, Weinstock, Bacchae’ (a.) ‘trunken’
(HEG M:89-90)
(Pyysalo: Toch. + Arm.)
√mɑhlo
(Pyysalo 2013:156)
(cf. HEG L-M: 89f. for Lat. mālo- ‘Apfel’)
Hitt. māḫla-
(GIŠc.) ‘Weinrebe, Zweig des Weinstocks’
(HHand. 96)
(Hitt. ma-a-aḫ-la-aš)
1. PIE *mōɑhlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mōhlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mōhlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mōhla-
3. mōhla-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *māhla-
4. māhla-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. māḫla-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Pal. māḫla-
(c.) ‘Weinstock ?, HHand. 96’
(DPal. 62)
1. PIE *mōɑhlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mōhlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mōhlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mōhla-
3. mōhla-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *māhla-
4. māhla-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Pal. māḫla-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
TochB. māla-
(sb.) ‘a kind of intoxicating drink’
(DTochB. 449)
1. PIE *mōɑhlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mōhlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mōhlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mōhla-
3. mōhla-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *māhla-
4. māhla-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. māla-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
LydG. μώλακ-
(c.) ‘Wein’
(HEG 2:89)
(Lyd. μῶλαξ · λυδοὶ τὸν οἶνον; εἶδος οἴνου)
1. PIE *mṓɑhlok-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mṓhlok-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mṓhlok-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mṓhlak-
3. mṓhlak-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mṓlak-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. mṓlak-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LydG. μώλακ-
TochB. ·mālatsai-
(a.) ‘drunken’
(DTochB. 449)
1. PIE *mōɑhlo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mōhlo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mōhlo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mōhla·Σ-
3. mōhla·Σ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *māhla·Σ-
4. māhla·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. māla·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√mɑhli-
(Pyysalo 2013:156)
Arm. mał·zmay-
(sb.) ‘Weinglas’
(ArmGr. 1:196)
1. PIE *mēɑhli̯·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *māɑhli̯·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. māɑhli̯·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *māhli̯·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. māhli̯·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *māli̯·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. māli̯·Σ-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *mali̯·Σ-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. mali̯·Σ-
*li̯ → ł
Change of *li̯ into ł
Rli̯›ł → Arm. mał·Σ-
Arm. moło·zmay-
(sb.) ‘Weinglas’
(ArmGr. 1:196)
1. PIE *moɑhli̯o·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mohli̯o·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mohli̯o·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *moli̯o·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. moli̯o·Σ-
*li̯ → ł
Change of *li̯ into ł
Rli̯›ł → Arm. moło·Σ-
√meɑhlnón-
(Pyysalo 2013:156)
Maced. μιμαλλόν-
(f.pl) ‘αἱ βάκχαι’
(LSJ. 1135)
(μιμαλλόνες [plN])
1. PIE *mimeɑhlnón-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *mimaɑhlnón-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. mimaɑhlnón-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mimahlnón-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mimahlnón-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mimalnón-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. mimalnón-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *mimallón-
5. mimallón-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Maced. μιμαλλόν-


PIE √mehɑ- ‘time, age’
(IEW XX)
√mehɑn-
(Pyysalo 2013:33)
Hitt. meḫn-
(n.) ‘Zeit’
(HEG 2, 171)
(Hitt. me-eḫ-ni [sgL])
1. PIE *mehɑn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mehn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mehn-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. meḫn-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Goth. aldo·min-
(obl.) ‘γῆρας : old age’
(GoEtD. 25)
1. PIE *Π·mehɑn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·mehn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·mehn-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·men-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·men-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → Goth. Π·min-
√mehɑun-
(Pyysalo)
(CHD LN:239)
Hitt. meḫu̯en-
(n.obl.) ‘Zeit’
(HEG 2:171-4)
(Hitt. me-e-ḫu-e-ni [sgL])
1. PIE *mehɑu̯en-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mehu̯en-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mehu̯en-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. meḫu̯en-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. meḫun-
(n.obl.) ‘Zeit’
(HEG 2:171-4)
(Hitt. me-e-ḫu-na-aš [sgG], me-e-ḫu-ni [L], HuIdg. 48-9)
1. PIE *mehɑun-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mehun-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mehun-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. meḫun-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫandaiši meḫuni·
(phr.) ‘in the heat of the noon’
(StBoT 18:98)
(Hitt. ḫa-an-ta-i-ši me-e-ḫu-n[i] (KBo 3.22 obv. 19), HIL. 341)
1. PIE *Π·mehɑuni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·mehuni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·mehuni-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·meḫuni-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OIcl. mund-
(n.) ‘Zeitpunkt’
(ANEtWb. 395)
1. PIE *mhɑundɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mhundɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mhundɦo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mundɦo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. mundɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *mundo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. mundo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *munda
5. munda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OIcl. mund
OSwed. mund-
(.) ‘Zeitpunkt’
(ANEtWb. 395)
(OSwed. munder)
1. PIE *mhɑundɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mhundɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mhundɦo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mundɦo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. mundɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *mundo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. mundo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *munda
5. munda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OSwed. mund
√mehɑur-
Hitt. meḫur-
(n.) ‘Zeit’
(HEG 2:171-4)
(Hitt. me-e-ḫur, me-ḫu-ur [sgN], HED 6:111)
1. PIE *mehɑur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mehur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mehur-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. meḫur-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. meḫuri-
(n.pl) ‘Zeit’
(HIL. 656)
(Hitt. me-ḫur-riḪI.A, Kretschmer apud Hrozný 1917:70n3 › PIE *mē- ‘to measure’)
1. PIE *mehɑuri-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mehuri-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mehuri-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. meḫuri-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √mi- √mei- √moi- (a.) ‘klein, schwach’ (vb.) ‘zu Grunde richten, verkleiner, vermindern’
(IEW 711)
(+ Seebold + Pyysalo)
√mi-
(Seebold 1988:510)
(Pyysalo 2013:149)
LAv. maya-
(pr.) ‘zu Grunde richten’
(AIWb. 1141)
(LAv. maya [3sg])
1. PIE *mei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mei̯a-
2. mei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *mai̯a-
3. mai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. maya-
Hitt. a·mei̯ant-
(pt.a.) ‘klein, schwach’
(HEG 1:22)
(Hitt. a-mi-ia-an-za [sgN], a-mi-ia-an-te-es [plN])
1. PIE *o·mei̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a·mei̯ant-
Hitt. a·mei̯antešar-
(n.) ‘miniature bread’
(HIL. 207-8)
(Hitt. a-mi-an-te-es-sar [sgNA], HW2 A: 66f.)
1. PIE *o·mei̯ontesor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·mei̯antesar-
2. a·mei̯antesar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. a·mei̯antešar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√min-
Osc. min-
(a.) ‘klein’
(WH. 2:92)
(Osc. min [sgN])
Gr. μινύ·ωρο-
(a.) ‘kurze Zeit lebend’
(Gr. μινύωρος)
1. PIE *minú·i̯ōro-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *minú·ōro-
2. minú·ōro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μινύ·ωρο-
Gr. μινυ.ανθήσ-
(a.) ‘kurze Zeit blühend’
(LSJ. 1135)
1. PIE *minu.hɑendɑɦḗs-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *minu.hɑandɑɦḗs-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. minu.hɑandɑɦḗs-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *minu.handɦḗs-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. minu.handɦḗs-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *minu.andɦḗs-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. minu.andɦḗs-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *minu.anthḗs-
5. minu.anthḗs-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μινυ.ανθήσ-
Gr. μινύ·θο-
(vb.tr.) ‘verkleinern, vermindern’
(Gr. μινύθω)
1. PIE *minú·dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *minú·dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. minú·dɦo-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *minú·tho-
3. minú·tho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μινύ·θο-
√mis-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. mišti-
(c.) ‘Kleinigkeit, Geringfügigkeit’ (Gerätschaften)
(HEG 2:217)
(CLu. mi-iš-ti-in, and HHand. 106)
1. PIE *misti-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. mišti-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. mišti-
(GKLc.) ‘ein äußerlich geringfügiger Körperteil
(DLL. 71)
(CLu. mi-eš-te-en)
1. PIE *misti-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. mišti-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Osc. mistri-
(a.) ‘kleinerer, minoris’
(WbOU. 478)
(Osc. mistreis [sgG])


PIE √min- √moin- √mein- (vb.) ‘jagen’ (sb.) ‘Jäger, Pfahl, Bogen, Baum’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo)
√mein-
(Pyysalo)
(HIL. 667-, CHD L-N:290, HHand. 105)
Latv. mìena-
(pr.) ‘(einen Pfahl) einjagen, bepfählen’
(LiEtWb. 451)
1. PIE *meíno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *meína-
2. meína-
eí -› ìe
Change of eí to ìe
Reí›ìe → Latv. mìena-
Hitt. meinei̯a-
(LÚc.) ‘Bogenschütze, Jäger’
(HEG 2:198)
(Hitt. me-ne-ia-aš, me-e-ni-aš, me-e-ni-i[aš], mi-ni-ia-aš, me-ne-an, mi-ni-ia-an, me-ne-ia-ša)
1. PIE *meinei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. meinei̯a-


PIE √mis- √mois- √meis- (sb.) ‘Fleisch, Aas, Lockspeise’
(IEW 697 + 725)
√meis-
Lith. meisa-
(f.) ‘Fleisch : meat’
(LiEtWb. 427)
1. PIE *meisēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *meisāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. meisāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *meisāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. meisāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *meisā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. meisā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *meisō
(XX:XX)
5. meisō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *meisa
6. meisa
*ei -> ie
Change of *ei into ie
Rei›ie → Lith. miesa
√mis-
CLu. miš-
(n?.) ‘Fleisch, HHand. 106’
(DLL. 71)
1. PIE *mis-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. miš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. ā́·miṣ-
(n.) ‘(rohes) Fleisch’ ; ‘Aas, Lockspeise’
(WbRV. 181)
1. PIE *Π·mis-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *Π·miš-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. Π·miš-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. Π·miṣ-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
LAv. ā·miš-
(n.) ‘Fleisch’
(EWA1:170-1)
(AIWb. —)
1. PIE *Π·mis-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → LAv. Π·miš-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
TochB. misa-
(f.pl.tant.) ‘meat, flesh : Fleisch’
(DTochB. 464)
1. PIE *miseɑh
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *misaɑh
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. misaɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *misah
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. misah
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. misa
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Alb. mishn-
(m./n.pl) ‘Fleisch’
(AlbEtD. 267)
(Alb. mishna)
1. PIE *misn-
*s → sh
Change of *s into sh
Rs›sh → Alb. mishn-
Alb. mishr-
(m./n.pl) ‘Fleisch’
(AlbEtD. 267)
(Alb. mishra)
1. PIE *misr-
*s → sh
Change of *s into sh
Rs›sh → Alb. mishr-
Gr. μισ·τύλλο-
(vb.) ‘Fleisch zertstückeln’
(Gr. μιστύλλω)
1. PIE *mis·túlno-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *mis·túllo-
2. mis·túllo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μισ·τύλλο-
Hitt. miš·tilia-
(a.) ‘Spezifierung einer Mahlzeit, HHand. 106’
(HEG 2:218)
1. PIE *mis·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. miš·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √mis- √mois- √meis- (sb.) ‘Kleinvieh, Schaf(bock)’
(IEW 747)
√meis-
Gr. μει·αγωγό-
(m.) ‘der das Kleinvieh auf die Waage bringt’
(GEW 2:195)
(Gr. μειαγωγός)
1. PIE *meis·Σ-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *meih·Σ-
2. meih·Σ-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *mei·Σ-
3. mei·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μει·Σ-
Gr. μει·αγωγέο-
(cs.A.) ‘das Kleinvieh auf die Waage bringen’
(GEW 2:195)
(Gr. μει·αγωγέω)
1. PIE *meis·Σ-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *meih·Σ-
2. meih·Σ-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *mei·Σ-
3. mei·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μει·Σ-
√meiso-
RV. meṣá-
(m.) ‘Widder, Schafbock : male sheep, ram’
(WbRV. 1064)
(KEWA 2:689, EWA 2:380)
1. PIE *meisó-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *meišó-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. meišó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *meišá-
3. meišá-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *maišá-
4. maišá-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *mēšá-
5. mēšá-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *mēṣá-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
6. mēṣá-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → RV. meṣá-
LAv. maeša-
(m.) ‘Schaf’ (: ‘sheep’)
(AIWb. 1109)
(LAv. maeša-)
1. PIE *meiso-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *meišo-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. meišo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *meiša-
3. meiša-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *maiša-
4. maiša-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → LAv. maeša-
Gr. μείο-
(n.) ‘Kleinvieh, lamb, sheep’ (LSJ. 1093)
(GEW 2:195)
(Gr. μει̃ον)
1. PIE *meíso-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *meího-
2. meího-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *meío-
3. meío-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μείο-
√meisi-
LAv. dawrā·maeši-
(m.) ‘EN eines Gläubigen’
(AIWb. 680)
(dawra ‘feist, fett’)
1. PIE *Π·meisi-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *Π·meiši-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. Π·meiši-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *Π·maiši-
3. Π·maiši-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → LAv. Π·maeši-
meisiɑ́h-
(WbRV. 1064)
LAv. maešī-
(f.) ‘Schaf, Schafmutter’
(AIWb. 1109)
1. PIE *meisiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *meisiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. meisiíh-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *meišiíh-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. meišiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *meišií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. meišií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *meišī́-
5. meišī́-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *maišī́-
6. maišī́-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → *maešī́-
7. maešī́-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → LAv. maešī-
LAv. maešina-
(a.) ‘vom Schaf herrührend, ovillus’
(AIWb. 1109)
1. PIE *meisino-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *meišino-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. meišino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *meišina-
3. meišina-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *maišina-
4. maišina-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → LAv. maešina-
√moist-
(HEG 2:96)
(CHD L/N:119)
Hitt. maišta-
(SÍG.c.) ‘Garnsträhne ≈ bale of wool, MA 511’
(HHand. 97)
(Hitt. SÍGma-iš-ta-an [sgA] ma-ši-ua-an-ta-an)
1. PIE *moisto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *maista-
2. maista-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. maišta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. maišta·arpa-
(.) ‘ein Dämon bzw. Schadstoff; ‹uncertain!›’
(HHand. 97)
(Hitt. maištarpa-)
1. PIE *moisto·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *maista·Σ-
2. maista·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. maišta·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √ml- √mol- √mel- (sb.) ‘honig’
(IEW XX)
√meliri- √moliri-
(Pyysalo 2013:250)
Arm. mełr-
(sb.) ‘Honig’
(ArmGr. 1:473)
(Arm. mełr [sgN])
1. PIE *melirì-
*li → ł
Change of *li into ł
Rli›ł → *mełrì-
2. mełrì-
*i → Ø
Loss of unaccented *i
Rì›0 → Arm. mełr-
HLu. maliri·mi-
(pt.a.) ‘honeyed’
(CHLu. 4.4.1.)
(HLu. ma-li-rii-mi-i-sá)
1. PIE *moliri·mi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. maliri·mi-


PIE √mel-, √mol- (sb.) ‘μένος : Mut, Körperschaft / Denken, Geistesstärke’
(IEW. 720)
(Pyysalo: Germ.)
√mol-
(HEG 2:100)
Hitt. mal-
(n.) ‘Mut, Körperschaft’ / ‘Denken, Geistesstärke’
(HHand. 97)
(Hitt. ma-a-al, ma-al, Rieken 1999:49)
1. PIE *mol-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mal-
CLu. mal-
(n.) ‘though, idea’
(CHD LN:124,128)
(CLu. ma-a-li-i [sgD, HIL. 631)
1. PIE *mol-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. mal-
Hitt. mal·nigal-
(c.) ‘reine Hittite’
(NOMS. 730)
(Hitt. ma-al-ni-gal)
1. PIE *mol·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mal·Σ-
√melo-
(XX:XX)
Gr. μέλο-
(pr.) ‘am Herzen liegen, besorgt sein, kümmern’
(GEW 2:204-5)
(Gr. μέλει μοι [sgD])
1. PIE *mélo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μέλο-
Pis. μηλα-
(PN.c.)
(HEG 2:100)
(Pis. μηλας)
1. PIE *mēlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mēla-
2. mēla-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Pis. μηλα-
√molo-
Hitt. mala-
(vb.) ‘gutheißen, billigen, CHD L-N:126-7’
(HEG 2:103)
(Hitt. ma-a-la-a-ši, ma-la-ši [2sg], ma-l[a]-a-i, ma-a-la-i, ma-a-la-an-zi)
1. PIE *molo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mala-
Hitt. mala-
(f.c.)
(NOMS. 720.2)
(Hitt. ma-a-la-aš)
1. PIE *molo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mala-
Kpd. mala-
(LÚ.c.)
(NOMS. 720.1)
(Kpd. ma-lá(-áš))
1. PIE *molo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Kpd. mala-
Kpd. mala·u̯ašḫi-
() ((f.)c.) –
(NOMS. 723)
(Kpd. ma-lá-ua-áš-ḫi)
1. PIE *molo·u̯osɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *molo·u̯oshi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. molo·u̯oshi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mala·u̯ashi-
3. mala·u̯ashi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *mala·u̯ašhi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. mala·u̯ašhi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Kpd. mala·u̯ašḫi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Kpd. mala·u̯ašḫina-
() ((f.)c.) –
(NOMS. 724)
(Kpd. ma-lá-ua-áš-ḫi-na)
1. PIE *molo·u̯osɑhino-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *molo·u̯oshino-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. molo·u̯oshino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mala·u̯ashina-
3. mala·u̯ashina-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *mala·u̯ašhina-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. mala·u̯ašhina-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Kpd. mala·u̯ašḫina-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. mala·zidi-
(LÚ.c.) (officier de Muršili II)
(NOMS. 725)
(Hitt. ma-la-zi-ti-in, ma-la-LÚ-in)
1. PIE *molo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mala·Σ-
HLu. mala·zidi-
(LÚ.c.) (prince)
(NOMS. 725)
(HLu. ma-la-ZITi-i)
1. PIE *molo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. mala·Σ-
Goth. a·mal-
(PN.m.) ‘tapfer, tätig: active, brave’
(GoEtWb. 6)
(Goth. amals [sgN])
1. PIE *o·molo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·mala
2. a·mala
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Goth. a·mal
Goth. a·mala·bairgan-
(PN.) ‘tapfer·bergend’
(GoEtWb. 11)
(Goth. amalabairga)
1. PIE *o·molo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. a·mala·Σ-
√moloi-
CLu. malai-
(vb.) ‘denken, erwägen’
(HHand. 98)
1. PIE *moloi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. malai-
Hitt. malai-
(vb.) ‘billigen, gutheißen, offiziel anerkennen’
(HHand. 97)
(Hitt. ma-la-a-iš, ma-la-a-it, ma-la-a-iš)
1. PIE *moloi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. malai-
Hitt. malaimi-
(.) ‘-(?)-’
(HHand. 97)
1. PIE *moloi·mi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. malai·mi-
CLu. malai·mi-
(pt.) ‘gebilligt’ (?) (Kontext nicht erhalten)
(HHand. 97)
(CLu. ma-la-a-i-mi-in[(-) [sgA])
1. PIE *moloi·mi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. malai·mi-
LycA. meleimi-
(pt.) ‘für die Genehmigungen’
(HEG 2:103)
(Lyc. meleime [plD?])
Hitt. malai·uri-
(LÚ.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 721)
(Hitt. ma-la-a-i-u-ri-eš [sgN])
1. PIE *moloi·uri-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malai·uri-
2. malai·uri-
* a i u → a i̯ u
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *u
Raiu›ai̯u → Hitt. malai̯·uri-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
Hitt. malai·dum-
(.) (Bez. eines Kleidungstücks)
(HEG 2:101)
(Akd. kusītum ma-al-a-i-tum)
1. PIE *moloi·dɑɦum-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moloi·dɦum-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. moloi·dɦum-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malai·dɦum-
3. malai·dɦum-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. malai·dum-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√moli-
(IEW. 720)
CLu. mali-
(vb.) ‘denken, überlegen’ (HIL. 632)
(HHand. 97)
(CLu. ma!-li-ui5, ma-li-ši [DLL. 56, sub ku-li-])
1. PIE *moli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. mali-
CLu. mali-
(vb.) ‘billigen, denken, überlegen’(DLL. 56, ku-li-)
(HHand. 97)
(CLu. ma!-li-ui5, ma-li-ši)
1. PIE *moli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. mali-
CLu. mali-
(n.) ‘Gedanke, Idee, Absicht’
(HHand. 98)
(DLL. 66, CLu. ma-al-li [sgN])
1. PIE *moli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. mali-
CLu. mali-
(vb.) ‘denken, erwägen, billigen’ (HEG 2:106)
(HHand. 98)
(CLu. ma!-li-ui5 [1sg], ma-li-ši [2sg], DLL. 56 ku-li-wi)
1. PIE *moli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. mali-
LycA. mali-
(sb.) ‘Rat’
(NdLyc. 139)
(Lyc. mali [sgN])
1. PIE *moli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → LycA. mali-
√molio-
Hitt. mali̯a-
(d.) ‘XX’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *moli̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mali̯a-
√molim-
CLu. malima·ši-
(a.gen.) ‘XX’
(HEG 2:106)
(CLu. ma!-li-im-ma-aš-ši)
1. PIE *molimo·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malima·si-
2. malima·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. malima·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. malimi-
(pr.) ‘gebilligt’ (?)
(GEW 2:103)
1. PIE *molimi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. malimi-
√molios-
Hitt. malii̯ašḫa-
(c.N.act.) ‘Zustimmung, Billigung, Einverständnis’
(HEG 2:104,106)
(Hitt. [ma-l]i-ia-aš-ḫa-aš [sgN/G?])
1. PIE *molii̯osɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *molii̯osho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. molii̯osho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malii̯asha-
3. malii̯asha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *malii̯ašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. malii̯ašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. malii̯ašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. malii̯ašḫa-
(c.N.act.) ‘Zustimmung, Billigung, Einverständnis’
(HHand. 97, 98)
(CLu. ma-li-ia-aš-ḫa-az [Abl])
1. PIE *molii̯osɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *molii̯osho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. molii̯osho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malii̯asha-
3. malii̯asha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *malii̯ašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. malii̯ašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. malii̯ašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. mali̯eške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘billigen’ (HEG 104)
(HHand. 97)
(Hitt. ma-li-eš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *moli̯eski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *moli̯esḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. moli̯esḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mali̯esḱe/a-
3. mali̯esḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *mali̯eske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. mali̯eske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. mali̯eške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
moliio-
LycA. malija-
(d.) Aθηνᾶ
(BLyk 3:35)
(in Lyc. mal[ija]-)
1. PIE *molii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malii̯a-
2. malii̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → LycA. malija-
LycA. malija
(sb.) ‘Rat’ (Lyk&Hitt. 29)
(BLyk. 3:36)
(Lyc. malija [sgN], LuPG 54, NdLyc. 139)
1. PIE *molii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malii̯a-
2. malii̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → LycA. malija-
LycA. malijahi
(a.) ‘of Athene’
(BLyk. 3:36)
(Lyc. malijahi)
1. PIE *molii̯osi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malii̯asi-
2. malii̯asi-
PIE *s → h
Change of fricative *s into h
Rs›h → *malii̯ahi-
3. malii̯ahi-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → LycA. malijahi-
Car. μαλια-
(URUf.) ‘X’
(NdLyc. 139)
(Kar. μαλια [sgN])
1. PIE *molii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malii̯a-
2. malii̯a-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *malia-
3. malia-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Car. μαλια-
Car. μελια-
(URUf.) ‘X’
(NdLyc. 139)
(Kar. μελια [sgN])
1. PIE *melii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *melii̯a-
2. melii̯a-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *melia-
3. melia-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Car. μελια-
LycC. μαλιευ-
(sb.) ‘Demos’
(NdLyc. 139)
(Lyc. μαλιευς [sgN])
1. PIE *molii̯eu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malii̯eu-
2. malii̯eu-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *malieu-
3. malieu-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LycC. μαλιευ-
LycC. μαλιο-
(d.)
(BLyk 4:54)
1. PIE *molii̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malii̯u-
2. malii̯u-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *maliu-
3. maliu-
* u → o
Change of *u into o
Ru›o → *malio-
4. malio-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LycC. μαλιο-
√molon-
Hitt. ·malan ḫar-
(vb.) ‘einverstanden sein’
(HEG 2:105)
(Hitt. ma-la-a-an ḫarti)
1. PIE *molon·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. malan·Σ-
Hitt. malan-
(pt.a.n.) ‘having mal-’
(HEG 2:105)
(Hitt. ma-a-la-an [sgA])
1. PIE *molon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. malan-
Hitt. malant-
(pt.) ‘gebilligt’
(HHand. 97, 98)
(Hitt. ma-a-la-an-t, ma-la-an-t-, ma-la-a-an-t-)
1. PIE *molont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. malant-
Hitt. malant-
(a.) ‘kraftstrotzend, kraftvoll, mutig, stark’
(HEG 2:105)
(Hitt. ma-a-la-an-ta-an [sgA])
1. PIE *molont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. malant-
√molsK-
(IEW. 719 [diff.])
OSax. malsk-
(a.) ‘stolz : proud, haughty’
(GoEtD. 378)
1. PIE *molski̯o
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *molsḱo
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. molsḱo
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *molsko
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. molsko
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malska
4. malska
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OSax. malsk
Goth. un·tila·malsk-
(a.) ‘προπετής : unbesonnen : reckless’
(GoEtD. 378)
1. PIE *Π·Π·molski̯o
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *Π·Π·molsḱo
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. Π·Π·molsḱo
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *Π·Π·molsko
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·Π·molsko
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·Π·malska
4. Π·Π·malska
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Goth. Π·Π·malsk
OEng. malscr-
(f.) ‘bewitching, fascination’
(ASaxD. 666)
(OEng. malscra)
1. PIE *molskirēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *molskirāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. molskirāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *molskirāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. molskirāh
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *molsḱrāh
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. molsḱrāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *molsḱrā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. molsḱrā
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *molskrā
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. molskrā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malskrā
7. malskrā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *malskrō
(XX:XX)
8. malskrō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *malskra
9. malskra
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OEng. malscra
OEng. malscrid
(a.) ‘fascinated, spell-bound, mazed, charmed’
(ASaxD. 666)
(OEng. malscred, malscrid)
1. PIE *molskiredɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *molskiredɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. molskiredɦo-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *molsḱredɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. molsḱredɦo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *molskredɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. molskredɦo-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *molskredo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. molskredo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malskreda-
6. malskreda-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *malskrida-
7. malskrida-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OEng. malscrida-
OEng. malscrung-
(f.) ‘bewitching, fascination’
(ASaxD. 666)
1. PIE *molskirungɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *molskirungɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. molskirungɦo-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *molsḱrungɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. molsḱrungɦo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *molskrungɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. molskrungɦo-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *molskrungo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. molskrungo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malskrunga-
6. malskrunga-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OEng. malscrunga-
OEng. malscrung-
(a.) ‘fascinatus’
(ASaxD. 666)
1. PIE *molskirungɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *molskirungɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. molskirungɦo-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *molsḱrungɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. molsḱrungɦo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *molskrungɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. molskrungɦo-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *molskrungo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. molskrungo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *malskrunga-
6. malskrunga-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OEng. malscrunga-
√molouo-
Hitt. malau̯a-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘zu billigen’
(HHand. 97)
(Hitt. ma--la-ua-an-zi)
1. PIE *molou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. malau̯a-


PIE √mldɑɦ- √moldɑɦ- √meldɑɦ- ‘Spitze, Kopf, Höhe, usw.
(IEW XX)
√moldɑɦ-
Hitt. maldani-
(GKLc.) ‘künstlicher Hügel, Belagerungsrampe’ (?)
(HHand. 98)
1. PIE *moldɑɦoni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moldɦoni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. moldɦoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *maldɦani-
3. maldɦani-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. maldani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. maldani-
(GKLc.) “er (Ulikumi) erhebt sich wie ein M.”
(DLL. 66)
1. PIE *moldɑɦoni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moldɦoni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. moldɦoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *maldɦani-
3. maldɦani-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. maldani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. ka·mǝrǝδa-
(n.) ‘Kopf’
(AIWb. 440)
(to Pahl. ka·māl- (sb.) ‘Kopf, AIWb. 440)
1. PIE *Π·ml̥dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ml̥dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ml̥dɦo-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
Rl̥›r̥ → *Π·mr̥dɦo-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. Π·mr̥dɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·mr̥dɦa-
4. Π·mr̥dɦa-
*r̥ → ǝr
Change of *r̥ into ǝr
Rr̥›ǝr → *Π·mǝrdɦa-
5. Π·mǝrdɦa-
*r → rǝ
Anaptyxis of ǝ (Schwa)
Rr›rǝ → *Π·mǝrǝdɦa-
6. Π·mǝrǝdɦa-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·mǝrǝda-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. Π·mǝrǝda-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → LAv. Π·mǝrǝδa-
LAv. ϑri.ka·mǝrǝδa-
(a.) ‘mit Drei Köpfen’
(AIWb. 806)
1. PIE *Π·ml̥dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ml̥dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ml̥dɦo-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
Rl̥›r̥ → *Π·mr̥dɦo-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. Π·mr̥dɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·mr̥dɦa-
4. Π·mr̥dɦa-
*r̥ → ǝr
Change of *r̥ into ǝr
Rr̥›ǝr → *Π·mǝrdɦa-
5. Π·mǝrdɦa-
*r → rǝ
Anaptyxis of ǝ (Schwa)
Rr›rǝ → *Π·mǝrǝdɦa-
6. Π·mǝrǝdɦa-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·mǝrǝda-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. Π·mǝrǝda-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → LAv. Π·mǝrǝδa-
MidPers. mardā-
(f.) ‘Scheitel, Vorderkopf’
(KEWA 2:666)
MidPers. mardā-
1. PIE *moldɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *moldɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. moldɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moldɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. moldɦāh-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *mordɦāh-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. mordɦāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mardɦāh-
5. mardɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mardɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. mardɦā-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → MidPers. mardā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)


PIE √mn- √mon- √men- (vb.) ‘sehen’
(IEW 726-8)
√men-
(Rieken 1999:56: Hitt.)
(HIL. 666)
Hitt. men-
(c.) ‘Gesicht, Wange’
(HEG 2:196)
(Hitt. me-nu-uš-ša [plA])
Lat. men·cep-
(a.) ‘mente captus’
(WH. 2:68)
RV. man-
(ao.M.) ‘sich halten für, sich dünken’
(WbRV. 992)
1. PIE *men-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. man-
gAv. mǝ̄n-
(ao.M.) ‘denken, meinen sich vorstellen’
(AIWb. 1121)
1. PIE *men-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → gAv. man-
Lat. memen-
(pf.) ‘sich erinnern, gedenken’
(WH. 2:65)
√mon-
(HEG M-115)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. [opt.ptcl] ‘wish-’)
Hitt. man
(ptcl.) ‘optative, irrealis and potentialis’
(CHD M-139ff.)
(Hitt. ma-an, HIL. 638, CHD L-N: 143)
1. PIE *mon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. man-
Goth. man-
(pret.pr.) ‘meinen, glauben : δοκῶ’ (GoEtD. 260)
(Goth. man)
Goth. man-
1. PIE *mon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. man-
OEng. man-
(pret.) ‘remember, be mindful of, think’
(ASaxD. 700)
OEng. man-
1. PIE *mon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OEng. man-
Gr. μέμον-
(pf.) ‘im Sinne haben, gedenken, streben’
(Gr. μέμονα)
1. PIE *mémon-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μέμον-
LAv. maman-
(pf.) ‘denken meinen, sich vorstellen’
(AIWb. 1121)
(LAv. mamanāite [du (f.)])
1. PIE *memon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *meman-
2. meman-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → LAv. maman-
√mono-
HLu. mana-
(pret.) ‘anschauen, HEG M-113’
(CHLu. 469)
(HLu. LITUUS+na-)
1. PIE *mono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. mana-
CLu. mana-
(pret.) ‘sehen’
(HEG M-113)
(CLu. ma-na-a[-ta? [3sg])
1. PIE *mono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. mana-
Kataon. μανα-
(PN.m.) ‘-(?)-’
(NdLyc. 141)
1. PIE *mono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mana-
2. mana-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Kataon. μανα-
Lith. ìš·mana-
(m.) ‘Verstand’
(XX:XX)
(Hübschmann 1885:118, ìšmanas [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·mono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lith. Π·mana-
CLu. mamana-
(or Pal.?, HHand. 99, HEG M-112) ‘schauen
(DLL. 67, CHD LN:138)
(Hitt. ma-am-ma-an-na-tén [2pl])
1. PIE *momono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. mamana-
HLu. mamana-
(vb.) ‘anschauen’
(HEG M-113)
(HLu. LITUUS.LITUUS-na)
1. PIE *momono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. mamana-
√monɑh-
CLu. manāḫ·u̯ani-
(.) ‘ein Teil des Kopfes, neben SAG.DU, IGI.ḪIA’
(HEG 2:253)
1. PIE *monēɑh·u̯oni-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *monāɑh·u̯oni-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. monāɑh·u̯oni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *monāh·u̯oni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. monāh·u̯oni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *manāh·u̯ani-
4. manāh·u̯ani-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. manāḫ·u̯ani-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Kibyr. μανᾱ-
(PN.f.) ‘-(?)-’
(NdLyc. 141)
(Kibyr. μανα [sgN])
1. PIE *monēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *monāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. monāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *monāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. monāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *manāh-
4. manāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *manā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. manā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Kibyr. μανᾱ-
OSax. manō-
(vb.) ‘mahnen’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *monēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *monāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. monāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *monāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. monāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *monā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. monā-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *manā-
5. manā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → OSax. manō-
(XX:XX)
RV. manā́-
(f.) ‘Ergebenheit, Anhänglichkeit’
(WbRV. 996)
1. PIE *monḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *monā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. monā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *monā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. monā́h
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *manā́h
4. manā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. manā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√moniɑh-
(Pyysalo)
(HIL. 639, Oettinger 1979a: 458, CHD L-N 163ff.)
Hitt. mani̯āḫ-
(vb.2.) ‘beaufsichtigen : supervise, oversee’
(HHand. 99)
1. PIE *moni̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *moni̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. moni̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moni̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. moni̯āh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mani̯āh-
4. mani̯āh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. mani̯āḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Latv. at·maņa-
(f.) ‘Besinnung, Bewußtsein’
(LiEtWb. 455)
1. PIE *Π·moni̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·moni̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·moni̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·moni̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·moni̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·moni̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·moni̯ā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·mani̯ā
5. Π·mani̯ā
*ni̯ → ņ
Change of ni̯ into ņ (palatalization)
Rni̯›ņ → *Π·maņā
6. Π·maņā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → Latv. Π·maņa
Latv. sa·maņa-
(f.) ‘Einsicht, Verstand, Scharfsinn, Aufmerksamkeit’
(LiEtWb. 455)
1. PIE *Π·moni̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·moni̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·moni̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·moni̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·moni̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·moni̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·moni̯ā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·mani̯ā
5. Π·mani̯ā
*ni̯ → ņ
Change of ni̯ into ņ (palatalization)
Rni̯›ņ → *Π·maņā
6. Π·maņā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → Latv. Π·maņa
OPr. manioth-
(PN.) ‘-(?)-’
(APrPN. 55)
(OPr. manyoth)
1. PIE *moni̯ēɑhtɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *moni̯āɑhtɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. moni̯āɑhtɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moni̯āhth-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. moni̯āhth-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *moni̯āth-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. moni̯āth-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mani̯āth-
5. mani̯āth-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *mani̯ōth-
(XX:XX)
6. mani̯ōth-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → *maniōth-
7. maniōth-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → OPr. manioth-
OPr. manioth·kaym-
(ON.) ‘jetzt Mandtkeim Kr. Fischhausen’
(APrON. 94)
(OPr. manioth·kaym-)
1. PIE *moni̯ēɑhtɑh·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *moni̯āɑhtɑh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. moni̯āɑhtɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *moni̯āhth·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. moni̯āhth·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *moni̯āth·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. moni̯āth·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mani̯āth·Σ-
5. mani̯āth·Σ-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *mani̯ōth·Σ-
(XX:XX)
6. mani̯ōth·Σ-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → *maniōth·Σ-
7. maniōth·Σ-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → OPr. manioth·Σ-
√monon-
(Pyysalo
RV. manána-
(a.) ‘bedächtig’
(WbRV. 993)
1. PIE *monóno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *manóna-
2. manóna-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. manána-
Kpd. manana-
(LÚ.c.) ‘bedächtig (?)’
(NOMS. 738)
1. PIE *monono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Kpd. manana-
RV. mananā́-
(f.) ‘Andacht’
(WbRV. 993)
1. PIE *mononḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *mononā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. mononā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mononā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mononā́h-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mananā́h-
4. mananā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. mananā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)


PIE √mn- √mon- √men- ‘XX’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo 2014:XX)
√monoi-
CLu. manai-
(a.) ‘beschreibt Vorratskörbe’
(HHand. 99)
(HEG 2:118, Hitt. GIPISAN SA5 ma-an-na-[iš?], GIPISAN ma!-an-na-iš)
1. PIE *monoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. manai-
CLu. manai·mi-
(GKLpt.) ‘(rituell) gereinigt ?’
(HEG 2:118)
(CLu. ma-an-na-i-mi-iš [sgN], HHand. 99)
1. PIE *monoi·mi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. manai·mi-
√meniɑh-
OIr. meini·stir-
(f.) ‘coffre contenant les ustensiles du culte’
(LEIA M-29)
1. PIE *mení·Σ-
ení → einí
Epenthesis of í
Reni›einí → OIr. meini·Σ-
OIr. meini·stir-
(f.) ‘objet sacré’
(LEIA M-29)
1. PIE *mení·Σ-
ení → einí
Epenthesis of í
Reni›einí → OIr. meini·Σ-


PIE √mn- √mon- √men- ‘XX’
√monio- √mōnio-
LAv. fra·mainya-
(n.) ‘Praevalenz, Vormacht über [G]’
(AIWb. 987)
1. PIE *pro·moni̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pra·mani̯a-
2. pra·mani̯a-
*pR → fR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
RpR›fR → *fra·mani̯a-
3. fra·mani̯a-
*ani → aini
Anaptyxis of *i
RanI›ainI → *fra·maini̯a-
4. fra·maini̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. fra·mainya-
Lat. merci·mōnio-
(n.) ‘commercial enterprise’
(OxLatD. 1101)
1. PIE *Π·mōnii̯o-
*ii̯o → io
Loss *i̯ between i and o
Rii̯o›io → Lat. Π·mōnio-
Lat. uadi·mōnio-
(n.) ‘Bürgschaftsleistung’
(OxLatD. 2002)
1. PIE *Π·mōnii̯o-
*ii̯o → io
Loss *i̯ between i and o
Rii̯o›io → Lat. Π·mōnio-
√mōni̯ēɑh-
(CHD LN:163ff.)
(HIL. 638)
Hitt. māni̯āḫ-
(vb.2.) ‘verwalten, zuteilen, übergeben, einhändigen’
(HEG 2:119)
(Hitt. ma-ni-ia-aḫ-ḫi)
1. PIE *mōnii̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *mōnii̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. mōnii̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mōnii̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mōnii̯āh-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *mānii̯āh-
4. mānii̯āh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. mānii̯āḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. māni̯āḫa-
(N.act.) ‘Verwaltung(sbezirk)’
(HHand. 99)
1. PIE *mōnii̯ēɑho-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *mōnii̯āɑho-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. mōnii̯āɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mōnii̯āho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mōnii̯āho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mōnii̯āha-
4. mōnii̯āha-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *mānii̯āha-
5. mānii̯āha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. mānii̯āḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. māni̯āḫan-
(n.) ‘Verwaltung’ (HEG 2:121)
(HHand. 99)
1. PIE *mōnii̯ēɑhon-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *mōnii̯āɑhon-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. mōnii̯āɑhon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mōnii̯āhon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mōnii̯āhon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mōnii̯āhan-
4. mōnii̯āhan-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *mānii̯āhan-
5. mānii̯āhan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. mānii̯āḫan-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. māni̯āḫi̯at-
(c.) ‘Zuteilung, Zuweisung, Übergabe’
(HHand. 99)
1. PIE *mōnii̯ēɑhi̯ot-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *mōnii̯āɑhi̯ot-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. mōnii̯āɑhi̯ot-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mōnii̯āhi̯ot-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mōnii̯āhi̯ot-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mōnii̯āhi̯at-
4. mōnii̯āhi̯at-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *mānii̯āhi̯at-
5. mānii̯āhi̯at-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. mānii̯āḫi̯at-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lat. casti·mōniā-
(f.) ‘ceremonial purity or purification’
(OxLatD. 282)
1. PIE *Π·mōnii̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·mōnii̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·mōnii̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·mōnii̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·mōnii̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·mōnii̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·mōnii̯ā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. Π·mōniiā-
Lat. caeri·mōniā-
(f.) ‘religiöse Handlung, heilige Verehrung’
(WH. 1:132)
1. PIE *Π·mōnii̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·mōnii̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·mōnii̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·mōnii̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·mōnii̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·mōnii̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·mōnii̯ā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. Π·mōniiā-


PIE √mn- √mon- √men- (vb.) ‘gehen, kommen’
√mono- √meno-
Hitt. mena-
(GIŠc.) ‘Akd. daltu : Tür ‹Lat. iānuā- (f.) ‘Türe’›’
(HEG 2:194, 196)
(Hitt. me-na-an [sgA])
1. PIE *meno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mena-
Osc. co·mono-
(n.) ‘comitium ‹RV. ni·yā́na- (n.) ‘Herbeikommen›’
[WbOU. 414)
(Osc. comonei [sgD])
1. PIE *koɑh·mono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *koh·mono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. koh·mono-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ko·mono-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. ko·mono-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Osc. co·mono-
√mone-
OBret. mone-
(vb.sb.) ‘aller’
(LEIA M-36)
(OBret. monet)
MidCymr. moni-
(pr.) ‘komm (her), wohlan’
(LIV. 438)
1. PIE *mone-
R=e-›=i- → MidCymr. moni-
OIr. muini-
(pr.) ‘vient’
(LEIA M-35)
(OIr. muinithir [3sg])
1. PIE *mone-
one -> oine
Anaptyxis *one to oine
Rone›oine → *moine-
2. moine-
R=e-›=i- → OIr. moini-
Bret. mon-
(vb.) ‘aller’
(LEIA M-36)
(Bret. mont [inf.])
√mene-
OPr. menen-
(cs.) ‘führen’ (APrS. 377)
(OPr. menentwey [inf.])
Umbr. menes-
(1fut.) ‘kommen werden’ (WbOU. 143-4)
(Umbr. menes [2sg])
√meni-
Hitt. meni-
(.) ‘Kreislauf, Umkreis’ (?)
(HHand. 105)
Hitt. udu·meni-
(.) ‘a wind or direction of wind’
(HIL. 1079)
(Hitt. ú-du-me-ni)
Hitt. taras·meni-
(.) ‘‹the moist wind (?)›’
(HEG T:153)
Hitt. taras·meni-
√mnɑh-
Umbr. ku·mnā-
(.) ‘super comitio’
(DTochB. 6)
(Umbr. super kumne)
1. PIE *Π·mnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·mnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·mnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·mnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·mnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Umbr. Π·mnā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OIr. to·mna-
(.) ‘sont venus’
(LEIA M:35)
OIr. tomnaiter [3pl])
1. PIE *Π·mnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·mnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·mnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·mnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·mnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·mnā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·mnā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OIr. Π·mna-
OIr. dia to·mna-
(.) ‘si vient’
(LEIA M-35)
(dia tomna)
1. PIE *Π·mnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·mnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·mnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·mnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·mnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·mnā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·mnā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OIr. Π·mna-
Umbr. ku·mnāh·clo-
(sb.) ‘in conventu’
(DTochB. 6)
Umbr. kumnahklo-)
1. PIE *Π·mnēɑh·klo-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·mnāɑh·klo-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·mnāɑh·klo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·mnāh·klo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·mnāh·klo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·mnā·klo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·mnā·klo-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Umbr. Π·mnā·clo-


PIE √mon- √men- (sb.) ‘Menge’ (adv.) ‘much’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√mono-
HLu. mana
(adv.) ‘much (?)’
(CHLu. 10.14.14)
(HLu. ma-na)
1. PIE *mono
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. mana
√meno-
Lith. mãž·mena-
(f.) ‘kleine Menge’
(LiEtWb. 422)
1. PIE *mɦɑégi·meno-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *mɦɑági·meno-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. mɦɑági·meno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mɦági·meno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mɦági·meno-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *mɦáj́·meno-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. mɦáj́·meno-
á → à
Emergence of gravis PLith. à
RLiAcc1 → *mɦàj́·meno-
5. mɦàj́·meno-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *màj́·meno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. màj́·meno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *màj́·mena-
7. màj́·mena-
*j́ → ž
From Satem *j́ to ž
Rj́›ž → Lith. màž·mena-
(SPIE §4.8.4)


PIE √mno- (vb.) ‘liegen, bleiben’ (a.) ‘befindlich, liegend’
(IEW 729)
(+ Tischler)
√mno-
(Tischler)
Hitt. šra·mna-
(a.) ‘oben befindlich’
(HEG S:874ff.)
(HHand. 144)
1. PIE *sro·mno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sra·mna-
2. sra·mna-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šra·mna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. μίμνο-
(pr.) ‘(ver)bleiben, (er)warten, standhalten’
(Gr. μίμνω)
1. PIE *mí·mno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μί·μνο-
OInd. ni·mna-
(a.) ‘tief liegend’
(AiGr. 2/2:777)
1. PIE *ni·mno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. ni·mna-
RV. ni·mná-
(n.) ‘Niederung, Tiefe’
(KEWA 2:166)
1. PIE *ni·mnó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. ni·mná-
√mni-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. šra·mni-
(adv.) ‘von oben herab’
(HHand. 144)
1. PIE *sro·mni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sra·mni-
2. sra·mni-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šra·mni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Car. μνι·εσυτη-
(.) ‘Demot’
(NdLyk. 150)
(Kar. μνιεσυτης [sgN]
1. PIE *mni·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Car. μνι·Σ-
Gr. μνία-
(m.) ‘σ. Demeter’
(GEW 2:245)
1. PIE *mníeɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *mníaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. mníaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mníah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mníah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mnía-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. mnía-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μνία-


PIE √moni- √meni- (sb.) ‘Bach, Fluß, Salbe, Eiter’ (vb.) ‘mästen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo 2014:XX)
√moni-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. mani-
(c.) ‘Eiter : pus, suppuration’
(HEG 2, 119)
(Hitt. ma-ni-iš)
1. PIE *moni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. mani-
Alb. manj-
(vb.) ‘mästen’
(WH. 2:7)
(Alb. manj [1sg])
1. PIE *moni̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mani̯a
2. mani̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *mani̯
3. mani̯
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Alb. manj
OSax. meni-
(sb.) ‘Bach, Fluß : brook’
(ASächsWb. 51)
1. PIE *moni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mani-
2. mani-
*ani → eni
Umlaut *ani to eni
Rani›eni → OSax. meni-
OInd. manīka-
(n.) ‘eye-salve, collyrium’
(MonWil. 787)
1. PIE *monihɑ́ku̯o-
PIE *iḫɑ́ → iḫí
Distant assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
RiHɑ́›iHí → *monihíku̯o-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. monihíku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *manihíku̯a-
3. manihíku̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *maniíku̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. maniíku̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *maniíka-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. maniíka-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → OInd. manī́ka-
√meni-
OIr. mein·bligi-
(pr.) ‘il foisonne, il fourmille’
(LEIA M, 30)
(OIr. meinbligid [3sg])
1. PIE *meni·Σ-
*eni → ein
Epenthesis of i
Reni›ein → OIr. mein·Σ-


PIE √mrgɑɦu- √morgɑɦu- √mergɑɦu- (a.) ‘rot, braun, dunkel’
(IEW 733-4)
(Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√morgɑɦu-
(HIL. 648)
Gr. πολύ·μορφο-
(a.) ‘vielgestaltig’
(Gr. πολύμορφος)
1. PIE *Π·morgɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·morgɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·morgɦu̯o-
*gɦu/u̯ → bɦ
Bilabialization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
RgɦU›bɦ → *Π·morbɦo-
3. Π·morbɦo-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *Π·morpho-
4. Π·morpho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·μορφο-
Hitt. margu̯ai̯a-
(DINGIR) ‘BW von Erdgottheiten’
(HEG 2:153)
1. PIE *morgɑɦu̯oii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *morgɦu̯oii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. morgɦu̯oii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *margɦu̯aii̯a-
3. margɦu̯aii̯a-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *margɦu̯aia-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. margɦu̯aia-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → *margɦu̯ai̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
5. margɦu̯ai̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. margu̯ai̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. μόρφνο-
(a.) ‘dunkelfarbig (?)’
(Gr. μόρφνος, epith. of an eagle, LSJ. 1147)
1. PIE *mórgɑɦuno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mórgɦuno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mórgɦuno-
*gɦu/u̯ → bɦ
Bilabialization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
RgɦU›bɦ → *mórbɦno-
3. mórbɦno-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *mórphno-
4. mórphno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μόρφνο-


PIE √mrs- √mors- √mers- (a.) ‘falsch, umsonst, vergeblich’
(IEW 736-7)
√mrs-
RV. mŕ̥sā
(adv.) ‘umsonst, vergeblich’
(WbRV. 1062)
(RV. mŕ̥ṣā [sgI], KEWA 2:678)
1. PIE *mŕ̥sē
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → RV. mŕ̥sā
AV. mŕ̥sā
(adv.) ‘in falscher Weise’
(WbRV. 1062)
(Burrow 1964:76)
1. PIE *mŕ̥sē
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → AV. mŕ̥sā
√morso-
(HEG 2:143-4)
(CHD LN:195f.)
Hitt. marša-
(a.) ‘falsch, unzuverlässig, unberechenbar’
(HEG 2:143)
(Hitt. mar-ša-an [c.sgA], mar-ša = KBo 5.2.iv.64)
1. PIE *morso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *marsa-
2. marsa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. marša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. marša-
(a.) ‘falsch, unzuverlässig, unberechenbar’
(DLL. 69)
(CLu. ma-ar-ša-ta)
1. PIE *morso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *marsa-
2. marsa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. marša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. maršāḫ-
(vb.) ‘verfälschen, irreführen’
(HHand. 101)
(Hitt. mar-ša-a-aḫ-ḫa-an-t-)
1. PIE *morsēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *morsāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. morsāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *morsāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. morsāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *marsāh-
4. marsāh-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *maršāh-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. maršāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. maršāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√morsi-
(IEW 736)
OHitt. maršei-
(vb.1.) ‘falsch (betrügerisch) werden’, HHand. 101’
(HEG 2:144)
(OHitt. mar-še-e-ir [2pl])
1. PIE *morsei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *marsei-
2. marsei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → OHitt. maršei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √mru- √moru- √meru- (a.) ‘rot, braun, dunkel’
√moruoi-
(HEG 2:152)
(HIL. 650f., CHD L-N: 201f.)
CLu. maru̯ai-
(vb.1.) ‘rot erhellen (Blitz)’
(DLL. 69)
(CLu. ma-ru-ua-a-it [3sg])
1. PIE *moru̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. maru̯ai-
CLu. maru̯ai-
(dMEŠ.) ‘CLuLex. 142, REL. 93’
(OHP. 1:300)
(CLu. mar-ua-a-in-z[i] [plN])
1. PIE *moru̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. maru̯ai-
HLu. maru̯ai-
(d.) ‘HLu. pá = ma(x)’’
(CHLu. 489)
(HLu. (DEUS)pá?ra/i-wa/i-i-zi, KLuN. §490)
1. PIE *moru̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. maru̯ai-
CLu. maru̯ai̯a-
(a.) ‘BW von Erdgottheiten, HHand. 102’
(HEG 2:152)
(KLuN. §285, CLu. mar-ua-ia-an-za)
1. PIE *moru̯oii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *maru̯aii̯a-
2. maru̯aii̯a-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *maru̯aia-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. maru̯aia-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → CLu. maru̯ai̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
√morugɑɦ-
Gr. μέμορυχ-
(pf.) ‘(rauch)geschwärt, beschmutzt sein’
(GEW 2:257)
(Gr. μεμορυχμένος [pf.pt.])
1. PIE *mémorugɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mémorugɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mémorugɦ-
*gɦ → kh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›kh → *mémorukh-
3. mémorukh-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μέμορυχ-
Gr. μόρυχο-
(a.) ‘BN. des Dionysos in Sizilien’
(IEW. 734)
(Gr. μόρυχος · σκοτεινός),
1. PIE *mórugɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mórugɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mórugɦo-
*gɦ → kh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›kh → *mórukho-
3. mórukho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μόρυχο-
Gr. μόρυξ-
(ao.) ‘beschmieren’
(Gr. μορύξαις [opt2sg])
1. PIE *mórugɑɦs-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mórugɦs-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mórugɦs-
*gɦ → kh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›kh → *mórukhs-
3. mórukhs-
*khs → ks
Loss of *h between *k and *s
Rkhs›ks → *móruks-
4. móruks-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μόρυξ-


PIE √mos-, √mes- (sb.) ‘Gott (RV. devá- ‘id.’), Götze (gAv. daēva- ‘id.’) Altar, Tempel’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√moso-
LycB. masa-
(.) ‘Gott’
(HEG 2:155)
(LycB. masa [sgN])
1. PIE *moso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → LycB. masa-
Hitt. maša-
(LÚc.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 770)
(Hitt. ma-ša [All])
1. PIE *moso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *masa-
2. masa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. maša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√mosoi-
(Pyysalo)
LycB. masai-
(sb.) ‘Gott’
(LuPG 57)
(LycB. masaiz)
1. PIE *mosoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → LycB. masai-
√meseieɑhn-
Arm. mehean-
(sb.) ‘Götzenbild, Altar, Tempel’
(ArmGr. 191)
(Arm. mehean)
1. PIE *mesei̯ēɑhnì
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *mesei̯āɑhnì
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. mesei̯āɑhnì
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mesei̯āhnì
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mesei̯āhnì
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mesei̯ānì
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. mesei̯ānì
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *mehei̯ānì
5. mehei̯ānì
*ei̯ā → eā
Loss *i̯ between e and ā
Rei̯ā›eā → *meheānì
6. meheānì
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *meheanì
7. meheanì
*i → Ø
Loss of unaccented *i
Rì›0 → Arm. mehean
√mosigɑɦo-
(IEW 713)
Gr. μοιχό-
(m.) ‘Götzendiener, Ehebrecher’
(GEW 2:249)
1. PIE *mosigɑɦó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mosigɦó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mosigɦó-
*gɦ → kh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›kh → *mosikhó-
3. mosikhó-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *mohikhó-
4. mohikhó-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *moikhó-
5. moikhó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μοιχό-
Gr. κατα·μοιχό-
(m.) ‘Götzendiener, Ehebrecher’
(GEW 2:249)
1. PIE *keɑhteɑh·mosigɑɦó-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑhtaɑh·mosigɑɦó-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑhtaɑh·mosigɑɦó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kahtah·mosigɦó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kahtah·mosigɦó-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kata·mosigɦó-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kata·mosigɦó-
*gɦ → kh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›kh → *kata·mosikhó-
5. kata·mosikhó-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *kata·mohikhó-
6. kata·mohikhó-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *kata·moikhó-
7. kata·moikhó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. κατα·μοιχό-
Gr. μοίχαο-
(pr.) ‘Götzendienst treiben, verfälschen’
(GEW 2:249)
1. PIE *mosígɑɦeɑhi̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *mosígɑɦaɑhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. mosígɑɦaɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mosígɦahi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mosígɦahi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mosígɦai̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. mosígɦai̯o-
*gɦ → kh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›kh → *mosíkhai̯o-
5. mosíkhai̯o-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *mohíkhai̯o-
6. mohíkhai̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *mohíkhao-
7. mohíkhao-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *moíkhao-
8. moíkhao-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μοίχαο-
√mosoni-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. mašani-
(c.) ‘Gott’
(HHand. 102)
(DLL. 69, CLu. ma-aš-ša-ni-ia)
1. PIE *mosoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *masani-
2. masani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. mašani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. mašani-
(c.) ‘Gott’
(HEG 2:155)
(HLu. DEUS-ni-ša [sgN])
1. PIE *mosoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *masani-
2. masani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. mašani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√meseni-
Arm. mehen-
(sb.) ‘Götzenbild, Altar, Tempel’
(ArmGr. 191)
(Arm. mehen [sgN], meheni [sgG])
1. PIE *mesenì
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *mehenì
2. mehenì
*i → Ø
Loss of unaccented *i
Rì›0 → Arm. mehen
√mososi-
LycB. masasi-
(a.gen.) ‘of god’
(HEG 2:155)
(LycB. masasi [sgG])
1. PIE *mososi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → LycB. masasi-


PIE √mun- (sb.) ‘Hand, Mittel, Schütz’ (vb.) ‘schützen’
(IEW 741+743)
(Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√muni-
(IEW. 743)
OIr. muin
(sb.) ‘patronage, protection’
(LEIA M-72)
(EtDiPC. 277-8)
1. PIE *muni-
*uni → uin
Epenthesis of i
Runi›uin → OIr. muin-
√mundɑɦ-
(IEW 741)
OSax. mund-
(.) ‘Hand’
(ASaxD. 700)
1. PIE *mundɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mundɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mundɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → OSax. mund-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
OEng. mund-
(f.) ‘hand(ful), protection, guardianship’
(ASaxD. 700)
(OEng. mund, munde)
1. PIE *mundɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mundɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mundɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → OEng. mund-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
OHG. munt-
(.) ‘palmus, cubitus, protectio, protector’
(ASaxD. 700)
1. PIE *mundɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mundɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. mundɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *mund-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. mund-
*d → t
OHG sound shift of *d
Rd›tHG → OHG. munt-
OSax. mundō-
(pr.) ‘to protect, shelter, guard’
(ASaxD. 700)
1. PIE *mundɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *mundɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. mundɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mundɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mundɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mundɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. mundɦā-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *mundā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. mundā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → OSax. mundō-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. nek·munda·dar-
(n.) ‘Mittellosigkeit : destitutiton’
(HEG 2:309)
(Hitt. a[-ši-u]a-an-ta-tar ne-ek-mu-un-ta-ta[r-ra piyandu
1. PIE *Π·mundɑɦo·dɑɦor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·mundɦo·dɦor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·mundɦo·dɦor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·mundɦa·dɦar-
3. Π·mundɦa·dɦar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. Π·munda·dar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √mur- (sb.) ‘Traube, Wein’
(IEW XX)
√mur-
(Pyysalo)
ModPersL. mul-
(sb.) ‘Wein’
(KEWA 2:677)
1. PIE *muro
r -› l
Change of r to l
Rr›l → *mulo
2. mulo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mula
3. mula
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → ModPersL. mul
Hitt. mur·šili-
(LÚ.c.) ‘roi de l’ancien royaume; ‹i.e. Bachhus ?›’
(NOMS. 823)
(Hitt. mur·šili- as Hitt. hatu·šili- etc.)
Dor. μύρ·σιλι-
(PN.m.?) ‘Mursili’
(XX:XX)
(Alkm. Μύρσιλ[.. [P. Oxy XVIII [1941] nro. 2165])
1. PIE *múr·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. μύρ·Σ-
√muri-
(Tischler)
Hitt. muri-
(c.) ‘Traube von Wein, Früchten, HHand. 108)
(HEG 2:233)
(Hitt. GEŠTI-aš mu-ri-eš, e-ip-pí-ia-aš mu-ú-ri-iš, mu-u-ri-uš)
Hitt. muri̯a-
(vb.M.) ‘sich zusammenkauern, HHand. 108’
(HEG 2:233-4)
(Hitt. mu-u-ri-at-ta [3sg]),
1. PIE *muri̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. muri̯a-
Dor. μυρινᾱ-
(ON.f.) ‘Traube’
(HEG 2:233)
(Cret. μυρινα, Plin. myrina)
1. PIE *murinēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *murināɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. murināɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *murināh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. murināh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *murinā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. murinā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. μυρινᾱ-

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