PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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© 2014-2015 University of Helsinki

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(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
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PIE



PIE √s- √os- √es- (vb.) ‘(da) sein, existieren’
(IEW 340-2)
√os-
Hitt. aš-
(pr.) ‘sein’
(HEG 1:109-10)
(Hitt. a-ša-an-du [3pl])
1. PIE *os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *as-
2. as-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Pal. aš-
(pr.) ‘sein’
(DPal. 52)
(Pal. a-aš [ipv2sg], a-aš-du [3sg])
1. PIE *os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *as-
2. as-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Pal. aš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. aš-
(pr.) ‘sein’
(DLL. 32-3)
(CLu. aš-ḫa (?), a-aš-ta, a-aš-du)
1. PIE *os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *as-
2. as-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. aš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. aš-
(pr.) ‘sein’
(CHLu.)
(HLu. a-sa-ti, a-sa-ta-ni, a-sa-ha)
1. PIE *os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *as-
2. as-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. aš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OPr. as-
(pr.) ‘sein’
(IEW. 341)
(OPr. ast, assai asmai)
1. PIE *os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OPr. as-
Northumbr. ar·u-
(vb.pl) ‘sein’
(IEW 340)
(Northumbr. aron [3pl])
1. PIE *os·ú-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *as·ú-
2. as·ú-
*asú → arú
Verner's law for asu -> aru
Rasú›arú → *ar·ú-
3. ar·ú-
*a → ea
Change of *a into ea
Ra=›ea= → *ear·ú-
4. ear·ú-
*ú → u
Orthographic change of *ú into u
Rú›u → Northumbr. ear·u-
√es-
Hitt. eš-
(pr.) ‘sein’
(HEG 1:76)
(Hitt. e-eš-zi [3sg])
1. PIE *es-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. eš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Pal. eš-
(pr.) ‘sein (?)’
(DPal. 52)
(Pal. e-eš-ta[... [3sg])
1. PIE *es-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Pal. eš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lith. es-
(pr.) ‘sein’
(LiEtWb. 124)
Lith. esmì [1sg])
RV. ás-
(pr.A.) ‘da sein, vorhanden sein, existieren’
(WbRV. 146)
(RV. ásti [3sg])
1. PIE *és-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → RV. ás-
Gr. ἐσ-
(pr.) ‘sein’
(Gr. ἐστί [3sg])
1. PIE *es-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἐσ-
Lat. es-
(pr.) ‘sein’
(Lat. est [3sg])
√s-
HLu. š-
(pr.) ‘to be’
(CHLu.)
(HLu. sa-tú [2.34.1, 3sg], sa-ta [10.17.6, 3pl])
1. PIE *s-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. š-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Dor. h
(pr.) ‘to be’
(Dor. (h)εντί [3pl])
1. PIE *s-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. σ-
TochB. s-
(pr.copul.) ‘be’
(DTochB. 344)
(TochB. star [2sg], ste [3sg], star [3sg])
gAv. h-
(pr.) ‘sein, vorhanden sein, existieren’
(AIWb. 266-279)
(gAv. mahī, stā, hvā [1du], zdī)
1. PIE *s-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → gAv. h-


PIE √s- √os- √es- (vb.intr.) ‘(übrig) bleiben’  (tr.) ‘(zurück-, übrig) lassen’ (cf. Lith. lìkti ‘id.’, LiEtWb. 372)
(IEW –)
√ōs-
(Pyysalo)
(HW2 A: 366f., HIL. 256-7, HEG 1:75-6, 78, HED 1/2: 189, Oettinger 1979:187)
Hitt. āš-
(vb.1.) ‘übrig bleiben, HHand. 25, HIL. 256’
(HEG 1:75-6; 78)
(Hitt. a-aš-zi, aš-zi, a-aš-ta, a-aš-še-eš, a-aš-šer, a-aš-ša-an-zi)
1. PIE *ōs-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ās-
2. ās-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. āš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. āh-
(pr.) ‘geblieben sein’
(AIWb. 345)
(LAv. kainīnō åŋhaire [3pl] dǝrǝγǝm aγrvō)
1. PIE *ōs-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ās-
2. ās-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → LAv. āh-
Hitt. āšant-
(pt.) ‘XX’
(HIL. 256)
(Hitt. a-aš-ša-an-t-, aš-ša-an-t-)
1. PIE *ōsont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōsant-
2. ōsant-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *āsant-
3. āsant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. āšant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. āške/a-
(pr.iter.) ‘übrig bleiben’
(HHand. 25)
(Hitt. a-aš-ke/a-, HIL. 256)
1. PIE *ōski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ōsḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ōsḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōsḱe/a-
3. ōsḱe/a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *āsḱe/a-
4. āsḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *āske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. āske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. āške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. āšu̯a-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘übrig bleiben’
(HIL. 256)
(Hitt. a-aš-šu-ua-an-zi, [inf.I] : KUB 22.70 obv. 51)
1. PIE *ōsu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōsu̯a-
2. ōsu̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *āsu̯a-
3. āsu̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. āšu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√so-
HLu. ša-
(.) ‘leave, let go’
(CHLu. 11.1.b5.)
(HLu. (“*69”)sa-ha-na [1pl])
1. PIE *so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sa-
2. sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LycA. ha-
(vb.) ‘let go, release’
(XX:XX)
(Lyc. hadi [3sg])
1. PIE *so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sa-
2. sa-
PIE *s → h
Change of fricative *s into h
Rs›h → LycA. ha-
HLu. ša-
(vb.) ‘to allow’
(CHLu. 4.2.9)
(HLu. sá-ta [3sg])
1. PIE *so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sa-
2. sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. INFRA ša·-
(vb.) ‘go down (??)’
(CHLu. 10.18.12)
(HLu. INFRA(-)sá-tu, cf. Hawkins !)
1. PIE *Π·so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·sa-
2. Π·sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. Π·ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. ARHA ša·-
(vb.) ‘let go’
(CHLu. 11.1.e13)
(HLu. ARHA (“*69”)sa-tu-i )
1. PIE *Π·so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·sa-
2. Π·sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. Π·ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. ša-
(vb.) ‘entlassen, weglassen’
(DLL. 84)
(CLu. ša-an-du [3pl])
1. PIE *so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sa-
2. sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√si-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. šaa-
(.) ‘to allow’
(CHLu. 4.2.10)
(HLu. sá-a-ha [1sg])
1. PIE *soi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sai̯a-
2. sai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *saa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. saa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. šaa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. šaa-
(vb.) ‘let go, leave, allow’
(DLL. 84)
(CLu. ša-a-at-ta [3sg], ša-a-an-du [3pl])
1. PIE *soi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sai̯a-
2. sai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *saa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. saa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. šaa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. šaa-
(vb.) ‘entlassen, weglassen’
(DLL. 84)
(CLu. ša-a-i [2sg?])
1. PIE *soi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sai̯a-
2. sai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *saa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. saa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. šaa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lat. sī-
(pf.) ‘zulassen, gestatten’
(WH. 2:545)
(Lat. siī [1sg])
1. PIE *sei-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → Lat. sī-


PIE √s- √os- √es- ‘sitzen, setzen’
√oso-
HLu. aša-
(SOLIUM.MI c.) ‘seat’
(CHLu. 292)
(HLu. (SOLIUM.MI)á-sa)
1. PIE *oso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asa-
2. asa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. aša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aša-
(.) ‘Sitz’
(HHand. 25)
(in Hitt. ALAM ašan ‘Sitzbild’)
1. PIE *oso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asa-
2. asa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aša-
(vb.) ‘sich setzen’
(HIL. 298)
(Hitt. a-ša-an-ta)
1. PIE *oso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asa-
2. asa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. aŋha-
(m.) ‘Lager, Lagerstätte’
(AIWb. 106)
(LAv. aŋha)
1. PIE *oso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asa-
2. asa-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *aha-
3. aha-
ahA → aŋhA
Change of h into ŋh
RahA›aŋhA → LAv. aŋha-
√ēs-
Hitt. ēš-
(pr.) ‘sich setzen’
(HIL. 298)
(Hitt. e-ša-an-ta, e-ša-an-ta-ri)
1. PIE *ēs-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ēš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. iša-
(.) ‘sitzen, werweilen, aufhalten’
(CHLu. XX)
1. PIE *ēso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēsa-
2. ēsa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ēša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. ēša-
*ē → i
Change of *ē into i
Rē›i → HLu. iša-
LAv. åŋha-
(pr.) ‘sitzen, da sitzen’
(AIWb. 344-5)
(LAv. aešąm vantåŋhō gātuš paiti åŋhǝntē [3pl])
1. PIE *ēso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēsa-
2. ēsa-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *ēha-
3. ēha-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *āha-
4. āha-
āhA → aŋhA
Change of h into ŋh
RāhA›āŋhA → *āŋha-
5. āŋha-
āŋhA → åŋhA
Change of āŋhA into åŋhA
RāŋhA›åŋhA → LAv. åŋha-
RV. su.āsa·sthá
(m.) ‘auf gutem Sitze sich befinden’
(WbRV 1638)
1. PIE *suɑH.ēso·stɑhó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *suH.ēso·sthó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. suH.ēso·sthó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *suH.ēsa·sthó-
3. suH.ēsa·sthó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *suH.ēsa·sthá-
4. suH.ēsa·sthá-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → *su..ēsa·sthá-
5. su..ēsa·sthá-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → RV. su..āsa·sthá-
√sēs-


PIE √s- √es- √os- (vb.A.) ‘tun, wirken, schaffen, bemühen’ (vb.P.) ‘(gemacht) werden’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√s-
(Pyysalo)
(HED 1/2: 300f.)
Hitt. eš-
(vb.2.) ‘wirken, schaffen, (Gelübde erfüllen)’
(HIL. 450-2)
(Hitt. e-eš-šu-u-e-ni [1pl])
1. PIE *es-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. eš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. āh-
(vb.) ‘sich bemühen’
(AIWb. 340)
(in LAv. uxšne xraϑwe yaonǝm āste [inf.]; see AIWb. 1231 for translation)
1. PIE *ēs-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *ēh-
2. ēh-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → LAv. āh-
LAv. āh-
(vb.) ‘in dem Tun dauernd verharren’
(AIWb. 340)
(LAv. čva drāǰō upamaitīm āste [inf.])
1. PIE *ēs-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *ēh-
2. ēh-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → LAv. āh-
Hitt. eša-
(vb.2.) ‘wirken, schaffen, (Gelübde erfüllen)’
(HHand. 33)
(Hitt. e-eš-ša-ah-hi [1sg], e-eš-ša-i [3sg])
1. PIE *eso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *esa-
2. esa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. eša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lith. rem·ẽsa-
(m.) ‘Hand·werker, Zimmermann’
(LiEtWb. 717)
(Lith. remẽsas [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·éso-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → *Π·èso-
2. Π·èso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·èsa-
3. Π·èsa-
èsa -› ẽsa
Circumflex intonation è -› ẽ
Rèsa›ẽsa → Lith. Π·ẽsa-
Latv. rem·es-
(m.) ‘Hand·werker, Zimmermann’
(LiEtWb. 717)
(Latv. remess [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·eso
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·esa
2. Π·esa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Latv. Π·es
√si-
(Pyysalo)
RV. mānav·asyá-
(vb.) ‘nach Art den Menschen handeln, tätig sein’
(WbRV. 1031)
(RV. mānavasyáte [pt.D] manavé)
1. PIE *Π·esi̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·esi̯á-
2. Π·esi̯á-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *Π·asi̯á-
3. Π·asi̯á-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·asyá-
Hitt. ešige/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘behandeln’
(HHand. 33)
(Hitt. eššik-)
1. PIE *esigɑɦe/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *esigɦe/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. esigɦe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *esigɦe/a-
3. esigɦe/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *esige/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. esige/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ešige/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ešiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘behandeln’
(HHand. 33)
1. PIE *esiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *esisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. esisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *esisḱe/a-
3. esisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *esiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. esiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ešiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√eskio-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. eš·ēške/a-
(impf.) ‘machen’
(HIL. XX)
Hitt. eš-e-eš-ke/a-
1. PIE *es·ēski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *es·ēsḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. es·ēsḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *es·ēsḱe/a-
3. es·ēsḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *es·ēske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. es·ēske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. eš·ēške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lat. sān·ēsco-
(vb.) ‘heil machen, heilen’
(Lat. sānēscō)
1. PIE *shɑēn·ēski̯o-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *shɑān·ēski̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. shɑān·ēski̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shān·ēski̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. shān·ēski̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *shān·ēsḱo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. shān·ēsḱo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sān·ēsḱo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sān·ēsḱo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sān·ēsko-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. sān·ēsko-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. sān·ēsco-
Lat. ser·ēsco-
(pr.) ‘zu saurer Milch (Lat. sero-) werden’
(Lat. serēscō)
1. PIE *ser·ēski̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ser·ēsḱo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ser·ēsḱo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *ser·ēsko-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ser·ēsko-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. ser·ēsco-
√esl-
Lith. rem·ẽsla-
(m.) ‘Hand·werk’
(WH. 2:525)
1. PIE *Π·éslo-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → *Π·èslo-
2. Π·èslo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·èsla-
3. Π·èsla-
èsla -> ẽsla
Circumflex intonation è -› ẽ
Rèsla›ẽsla → Lith. Π·ẽsla-
Lith. rem·esla-
(f.) ‘Hand·werk’
(LiEtWb. 717)
1. PIE *Π·eslēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·eslāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·eslāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·eslāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·eslāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·eslā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·eslā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *Π·eslō
(XX:XX)
5. Π·eslō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → Lith. Π·esla
Russ. rem·eslo
(n.) ‘Hand-werk, Gewerbe, Profession’
(LiEtWb. 717)
1. PIE *Π·eslos
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·eslas
2. Π·eslas
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *Π·eslos
3. Π·eslos
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root-final)
Ros=›o= → Russ. Π·eslo
√esu-
Hitt. ešumar-
(.) ‘wirken, schaffen, Gelübde erfüllen’
(HHand. 33)
1. PIE *esumor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *esumar-
2. esumar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ešumar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ešu̯a-
(sup) ‘wirken, schaffen’
(HHand. 33)
(Hitt. ešuan [sup])
1. PIE *esu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *esu̯a-
2. esu̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ešu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √s- √os- √es- (sb.) ‘Fleisch, Blut, Aas, Haut’
(IEW 288 [Germ.])
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + Pal. + OInd.; (Lith. kárv·iena (f.) ‘Kuh·fleisch’ : Czech. krav·ina (f.) ‘Kuh·haut’)
√os-
(Pyysalo)
Pal. aš·gumau̯a-
(c.) ‘reines Fleisch, Hitt. UZUšupa-, HHand. 27’
(DPal. 52)
(Pal. aš-ku(um-)ma-a-u-(ua)-aš [plN])
1. PIE *os·gɑɦumou̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *os·gɦumou̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. os·gɦumou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *as·gɦumau̯a-
3. as·gɦumau̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *as·gumau̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. as·gumau̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Pal. aš·gumau̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Pal. aš·gumau̯aga-
(a.) ‘cf. above’
(DPal. 52)
(Pal. aš-ku-ma-a-u-ua-ga [plNA])
1. PIE *os·gɑɦumou̯ogɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *os·gɦumou̯ogɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. os·gɦumou̯ogɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *as·gɦumau̯agɦa-
3. as·gɦumau̯agɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *as·gumau̯aga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. as·gumau̯aga-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Pal. aš·gumau̯aga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OInd. tar·asá-
(n.m.) ‘rohes Fleisch : raw meat’
(KEWA 1:483)
1. PIE *Π·osó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·asó-
2. Π·asó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → OInd. Π·asá-
OInd. tar·asa·maya-
(a.) ‘aus rohes Fleisch bestehend’
(KEWA 1:483)
1. PIE *Π·oso·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. Π·asa·Σ-
√ēso-
(IEW. 288 *ēdsom)
OSax. ·ās-
(n.) ‘Fleisch eines toten Körpers, Köder, Aas’
(Kluge √Aas)
(OSax. ·ās)
1. PIE *Π·ēso
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ēsa
2. Π·ēsa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *Π·ēs
3. Π·ēs
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → OSax. Π·ās
OHG. ·ās-
(n.) ‘Fleisch eines toten Körpers, Köder, Aas’
(Kluge √Aas)
(OHG. ·ās)
1. PIE *Π·ēso
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ēsa
2. Π·ēsa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *Π·ēs
3. Π·ēs
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → OHG. Π·ās
MidHG. ās-
(n.) ‘Fleisch eines toten Körpers, Köder, Aas’
(Kluge √Aas)
(MidHG. ās)
1. PIE *ēso
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ēsa
2. ēsa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *ēs
3. ēs
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → MidHG. ās
√osɑhi-
√osi- √ēsi-
OEng. ǣs-
(n.) ‘meat, food, carrion, dead carcase’
(ASaxD. 19)
1. PIE *ēsi-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *āsi-
2. āsi-
āsi -> ǣs
Umlaut of āsi into ǣs
Rāsi›ǣs → OEng. ǣs-
Hitt. ḫaui·aši-
(c.) ‘(Brot) mit Schaffleisch’
(HHand. 48)
(Hitt. ḫa-ú-i-aš-ši-in, ḫa-ú-i-ia-aš-ši-in, ḫa-ui5-ia-aš-ši, DLL 45)
1. PIE *hɑou̯i·osi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hou̯i·osi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hou̯i·osi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hau̯i·asi-
3. hau̯i·asi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hau̯i·aši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hau̯i·aši-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫau̯i·aši-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


√s- √os- √es- ‘Hass, Kampf, Groll, Krieg’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√so-
Hitt. ša-
(vb.) ‘zornig sein, zürnen, grollen, hassen’
(HHand. 137)
(Hitt. ša-an-zi [3pl])
1. PIE *so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sa-
2. sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. sa·mád-
(f.) ‘Kampflust, dann: Kampf, Schlacht’
(WbRV. 1479)
(RV. samád-)
1. PIE *so·méɑɦd-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *so·máɑɦd-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. so·máɑɦd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *so·máɦd-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. so·máɦd-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sa·máɦd-
4. sa·máɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → RV. sa·mád-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Gr. ὅ·μαδο-
(m.) ‘lärmende Menschenmenge Schlachtgedränge, Getümmel, Getöse’
(Gr. ὅμαδος)
1. PIE *só·meɑɦdo-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *só·maɑɦdo-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. só·maɑɦdo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *só·maɦdo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. só·maɦdo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *só·mado-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. só·mado-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hó·mado-
5. hó·mado-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὅ·μαδο-
RV. sa·mádana-
(n.) ‘Kampflust’
(WbRV. 1479)
(RV. samádana-)
1. PIE *so·méɑɦdono-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *so·máɑɦdono-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. so·máɑɦdono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *so·máɦdono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. so·máɦdono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sa·máɦdana-
4. sa·máɦdana-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → RV. sa·mádana-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
RV. sa·mádvan-
(a.) ‘kampflustig’
(GEW 2:1479)
(RV. samádvan-)
1. PIE *so·méɑɦdu̯on-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *so·máɑɦdu̯on-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. so·máɑɦdu̯on-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *so·máɦdu̯on-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. so·máɦdu̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sa·máɦdu̯an-
4. sa·máɦdu̯an-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *sa·mádu̯an-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sa·mádu̯an-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. sa·mádvan-
√sɑhiu-
Lat. saeuo-
(a.) ‘wütend, tobend, hart, grausam, grimmig’
(WH. 2:462)
1. PIE *seɑhiu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑhiu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑhiu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sahiu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sahiu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *saiu̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. saiu̯o-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → *saeu̯o-
5. saeu̯o-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. saeuo-
OGaul. saiuonio-
(PN.) ‘-(?)-, in Turin’
(ACSS. 2:1285)
(OGaul. saeuonio-)
1. PIE *seɑhiu̯onio-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑhiu̯onio-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑhiu̯onio-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sahiu̯onio-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sahiu̯onio-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *saiu̯onio-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. saiu̯onio-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. saiuonio-
√seɑhiu̯ɑh-
OLat. saiuā-
(a.f.) ‘gross’
(WH. 2:463)
(OLat. saeua)
1. PIE *seɑhiu̯ēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑhiu̯ēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑhiu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *saɑhiu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. saɑhiu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sahiu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. sahiu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *saiu̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. saiu̯ā-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OLat. saiuā-
OGaul. saiuāt-
(VN.) ‘norischer Stamm in Pustertale’
(ACSS. 2:1285)
(OGaul. saeuat)
1. PIE *seɑhiu̯ēɑht-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑhiu̯ēɑht-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑhiu̯ēɑht-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *saɑhiu̯āɑht-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. saɑhiu̯āɑht-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sahiu̯āht-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. sahiu̯āht-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *saiu̯āt-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. saiu̯āt-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. saiuāt-
√soi-
(CHD Š:13f.)
(Ḫi&Idg. Neu & Meid)
Hitt. šai-
(vb.A.) ‘become sullen/sulking/angry, be angry’
(HIL. 799)
(Hitt. ša-a-iz-zi, ša-it, ša-a-iš)
1. PIE *soi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sai-
2. sai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šaa-
(vb.) ‘zornig sein, zürnen, grollen, hassen’
(HHand. 137)
1. PIE *soi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sai̯a-
2. sai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *saa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. saa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šaa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sr- √sor- √ser-
Alb. sharë-
(pl) ‘offense’
(AlbEtD. 408)
1. PIE *sorēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *sorāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. sorāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sorāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sorāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sorā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sorā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sarā
5. sarā
*s → sh
Change of *s into sh
Rs›sh → *sharā
6. sharā
*ā → ë
Change of *ā into Alb. ë
Rā›ë → Alb. sharë
(XX:XX)
Hitt. šarauar-
(n.) ‘Groll, Erregung’
(HHand. 137)
1. PIE *sorou̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sarau̯ar-
2. sarau̯ar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šarau̯ar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √shɑn- ‘Lehen, Lehensdienst’ (vb.) ‘verdienen’
(IEW XX)
(+ Pyysalo)
√shɑn-
(Pyysalo)
(HEG S:694-6, HIL. 798f, CHD S:7f.)
HLu. šḫan-
(sb.) ‘feudal service/tax’
(CHLu. 10.43.2)
(HLu. LONGUS?(-)tà-ia(-)sa-ha-na)
1. PIE *shɑon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *shan-
3. shan-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šhan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šhan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. šḫan-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. šḫan-
(n.) ‘Lehen, Lehensdienst : feudal service’
(HHand. 138)
(Hitt. ša-aḫ-ḫa-an, ša-aḫ-ḫa-na-aš, KLuN §142)
1. PIE *shɑon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *shan-
3. shan-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šhan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šhan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šḫan-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. per·šḫan-
(a.) ‘domesticus (?), of GU4 ‘bus’ and É ‘domus’
(HHand. 126)
(Hitt. pé-er-ša-aḫ-ḫa-an-na-aš, HIL. 750, CHD P: 201)
1. PIE *per·shɑon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *per·shon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. per·shon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *per·shan-
3. per·shan-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *per·šhan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. per·šhan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. per·šḫan-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. peri·šḫan-
(.) ‘‹domesticus (?), CHD P:201, HIL. 749›’
(HHand. 126)
(Hitt. pé-re-eš-ḫa-an-na-aš, with PIE *shae/on !)
1. PIE *peri·shɑon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *peri·shon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. peri·shon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *peri·shan-
3. peri·shan-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *peri·šhan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. peri·šhan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. peri·šḫan-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
LAv. haŋhān-
(vb.) ‘verdienen’ (bes. Lohn)’
(AIWb. 1768)
(LAv. haŋhāna)
1. PIE *seshɑēn-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *seshɑān-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. seshɑān-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seshān-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. seshān-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sesān-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sesān-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hehān-
5. hehān-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *hahān-
6. hahān-
ahA → aŋhA
Change of h into ŋh
RahA›aŋhA → LAv. haŋhān-
LAv. zantu·šān-
(a.) ‘der sich das Land verdient’
(AIWb. 683)
1. PIE *gi̯ɑɦemtu·shɑōn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gi̯ɦemtu·shōn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gi̯ɦemtu·shōn-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiIr → *gi̯ɦemtu·šhōn-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. gi̯ɦemtu·šhōn-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *j́ɦemtu·šhōn-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. j́ɦemtu·šhōn-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *j́ɦemtu·šhān-
5. j́ɦemtu·šhān-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *j́ɦemtu·šān-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. j́ɦemtu·šān-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *zɦemtu·šān-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
7. zɦemtu·šān-
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → *zemtu·šān-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
8. zemtu·šān-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *zamtu·šān-
9. zamtu·šān-
PIE *mt → nt
Assimilation of labial *m with dental T
Rmt›nt → LAv. zantu·šān-
LAv. vaŋhu·šān-
(a.) ‘der sich das Gute verdient’
(AIWb. 1350)
1. PIE *u̯osu·shɑōn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯osu·shōn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯osu·shōn-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiIr → *u̯osu·šhōn-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. u̯osu·šhōn-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯asu·šhōn-
4. u̯asu·šhōn-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *u̯asu·šhān-
5. u̯asu·šhān-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯asu·šān-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. u̯asu·šān-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *u̯ahu·šān-
7. u̯ahu·šān-
ahU → aŋhU
Change of h into ŋh
Rahu›aŋhU → *u̯aŋhu·šān-
8. u̯aŋhu·šān-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. vaŋhu·šān-
√shɑno-
gAv. hana-
(pr.) ‘verdienen’
(AIWb. 1768)
(gAv. hanǝntē [3pl])
1. PIE *shɑeno-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *shɑano-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. shɑano-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shano-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. shano-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *shana-
4. shana-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sana-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sana-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → gAv. hana-
LAv. hana-
(vb.) ‘Lohn erhalten werden’
(AIWb. 1769)
(LAv. hanānī [1sg])
1. PIE *shɑeno-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *shɑano-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. shɑano-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shano-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. shano-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *shana-
4. shana-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sana-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sana-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → LAv. hana-
√shɑneio-
(Pyysalo)
LAv. hanaya-
(cs.) ‘serve’
(AIWb. 1768)
(LAv. hanayamnō [pt.sgN])
1. PIE *shɑonei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shonei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shonei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *shanei̯a-
3. shanei̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sanei̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sanei̯a-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hanei̯a-
5. hanei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *hanai̯a-
6. hanai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. hanaya-
Hitt. šḫanei̯a-
(n.) ‘Lehen, Lehensdienst’ ( ‘feudal service’)
(XX:XX)
(Hitt. ša-aḫ-ḫa-ni-i̯a-aš)
1. PIE *shɑonei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shonei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shonei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *shanei̯a-
3. shanei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šhanei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šhanei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šḫanei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √sɑhu- (sb.) ‘Sonne’ (vb.) ‘rösten, dörren, schmoren’
(IEW. 881-2+1045)
(Pyysalo 2013:122-3)
√sɑhu-
LAv. hū-
(n.) ‘Sonne, Sonnenball, Sonnenlicht’
(AIWb. 1847)
(LAv. hača hū [sgG] vaxšāt)
1. PIE *sɑ́hu-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *súhu-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. súhu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *súu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. súu-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *sū́-
4. sū́-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hū́-
5. hū́-
*ū́ → ū
Absence of accent
Rū́›ū → LAv. hū-
LAv. hu-
(vb.) ‘schmoren, rösten’
(AIWb. 1782-3)
(LAv. huyārǝš [opt3pl])
1. PIE *sɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *su-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. su-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → LAv. hu-
√seɑhuo-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. sava-
(m.) ‘the Sun’
(MonWil. 1190)
1. PIE *seɑhu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sahu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sahu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sahu̯a-
4. sahu̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sau̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sau̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OInd. sava-
Hitt. šaḫu̯a-
(vb.) ‘rösten, dörren : roast’
(CHD Š: 172f.)
(Hitt. ša-ḫu-ua-an KUB 29.1 iii 46, HIL. 833)
1. PIE *seɑhu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sahu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sahu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sahu̯a-
4. sahu̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šahu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. šahu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šaḫu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. šaḫu̯a-
(vb.) ‘-(?)-’ [CHD S:12]
(HEG 1:700)
(Hitt. (-)]ša-aḫ-ḫu-ua-az-zi na=an=šan])
1. PIE *seɑhu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sahu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sahu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sahu̯a-
4. sahu̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šahu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. šahu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šaḫu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√soɑhueio-
LAv. hāvaya-
(cs.) ‘rösten’
(AIWb. 1782)
(LAv. hāvayeiti [3sg], Brugmann’s Law II)
1. PIE *soɑhu̯ei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sohu̯ei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sohu̯ei̯o-
PIE *oHCV → āHCV
Brugmann’s Law for *ohCV
RoHCV›āHCV → *sāhu̯ei̯o-
(SPIE §2.3.7)
3. sāhu̯ei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sāhu̯ei̯a-
4. sāhu̯ei̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sāu̯ei̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sāu̯ei̯a-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hāu̯ei̯a-
6. hāu̯ei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *hāu̯ai̯a-
7. hāu̯ai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *hāu̯aya-
8. hāu̯aya-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. hāvaya-


PIE √sɑh- ‘suchen, spüren, verlangen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo 2013: 83, 311f.)
√sēɑh-
(Pyysalo)
(CHD Š: 162f. & 171f., HIL. 831-2)
Hitt. šāḫ-
(vb.1.) ‘suchen, erstreben, planen, fordern, verlangen’
(HHand. 142)
(HEG 2:818, SHV 182, ša-a-aḫ, ša-aḫ-ta, ša-aḫ-ḫu-un)
1. PIE *sēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *sāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. sāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sāh-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šāh-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OHG. fa·sō-
(vb.) ‘nach·spüren, suchen’
(EWAhd. F-XX)
(OHG. fasôn [inf.], Grundr2 I:765, WH. 2:241)
1. PIE *po·sēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *po·sāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. po·sāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po·sāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. po·sāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *po·sā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. po·sā-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *fo·sā-
5. fo·sā-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *fa·sā-
6. fa·sā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *fa·sō-
(XX:XX)
7. fa·sō-
*ō → uo
Change of ō into uo
Rō›uo → OHG. fa·suo-
√seɑhi-
(Pyysalo)
OHitt. šaḫiške/a-
(iter.) ‘suchen, verlangen’
(HHand. 142)
(Hitt. ša-aḫ-ḫi-iš-ke-)
1. PIE *seɑhiski̯e/o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑhiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑhiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sahiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sahiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sahisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sahisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sahisḱe/a-
5. sahisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sahiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. sahiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šahiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. šahiške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → OHitt. šaḫiške/a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Arm. haicʼe-
(vb.) ‘suchen, verlangen, bitten’
(ArmGr. 418)
(Arm. haicʼem)
1. PIE *seɑhiski̯e-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑhiski̯e-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑhiski̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sahiski̯e-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sahiski̯e-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *sahisće-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sahisće-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *saisće-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. saisće-
*sć → cʼ
Change of sć into cʼ
Rsć›cʼ → *saicʼe-
6. saicʼe-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → Arm. haicʼe-
√seɑhgi-
(IEW:XX)
Lat. sāgo-
(a.) ‘prophetic, prosciens’; ‘practicing witchcraft’
(Lat. sāgus [sgN])
1. PIE *sēɑhgi̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *sāɑhgi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. sāɑhgi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sāhgi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sāhgi̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *sāhǵo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sāhǵo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sāǵo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sāǵo-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → Lat. sāgo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
OIr. saigi-
(vb.) ‘suchen’ [seek out]
(DIL. 517)
(OIr. saigim [1sg])
1. PIE *seɑhgi̯e-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑhgi̯e-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑhgi̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sahgi̯e-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sahgi̯e-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *sahǵe-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sahǵe-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *saǵe-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. saǵe-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sage-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. sage-
*age → aigi
Epenthesis of i
Rage›aigi → OIr. saigi-
Lat. sagio-
(pt.) ‘spüren, witteren’
(Lat. sagiō, sagīre [inf.])
1. PIE *seɑhgii̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *saɑhgii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. saɑhgii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sahgii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sahgii̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *sahǵi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sahǵi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *saǵi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. saǵi̯o-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sagi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. sagi̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. sagio-
Goth. sokja-
(vb.) ‘suchen’
(GoEtD. S-116)
1. PIE *sēɑhgii̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *sāɑhgii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. sāɑhgii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sāhgii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sāhgii̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *sāhǵi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sāhǵi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sāǵi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sāǵi̯o-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sāgi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. sāgi̯o-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *sāki̯o-
7. sāki̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sāki̯a-
8. sāki̯a-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *sōki̯a-
(XX:XX)
9. sōki̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *sōkja-
10. sōkja-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → Goth. sokja-


PIE √shɑ-, √sohɑ-, √sehɑ ‘heilen’
(IEW XX)
(+ Pyysalo)
√shɑ-
Hitt. šaḫ-
(vb.1.) ‘heilig machen, reinigen, fegen, abwischen’
(HHand. 142)
1. PIE *sohɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *soh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. soh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sah-
3. sah-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šah-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šah-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šaḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. šaḫ-
(vb.) ‘to heal, cure, CHLu. p. 629’
(CHLu. 2.17.7)
(HLu. sá-ha-si [2sg])
1. PIE *sohɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *soh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. soh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sah-
3. sah-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šah-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šah-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. šaḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√shɑn-
(Pyysalo)
Lat. sāno-
(a.) ‘gesund, heil, vernünftig, nüchtern’
(Lat. sānus [sgN])
1. PIE *shɑēno-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *shɑāno-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. shɑāno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shāno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. shāno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. sāno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. sāne
(adv.) ‘heil, XX’
(WH. 2:476)
1. PIE *shɑēne
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *shɑāne
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. shɑāne
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shāne
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. shāne
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. sāne
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. sān·ēsco-
(vb.) ‘heil machen, heilen’
(Lat. sān·ēscō)
1. PIE *shɑēn·ēski̯o-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *shɑān·ēski̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. shɑān·ēski̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shān·ēski̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. shān·ēski̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *shān·ēsḱo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. shān·ēsḱo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sān·ēsḱo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sān·ēsḱo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sān·ēsko-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. sān·ēsko-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. sān·ēsco-
TochA. sān·täk-
(sb.) ‘Artz : doctor ‹TochA. √täk- ‘urteilen’›’
(Poucha 363)
1. PIE *shɑēn·Σ-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *shɑān·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. shɑān·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shān·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. shān·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochA. sān·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√shɑr-
(Pyysalo)
(HEG I:382)
Hitt. i·šḫāra-
(d.) ‘Göttin der Medizin’
(OHP. 1:196-202)
(Hitt. iš-ḫa-ra(-aš) [All-(N)])
1. PIE *Π·shɑēro-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *Π·shɑāro-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·shɑāro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shāro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·shāro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shāra-
4. Π·shāra-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhāra-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. Π·šhāra-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫāra-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Pal. i·šḫāra-
(vb.) ‘-(?)-, HHand. 64’
(DPal. 57)
(Pal. iš-ḫa-ra-an-ti)
1. PIE *Π·shɑēro-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *Π·shɑāro-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·shɑāro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shāro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·shāro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shāra-
4. Π·shāra-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhāra-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. Π·šhāra-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Pal. Π·šḫāra-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. i·šḫāra-
(d.) ‘XX’
(OHP. 1:196-202)
(CLu. iš-ḫa-ra-aš [N])
1. PIE *Π·shɑēro-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *Π·shɑāro-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·shɑāro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shāro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·shāro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shāra-
4. Π·shāra-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhāra-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. Π·šhāra-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. Π·šḫāra-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. i·šḫāra
(ḪUR.SAG.) ‘Wohl bei › Niriša.’
(OGH. 145)
(Hitt. iš-ḫa-ra [All])
1. PIE *Π·shɑēro-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *Π·shɑāro-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·shɑāro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shāro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·shāro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shāra-
4. Π·shāra-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhāra-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. Π·šhāra-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫāra-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. i·šḫārali-
(c.) ‘Priesterin der Išḫara-’
(HHand. 64)
1. PIE *Π·shɑēroli-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *Π·shɑāroli-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·shɑāroli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shāroli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·shāroli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shārali-
4. Π·shārali-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhārali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. Π·šhārali-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫārali-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Alb. shëroj-
(pr.) ‘to heal’
(AlbEtD. 413)
1. PIE *shɑērēi̯o
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *shɑārēi̯o
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. shɑārēi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shārēi̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. shārēi̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sārēi̯o
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sārēi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sārēi̯a
5. sārēi̯a
*s → sh
Change of *s into sh
Rs›sh → *shārēi̯a
6. shārēi̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *shārēi̯
7. shārēi̯
*ā → ë
Change of *ā into Alb. ë
Rā›ë → *shërēi̯
(XX:XX)
8. shërēi̯
*ē → o
Change of *ē into o
Rē›o → *shëroi̯
9. shëroi̯
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Alb. shëroj
Hitt. i·šḫārišḫ-
(vb.fient.M.) ‘XX’
(HHand. 64)
1. PIE *Π·shɑērish-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *Π·shɑārish-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·shɑārish-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shārish-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·shārish-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhārišh-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·šhārišh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫārišḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. i·šḫāriške/a-
(vb.iter.M) ‘die Krankheit der Išḫara bekommen’
(HHand. 64)
1. PIE *Π·shɑēriski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *Π·shɑāriski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·shɑāriski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shāriski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·shāriski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *Π·shārisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. Π·shārisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shārisḱe/a-
5. Π·shārisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *Π·shāriske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. Π·shāriske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhāriške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. Π·šhāriške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫāriške/a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Alb. shërova-
(ao.) ‘to heal’
(AlbEtD. 413)
1. PIE *shɑērēu̯o-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *shɑārēu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. shɑārēu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shārēu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. shārēu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sārēu̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sārēu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sārēu̯a-
5. sārēu̯a-
*s → sh
Change of *s into sh
Rs›sh → *shārēu̯a-
6. shārēu̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *shārēva-
7. shārēva-
*ā → ë
Change of *ā into Alb. ë
Rā›ë → *shërēva-
(XX:XX)
8. shërēva-
*ē → o
Change of *ē into o
Rē›o → Alb. shërova-


PIE √sɑh- √osɑh- √esɑh ‘Herr, Verwalter, Meister’ √sosɑh- √sesɑh- (vb.) ‘anordnen, herrschen, bestimmen’
(IEW XX)
(Ribezzo + Oettinger + Pyysalo)
√osɑho-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. udni·ašḫa-
(c.) ‘Bürgermeister’
(HHand. 189)
(Possibly = HLu. REGIO.DOMINUS)
1. PIE *udɑhni·osɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *udhni·osho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. udhni·osho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *udhni·asha-
3. udhni·asha-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *udni·asha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. udni·asha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *udni·ašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. udni·ašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. udni·ašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. tup·ašḫa-
(LÚc.) ‘Lager-verwalter (?)’
(HHand. 181)
1. PIE *Π·osɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·osho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·osho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·asha-
3. Π·asha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·ašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·ašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·ašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. šal·ašḫa-
(LÚc.) ‘Stallbursche’ ?, ‘Kutscher’ (?)
(HHand. 140)
1. PIE *sol·osɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sol·osho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sol·osho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sal·asha-
3. sal·asha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šal·ašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šal·ašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šal·ašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√esɑho-
(Ribezzo F. 1920:128)
(1920 = Appunta di etimologia hittitica, Rivista indo-graeco-italica 4, 127-131)
OHitt. ešḫa-
(c.) ‘Sum. EN : Herr : lord’
(ḪEG 2:376)
(HIL. 452-3, HED ½:385f)
1. PIE *esɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *esho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. esho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *esha-
3. esha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ešha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ešha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → OHitt. ešḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lat. ero-
(m.) ‘Herr’
(Lat. erus [sgN], ere [sgV])
1. PIE *esɑho
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *esho
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. esho
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *eso
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. eso
*VsV → VrV
Rhotacism of *s between vowels
RVsV›VrV → Lat. ero
Hitt. ešḫa·šara-
(c.) ‘GAŠAN : Herrin’
(HHand. 63)
(Hitt. iš-ḫa-aš-ša-ri
1. PIE *esɑho·soro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *esho·soro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. esho·soro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *esha·sara-
3. esha·sara-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ešha·šara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ešha·šara-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ešḫa·šara-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ešḫa·šaru̯ai-
(vb.dn.) ‘herrschen’
(HHand. 64)
1. PIE *esɑho·soru̯oi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *esho·soru̯oi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. esho·soru̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *esha·saru̯ai-
3. esha·saru̯ai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ešha·šaru̯ai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ešha·šaru̯ai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ešḫa·šaru̯ai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OLat. esā-
(f.) ‘Herrin’
(WH. 1:419)
(OLat. esa)
1. PIE *esɑhēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *esɑhāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. esɑhāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eshāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. eshāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OLat. esā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√sosɑho-
(Oettinger 1979:498-9)
Hitt. šašḫa-
(vb.) ‘anordnen, anweisen, bestimmen’
(HHand. 150)
(Hitt. šašḫaten [2pl])
1. PIE *sosɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sosho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sosho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sasha-
3. sasha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√sesɑho-
(Oettinger 1979:498-9)
Hitt. šešḫa-
(vb.) ‘order, arrange’
(HEG II:375-6)
(HIL. 875-)
1. PIE *sesɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sesho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sesho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sesha-
3. sesha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šešha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šešha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šešḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. šešḫa-
(vb.) ‘anordnen, -weisen, bestimmen, festmachen’
(HHand. 150)
(CLu. šešḫata, SHV 499)
1. PIE *sesɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sesho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sesho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sesha-
3. sesha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šešha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šešha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. šešḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. šešḫai-
(vb.2.) ‘anordnen, anweisen, bestimmen’
(HHand. 150
1. PIE *sesɑhoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seshoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. seshoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *seshai-
3. seshai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šešhai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šešhai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šešḫai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √sɑh- ‘binden’
(IEW XX)
(Or: PIE √shɑ-, cf. Pind. ἅμερο- !)
√sɑhm-
Hitt. i·šḫamen-
(c.) ‘cord’
(HEG I:380)
(Hitt. iš-ḫa-mi-na-an)
1. PIE *Π·sɑhomen-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shomen-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·shomen-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shamen-
3. Π·shamen-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhamen-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·šhamen-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫamen-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. i·šḫamena-
(c.) ‘Schnur, Seil, Strick’
(HIL. 454)
1. PIE *Π·sɑhomeno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shomeno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·shomeno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shamena-
3. Π·shamena-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhamena-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·šhamena-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫamena-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. i·šḫamenaša-
(a.) ‘bandförmig’
(HHand. 63)
1. PIE *Π·sɑhomenoso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·shomenoso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·shomenoso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·shamenasa-
3. Π·shamenasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·šhamenaša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·šhamenaša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·šḫamenaša-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
LAv. haŋhāman-
(n.) ‘Verbindung (der Gelenke), Gelenkband’
(AIWb. 1768)
1. PIE *sesɑhōmen-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seshōmen-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. seshōmen-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *seshāmen-
3. seshāmen-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sesāmen-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sesāmen-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hehāmen-
5. hehāmen-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *hahāman-
6. hahāman-
ahA → aŋhA
Change of h into ŋh
RahA›aŋhA → LAv. haŋhāman-
Gr. ὅμηρο-
(m.) ‘hostage, pledge, surety’
(Gr. ὅμηρος)
1. PIE *sɑhómēro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shómēro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shómēro-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sómēro-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. sómēro-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hómēro-
4. hómēro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὅμηρο-
Gr. ἥμερο-
(a.) ‘tame, cultivated, reclaimed, civilized’
(Gr. ἥμερος)
1. PIE *sɑhḗmero-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *shḗmero-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. shḗmero-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sḗmero-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. sḗmero-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hḗmero-
4. hḗmero-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἥμερο-


PIE √sehɑu- (vb.) ‘Urin, Soma’ (vb.) ‘urinieren, Soma pressen, keltern’
(IEW 912)
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sehɑu-
(Pyysalo)
RV. só-
(ao.) ‘Soma pressen, keltern’
(WbRV. 1523)
(RV. sótā [2pl])
1. PIE *sehɑú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sehú-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sehú-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *seú-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. seú-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *saú-
4. saú-
aú → ṓ
Monophthongization of *aú
Raú›ṓ → *sṓ-
5. sṓ-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → RV. só-
Hitt. šeḫu·kani̯au̯ant-
(pt.) ‘mit Urin (šeḫu-) befleckt’
(HEG 2:972)
1. PIE *sehɑu·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sehu·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sehu·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šehu·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. šehu·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šeḫu·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
RV. suṣā́v·a
(pf.) ‘Soma pressen, keltern’
(WbRV. 1523)
(RV. suṣā́va [3sg] with Fortunatov’s Law II)
1. PIE *susóhɑu̯·e
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *susóhu̯·e
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. susóhu̯·e
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *sušóhu̯·e
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. sušóhu̯·e
PIE *óhCV → ā́hCV
Brugmann’s Law for *óhCV
RóHCV›ā́HCV → *sušā́hu̯·e
(SPIE §2.3.7)
4. sušā́hu̯·e
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sušā́u̯·e
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sušā́u̯·e
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *sušā́u̯·a
6. sušā́u̯·a
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *sušā́v·a
7. sušā́v·a
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. suṣā́v·a
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
√sohɑum-
RV. sa.ū́ma-
(m.) ‘Soma’
(WbRV. 1579)
(RV. sómam [sgA] = să.ū́mă- (with ˘ ˉ ˘) in RV. 4.26.7)
1. PIE *soHɑ́umo-
PIE *ɑ́u → úu
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́u›úu → *soHúumo-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. soHúumo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saHúuma-
3. saHúuma-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → *sa.úuma-
4. sa.úuma-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → RV. sa.ū́ma-
RV. sóma-
(m.) ‘Soma, Saft der Somapflanze’
(WbRV. 1579-80)
1. PIE *sohɑúmo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sohúmo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sohúmo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sahúma-
3. sahúma-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *saúma-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. saúma-
aú → ṓ
Monophthongization of *aú
Raú›ṓ → *sṓma-
5. sṓma-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → RV. sóma-
LAv. haoma-
(m.) ‘Name eines Getränks’
(AIWb. 1732)
1. PIE *sohɑumo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sohumo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sohumo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sahuma-
3. sahuma-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sauma-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sauma-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hauma-
5. hauma-
*au → ao
Opening of *au
Rau›ao → LAv. haoma-
√sehɑun-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. šeḫun-
(n.obl.) ‘Schmutz, Urin’
(HHand. 148)
1. PIE *sehɑun-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sehun-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sehun-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šehun-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. šehun-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šeḫun-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
LAv. haona-
(m.?) = ‘Haoma’
(AIWb. 1732-4)
(LAv. ǰarōiš haonǝm zaraϑušta [P. 29], Not haoma! – Lectio difficil.)
1. PIE *sehɑuno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sehuno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sehuno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sehuna-
3. sehuna-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *seuna-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. seuna-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *heuna-
5. heuna-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *hauna-
6. hauna-
*au → ao
Opening of *au
Rau›ao → LAv. haona-
Hitt. šeḫunant-
(c.) ‘Urin’
(HHand. 148)
1. PIE *sehɑunont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sehunont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sehunont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sehunant-
3. sehunant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šehunant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šehunant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šeḫunant-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√sehɑur-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. šeḫur-
(n.) ‘Schmutz, Urin’
(HEG 2:973-7)
(Hitt. še-e-ḫur [sgNA], HHand. 148)
1. PIE *sehɑur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sehur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sehur-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šehur-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. šehur-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šeḫur-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OIcl. saur-
(m.) ‘Schmutz, feuchte Erde’
(ANEtWb. 464)
(OIcl. saurr [sgN])
1. PIE *sohɑuro
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sohuro
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sohuro
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *souro
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. souro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saura
4. saura
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OIcl. saur
OCS. syrŭ-
(a.) ‘Nass, Feucht : wet’ (m.) ‘Käse’
(Sadnik √923)
(OCS. syrŭ [sgN])
1. PIE *shɑ́uro
PIE *ɑ́u → úu
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́u›úu → *shúuro
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. shúuro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *shúura
3. shúura
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *súura
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. súura
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *sū́ra
5. sū́ra
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *sū́ro
6. sū́ro
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *sū́ru
7. sū́ru
*ū́
ū → y
Rū›y → *syru
Change of ū́ into y
8. syru
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. syrŭ
Hitt. šeḫurei̯a-
(vb.) ‘urinieren’
(HHand. 148)
1. PIE *sehɑurei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sehurei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sehurei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sehurei̯a-
3. sehurei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šehurei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šehurei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šeḫurei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √si- √soi- √sei- ‘Spitze, Ahle, Dolch, Nadel, usw.’ (vb.) ‘sticken, schneidern, nähen, usw.’ (a.) ‘sauer’
(IEW XX)
√si-
(Melchert KZ 91:121)
(Melchert, H. Craig. 1977. Tocharian verb stems in -tk- (KZ 91:93-130, )
gAv. ā (…) hišāy·-
(pf.) ‘bedrücken’
(AIWb. 1800-1)
(gAv. ā hišāyā)
1. PIE *Π·sisēi̯-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *Π·sišēi̯-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. Π·sišēi̯-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *Π·hišēi̯-
3. Π·hišēi̯-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *Π·hišāi̯-
4. Π·hišāi̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → gAv. Π·hišāy-
gAv. ā·hay-
(vb.) ‘unterdrücken’
(AIWb. 345)
(gAv. ā.hōiϑōi [inf.])
1. PIE *Π·sei̯-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *Π·hei̯-
2. Π·hei̯-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *Π·hai̯-
3. Π·hai̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → gAv. Π·hay-
Hitt. šei̯a-
(vb.) ‘festdrücken, einprängen’
(HHand. 138)
(CHD Š: 15f., CHD Š: 21, HIL. 801)
1. PIE *sei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sei̯a-
2. sei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. sā́ya·ka-
(m.) ‘Wurfgeschoss, Pfeil’
(EWA1:725-6)
(WbRV. 1512)
1. PIE *sṓi̯o·ko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sṓi̯a·ka-
2. sṓi̯a·ka-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
Rṓ›ā́ → *sā́i̯a·ka-
3. sā́i̯a·ka-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. sā́ya·ka-
√siɑhu-
(Pyysalo)
Lith. siū́-
(vb.) ‘benähen, besticken, schneidern’
(LiEtWb. 789f.)
(Lith. siū́ti [inf.])
1. PIE *si̯ɑ́hu-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *si̯úhu-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. si̯úhu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *si̯úu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. si̯úu-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *si̯ū́-
4. si̯ū́-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›iRestr → Lith. siū́-
Latv. šũ-
(vb.) ‘nähen, (eine Wand) bekleiden’
(LiEtWb. 789f.)
(Latv. šũt [inf.])
1. PIE *si̯ɑ́hu-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *si̯úhu-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. si̯úhu-
*úHu → uHû
Latvian tone rule for *úHu
RAccLatv5 → *si̯uhû-
3. si̯uhû-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *si̯uû-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. si̯uû-
*uû → û
Contraction of u and û
Ruû›û → *si̯û-
5. si̯û-
* si̯ → š
Change of si̯ into š
Rsi̯›š → Latv. šû-
CLu. šiḫu̯ai-
(a.) ‘sour’
(HIL. 885-6)
(CLu. ši-e-ḫu-ua-en-zi [pl])
1. PIE *siɑhu̯oi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sihu̯oi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sihu̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sihu̯ai-
3. sihu̯ai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šihu̯ai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šihu̯ai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. šiḫu̯ai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. šiḫu̯al-
(n.) ‘Dolch’ = šeual?
(HHand. 148)
(HEG S:1090-1)
1. PIE *siɑhu̯ol-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sihu̯ol-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sihu̯ol-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sihu̯al-
3. sihu̯al-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šihu̯al-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šihu̯al-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. šiḫu̯al-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. šiḫu̯i-
(a.) ‘sour’
(HIL. 885)
1. PIE *siɑhu̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sihu̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sihu̯i-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šihu̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. šihu̯i-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. šiḫu̯i-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OInd. sī́vya-
(pr.) ‘nähen’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *siɑ́hu̯i̯o-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *siíhu̯i̯o-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. siíhu̯i̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *siíhu̯i̯a-
3. siíhu̯i̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *siíu̯i̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. siíu̯i̯a-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *sī́u̯i̯a-
5. sī́u̯i̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *sī́vi̯a-
6. sī́vi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. sī́vya-
Goth. siuja-
(vb.) ‘nähen’
(GoEtD. S-70)
1. PIE *siɑhui̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sihui̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sihui̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *siui̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. siui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *siui̯a-
4. siui̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Goth. siuja-
√siei-
(Pyysalo)
(HEG (S:700-8): Ḫi šai-, šiya- ‘festdrücken, usw.’, Etymology in HEG S:704-5)
Hitt. ši̯ei-
(vb.) ‘sting, etc.’
(HIL. 801)
(Hitt. ši-i-e-ez-zi, ši-i-ez-z[i] [3sg])
1. PIE *si̯ei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ši̯ei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OCS. ši-
(vb.) ‘nähen, sticken’
(Sadnik √942)
(OCS. šiti [inf.])
1. PIE *si̯ei-
* si̯ → š
Change of si̯ into š
Rsi̯›š → *šei-
2. šei-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *šī-
3. šī-
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. ši-
√sieilos-
OCS. šilo-
(.) ‘Ahle’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *si̯eilos
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *si̯eilas
2. si̯eilas
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *si̯eilos
3. si̯eilos
* si̯ → š
Change of si̯ into š
Rsi̯›š → *šeilos
4. šeilos
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root-final)
Ros=›o= → *šeilo
5. šeilo
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *šīlo
6. šīlo
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. šilo
Russ. šilo-
(.) ‘Ahle’
(REW 3:398)
1. PIE *si̯eilos
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *si̯eilas
2. si̯eilas
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *si̯eilos
3. si̯eilos
* si̯ → š
Change of si̯ into š
Rsi̯›š → *šeilos
4. šeilos
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root-final)
Ros=›o= → *šeilo
5. šeilo
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *šīlo
6. šīlo
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → Russ. šilo
√sigɑɦ- √soigɑɦ- √seigɑɦ-
(IEW XX)
(or √sigɑɦi- ?)
√seigɑɦ-
OIr. sēg-
(.) ‘cerf : stag’
(LEIA S:67)
(OIr. sēg, ség, segh .i. agh)
1. PIE *seigɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seigɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. seigɦo-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *seigo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. seigo-
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → OIr. sēgo-
OIr. sēg·guine-
() -
(.) ‘tueur des cerfs’
(LEIA S:67)
Language not found or error while translating!
√sigɑɦ-
OIcl. siga-
(vb.) ‘aufhetzen’
(ANEtWb. 473)
1. PIE *sigɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sigɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sigɦo-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sigo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. sigo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. siga-
ModIcl. sig-
(.) ‘Hetze’
(ANEtWb. 473)
1. PIE *sigɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sigɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sigɦo-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sigo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. sigo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → ModIcl. siga-
OIcl. sig-
(n.) ‘Kampf’ (poet.)
(ANEtWb. 473)
1. PIE *sigɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sigɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sigɦo-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sigo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. sigo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. siga-
Hitt. šigatališke/a-
(vb.) ‘mit dem Speer jagen, ein Gebiet erjagen’
(HEG S: 1036)
1. PIE *sigɑɦotoliski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sigɦotoliski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sigɦotoliski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sigɦotolisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. sigɦotolisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sigɦatalisḱe/a-
4. sigɦatalisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sigɦataliske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sigɦataliske/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *sigataliske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. sigataliske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šigatališke/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√siti-
OInd. prá·siti-
(.) ‘das Dahinschießen’
(Oettinger 1979:473)
(Hoffmann 1975-76:417)
1. PIE *pró·siti-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → OInd. prá·siti-
√siu-
(Pyysalo)
Tischler (HEG S:1090), Kloekhorst (HIL. 885-6),
CLu. šiu̯a-
(a.) ‘sour’
(HIL. 885)
(še-e-ua [plNA])
1. PIE *siu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *siu̯a-
2. siu̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. šiu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šiu̯ai-
(a.) ‘sauer : sour’
(HEG S:1090)
(HIL. 885-6, ši-ua-e-e[š] [plA] HIL. 885)
1. PIE *siu̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *siu̯ai-
2. siu̯ai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šiu̯ai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šiu̯i-
(a.) ‘sour’
(HIL. 885)
HIL. 885-6, ši-ú-i-n=a [sgA]
1. PIE *siu̯i-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šiu̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OCS. ne·sĭvenŭ-
(a.) ‘XX’
(Sadnik √XX)
1. PIE *ne·siu̯eno
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ne·siu̯ena
2. ne·siu̯ena
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *ne·siu̯eno
3. ne·siu̯eno
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *ne·siu̯enu
4. ne·siu̯enu
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *ne·sivenu
5. ne·sivenu
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *ne·sĭvenu
6. ne·sĭvenu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. ne·sĭvenŭ
Hitt. šiu̯al-
(a.) ‘Dolch, Starke (1987:250n26)’
(HEG S:1090-1)
1. PIE *siu̯ol-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *siu̯al-
2. siu̯al-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šiu̯al-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. šiu̯alanza-
(N.) ‘-(?)-’
(HHand. 148)
(Hitt. šiualanzan [sgA?])
1. PIE *siu̯olondɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *siu̯olondɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. siu̯olondɦi̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *siu̯olonjɦo-
3. siu̯olonjɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *siu̯alanjɦa-
4. siu̯alanjɦa-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *siu̯alanzɦa-
5. siu̯alanzɦa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šiu̯alanzɦa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. šiu̯alanzɦa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. šiu̯alanza-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. šiu̯aši-
(c.) ‘Art Haarnadel’
(HHand. 153)
1. PIE *siu̯osi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *siu̯asi-
2. siu̯asi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šiu̯aši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √si- √sei- √soi- (a.) ‘arm’ (sb.) ‘Armer’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo)
√sio-
Hitt. šiši̯ala-
(LÚc.) ‘needy one’
(HIL. 876)
(Hitt. ši-iš-ši-ia-la-an [sgA])
1. PIE *sisi̯olo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sisi̯ala-
2. sisi̯ala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šiši̯ala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šiši̯ani-
(n.) ‘need’
(HIL. 876)
(Hitt. ši-iš-ši-ia-ni-it [sgI])
1. PIE *sisi̯oni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sisi̯ani-
2. sisi̯ani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šiši̯ani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√siou-
Hitt. šiši̯au̯ant-
(a.) ‘being in need’
(HIL. 876)
(Hitt. [ši-i]š-ši-ia-u-an-za [sgN])
1. PIE *sisi̯ou̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sisi̯au̯ant-
2. sisi̯au̯ant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šiši̯au̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√siout-
OCS. ašutĭ
(adv.) ‘umsonst, vergeblich’
(Sadnik √11)
1. PIE *ō·si̯outi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ō·si̯auti-
2. ō·si̯auti-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ā·si̯auti-
3. ā·si̯auti-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *ā·si̯outi-
4. ā·si̯outi-
* si̯ → š
Change of si̯ into š
Rsi̯›š → *ā·šouti-
5. ā·šouti-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *ā·šūti-
6. ā·šūti-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *a·šūti-
7. a·šūti-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *a·šūtĭ-
8. a·šūtĭ-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → OCS. a·šutĭ-
RussCS. ašutĭ-
(a.) ‘vergebens’
(REW X:XX)
1. PIE *ō·si̯outi
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ō·si̯auti
2. ō·si̯auti
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ā·si̯auti
3. ā·si̯auti
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *ā·si̯outi
4. ā·si̯outi
* si̯ → š
Change of si̯ into š
Rsi̯›š → *ā·šouti
5. ā·šouti
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *ā·šūti
6. ā·šūti
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *a·šūti
7. a·šūti
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *a·šūtĭ
8. a·šūtĭ
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → RussCS. a·šutĭ
RussCS. ošutĭ-
(a.) ‘vergebens’
(REW X:XX)
1. PIE *o·si̯outi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·si̯auti-
2. a·si̯auti-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *o·si̯outi-
3. o·si̯outi-
* si̯ → š
Change of si̯ into š
Rsi̯›š → *o·šouti-
4. o·šouti-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *o·šūti-
5. o·šūti-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *o·šūtĭ-
6. o·šūtĭ-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → RussCS. o·šutĭ-
OCzech. jašut·ný-
(a.) ‘eitel’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *ē·si̯out·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ē·si̯aut·Σ-
2. ē·si̯aut·Σ-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *ē·si̯out·Σ-
3. ē·si̯out·Σ-
* si̯ → š
Change of si̯ into š
Rsi̯›š → *ē·šout·Σ-
4. ē·šout·Σ-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *ē·šūt·Σ-
5. ē·šūt·Σ-
*ē- → i̯ā-
Change of root-initial *ē- into i̯ā-
Rē=›i̯ā= → *i̯ā·šūt·Σ-
6. i̯ā·šūt·Σ-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *jā·šūt·Σ-
7. jā·šūt·Σ-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *ja·šūt·Σ-
8. ja·šūt·Σ-
ū -› ou
Change of ū into ou
Rū›ou → OCzech. ja·šout·Σ-
Bulg. šut-
(a.) ‘hornlos, beschäfig von Gewässen’
(Berneker I:33)
1. PIE *si̯outo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *si̯auta
2. si̯auta
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *si̯outo
3. si̯outo
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *si̯outu
4. si̯outu
* si̯ → š
Change of si̯ into š
Rsi̯›š → *šoutu
5. šoutu
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *šūtu
6. šūtu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → *šūtŭ
7. šūtŭ
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → Bulg. šutŭ
Russ. šut·ëm-
(m.) ‘Brachfeld’ (dial)
(REW 3:440)
1. PIE *si̯out·ímo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *si̯aut·íma
2. si̯aut·íma
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *si̯out·ímo
3. si̯out·ímo
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *si̯out·ímu
4. si̯out·ímu
* si̯ → š
Change of si̯ into š
Rsi̯›š → *šout·ímu
5. šout·ímu
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *šūt·ímu
6. šūt·ímu
*-u → Ø
Loss of -u in root-final position
R=u›=0 → *šūt·ím
7. šūt·ím
*í → é
Change of *i into e
Rí›é → *šūt·ém
8. šūt·ém
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → Russ. šut·ém
√siuon-
(HEG 1:83)
(HED A-XX, HIL. 262, Starke 1990: 448f., EHS 400, DLL. 33)
Hitt. ašiu̯an-
(a.n.) ‘arm’
(HHand. 27)
(Hitt. a-aš-ši-ua-an)
1. PIE *osiu̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asiu̯an-
2. asiu̯an-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ašiu̯an-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ašiu̯ant-
(a.) ‘arm’ (c.) ‘Armer, MÁŠDA, HEG1:839’
(HHand 27)
(Hitt. a-ši-ua-an-za, a-ši-ua-an-ta-an)
1. PIE *osiu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asiu̯ant-
2. asiu̯ant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ašiu̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. ašiu̯antanaši-
(a.gen.) ‘of poverty’
(HIL. 262)
(CLu. a-aš-ši-ua-an-ta-at-ta-na-a-ši-iš)
1. PIE *osiu̯ontonosi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asiu̯antanasi-
2. asiu̯antanasi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. ašiu̯antanaši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. ašiu̯antatar-
(n.) ‘poverty’ (KLuN. 448f.)
(HIL. 262)
(CLu. a-aš-ši-ua-an-ta-at-tar)
1. PIE *osiu̯ontotor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asiu̯antatar-
2. asiu̯antatar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. ašiu̯antatar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ašiu̯antadar-
(n.) ‘poverty’
(HIL. 262)
(Hitt. a-š[i-u]a-an-ta-tar)
1. PIE *osiu̯ontodɑɦor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *osiu̯ontodɦor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. osiu̯ontodɦor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asiu̯antadɦar-
3. asiu̯antadɦar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *asiu̯antadar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. asiu̯antadar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ašiu̯antadar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ašiu̯anteš-
(vb.fient.) ‘arm werden : become poor’
(HIL. 262)
(Hitt. a-ši-ua-an-te-eš-zi, EHS 400)
1. PIE *osiu̯ontes-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asiu̯antes-
2. asiu̯antes-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ašiu̯anteš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ašiu̯anteške/a-
(pr.) ‘id.’
(HIL. 262)
(Hitt. a-ši-ua-an-te-eš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *osiu̯onteski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *osiu̯ontesḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. osiu̯ontesḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asiu̯antesḱe/a-
3. asiu̯antesḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *asiu̯anteske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. asiu̯anteske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ašiu̯anteške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ašiu̯ant-
(a.pt.) ‘arm’ (c.) ‘Armer’
(ḪEG1:83)
1. PIE *osiu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asiu̯ant-
2. asiu̯ant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ašiu̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. ašiu̯antan-
(n.obl.) ‘Armut’
(DLL 33)
(CLu. ašiuantana)
1. PIE *osiu̯onton-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asiu̯antan-
2. asiu̯antan-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. ašiu̯antan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. ašiu̯antatanaši-
(a.gen.) ‘of poorness’
(DLL. 33)
(CLu. a-aš-ši-ua-an-ta-at-ta-na-aš-ši-[iš])
1. PIE *osiu̯ontotonosi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asiu̯antatanasi-
2. asiu̯antatanasi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. ašiu̯antatanaši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √si- √soi- √sei- (sb.) ‘Lager, Vorrat, Schatz, Magazin’ (vb.) ‘legen, vorhanden sein’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√seion-
Hitt. šei̯an-
(É.) ‘Schatzhaus, Magazin’
(HHand. 151)
(Hitt. É ši-ia-an-na-aš [sgG], not ‘house of sealing’ vs. Kloekhorst HIL. 868-9)
1. PIE *sei̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sei̯an-
2. sei̯an-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šei̯an-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sino-
RV. sína-
(n.) ‘Habe, Besitz’
(WbRV. 1518)
1. PIE *síno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → RV. sína-
OInd. sína-
(m.pret.pt.) ‘Vorrat, Lager, Verpflegung’
(KEWA 3:466)
1. PIE *síno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. sína-
RV. tát·sina-
(a.) ‘das [= tat] als Vorrat habend’
(WbRV. 513)
1. PIE *Π·sino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → RV. Π·sina-
RV. sína·vat-
(a.) ‘reich an Besitz’ (KEWA 3:466)
(WbRV. 1518)
1. PIE *síno·u̯ot-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sína·u̯at-
2. sína·u̯at-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. sína·vat-
√sito-
Lat. sito-
(pt.a.) ‘gelegen, befindlich’
(Lat. situs)
Lat. po.sitā-
(pr.1.) ‘vorhanden sein’
(WH. 2:335)
1. PIE *po.sitēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *po.sitāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. po.sitāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po.sitāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. po.sitāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. po.sitā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)


PIE √sin- √soin- √sein- (aff.) ‘ohne, -los, un-’ (vb.) ‘XX’
(IEW 318+907)
(+ Pyysalo)
√sein-
(Pyysalo)
OLat. seine
(prep.Abl) ‘ohne’
(WH. 2:542)
OIr. sēna-
(vb.) ‘nier, désavouer, rejeter’
(LEIA S:84)
(OIr. noco sénaim-si ‘je ne nie pas’)
1. PIE *seinēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *seināɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. seināɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seināh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. seināh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *seinā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. seinā-
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → *sēnā-
5. sēnā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OIr. sēna-
OIr. sēna-
(f.) ‘rejeter’
(LEIA S:84)
(OIr. a sēna ‘la r.’)
1. PIE *seinēɑht-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *seināɑht-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. seināɑht-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seināht-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. seināht-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *seināt-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. seināt-
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → *sēnāt-
5. sēnāt-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OIr. sēnat-
OIr. sēnad-
(m.) ‘rejeter’
(LEIA S:84)
1. PIE *seinēɑhto
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *seināɑhto
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. seināɑhto
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seināhto
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. seināhto
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *seināto
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. seināto
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → *sēnāto
5. sēnāto
VtV → VthV
Lenition of voiceless stop *t
Rt›th → *sēnātho
6. sēnātho
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *sēnatho
7. sēnatho
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → *sēnath
8. sēnath
*-th → -d
Change of root-final *t into d
R=th›=d → OIr. sēnad
√sin-
(Pyysalo)
Lat. sine
(prep.Abl) ‘ohne’
(WH. 2:542)
Lat. sin·cēro-
(a.) ‘unvermischt, ohne Fehler, rein, echt’
(WH. 2:541-2)
1. PIE *sin·ki̯ēro-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sin·ḱēro-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. sin·ḱēro-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sin·kēro-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. sin·kēro-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. sin·cēro-
Lat. sin·cēri-
(a.) ‘unvermischt, ohne Fehler, rein, echt’
(WH. 2:541-2)
1. PIE *sin·ki̯ēri-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sin·ḱēri-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. sin·ḱēri-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sin·kēri-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. sin·kēri-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. sin·cēri-
Hitt. šin·ura-
(a.) ‘mittellos, arm’ (Akd. makû)
(HEG II:1053-4)
(With Hitt. √urra- ‘help’)
1. PIE *sin·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sin·ura-
2. sin·ura-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šin·ura-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √sibɑɦ- √soibɑɦ- √seibɑɦ- ‘Eiter, Rotz, Speichel’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo)
√seibɑɦo-
Hitt. šeiba-
(.) ‘Eiter, Augenbutter, Akd. bubu’tu(m)’
(HHand. 149, 151)
(Hitt. šipa-, šepa-; HEG 1054-5)
1. PIE *seibɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seibɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. seibɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *seibɦa-
3. seibɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *seiba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. seiba-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šeiba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OInd. sebha-
(.) ‘Eiter’
(KEWA 2:502)
1. PIE *seibɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seibɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. seibɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *seibɦa-
3. seibɦa-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *saibɦa-
4. saibɦa-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *sēbɦa-
5. sēbɦa-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *sēbha-
6. sēbha-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → OInd. sebha-
√seibɑɦl-
MidIr. ro siblo·-
(vb.) ‘laisse couler (urine)’
(LEIA S:108)
(MidIr. co ro ṡiblur; with PIE *lo- *l- *le- ‘lassen’ (IEW. 666)
1. PIE *Π·sibɑhlo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → MidIr. Π·sibhlo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
MidIr. sibla-
(fut.) ‘couler, lasser couler’
(LEIA S:108)
(MidIr. siblad [3sg])
1. PIE *sibɑhleɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *sibɑhlaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. sibɑhlaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sibhlah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sibhlah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → MidIr. sibhla-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√seibɑɦu-
OInd. sebhu-
(m.) ‘Rotz, Speichel : mucus, spittle’
(EWA 2:746)
(KEWA 3:503)
1. PIE *seibɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seibɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. seibɦu-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *saibɦu-
3. saibɦu-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *sēbɦu-
4. sēbɦu-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *sēbhu-
5. sēbhu-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → OInd. sebhu-


√skɑhu- √sokɑhu- √sekɑhu- ‘movere’ (sb.) ‘Fussohle, Oberschenkel’
(IEW XX)
√sokɑhu-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. pa·šku-
(vb.) ‘remove; Hitt. pa·sku- ‘neglect’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *po·skɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *po·skhu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. po·skhu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pa·skhu-
3. pa·skhu-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *pa·sku-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. pa·sku-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. pa·šku-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. haxa-
(n.) ‘Fussohle’
(AIWb. 1744)
1. PIE *sokɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sokhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sokhu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakhu̯a-
3. sakhu̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sakha-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. sakha-
*kh → x
Affricativization of *kh
Rkh›x → *saxa-
5. saxa-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → LAv. haxa-
√sokɑhuiSo-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. šakuiša-
(sb.) ‘a body part onto which red wool was tied’
(CHD Š:77)
(Hitt. ša-ku-iš-ša-i [sgDL])
1. PIE *sokɑhuiso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sokhuiso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sokhuiso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakhuisa-
3. sakhuisa-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *sakuisa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. sakuisa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šakuiša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sokɑhut-
LAv. haxt-
(n.) ‘der innere Teil des Oberschenkels’
(AIWb. 1745)
1. PIE *sokɑhut-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sokhut-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sokhut-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakhut-
3. sakhut-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sakht-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. sakht-
*kh → x
Affricativization of *kh
Rkh›x → *saxt-
5. saxt-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → LAv. haxt-
Hitt. šakuta-
(n.) ‘Hüften, Oberschenkel, o.ä.’
(HHand. 139)
1. PIE *sokɑhuto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sokhuto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sokhuto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakhuta-
3. sakhuta-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *sakuta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. sakuta-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šakuta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. sákthi-
(n.) ‘der Schenkel, das Dickbein : thigh’
(KEWA 2:414)
1. PIE *sókɑhuti-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sókhuti-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sókhuti-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *sákhuti-
3. sákhuti-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sákhti-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. sákhti-
*Tht → Tth
Bartholomae’s Law
RTht›Tth → RV. sákthi-
(SPIE §4.6.5.)
gAv. haxti-
(n.) ‘der innere Teil des Oberschenkels’
(AIWb. 1745)
1. PIE *sokɑhuti-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sokhuti-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sokhuti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakhuti-
3. sakhuti-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sakhti-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. sakhti-
*kh → x
Affricativization of *kh
Rkh›x → *saxti-
5. saxti-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → gAv. haxti-
RV. sakthán-
(n.) ‘der Schenkel, das Dickbein’
(WbRV. 1440)
1. PIE *sokɑhutón-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sokhutón-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sokhutón-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakhutón-
3. sakhutón-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *sakhután-
4. sakhután-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sakhtán-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. sakhtán-
*Tht → Tth
Bartholomae’s Law
RTht›Tth → RV. sakthán-
(SPIE §4.6.5.)


PIE √sogɑɦu-
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√sogɑɦun-
Hitt. šaguni-
(LÚc.) ‘Priester = LÚšanguni-’
(HHand. 142)
1. PIE *sogɑɦuni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogɦuni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogɦuni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sagɦuni-
3. sagɦuni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *saguni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. saguni-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šaguni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. saghnó-
(pr.) ‘(zu) tragen (vermögen), festhalten, erfassen’
(WbRV. 1443)
1. PIE *segɑɦuneú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *segɦuneú-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. segɦuneú-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *segɦneú-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
3. segɦneú-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *sagɦnaú-
4. sagɦnaú-
aú → ṓ
Monophthongization of *aú
Raú›ṓ → *sagɦnṓ-
5. sagɦnṓ-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *saghnṓ-
6. saghnṓ-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → RV. saghnó-


PIE √ski- √oski- √eski- ‘gehen’ (sb.) ‘Tor, Tür’
(IEW. 49 Arm. [diff.])
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + Arm.)
√oski-
Hitt. aš·aška-
(URU.) ‘= URUkaka = URUkaška = URUTor/Tür’
(OGH. 190-2)
(Hitt. aš-aš-qa)
1. PIE *os·oski̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *os·osḱo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. os·osḱo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *as·asḱa-
3. as·asḱa-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *as·aska-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. as·aska-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aš·aška-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aška-
(c.) ‘Tor, Tür: Sum. KA, HHand. 27’
(HEG I:84)
1. PIE *oski̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *osḱo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. osḱo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asḱa-
3. asḱa-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *aska-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. aska-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aška-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aška·z
(adv.) ‘von draußen ‹cf. Lat. forīs›’
(HED 1:212f.)
(Hitt. aškaz)
1. PIE *oski̯o·Σ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *osḱo·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. osḱo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asḱa·Σ-
3. asḱa·Σ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *aska·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. aska·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aška·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aška·šeba-
(d.) ‘Aspects 5,6,16, GhR. 281,299,582,613-4), RDH. 67’
(OHP. 1:51-52)
(Hitt. aš-ka-še-pa, aš-ka-ši-pa , a-aš-ga-še-pa, Otten 1971:32+n36, REL. 88-89)
1. PIE *oski̯o·Σ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *osḱo·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. osḱo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asḱa·Σ-
3. asḱa·Σ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *aska·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. aska·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aška·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aška·šeba-
(ḪUR.SAG.) ‘OGH. 47-48, OGHErg. 15, im Land Pala?’
(OGH. 47-8)
(Hitt. aš-ga-ši-pa, a-aš-ka-ši-pa-aš, OGHErg. 15)
1. PIE *oski̯o·Σ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *osḱo·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. osḱo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asḱa·Σ-
3. asḱa·Σ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *aska·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. aska·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aška·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. aška·iani-
(f.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 169)
(Hitt. aš-qa-ia-ni-iš [sgN]
1. PIE *oski̯o·ii̯oni-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *osḱo·ii̯oni-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. osḱo·ii̯oni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asḱa·ii̯ani-
3. asḱa·ii̯ani-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *asḱa·iani-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. asḱa·iani-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → *asḱa·i̯ani-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
5. asḱa·i̯ani-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *aska·i̯ani-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. aska·i̯ani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. aška·i̯ani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Kpd. aška·našu-
(LÚ.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 171)
(Kpd. aš-kà-na-šu)
1. PIE *oski̯o·nosu-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *osḱo·nosu-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. osḱo·nosu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asḱa·nasu-
3. asḱa·nasu-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *aska·nasu-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. aska·nasu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Kpd. aška·našu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ski-
(IEW. 49 [diff.])
Arm. an·cʼ-
(ao.) ‘vorübergehen’
(Pedersen KZ 39:425)
(Arm. ē·an)
1. PIE *hɑen·ski-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑan·ski-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑan·ski-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *han·ski-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. han·ski-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *han·sć-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. han·sć-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *an·sć-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. an·sć-
*sć → cʼ
Change of sć into cʼ
Rsć›cʼ → Arm. an·cʼ-
Arm. an·cʼ·ane-
(pr.) ‘vorübergehen’
(WP I:65-6)
(Arm. ananem [1sg])
1. PIE *hɑen·ski·eɑhne-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑan·ski·eɑhne-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑan·ski·eɑhne-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *hɑan·ski·aɑhne-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
3. hɑan·ski·aɑhne-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *han·ski·ahne-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. han·ski·ahne-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *han·sć·ahne-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. han·sć·ahne-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *an·sć·ane-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. an·sć·ane-
*sć → cʼ
Change of sć into cʼ
Rsć›cʼ → Arm. an·cʼ·ane-


PIE √skiɑh- (vb.) ‘wissen’ (sb.) ‘Zeichen’
(IEW XX)
(+ Vaillant + Pyysalo)
√sogi̯ɑɦi-
(HEG S-XX)
HIL. 802, CHD S-XX)
Hitt. šagai-
(c.) ‘Zeichen, Vorzeichen, Omen’ (GISKIM)
(HHand. 138)
(Hitt. ša-ga-a-iš, ša-ga-iš)
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦoi-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦoi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saǵɦai-
4. saǵɦai-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sagɦai-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sagɦai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *sagai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. sagai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šagai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šagei-
(c.obl.) ‘Zeichen, Vorzeichen, Omen’ (GISKIM)
(HHand. 138)
(Hitt. ša-ki-ia-aš, ša-a-ki-ia-az
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦei-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦei-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saǵɦei-
4. saǵɦei-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sagɦei-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sagɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *sagei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. sagei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šagei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ski̯ɑhi-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. i·ški·tāḫ-
(vb.2.) ‘ein Zeichen geben ‹Hitt. šagi- ‘Zeichen’›’
(HHand. 65)
(Hitt. iš-kit9-ta-aḫ-ḫi [3sg] with Hitt. ·daḫ- ‘geben’)
1. PIE *Π·ski̯ɑhi·tōɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ski̯hi·tōɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·ski̯hi·tōɦ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *Π·sḱhi·tōɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·sḱhi·tōɦ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·sḱhi·tāɦ-
4. Π·sḱhi·tāɦ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *Π·skhi·tāɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. Π·skhi·tāɦ-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *Π·ski·tāɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. Π·ski·tāɦ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·ški·tāɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. Π·ški·tāɦ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·ški·tāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lat. scī-
(pf.) ‘in Erfahrung gebracht haben, wissen’
(Lat. sciit [3sg])
1. PIE *ski̯ɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *ski̯íhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. ski̯íhi-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sḱíhi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. sḱíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sḱíi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sḱíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *sḱī́-
5. sḱī́-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *skī́-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. skī́-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *scī́-
7. scī́-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → Lat. scī-
OIcl. skī-
(*-a.n.) ‘Verstellung, Zauberei’
(ANEtWb. 491a)
1. PIE *ski̯ɑ́hi̯o
PIE *i̯ɑ́ → i̯í
Assimilation of *i̯ and *ɑ́
Ri̯ɑ́›i̯í → *ski̯íhi̯o
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. ski̯íhi̯o
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sḱíhi̯o
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. sḱíhi̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sḱíi̯o
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sḱíi̯o
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *skíi̯o
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. skíi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *skíi̯a
6. skíi̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *skíi̯
7. skíi̯
Change of root final íi̯ into ī́
R=íi̯›=ī́ → *skī́
8. skī́
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → OIcl. skī
√ski̯ɑhiu-
(Vaillant BSL 42:84f)
Lat. scīu-
(pf.) ‘in Erfahrung gebracht haben, wissen’
(Lat. scīuit [3sg])
1. PIE *ski̯ɑ́hiu
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *ski̯íhiu
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. ski̯íhiu
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sḱíhiu
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. sḱíhiu
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sḱíiu
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sḱíiu
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *sḱī́u
5. sḱī́u
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *skī́u
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. skī́u
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *scī́u
7. scī́u
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → Lat. scīu
Lat. scaeuā-
(f.) ‘ein Anzeichen (glücklich oder unglücklich)’
(WH. 2:485)
1. PIE *ski̯eɑhiu̯ēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *ski̯aɑhiu̯ēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. ski̯aɑhiu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ski̯aɑhiu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. ski̯aɑhiu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ski̯ahiu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. ski̯ahiu̯āh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sḱahiu̯āh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sḱahiu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sḱaiu̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. sḱaiu̯ā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *skaiu̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. skaiu̯ā-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → *skaeu̯ā-
8. skaeu̯ā-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *scaeu̯ā-
9. scaeu̯ā-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. scaeuā-
√sogi̯ɑɦot-
√sogi̯ɑɦt-
Goth. fri·sahto-
(f.) ‘αἴνιγμα, εἰκών, τύπος, ὑπόδειγμα, ὑποτύπωσις’
(GoEtD. F96)
(Goth. frisahtai Joh 13,15 CA)
1. PIE *pre·sogi̯ɑɦtēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pre·sogi̯ɑɦtāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pre·sogi̯ɑɦtāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pre·sogi̯ɦtāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pre·sogi̯ɦtāh-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *pre·soǵɦtāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. pre·soǵɦtāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pre·soǵɦtā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. pre·soǵɦtā-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *pre·sogɦtā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. pre·sogɦtā-
gɦt -› gt
Deaspiration of ǥɦ before t
Rǥɦt›gt → *pre·sogtā-
7. pre·sogtā-
*g → k
Devoicing of *g before *t
Rgt›kt → *pre·soktā-
8. pre·soktā-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *pre·soxtā-
9. pre·soxtā-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *fre·soxtā-
10. fre·soxtā-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *fre·saxtā-
11. fre·saxtā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *fre·saxtō-
(XX:XX)
12. fre·saxtō-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *fri·saxtō-
13. fri·saxtō-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *fri·sahtō-
14. fri·sahtō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → Goth. fri·sahto-
Goth. fri·sahti-
(f.) ‘Bild, Beispiel Rätsel: exemplum, forma, imago’
(GoEtD. F96)
(Goth. frisahts 2Kr 4,4 A B, frisaht 1Kr 15,49 A B,
1. PIE *pre·sogi̯ɑɦti-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pre·sogi̯ɦti-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pre·sogi̯ɦti-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *pre·soǵɦti-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. pre·soǵɦti-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *pre·sogɦti-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. pre·sogɦti-
gɦt -› gt
Deaspiration of ǥɦ before t
Rǥɦt›gt → *pre·sogti-
5. pre·sogti-
*g → k
Devoicing of *g before *t
Rgt›kt → *pre·sokti-
6. pre·sokti-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *pre·soxti-
7. pre·soxti-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *fre·soxti-
8. fre·soxti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *fre·saxti-
9. fre·saxti-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *fri·saxti-
10. fri·saxti-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → Goth. fri·sahti-
Goth. ga·fri·sahtja-
(pr.) ‘abbilden: shape, form: ἐντυποῦν: deformare’
(Feist 168f.)
(Goth. gafrisahtiþ [3sg] 2Kr 3,7 A B)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·pre·sogi̯ɑɦti̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·pre·sogi̯ɦti̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦo·pre·sogi̯ɦti̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *gɦo·pre·soǵɦti̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. gɦo·pre·soǵɦti̯o-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *gɦo·pre·sogɦti̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. gɦo·pre·sogɦti̯o-
gɦt -› gt
Deaspiration of ǥɦ before t
Rǥɦt›gt → *gɦo·pre·sogti̯o-
5. gɦo·pre·sogti̯o-
*g → k
Devoicing of *g before *t
Rgt›kt → *gɦo·pre·sokti̯o-
6. gɦo·pre·sokti̯o-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *gɦo·pre·soxti̯o-
7. gɦo·pre·soxti̯o-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *gɦo·fre·soxti̯o-
8. gɦo·fre·soxti̯o-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *go·fre·soxti̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
9. go·fre·soxti̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ga·fre·saxti̯a-
10. ga·fre·saxti̯a-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *ga·fri·saxti̯a-
11. ga·fri·saxti̯a-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *ga·fri·sahti̯a-
12. ga·fri·sahti̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Goth. ga·fri·sahtja-
Goth. ga·fri·sahtna-
(pr.) ‘dargestellt werden: μορφοῦσθαι; formari’
(GoEtD. F96)
(Goth. dgafrisahtnai [opt3sg] Gal 4,19 GlA, HbGo. 246,2)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·pre·sogi̯ɑɦtno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·pre·sogi̯ɦtno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦo·pre·sogi̯ɦtno-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *gɦo·pre·soǵɦtno-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. gɦo·pre·soǵɦtno-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *gɦo·pre·sogɦtno-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. gɦo·pre·sogɦtno-
gɦt -› gt
Deaspiration of ǥɦ before t
Rǥɦt›gt → *gɦo·pre·sogtno-
5. gɦo·pre·sogtno-
*g → k
Devoicing of *g before *t
Rgt›kt → *gɦo·pre·soktno-
6. gɦo·pre·soktno-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *gɦo·pre·soxtno-
7. gɦo·pre·soxtno-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *gɦo·fre·soxtno-
8. gɦo·fre·soxtno-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *go·fre·soxtno-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
9. go·fre·soxtno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ga·fre·saxtna-
10. ga·fre·saxtna-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *ga·fri·saxtna-
11. ga·fri·saxtna-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → Goth. ga·fri·sahtna-
Kpd. šaktuman-
(LÚ.c.a.ethn.)
(NOMS. 1084)
(Kpd. ša-ak-du-ma!-an!)
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦtumon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦtumon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦtumon-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦtumon-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦtumon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saǵɦtuman-
4. saǵɦtuman-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sagɦtuman-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sagɦtuman-
gɦt -› gt
Deaspiration of ǥɦ before t
Rǥɦt›gt → *sagtuman-
6. sagtuman-
*g → k
Devoicing of *g before *t
Rgt›kt → *saktuman-
7. saktuman-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Kpd. šaktuman-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Kpd. šaktunua-
(LÚ.c.) ‘-’
(NOMS. 1085)
(Kpd. ša-ak-du-nu-a)
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦtunu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦtunu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦtunu̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦtunu̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦtunu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saǵɦtunu̯a-
4. saǵɦtunu̯a-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sagɦtunu̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sagɦtunu̯a-
gɦt -› gt
Deaspiration of ǥɦ before t
Rǥɦt›gt → *sagtunu̯a-
6. sagtunu̯a-
*g → k
Devoicing of *g before *t
Rgt›kt → *saktunu̯a-
7. saktunu̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Kpd. šaktunu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sogi̯ɑɦut


PIE √sgiɑɦ- √sogiɑɦ- √segiɑh- ‘sagen, mitteilen, reden’
(IEW 897f.)
(+ Pyysalo)
√sogiɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013:421-2)
(IEW. 897f. [diff.])
Far. siga-
(vb.) ‘sagen, mitteilen’
(ANEtWb. 459)
1. PIE *segi̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *segi̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. segi̯ɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *seǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. seǵɦo-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *segɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. segɦo-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sego-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. sego-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sega-
6. sega-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → Far. siga-
HLu. a·šaza-
(vb.) ‘sprechen : speak’
(Tischler 1990:87)
(Melchert 1989:198-9)
1. PIE *o·sogi̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·sogi̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·sogi̯ɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *o·soj́ɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. o·soj́ɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·saj́ɦa-
4. a·saj́ɦa-
*j́ɦ → zɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to zɦ
Rj́ɦ›zɦ → *a·sazɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. a·sazɦa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *a·šazɦa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. a·šazɦa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. a·šaza-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OIcl. saga·n-
(f.) ‘Erzählung, Bericht, Saga’
(ANEtWb. 459)
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦēɑh·n-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *sogi̯ɑɦāɑh·n-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. sogi̯ɑɦāɑh·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦāh·n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sogi̯ɦāh·n-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦāh·n-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. soǵɦāh·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *soǵɦā·n-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. soǵɦā·n-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *soǵɦa·n-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
6. soǵɦa·n-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sogɦa·n-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. sogɦa·n-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *soga·n-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
8. soga·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. saga·n-
OMed. hazāna-
(sb.) ‘tongue’
(OldP. 214-5)
(OPers. hazānam [sgA])
1. PIE *sosgi̯ɑɦēɑhno-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *sosgi̯ɑɦāɑhno-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. sosgi̯ɑɦāɑhno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sosgi̯ɦāhno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sosgi̯ɦāhno-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *sosj́ɦāhno-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sosj́ɦāhno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sasj́ɦāhna-
5. sasj́ɦāhna-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sasj́ɦāna-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. sasj́ɦāna-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hasj́ɦāna-
7. hasj́ɦāna-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *haszɦāna-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
8. haszɦāna-
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → OMed. haszāna-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
OIcl. segja-
(vb.) ‘sagen, mitteilen’
(ANEtWb. 467)
(Oicl. segjan [inf.])
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦei̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦei̯o-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sogɦei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sogɦei̯o-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sogei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. sogei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sagei̯a-
6. sagei̯a-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *sagii̯a-
7. sagii̯a-
*a – i i̯ → e – i̯
Umlaut for *a – ii̯
Ragii̯›egi̯ → *segi̯a-
8. segi̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → OIcl. segja-
√sogiɑɦul-
OIcl. sǫgul-
(a.) ‘redselig’
(ANEtWb. 578)
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦúlo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦúlo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦúlo
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦúlo
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦúlo
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sogɦúlo
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sogɦúlo
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sogúlo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. sogúlo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sagúla
6. sagúla
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *sagúl
7. sagúl
*a — ú → ǫ — ú
Umlaut for a — ú
Ragú›ǫgú → *sǫgúl
8. sǫgúl
*ú → u
Orthographic change of *ú into u
Rú›u → OIcl. sǫgul
√sogiɑɦun-
OEng. ge·sagun-
(f.) ‘narration’
(ASaxD. 434)
(gesagun, gesagune)
1. PIE *Π·sogi̯ɑɦun-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·sogi̯ɦun-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·sogi̯ɦun-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *Π·soǵɦun-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·soǵɦun-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *Π·sogɦun-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. Π·sogɦun-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *Π·sogun-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. Π·sogun-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OEng. Π·sagun-
OIcl. sǫgn-
(f.) ‘Sage, Aussage’
(ANEtWb. 578)
1. PIE *sogi̯ɑɦun-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogi̯ɦun-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogi̯ɦun-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *soǵɦun-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. soǵɦun-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sogɦun-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sogɦun-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sogun-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. sogun-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sagun-
6. sagun-
*a — u → ǫ — Ø
Umlaut for a — u
Ragu›ǫg → OIcl. sǫgn-
√sgiɑɦ-
Gr. ὑπο·σχο-
(ao.) ‘versprechen’
(Gr. ὑπο·σχέσθαι)
1. PIE *upo·sgi̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *upo·sgi̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. upo·sgi̯ɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *upo·sǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. upo·sǵɦo-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *upo·sḱho-
4. upo·sḱho-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *upo·skho-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. upo·skho-
u- -> hu
Crescence of h before u-
Ru=›hu= → *hupo·skho-
6. hupo·skho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὑπο·σχο-
Ion.-Att. ὑπ.έσχη-
(pf.) ‘versprechen’
(GEW 2:970)
(Gr. ὑπέσχημαι = *sesgiaḫ-)
1. PIE *up.sésgiɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *up.sésgiɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. up.sésgiɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *up.sésgiɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. up.sésgiɦāh-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *up.sésǵɦāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. up.sésǵɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *up.sésǵɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. up.sésǵɦā-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *up.sésḱhā-
6. up.sésḱhā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *up.séskhā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. up.séskhā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
Rā›ē → *up.séskhē-
8. up.séskhē-
u- -> hu
Crescence of h before u-
Ru=›hu= → *hup.séskhē-
9. hup.séskhē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. ὑπ.σέσχη-
Ion.-Att. ὑπο.σχεσίη-
(f.) ‘das Versprechen’
(GEW 2:970)
1. PIE *upo.sgiɑɦetsíēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *upo.sgiɑɦetsíāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. upo.sgiɑɦetsíāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *upo.sgiɦetsíāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. upo.sgiɦetsíāh-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *upo.sǵɦetsíāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. upo.sǵɦetsíāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *upo.sǵɦetsíā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. upo.sǵɦetsíā-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *upo.sḱhetsíā-
6. upo.sḱhetsíā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *upo.skhetsíā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. upo.skhetsíā-
*ts → s
Loss of dental in *ts
Rts›s → *upo.skhesíā-
8. upo.skhesíā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
Rā›ē → *upo.skhesíē-
9. upo.skhesíē-
u- -> hu
Crescence of h before u-
Ru=›hu= → *hupo.skhesíē-
10. hupo.skhesíē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. ὑπο.σχεσίη-
Ion.-Att. ὑπο.σχήσο-
(fut.) ‘versprechen’
(Gr. ὑποσχήσομαι)
1. PIE *upo. sgiɑɦḗɑhtso-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *upo. sgiɑɦā́ɑhtso-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. upo. sgiɑɦā́ɑhtso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *upo. sgiɦā́htso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. upo. sgiɦā́htso-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *upo. sǵɦā́htso-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. upo. sǵɦā́htso-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *upo. sǵɦā́tso-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. upo. sǵɦā́tso-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *upo. sḱhā́tso-
6. upo. sḱhā́tso-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *upo. skhā́tso-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. upo. skhā́tso-
*ts → s
Loss of dental in *ts
Rts›s → *upo. skhā́so-
8. upo. skhā́so-
*ā́ → ḗ
Ion-Att. change of *ā́ into ḗ
Rā́›ḗ → *upo. skhḗso-
9. upo. skhḗso-
u- -> hu
Crescence of h before u-
Ru=›hu= → *hupo. skhḗso-
10. hupo. skhḗso-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. ὑπο. σχήσο-
√sisgiɑɦ-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. ὑπ.ίσχο-
(vb.) ‘versprechen’
(GEW1:970)
(Gr. ὑπ·ίσχομαι = *sisgiaḫ-)
1. PIE *up.sísgiɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *up.sísgiɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. up.sísgiɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *up.sísǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. up.sísǵɦo-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *up.sísḱho-
4. up.sísḱho-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *up.sískho-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. up.sískho-
u- -> hu
Crescence of h before u-
Ru=›hu= → *hup.sískho-
6. hup.sískho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὑπ.σίσχο-
Gr. ὑπ.ισχνέο-
(vb.M.) ‘versprechen’
(Gr. ὑπ·ισχνέομαι)
1. PIE *up.sisgiɑɦnéi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *up.sisgiɦnéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. up.sisgiɦnéi̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *up.sisǵɦnéi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. up.sisǵɦnéi̯o-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *up.sisḱhnéi̯o-
4. up.sisḱhnéi̯o-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *up.siskhnéi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. up.siskhnéi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *up.siskhnéo-
6. up.siskhnéo-
u- -> hu
Crescence of h before u-
Ru=›hu= → *hup.siskhnéo-
7. hup.siskhnéo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὑπ.σισχνέο-
gAv. hizu-
(m.) ‘Zunge : ‘tongue’
(AIWb. 1815)
(gAv. hizvā [sgI], hizvō [sgG], hizubīš [plI])
1. PIE *sisgi̯ɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sisgi̯ɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sisgi̯ɦu-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *sišgi̯ɦu-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. sišgi̯ɦu-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *sišj́ɦu-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sišj́ɦu-
*sj́ → j́
Change of sj́ into j́
Rsj́›j́ → *sij́ɦu-
5. sij́ɦu-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hij́ɦu-
6. hij́ɦu-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *hizɦu-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
7. hizɦu-
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → gAv. hizu-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
LAv. hizvā-
(f.) ‘Zunge’
(AIWb. 1816)
1. PIE *sisgi̯ɑɦu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *sisgi̯ɑɦu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. sisgi̯ɑɦu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sisgi̯ɦu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sisgi̯ɦu̯āh-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *sišgi̯ɦu̯āh-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. sišgi̯ɦu̯āh-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *sišj́ɦu̯āh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sišj́ɦu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sišj́ɦu̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. sišj́ɦu̯ā-
*sj́ → j́
Change of sj́ into j́
Rsj́›j́ → *sij́ɦu̯ā-
7. sij́ɦu̯ā-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hij́ɦu̯ā-
8. hij́ɦu̯ā-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *hizɦu̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
9. hizɦu̯ā-
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → *hizu̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
10. hizu̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. hizvā-
LAv. hizvah-
(n.) ‘Zunge : tongue’
(AIWb. 1816)
1. PIE *sisgi̯ɑɦu̯os-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sisgi̯ɦu̯os-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sisgi̯ɦu̯os-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *sišgi̯ɦu̯os-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. sišgi̯ɦu̯os-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *sišj́ɦu̯os-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sišj́ɦu̯os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sišj́ɦu̯as-
5. sišj́ɦu̯as-
*sj́ → j́
Change of sj́ into j́
Rsj́›j́ → *sij́ɦu̯as-
6. sij́ɦu̯as-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hij́ɦu̯ah-
7. hij́ɦu̯ah-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *hizɦu̯ah-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
8. hizɦu̯ah-
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → *hizu̯ah-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
9. hizu̯ah-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. hizvah-


PIE √sku- √soku- √seku- (vb.) ‘sehen’
(IEW 897)
(+ Pyysalo)
√sku-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. pa·šku-
(vb.1.) ‘zurückweisen, vernachlässigen, vergessen’
(HHand. 127)
(CHD P:XX, HEG P:XX)
1. PIE *po·sku-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pa·sku-
2. pa·sku-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. pa·šku-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. ARHA pa·šku-
(vb.) ‘overlook, neglect’
(KLuN:334f.)
(HLu. ARHA pa-sà-REL-i)
1. PIE *Π·po·sku-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·pa·sku-
2. Π·pa·sku-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. Π·pa·šku-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OIr. ro·sc-
(m.) ‘Auge, Blick’
(DIL. 512)
1. PIE *Π·sku̯o
* ku/u̯ → q
Emergence of labiovelar q
RkU›q → *Π·sqo
2. Π·sqo
*q → k
Delabialization of labiovelar *q
Rq›k → *Π·sko
3. Π·sko
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → *Π·sk
4. Π·sk
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OIr. Π·sc
OIr. tā·sc-
(m.) ‘Anzeige’
(DIL. 580)
1. PIE *Π·sku̯o
* ku/u̯ → q
Emergence of labiovelar q
RkU›q → *Π·sqo
2. Π·sqo
*q → k
Delabialization of labiovelar *q
Rq›k → *Π·sko
3. Π·sko
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → *Π·sk
4. Π·sk
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OIr. Π·sc
OInd. vi·ṣkaya-
(pr.A.) ‘sehen’
(KEWA 3:229)
(Dhatup. viṣkayati [3sg])
1. PIE *u̯i·sku̯oi̯o-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *u̯i·šku̯oi̯o-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. u̯i·šku̯oi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯i·šku̯ai̯a-
3. u̯i·šku̯ai̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *u̯i·škai̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. u̯i·škai̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vi·škai̯a-
5. vi·škai̯a-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *vi·ṣkai̯a-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
6. vi·ṣkai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. vi·ṣkaya-
OIcl. skoða-
(vb.) schauen, untersuchen’
(ANEtWb. 497a)
(OIcl. skoða)
1. PIE *skuto-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *skuþo-
2. skuþo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *skuþa-
3. skuþa-
*þ → ð
Change of þ into ð
R=þ›=ð → OIcl. skuða-


PIE √sku- √soku- √seku- (sb.) ‘Quelle, Spring’ (vb.) ‘hervorsprudeln’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + RV.)
√sokui-
(HEG Š:XX)
Hitt. šaku̯i-
(c.) ‘Quelle, Sprudel, Quellteich : spring, well’
(HHand. 139)
(Hitt. ša-ku-iš, Not “ša-ku‹-ni›-iš” vs. HIL. 810 !)
1. PIE *soku̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saku̯i-
2. saku̯i-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šaku̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šaku̯iši-
(vb.) ‘heraussprüdeln : sprinkle(?)’
(CHD Š:77)
(Hitt. ša-ku-iš-ši-it [3sg], KUB 17. 28 i 15)
1. PIE *soku̯isi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saku̯isi-
2. saku̯isi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šaku̯iši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sokuni-
Hitt. šaku̯ani-
(c.) ‘Quelle, Sprudel, Quellteich’
(HHand. 139)
1. PIE *soku̯oni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *saku̯ani-
2. saku̯ani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šaku̯ani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šakuni-
(c.) ‘Quelle, Sprudel, Quellteich’
(HHand. 139)
1. PIE *sokuni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakuni-
2. sakuni-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šakuni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šakunei̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘heraussprudeln’
(HHand. 139)
1. PIE *sokunei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakunei̯a-
2. sakunei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šakunei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šakuniške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘heraussprudeln’
(HIL. 810)
1. PIE *sokuniski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sokunisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. sokunisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakunisḱe/a-
3. sakunisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sakuniske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sakuniske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šakuniške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sokur-
Hitt. šakura-
(URU.) ‘Bei > Kartapaha.; DKašk. 104)’
(OGH.331)
(Hitt. ša-ak-ku-ra)
1. PIE *sokuro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakura-
2. sakura-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šakura-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šakuru̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘tränken (Pferde)’
(HHand. 139)
1. PIE *sokuru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakuru̯a-
2. sakuru̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šakuru̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. šakuru̯ani-
(ÍD.) ‘XX’
(II.11.§ )
(HLu. (“FLUMEN+MINUS”)sá-ku+ra/i-wa/i-ni-i-zi-ha)
1. PIE *sokuru̯oni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakuru̯ani-
2. sakuru̯ani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. šakuru̯ani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šakuru̯au̯a-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘tränken’
(HHand. 139)
(Hitt. šaguruauanzi [inf.])
1. PIE *sokuru̯ou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakuru̯au̯a-
2. sakuru̯au̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šakuru̯au̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šakuru̯au̯ar-
(N.act.) ‘tränken’
(HHand. 139)
(Hitt. šakuruauar-)
1. PIE *sokuru̯ou̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sakuru̯au̯ar-
2. sakuru̯au̯ar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šakuru̯au̯ar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sokut-
RV. vi·ṣaktā-
(f.) ‘eine nicht mehr Milch gebende Kuh’
(KEWA 3:227)
1. PIE *u̯i·sokutēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯i·sokutāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯i·sokutāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯i·sokutāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯i·sokutāh-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *u̯i·šokutāh-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. u̯i·šokutāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯i·šakutāh-
5. u̯i·šakutāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯i·šakutā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. u̯i·šakutā-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *u̯i·šaktā-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
7. u̯i·šaktā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vi·šaktā-
8. vi·šaktā-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. vi·ṣaktā-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)


PIE √sgɑɦu- √sogɑɦu- √segɑɦu-
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + Toch; or PIE *sku- soku- seku-)
√sogɑɦu- √sōgɑɦu-
TochA. sāk-
(pret.) ‘remain : bleiben’
(DTochB. 680)
(TochA. sāk)
1. PIE *sōgɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sōgɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sōgɦu-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *sāgɦu-
3. sāgɦu-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sāgɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. sāgɦ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sāg-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. sāg-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → TochA. sāk-
TochA. saka-
(vb.) ‘manere, remanere’
(Poucha 357)
1. PIE *sogɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sagɦu̯a-
3. sagɦu̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sagɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. sagɦa-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *saga-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. saga-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → TochA. saka-
TochB. sasāka-
(vb.) ‘stay, remain, be’
(DTochB. 679-70)
(TochB. [sa]sākauwa])
1. PIE *sosōgɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sosōgɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sosōgɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sasōgɦu̯a-
3. sasōgɦu̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *sasāgɦu̯a-
4. sasāgɦu̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sasāgɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. sasāgɦa-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sasāga-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. sasāga-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → TochB. sasāka-
TochA. sākä-
(vb.) ‘hold oneself back’
(DTochB. 680)
(TochA. sākässi [inf.])
1. PIE *sōgɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sōgɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sōgɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sōgɦu̯a-
3. sōgɦu̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *sāgɦu̯a-
4. sāgɦu̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sāgɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. sāgɦa-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sāga-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. sāga-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → TochA. sāka-
√sogɑɦu̯on-
CHD Š: 58f.)
(Oettinger 1979: 29,352, HIL. 815)
Hitt. šagu̯ant-
(a.) [in mng.] ‘unterbrochen, verzögert’
(HHand. 139)
Hitt. šaguant-
1. PIE *sogɑɦu̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogɦu̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogɦu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sagɦu̯ant-
3. sagɦu̯ant-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *sagu̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. sagu̯ant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šagu̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šer (...) šagu̯an·dari̯a-
(vb.) ‘sich oben aufhalten’
(HHand. 139)
Hitt. šer (...) šaguandaria-
1. PIE *Π·sogɑɦu̯on·dɑɦori̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·sogɦu̯on·dɦori̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·sogɦu̯on·dɦori̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·sagɦu̯an·dɦari̯a-
3. Π·sagɦu̯an·dɦari̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *Π·sagu̯an·dari̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. Π·sagu̯an·dari̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. Π·šagu̯an·dari̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šagu̯an·dari̯a-
(vb.) ‘unterbleiben, ungefeiert lassen’
(HHand. 139)
Hitt. ša-ku-ua-an-ta-ri-ia-zi
1. PIE *sogɑɦu̯on·dɑɦori̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogɦu̯on·dɦori̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogɦu̯on·dɦori̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sagɦu̯an·dɦari̯a-
3. sagɦu̯an·dɦari̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *sagu̯an·dari̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. sagu̯an·dari̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šagu̯an·dari̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šagun·dari̯anu-
(cs.) ‘ungefeiert bleiben (Feste)’
(HHand. 139)
Hitt. šagundarianu-
1. PIE *sogɑɦun·dɑɦori̯onu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogɦun·dɦori̯onu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogɦun·dɦori̯onu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sagɦun·dɦari̯anu-
3. sagɦun·dɦari̯anu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *sagun·dari̯anu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. sagun·dari̯anu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šagun·dari̯anu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sogɑɦus-
TochB. sakṣ-
(vb.M.) ‘to hold oneself (back), abide’
(DTochB. 679)
(TochB. s[a]kṣtär)
1. PIE *sogɑɦusi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sogɦusi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sogɦusi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sagɦusi-
3. sagɦusi-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sagɦsi-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. sagɦsi-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sagsi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. sagsi-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
Rsi›ṣ → *sagṣ-
6. sagṣ-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → TochB. sakṣ-
TochB. sākäsk-
(vb.) ‘leave behind, restrain’ (DTochB. 679)
(TochB. sākäske)
TochB. sākäsk-
1. PIE *sōgɑɦu̯oski-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sōgɦu̯oski-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sōgɦu̯oski-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sōgɦu̯osḱ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. sōgɦu̯osḱ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sōgɦu̯asḱ-
4. sōgɦu̯asḱ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *sāgɦu̯asḱ-
5. sāgɦu̯asḱ-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sāgɦasḱ-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. sāgɦasḱ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sāgɦask-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. sāgɦask-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *sāgask-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
8. sāgask-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → TochB. sākask-


PIE √sl- √sol-, √sel- (a.) ‘erwachsen, hoch, groß, wichtig, zahlreich’ (sb.) ‘Wachstum’ (vb.) ‘überheben, zunehmen’
(IEW 899)
(+ Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√solo-
Hitt. šala·garda-
(n.) ‘Hochmut’
(HHand. 14)
1. PIE *solo·gi̯ɑɦordo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *solo·gi̯ɦordo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. solo·gi̯ɦordo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *solo·ǵɦordo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. solo·ǵɦordo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sala·ǵɦarda-
4. sala·ǵɦarda-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *sala·gɦarda-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. sala·gɦarda-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *sala·garda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. sala·garda-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šala·garda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√solēɑh-
Latv. sala-
(f.) ‘Höhe (im Morast)’
(LiEtWb. 758)
1. PIE *solēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *solāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. solāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *solāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. solāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *solā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. solā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *salā
5. salā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → Latv. sala
Lith. salà-
(f.) ‘Bodenerhebung (im Morast)’
(LiEtWb. 758)
1. PIE *solḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *solā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. solā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *solā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. solā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *solā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. solā́
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *salā́
5. salā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *salṓ
(XX:XX)
6. salṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → Lith. salà
√solɑho-
HLu. šalḫa-
(.) ‘power’
(CHLu. 3.2.3)
(HLu. LIGNUM-la-ha)
1. PIE *solɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *solho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. solho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *salha-
3. salha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šalha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šalha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. šalḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. šalḫantei
(.) ‘Wachstum, Gedeihen’ (?)
(HHand. 140)
1. PIE *solɑhontei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *solhontei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. solhontei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *salhantei-
3. salhantei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šalhantei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šalhantei-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šalḫantei-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. šalḫadi-
(.) ‘to Hitt. šalḫanti-’
(DLL. 85)
(CLu. ša-al-ḫa-a-ti)
1. PIE *solɑhodɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *solhodɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. solhodɦi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *salhadɦi-
3. salhadɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *salhadi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. salhadi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šalhadi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. šalhadi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. šalḫadi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. šalḫaza-
(.) ‘greatness, succession’
(CHLu. 2.5.3)
(HLu. (LIGNUM)sá-la-ha-za)
1. PIE *solɑhodɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *solhodɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. solhodɦi̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *solhojɦo-
3. solhojɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *salhajɦa-
4. salhajɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *salhaja-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. salhaja-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *salhaza-
6. salhaza-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šalhaza-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. šalhaza-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. šalḫaza-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√soli-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. šali-
(a.) ‘gross, wichtig, erwachsen, zahlreich’
(HEG S:767-775)
(CHD Š: 82)
1. PIE *soli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sali-
2. sali-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šali-
(c.) ‘Erwachsener’
(HHand. 140)
1. PIE *soli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sali-
2. sali-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šalei̯a-
(vb.) ‘groß machen, großziehen’
(HHand. 140)
1. PIE *solei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *salei̯a-
2. salei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šalei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lat. īn·solent-
(pt.) ‘überheblich, übermäßig, unverschämt’
(WH. 1:704)
1. PIE *Π·solei̯ent-
*ei̯e → ee
Loss *i̯ between e and e
Rei̯e›ee → *Π·soleent-
2. Π·soleent-
*ee → ē
Contraction of *ee into ē
Ree›ē → *Π·solēnt-
3. Π·solēnt-
*ēnt → ent
Shortening of *ē in ēnt
Rēnt›ent → Lat. Π·solent-
Lat. īn·solēsco-
(vb.) ‘zunehmen, überheben’
(Lat. īn·solēscō)
1. PIE *Π·solēski̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *Π·solēsḱo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. Π·solēsḱo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *Π·solēsko-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·solēsko-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. Π·solēsco-
Lat. īn·solentiā-
(f.) ‘Überhebung, Übertreibung, Verschwendung’
(WH. 1:704)
1. PIE *Π·solei̯enti̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·solei̯enti̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·solei̯enti̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·solei̯enti̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·solei̯enti̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·solei̯enti̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·solei̯enti̯ā-
*ei̯e → ee
Loss *i̯ between e and e
Rei̯e›ee → *Π·soleenti̯ā-
5. Π·soleenti̯ā-
*ee → ē
Contraction of *ee into ē
Ree›ē → *Π·solēnti̯ā-
6. Π·solēnti̯ā-
*ēnt → ent
Shortening of *ē in ēnt
Rēnt›ent → *Π·solenti̯ā-
7. Π·solenti̯ā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. Π·solentiā-
Lat. ob·solēto-
(pt.) ‘veraltet, abgetragen, abgenutz, gewöhnlich’
(WH. 1:427-8)
1. PIE *Π·solei̯eto-
*ei̯e → ee
Loss *i̯ between e and e
Rei̯e›ee → *Π·soleeto-
2. Π·soleeto-
*ee → ē
Contraction of *ee into ē
Ree›ē → Lat. Π·solēto-
Lat. ob·solēu-
(pf.) ‘veralten, sich abnutzen, verkümmern’
(WH. 1:427-8)


PIE √sl- √sol-, √sel- (vb.tr.) ‘‘strecken, dehnen’ (intr.) ‘breit/platt werden’
(IEW XX)
√sel-
RV. sí.sar-
(pr.2.A.) ‘ausstrecken, dehnen : stretch, extend’
(KEWA 3:470)
(RV. sísarti [3sg])
1. PIE *sí.sel-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *sí.ser-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. sí.ser-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. sí.sar-
RV. prá (...) sí.sar-
(pr.2.A.) ‘vorstrecken’ (Arme)
(WbRV. 1570)
(RV. prá (...) sísarti [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·sí.sel-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *Π·sí.ser-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. Π·sí.ser-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. Π·sí.sar-
√sl-
RV. sísr-
(vb.) ‘ausstrecken, dehnen : stretch, extend’
(KEWA 3:470)
(RV. sísrate [3pl])
1. PIE *sísl-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → RV. sísr-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
soloi-
Hitt. šalai-
(vb.) ‘breit werden/laufen, platt werden’
(HHand. 140)
1. PIE *soloi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *salai-
2. salai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šalai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. prá (…) sāraya·-
(csM.) ‘breiten sich aus’
(KEWA 3:471)
1. PIE *Π·sōlei̯o-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *Π·sōrei̯o-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. Π·sōrei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·sōrei̯a-
3. Π·sōrei̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·sārei̯a-
4. Π·sārei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *Π·sārai̯a-
5. Π·sārai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·sāraya-


PIE √sel- √sol- √sl- (vb.) ‘fliegen, eilen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√sol-
(Pyysalo)
(HEG S:762-X)
TochA. säl-
(pr.) ‘fliegen’
(DTochB. 686)
(in TochA. sälmāṃ [pt.])
1. PIE *sol-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. sal-
Hitt. šal·ašḫa-
(LÚc.) ‘Kutscher, Stallbursche (?)’
(HHand. 140)
1. PIE *sol·osɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sol·osho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sol·osho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sal·asha-
3. sal·asha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šal·ašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šal·ašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šal·ašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√solo-
(Pyysalo)
RV. sára-
(pr.) ‘eilen, hineilen zu’
(WbRV. 1570)
(RV. sárat [3sg])
1. PIE *sélo-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *séro-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. séro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *séra-
3. séra-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → RV. sára-
Hitt. šalau̯ana-
(GN.pl) ‘Götter des Tores = dšatauana-’
(HHand. 140)
1. PIE *solou̯ono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *salau̯ana-
2. salau̯ana-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šalau̯ana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √sl- √sol- √sel- (vb.) ‘binden’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√solo-
(HEG Š:752)
Hitt. šala-
(KUŠ.) (Teil des Zaumzeugs)
(HHand. 140)
(Hitt. ša-a-la-aš)
1. PIE *solo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sala-
2. sala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. šala-
(KUŠn.) ‘-(?)-’ (Teil des Zaumzeugs)
(DLL. 84)
(CLu. ša-a-la(-pa) [plNA])
1. PIE *solo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sala-
2. sala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. šala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√selɑh-
OIr. selan-
(.) ‘corde, laisse de chien’
(LEIA S:79)
1. PIE *selēɑhno-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *selāɑhno-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. selāɑhno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *selāhno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. selāhno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *selāno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. selāno-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OIr. selano-
√ɦɑd·selo-
MidIr. aisel-
(.) ‘joint’
(EtDiPC 44)
(LEIA A-94, MidIr. asil, aisil, aisel)
1. PIE *ɦɑedselo
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑadselo
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑadselo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦadselo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦadselo
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *adselo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. adselo
*ds → s
Change of ds into s
Rds›s → *aselo
5. aselo
*ase → aise
Epenthesis of i
Rase›aise → *aiselo
6. aiselo
*-o → -Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R=o›=0 → MidIr. aisel
MidBret. esel
(m.) ‘joint’
(EtDiPC 44)
(DIL 31)
1. PIE *ɦɑedselo
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑadselo
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑadselo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦadselo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦadselo
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *adselo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. adselo
*ds → s
Change of ds into s
Rds›s → *aselo
5. aselo
*-o → -Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R=o›=0 → *asel
6. asel
*ase → ese
Umlaut of aCe to eCe
Rase›ese → MidBret. esel
Corn. esel-
(sb.) ‘joint’
(EtDiPC 44)
1. PIE *ɦɑedselo
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑadselo
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑadselo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦadselo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦadselo
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *adselo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. adselo
*ds → s
Change of ds into s
Rds›s → *aselo
5. aselo
*-o → -Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R=o›=0 → *asel
6. asel
*ase → ese
Umlaut of aCe to eCe
Rase›ese → Corn. esel
√soli-
OIcl. seli·n-
(m.) ‘Geschirr, Seil’
(ANEtWb. 469)
1. PIE *soli·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sali·n-
2. sali·n-
ali -> eli
Umlaut of ali into eli
Rali›eli → OIcl. seli·n-
OIcl. sili·n-
(m.) ‘Geschirr, Seil’
(ANEtWb. 469)
1. PIE *seli·n-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → OIcl. sili·n-


PIE √sent-, √sont- ‘wertvoller Gegenstand’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√sont-
Hitt. šant-
(c.) ‘wertvoller Gegenstand in Inventar’
(HHand. 143)
1. PIE *sont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sant-
2. sant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sent-
OGaul. senti-
(c?.) ‘fibula, Kostbarkeit, Wertgegenstand’
(ACSS. 2:1502)
(OGaul. sentem [sgA])
OIr. sēt-
(m.) ‘trésor, fortune, richesse, bétail’
(LEIA S, 99)
(DIL. 539, OIr. sét ‘object/unit of value, chattel, etc.’)
1. PIE *senti-
*ant/ent → ēt
Change of *ant/ent into ēt
Rent›ēt → *sēti-
2. sēti-
VtV → VthV
Lenition of voiceless stop *t
Rt›th → OIr. sēthi-
OGaulG. σέντιο-
(VN.m.pl) ‘XX’
(ACSS. 2:1502)
(OGaul. σέντιοι [plN])
1. PIE *sénti̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → *séntio-
2. séntio-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → OGaulG. σέντιο-
OGaul. sentio-
(m.) ‘concilium autessiodorense’
(ACSS. 2:1502)
(OGaul. sentius [XX])
1. PIE *senti̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OGaul. sentio-


√sm- √som- √sem- ‘sehen, freundlich blicken, lächeln’
(IEW XX)
√smo-
Hitt. a·šma-
(vb.) ‘siehe, führwahr, nun : look here, lo, behold’
(HIL. 263)
(Hitt. a-aš-ma [2sg], HEG X:XX),
1. PIE *o·smo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·sma
2. a·sma
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. a·šma
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ka·šma-
(vb.) ‘siehe, führwahr, nun : look here, lo, behold’
(HHand. 75)
(Hitt. ka-a-aš-ma)
1. PIE *Π·smo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·sma
2. Π·sma
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. Π·šma
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√smi-
RV. smaya-
(pr.) ‘glänzend, freundlich erscheinen’
(WbRV. 1614)
(RV. tanúā vírūpe smayete (uṣásā),
1. PIE *smei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *smei̯a-
2. smei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *smai̯a-
3. smai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. smaya-
RV. smáyamāna-
(pr.) ‘freundlich hindurchblicken [durch I]’
(WbRV. 1614)
1. PIE *sméi̯omēno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sméi̯amēna-
2. sméi̯amēna-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *smái̯amēna-
3. smái̯amēna-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *smái̯amāna-
4. smái̯amāna-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. smáyamāna-
TochB. smi-
(vb.) ‘smile: lächeln’
(DTochB. 721)
(in TochB. smimane [pt.])
√smep-
OInd. smāpaya-
(cs.) ‘XX’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *smēpei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *smēpei̯a-
2. smēpei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *smēpai̯a-
3. smēpai̯a-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *smāpai̯a-
4. smāpai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. smāpaya-


PIE √snɑhu- ‘brennen, rösten, dörren’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√snɑhu-
(Pyysalo)
(HEG S:828-9, CHD Š: 172f. HIL. 832-3)
Hitt. šanḫu-
(vb.1.) ‘rösten, dörren’
(HHand. 142)
(Hitt. šanḫuzi [3sg], Oettinger 1979:216, Eichner 1988:143)
1. PIE *sonɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sonhu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sonhu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sanhu-
3. sanhu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šanhu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šanhu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šanḫu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
RV. siṣṇo-
(a.) ‘epithet of Agni, EWA 2:731’
(WbRV. 1521)
(RV. siṣṇo [sgV] agne [sgV], RV. 8,19,31)
1. PIE *sisnɑhou-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sisnhou-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sisnhou-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *sišnhou-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. sišnhou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sišnhau-
4. sišnhau-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sišnau-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sišnau-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *sišnō-
6. sišnō-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *siṣnō-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
7. siṣnō-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → *siṣṇō-
8. siṣṇō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → RV. siṣṇo-
Hitt. šanḫu-
(vb.) ‘rösten, dörren’
(HHand. 142)
1. PIE *sonɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sonhu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sonhu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sanhu-
3. sanhu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šanhu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šanhu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šanḫu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. šanḫu·bia-
(d.) ‘XX’
(OHP. 1:371)
(Hitt. ša-an-ḫu-pí-aš, ša-an-ḫu-pí-ia-an)
1. PIE *sonɑhu·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sonhu·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sonhu·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sanhu·Σ-
3. sanhu·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šanhu·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šanhu·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šanḫu·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√snɑhuo-
Hitt. šanḫu̯a-
(sb.) ‘a food’
(HIL. 832-3)
(Hitt. ša-an-hu-u-ua-aš)
1. PIE *sonɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sonhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sonhu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sanhu̯a-
3. sanhu̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šanhu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šanhu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šanḫu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. šanḫu̯ant-
(pt.) ‘geröstet, gedörrt’
(HHand. 142)
1. PIE *sonɑhu̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sonhu̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sonhu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sanhu̯ant-
3. sanhu̯ant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šanhu̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šanhu̯ant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šanḫu̯ant-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√snɑhun-
Hitt. šanḫun-
(.) ‘a food’
(HIL. 832-3)
(Hitt. ša-an-hu-na-aš [sgG])
1. PIE *sonɑhun-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sonhun-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sonhun-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sanhun-
3. sanhun-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šanhun-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šanhun-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šanḫun-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. šanḫunt-
(pt.) ‘geröstet, gedörrt’
(HHand. 142)
1. PIE *sonɑhunt-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sonhunt-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sonhunt-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sanhunt-
3. sanhunt-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šanhunt-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šanhunt-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šanḫunt-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√snɑhut-
Hitt. šanḫut-
(pt.) ‘geröstet, gedörrt’
(HHand. 142)
1. PIE *sonɑhut-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sonhut-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sonhut-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sanhut-
3. sanhut-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šanhut-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šanhut-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šanḫut-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √snu- ‘Jungfrau, Brautfrau’ (vb.) ‘freien, verloben’
(IEW 977-8)
(+ Pyysalo HLu.)
√snunbɑɦ-
Ion.-Att. νύμφη
(f.) ‘Braut, Jungfrau, Nymphe’
(GEW 2:235-6)
1. PIE *snúnbɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *snúnbɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. snúnbɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *snúnbɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. snúnbɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *snúnbɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. snúnbɦā-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *snúnphā-
5. snúnphā-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hnúnphā-
6. hnúnphā-
*h → Ø
Loss of *h before n
Rhn›n → *núnphā-
7. núnphā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
Rā›ē → *núnphē-
8. núnphē-
*nP → mP
Change of nP into mP
RnP›mP → *númphē-
9. númphē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion.-Att. νύμφη-
Gr. νύμφιο-
(.) ‘Bräutigam’
(GEW 2:235-6)
1. PIE *snúnbɑɦio-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *snúnbɦio-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. snúnbɦio-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *snúnphio-
3. snúnphio-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hnúnphio-
4. hnúnphio-
*h → Ø
Loss of *h before n
Rhn›n → *núnphio-
5. núnphio-
*nP → mP
Change of nP into mP
RnP›mP → *númphio-
6. númphio-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. νύμφιο-
Gr. νυμφεύο-
(pr.) ‘verloben’
(GEW 2:235-6)
1. PIE *snunbɑɦeúso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *snunbɦeúso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. snunbɦeúso-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *snunpheúso-
3. snunpheúso-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hnunpheúho-
4. hnunpheúho-
*h → Ø
Loss of *h before n
Rhn›n → *nunpheúho-
5. nunpheúho-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *nunpheúo-
6. nunpheúo-
*nP → mP
Change of nP into mP
RnP›mP → *numpheúo-
7. numpheúo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. νυμφεύο-
√snubɑɦ-
(IEW. 977-978)
(WP. 2:697)
Lat. nūb-
(pf.) ‘heiraten (von der Frau)’
(in Lat. nūpta [pt.f.])
1. PIE *snoubɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *snoubɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. snoubɦ-
*bɦ → f
Affricativization of labial *bɦ
Rbɦ›f → *snouf-
3. snouf-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *snūf-
4. snūf-
*f → b
Change of *f into b
Rf›b → *snūb-
5. snūb-
*sn → n
Loss of sibilant *s in *sn-
Rsn=›n= → Lat. nūb-
(XX:XX)
Lat. prōnubā-
(f.) ‘Ehestifterin, Brautfrau’
(in Lat. prōnuba [sgN])
1. PIE *prosnubɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *prosnubɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. prosnubɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *prosnubɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. prosnubɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *prosnubɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. prosnubɦā-
*bɦ → f
Affricativization of labial *bɦ
Rbɦ›f → *prosnufā-
5. prosnufā-
*f → b
Change of *f into b
Rf›b → *prosnubā-
6. prosnubā-
*osn → ōn
Loss of *s and lengthening of *osn to ōn
Rosn›ōn → Lat. prōnubā-
Lat. nūbo-
(pr.3.) ‘heiraten (von der Frau)’
(WH. 2:183f.)
Lat. nūbō, nūbere [inf.])
1. PIE *snoubɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *snoubɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. snoubɦo-
*bɦ → f
Affricativization of labial *bɦ
Rbɦ›f → *snoufo-
3. snoufo-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *snūfo-
4. snūfo-
*f → b
Change of *f into b
Rf›b → *snūbo-
5. snūbo-
*sn → n
Loss of sibilant *s in *sn-
Rsn=›n= → Lat. nūbo-
(XX:XX)
RussCS. snubi-
(vb.) ‘verkuppeln’
(REW 2:683)
1. PIE *snoubɑɦiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *snoubɑɦiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. snoubɑɦiíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *snoubɦiíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. snoubɦiíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *snaubɦiíh-
4. snaubɦiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *snaubɦií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. snaubɦií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *snaubɦī́-
6. snaubɦī́-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *snaubī́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. snaubī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *snoubī́-
8. snoubī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *snūbī́-
9. snūbī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *snūbí-
10. snūbí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → *snūbi-
11. snūbi-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → RussCS. snubi-
Czech. snoubi-
(vb.) ‘freien, verloben’
(REW 2:683)
1. PIE *snoubɑɦiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *snoubɑɦiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. snoubɑɦiíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *snoubɦiíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. snoubɦiíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *snaubɦiíh-
4. snaubɦiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *snaubɦií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. snaubɦií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *snaubɦī́-
6. snaubɦī́-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *snaubī́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. snaubī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *snoubī́-
8. snoubī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *snūbī́-
9. snūbī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *snūbí-
10. snūbí-
ū -› ou
Change of ū into ou
Rū›ou → Czech. snoubí-
Lat. cōnūbio-
(n.) ‘gegenseitiges Heimatsrecht’
(in Lat. cōnūbium [sgN])
1. PIE *koɑhsnoubɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohsnoubɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohsnoubɦi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kosnoubɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. kosnoubɦi̯o-
*bɦ → f
Affricativization of labial *bɦ
Rbɦ›f → *kosnoufi̯o-
4. kosnoufi̯o-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *kosnūfi̯o-
5. kosnūfi̯o-
*f → b
Change of *f into b
Rf›b → *kosnūbi̯o-
6. kosnūbi̯o-
*osn → ōn
Loss of *s and lengthening of *osn to ōn
Rosn›ōn → *kōnūbi̯o-
7. kōnūbi̯o-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *cōnūbi̯o-
8. cōnūbi̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. cōnūbio-
Lat. nūbili-
(a.) ‘in heiratsfähigem Alter’
(Lat. nūbilis)
1. PIE *snoubɑɦili-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *snoubɦili-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. snoubɦili-
*bɦ → f
Affricativization of labial *bɦ
Rbɦ›f → *snoufili-
3. snoufili-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *snūfili-
4. snūfili-
*f → b
Change of *f into b
Rf›b → *snūbili-
5. snūbili-
*sn → n
Loss of sibilant *s in *sn-
Rsn=›n= → Lat. nūbili-
(XX:XX)
Lat. nūbs-
(ao.) ‘heiraten (von der Frau)’
(Lat. nūpsit)
1. PIE *snoubɑɦs-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *snoubɦs-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. snoubɦs-
CHs → Cs
Loss of *h between stop and *s
RCHs›Cs → *snoubs-
3. snoubs-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *snūbs-
4. snūbs-
*sn → n
Loss of sibilant *s in *sn-
Rsn=›n= → Lat. nūbs-
(XX:XX)
Lat. nūptiā-
(f.pl) ‘Hochzeit’
(WH. 2:183)
1. PIE *snoubɑɦtiēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *snoubɑɦtiāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. snoubɑɦtiāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *snoubɦtiāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. snoubɦtiāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *snoubɦtiā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. snoubɦtiā-
*bɦ → f
Affricativization of labial *bɦ
Rbɦ›f → *snouftiā-
5. snouftiā-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *snūftiā-
6. snūftiā-
*ft → pt
Deaspiration of *f before t
Rft›pt → *snūptiā-
7. snūptiā-
*sn → n
Loss of sibilant *s in *sn-
Rsn=›n= → Lat. nūptiā-
(XX:XX)
√snusɑh-
(IEW. 978)
RV. sú.snuṣa-
(a.) ‘schöne Schwiegertochter habend’
(WbRV. 1559)
(EWA 2:771-2, Tu. 13801)
1. PIE *sú.snuso-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *sú.snušo-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. sú.snušo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sú.snuša-
3. sú.snuša-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. sú.snuṣa-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
Gr. νυό-
(f.) ‘Schwiegertochter’
(Gr. νυός)
1. PIE *snusó-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hnuhó-
2. hnuhó-
*h → Ø
Loss of *h before n
Rhn›n → *nuhó-
3. nuhó-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *nuó-
4. nuó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. νυό-
AV. snuṣā́-
(f.) ‘sons wife’
(KEWA III:535)
1. PIE *snusḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *snusā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. snusā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *snusā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. snusā́h-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *snušā́h-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. snušā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *snušā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. snušā́-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → AV. snuṣā́-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
Arm. now
(sb.) ‘Schwiegertochter’
(XX:XX)
(Arm. now [sgN], nowoy [sgG])
1. PIE *snousò
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hnouhò
2. hnouhò
*h → Ø
Loss of *h before n
Rhn›n → *nouhò
3. nouhò
*ouh → owh
Change of ouh into owh
Rouh›owh → *nowhò
4. nowhò
owh → ow
 Loss of h after ow
Rowh›ow → *nowò
5. nowò
*o → Ø
Loss of *ò
Rò›0 → Arm. now
Lat. nuru-
(f.) ‘Schwiegertochter’
(Lat. nurus, nurūs [sgG])
1. PIE *snusu-
*VsV → VrV
Rhotacism of *s between vowels
RVsV›VrV → *snuru-
2. snuru-
*sn → n
Loss of sibilant *s in *sn-
Rsn=›n= → Lat. nuru-
(XX:XX)
OHG. snura·n-
(f.) ‘Schwiegertochter, Schnur’
(EWAhd. XX)
(OHG. snura)
1. PIE *snusḗɑh·n-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *snusā́ɑh·n-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. snusā́ɑh·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *snusā́h·n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. snusā́h·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *snusā́·n-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. snusā́·n-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
Rā́RC›áRC → *snusá·n-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. snusá·n-
*usá -> urá
Verner's Law
Rusá›urá → *snurá·n-
6. snurá·n-
*á → a
Loss/absence of accent
Rá›a → OHG. snura·n-
OEng. snoru-
(f.) ‘Schwiegertochter, Schnur’
(ASaxD. 892)
(OEng. snoru [sgN], WP 2:701f.)
1. PIE *snusḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *snusā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. snusā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *snusā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. snusā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *snusā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. snusā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *snusṓ
(XX:XX)
5. snusṓ
*usṓ -> urṓ
Verner's Law
Rusṓ›urṓ → *snurṓ
6. snurṓ
*-ṓ → -ú
Change of root-final -ṓ into -ú
R=ó›=ú → *snurú
7. snurú
*ú → u
Orthographic change of *ú into u
Rú›u → OEng. snuru
OIcl. snor-
(f.) ‘Schwiegertochter, Schnur’
(ANEtWb. 528)
1. PIE *snusḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *snusā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. snusā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *snusā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. snusā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *snusā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. snusā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *snusṓ
(XX:XX)
5. snusṓ
*usṓ -> urṓ
Verner's Law
Rusṓ›urṓ → *snurṓ
6. snurṓ
*-ṓ → -á
Change final -ṓ to -á
R=ṓ›=á → *snurá
7. snurá
*á → a
Loss/absence of accent
Rá›a → OIcl. snura
CS. snucha-
(f.) ‘son’s wife’
(Sadnik √XX)
1. PIE *snousēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *snousāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. snousāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *snousāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. snousāh-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiSlav → *snoušāh-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. snoušāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *snaušāh-
5. snaušāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *snaušā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. snaušā-
*š → x
Slavonic change of *š to x
Rš›x → *snauxā-
7. snauxā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *snouxā-
8. snouxā-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *snūxā-
9. snūxā-
*x → ch
Orthographic change of *x into ch
Rx›ch → *snūchā-
10. snūchā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *snūcha-
11. snūcha-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → CS. snucha-
SerbCS. snŭcha-
(f.) ‘Schwiegertochter’
(REW 2:682f.)
1. PIE *snusēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *snusāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. snusāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *snusāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. snusāh-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiSlav → *snušāh-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. snušāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *snušā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. snušā-
*š → x
Slavonic change of *š to x
Rš›x → *snuxā-
6. snuxā-
*x → ch
Orthographic change of *x into ch
Rx›ch → *snuchā-
7. snuchā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *snucha-
8. snucha-
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → SerbCS. snŭcha-
√snut-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. šnuta-
(c.) ‘a designation for females’
(CHLu. 11.1.a11)
(HLu. (“FEMINA(?)”)sà-nu-ta-sa [G])
1. PIE *snuto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *snuta-
2. snuta-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. šnuta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Alb. nuse-
(f.) ‘Braut’
(Pedersen 1900 KZ 36:279)
(Alb. nuse [pl = sg(?)])
1. PIE *snuti̯eɑhi
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *snuti̯aɑhi
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. snuti̯aɑhi
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *snuti̯ahi
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. snuti̯ahi
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *snuti̯ai
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. snuti̯ai
*sn → n
Loss of sibilant *s in *sn-
Rsn=›n= → *nuti̯ai
(XX:XX)
5. nuti̯ai
PIE *ti̯ → s
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›s → *nusai
6. nusai
ai -> e
Monophthongization of *ai into e
Rai›e → Alb. nuse


PIE √sp- √sop- √sep- ‘säubern’
(IEW XX)
(Or PIE *sopah- : *sobɑɦ- [Sturtevant’s Law] ?)
√sopo-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. šapa-
(vb.) ‘säubern’
(HEG II:842-5)
1. PIE *sopo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sapa-
2. sapa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šapa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Alb. shapoj-
(pr.) ‘polish’
(AlbEtD. 408)
1. PIE *sopēi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sapēi̯a
2. sapēi̯a
*s → sh
Change of *s into sh
Rs›sh → *shapēi̯a
3. shapēi̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *shapēi̯
4. shapēi̯
*ē → o
Change of *ē into o
Rē›o → *shapoi̯
5. shapoi̯
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Alb. shapoj
Pal. šapaman-
(pt.) ‘gereinigt (?) oder Reinigung (?)’
(DPal. 69)
(Pal. ša-pa-a-ma-an, [sgNA])
1. PIE *sopomon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sapaman-
2. sapaman-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Pal. šapaman-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Pal. šapaman-
(.) ‘-(?)-’
(DPal. 69)
(Pal. (-)]šap-pa-ma-an [sgNA])
1. PIE *sopomon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sapaman-
2. sapaman-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Pal. šapaman-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sopou-
(Pyysalo)
Alb. shapova-
(ao.) ‘polish’
(AlbEtD. 408)
1. PIE *sopēu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sapēu̯a-
2. sapēu̯a-
*s → sh
Change of *s into sh
Rs›sh → *shapēu̯a-
3. shapēu̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *shapēva-
4. shapēva-
*ē → o
Change of *ē into o
Rē›o → Alb. shapova-
Pal. šapau̯ina-
(vb.) ‘reinigen; säubern (?)’
(HHand. 143)
(DPal. 69, Pal. ša-pa-u-i-na-i))
1. PIE *sopou̯ino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sapau̯ina-
2. sapau̯ina-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Pal. šapau̯ina-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sopeio-
CLu. šapei̯a-
(vb.) ‘récurer : make clean, polish, purify’
(DLL. 85)
(CLu. ša-pí-ia-ti(-pa-a[t-ta] [3sg])
1. PIE *sopei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sapei̯a-
2. sapei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. šapei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. šapei̯a-
(sb.) ‘ein Reinigungsmittel’
(HHand. 143)
1. PIE *sopei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sapei̯a-
2. sapei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. šapei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. šapei̯a·ši-
(a.gen.) ‘of šapei̯a-’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *sopei̯o·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sapei̯a·si-
2. sapei̯a·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. šapei̯a·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sopiSorɑh-
Hitt. šapišarāḫ-
(vb.1.) ‘reinigen, abwaschen’
(HHand. 143)
(‹suffix unclear›)
1. PIE *sopisorēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *sopisorāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. sopisorāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sopisorāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sopisorāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sapisarāh-
4. sapisarāh-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šapišarāh-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. šapišarāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šapišarāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √sp- √sop- √sep- (sb.) ‘Fuß, Pfote, Huf (des Pferdes), Roß’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√sopl-
Att. ὁπλή-
(f.) ‘der ungespaltene Huf des Pferdes’
(GEW 2:404)
1. PIE *soplḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *soplā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. soplā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *soplā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. soplā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *soplā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. soplā́-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hoplā́-
5. hoplā́-
*ā́ → ḗ
Ion-Att. change of *ā́ into ḗ
Rā́›ḗ → *hoplḗ-
6. hoplḗ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Att. ὁπλή-
Att. ὁπλήεντ-
(pt.) ‘mit Huf versehen’
(GEW 2:404)
(Gr. ὁπλή(ϝ)εντ-)
1. PIE *soplḗɑhu̯ent-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *soplā́ɑhu̯ent-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. soplā́ɑhu̯ent-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *soplā́hu̯ent-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. soplā́hu̯ent-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *soplā́u̯ent-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. soplā́u̯ent-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *hoplā́u̯ent-
5. hoplā́u̯ent-
*u̯E -› hE
Change of u̯ into h before e,é,ē,ḗ
Ru̯E›hE → *hoplā́hent-
6. hoplā́hent-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *hoplā́ent-
7. hoplā́ent-
*ā́ → ḗ
Ion-Att. change of *ā́ into ḗ
Rā́›ḗ → *hoplḗent-
8. hoplḗent-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Att. ὁπλήεντ-
√sopti-
RV. sápti-
(m.) ‘Ross’
(WbRV. 1476)
(Thus not to RV. sápti- (a.) ‘verbunden, vereint’ (WbRV. 1476)?
1. PIE *sópti-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. sápti-
RV. sápti-
(a.) ‘BW des Rosses’
(WbRV. 1476)
1. PIE *sópti-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → RV. sápti-
RV. sáptīvant-
(a.) ‘mit Rossen fahrend’
(WbRV. 1476)
1. PIE *sóptiɑ́hu̯ent-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *sóptiíhu̯ent-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. sóptiíhu̯ent-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *sáptiíhu̯ent-
3. sáptiíhu̯ent-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sáptiíu̯ent-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sáptiíu̯ent-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *sáptī́u̯ent-
5. sáptī́u̯ent-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *sáptī́u̯ant-
6. sáptī́u̯ant-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. sáptī́vant-
√sopu-
(HEG S:853-4)
Hitt. šapu-
(.) ‘Fuß, Pfote, Huf?’
(HEG 2:853)
(Cf. Tischler HHand. 143, also ‘Horn (?)’)
1. PIE *sopu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sapu-
2. sapu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šapu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √sr- √sor- √ser- ‘teilen, trennen’ (sb.) ‘Teil, Anteil, Los, Stand, Lage’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo)
√soro-
(CHD Š: 229f.)
Hitt. šara-
(c.) ‘Teil, Anteil’
(HEG S:863f.)
(Hitt. šarraz [adv.], HIL. 840, HHand. 144)
1. PIE *soro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sara-
2. sara-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šara-
(vb.2.M.) ‘teilen, trennen’
(HHand. 143)
(HIL. 839)
1. PIE *soro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sara-
2. sara-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šešara-
(vb.1.) ‘zerteilen, sortieren’
(HHand. 149)
1. PIE *sesoro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sesara-
2. sesara-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šešara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sori-
Hitt. šarei̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘teilen, trennen’
(HEG S:XX)
1. PIE *sorei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sarei̯a-
2. sarei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šarei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šariške/a-
(vb.) ‘zerteilen, sortieren’
(HEG S:XX)
(Hitt. šareški-)
1. PIE *soriski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sorisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. sorisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sarisḱe/a-
3. sarisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sariske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sariske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šariške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sort-
[WP 2:500]
Lat. sort-
(f.) ‘Los, Stand, Lage, Besitz, Erdteil’
(WH. 2:563-4)
Lat. sortī-
(pr.4.) ‘draw lots; choose, appoint or acquire by lot’
(Lat. sortio, sortīre. WH. 2:564)
1. PIE *sortiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *sortiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. sortiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sortií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. sortií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *sortī́-
4. sortī́-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → Lat. sortī-


PIE √sr-, √sor-, √ser- ‘Hund’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√sor-, √ser-
OInd. sīsara-
(n.) ‘Benennung eines Hunde-Dämons’
(EWA 3:478)
1. PIE *sihɑ́.soro-
PIE *iḫɑ́ → iḫí
Distant assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
RiHɑ́›iHí → *sihí.soro-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. sihí.soro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sihí.sara-
3. sihí.sara-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sií.sara-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sií.sara-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → OInd. sī́.sara-
RV. sālā·vr̥ká-
(m.) ‘ein Tier aus dem Hundegeschlechte’
(WbRV. 1513)
(etwa ‘Schakal, Hyäne’)
1. PIE *sōLēɑh·u̯l̥ku̯ó-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *sōLāɑh·u̯l̥ku̯ó-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. sōLāɑh·u̯l̥ku̯ó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sōLāh·u̯l̥ku̯ó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sōLāh·u̯l̥ku̯ó-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
Rl̥›r̥ → *sōLāh·u̯r̥ku̯ó-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. sōLāh·u̯r̥ku̯ó-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *sōlāh·u̯r̥ku̯ó-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
5. sōlāh·u̯r̥ku̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *sōlāh·u̯r̥ku̯á-
6. sōlāh·u̯r̥ku̯á-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *sālāh·u̯r̥ku̯á-
7. sālāh·u̯r̥ku̯á-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sālā·u̯r̥ku̯á-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
8. sālā·u̯r̥ku̯á-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *sālā·u̯r̥ká-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
9. sālā·u̯r̥ká-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. sālā·vr̥ká-
√sorm-, √serm-
OInd. sīsarama-
(m.) ‘ein Hunde-Dämon’
(MonWil. 1219)
(KEWA 3:478)
1. PIE *sihɑ́.soromo-
PIE *iḫɑ́ → iḫí
Distant assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
RiHɑ́›iHí → *sihí.soromo-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. sihí.soromo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sihí.sarama-
3. sihí.sarama-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sií.sarama-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. sií.sarama-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → OInd. sī́.sarama-
RV. sarámā-
(f.) ‘Hündin Indras & der Götter, KEWA 3:442-3’
(WbRV. 1487)
(RV. sarámā)
1. PIE *sorémēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *sorémāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. sorémāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sorémāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sorémāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sarémāh-
4. sarémāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sarémā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. sarémā-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → RV. sarámā-
√sormi-, √sermi-
Hitt. šarmei-
(d.) ‘Cult in Atarbapa-’
(OHP. 1:375)
(Hitt. šar-mi [Abs])
1. PIE *sormei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sarmei-
2. sarmei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šarmei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šarmei-
(LÚc.) ‘ein Funktionär’
(HHand. 146)
1. PIE *sormei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sarmei-
2. sarmei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šarmei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šarmei̯a-
(c.) ‘Wildhund, nicht domestizierter Hund’
(HHand. 146)
1. PIE *sormei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sarmei̯a-
2. sarmei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šarmei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šarmei̯a-
(LÚc.) (ein Funktionär)
(HHand. 146)
1. PIE *sormei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sarmei̯a-
2. sarmei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šarmei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. sārameyá-
(m.) ‘Nachkomme der Sarámā-’
(WbRV. 1513)
1. PIE *sōromeii̯ó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sōrameii̯ó-
2. sōrameii̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *sōrameii̯á-
3. sōrameii̯á-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *sārameii̯á-
4. sārameii̯á-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *sāramaii̯á-
5. sāramaii̯á-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *sāramēi̯á-
6. sāramēi̯á-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *sāramēyá-
7. sāramēyá-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → RV. sārameyá-


PIE √sr- √ser- √sor- ‘ober, oben, über, usw.’
(IEW. –)
(Heubeck, A. 1964. Idg. *ser- ‘oben’? Orbis 13: 264-267)
√ser-
Hitt. šer
(adv.) ‘oben, oberhalb, darauf, -über’
(HHand. 149)
1. PIE *ser-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šer-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šer
(postp.DL) ‘auf, oben, in’; ‘für, wegen’
(HHand. 149)
1. PIE *ser-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šer-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sor-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. šar·iku̯a-
(LÚ/ÉRINc.) ‘cf. Gr. hamippoi (light cavalry support troops)’
(HHand. 145)
1. PIE *sor·ikiu̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *sor·iḱu̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. sor·iḱu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sar·iḱu̯a-
3. sar·iḱu̯a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *sar·iku̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. sar·iku̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šar·iku̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šar·iu̯a-
(LÚ/ÉRINc.) ‘cf. Gr. hamippoi (light cavalry support troops)’
(HHand. 145)
1. PIE *sor·iu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sar·iu̯a-
2. sar·iu̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šar·iu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šar·iu̯anda-
(LÚ.c.) ‘cf. above’
(NOMS. 1120)
(in Akd. ša-ri-ua-an-da)
1. PIE *sor·iu̯ondɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sor·iu̯ondɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sor·iu̯ondɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sar·iu̯andɦa-
3. sar·iu̯andɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *sar·iu̯anda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. sar·iu̯anda-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šar·iu̯anda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√soro-
Hitt. šara-
(vb.2.M.) ‘überschreiten : transgress’
(HHand. 143)
1. PIE *soro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sara-
2. sara-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√sorto-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. šarta
(postp.) ‘upon, over’
(CHLu. 1.1.8.)
(HLu. SUPER+ra/i-ta)
1. PIE *sorto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sarta-
2. sarta-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. šarta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OLat. sorto-
(pt.) ‘surrectus’
(OxLatD. 1796)
(WH. 2:564, PFest. sortus)
OGaul. sorto-
(f.) ‘‹cf. OLat. sorto-›’
(ACSS. 2:1618)
(OGaul. sorto seruilliae Eleuterioni)
√sro-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. šra
(prep.) ‘oben, auf : sur’
(DLL. 85)
1. PIE *sro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sra-
2. sra-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. šra-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šra
(postp.DL) ‘empor, hinauf, herauf’
(HHand. 143)
1. PIE *sro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sra
2. sra
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šra
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šra·mna-
(a.) ‘oben befindlich’
(HHand. 144)
(OInd. nimna- (a.) ‘tief liegend’ (AiGr. 2/2:777)
1. PIE *sro·mno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sra·mna-
2. sra·mna-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šra·mna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šra·mni-
(adv.) ‘von oben herab’
(HHand. 144)
(RV. nimná- (n.) ‘Niederung, Tiefe’ (KEWA 2:166)
1. PIE *sro·mni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sra·mni-
2. sra·mni-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šra·mni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OInd. sra·stara-
(m.) ‘Lager, Streu’
(EWA 2:785)
(Gr̥Sū. srastara-, KEWA 3:555f.)
1. PIE *sro·storo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OInd. sra·stara-
√sroem-
(Pyysalo)
Pahl. ā·hrām-
(pr.P.) ‘rise, lift up, lead upwards’
(MPahl. 2:11)
(With PIE *em- ‘nehmen’ !)
1. PIE *Π·sroem-
*oe → ō
Contraction of e and o
Roe›ō → *Π·srōm-
2. Π·srōm-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·srām-
3. Π·srām-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → Pahl. Π·hrām-
Pahl. ā·hrāmya-
(pr.P.) ‘rise, lift up, lead upwards’
(MPahl. 2:11)
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *Π·sroemi̯o-
*oe → ō
Contraction of e and o
Roe›ō → *Π·srōmi̯o-
2. Π·srōmi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·srōmi̯a-
3. Π·srōmi̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·srāmi̯a-
4. Π·srāmi̯a-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *Π·hrāmi̯a-
5. Π·hrāmi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → Pahl. Π·hrāmya-
√sri-
CLu. šri
(adv.) ‘oben, auf, über’
(HHand. 145)
(DLL. 86, šar-ri)
1. PIE *sri-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. šri-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LycA. hri
(adv.) ‘en haut, sur’
(DLL. 26)
(Lyk&Hitt. 24)
1. PIE *sri-
PIE *s → h
Change of fricative *s into h
Rs›h → LycA. hri-
Hitt. šri·uašpa-
(TÚGc.) ‘Oberkleid, Jacke?’
(HHand. 145)
Hitt. šariuašpa-
1. PIE *sri·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šri·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √sr- √sor- √ser- (sb.) ‘Käsewasser, Molke’
(IEW XX)
√ser-
Lat. sero-
(n.) ‘Käsewasser, die Molke, das wässerliche Teil’
(Lat. serum)
OGaul. sero-
(PN.m.) ‘(Gaul. cognomen)’
(ACSS. 2:1525)
(OGaul. seri [sgG])
Hitt. šarazi-
(KUŠ) ‘Wasserschlauch, Schlauch’
(HHand. 144)
1. PIE *sorodɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sorodɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sorodɦi-
PIE *dɦi → jɦi
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi›jɦi → *sorojɦi-
3. sorojɦi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sarajɦi-
4. sarajɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *saraji-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. saraji-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *sarazi-
6. sarazi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šarazi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
sorT-
Hitt. šartai-
(vb.2.) ‘(um)spülen, bestreichen’
(HHand. 146)
1. PIE *sortoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sartai-
2. sartai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šartai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šartau-
(n.) ‘Spülen’
(HHand. 146)
(Hitt. šar-ta-ua-aš [sgG])
1. PIE *sortou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sartau-
2. sartau-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šartau-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
sorunT-
XX apud Tischler HEG S:940
HIL. 852: OInd. srav- ‘to flow’, CHD Š: 299
Hitt. šarunta-
() ‘Brunnen’
(HEG S:939-40)
(or Hitt. ussarunta (?)
Language not found or error while translating!


√sr- √sor- √ser- ‘Frau’
(HEG S:861-3)
(Čop 1955:403-6 (sub HIL): TochAB. sāry- ‘Semen’)
√sōr- √sor-
(CHD S:253-4)
(Rieken 1999:262-3, 499)
Hitt. šār·ḫu̯ant-
() ((UZU)c.) ‘Mutterleib, Bauch, Leibesinneres’
(HEG S:893-4)
(HHand. 14, HuIdg. 48)
1. PIE *sōr·hɑu̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sōr·hu̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. sōr·hu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sōr·hu̯ant-
3. sōr·hu̯ant-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *sār·hu̯ant-
4. sār·hu̯ant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šār·hu̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. šār·hu̯ant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. šār·ḫu̯ant-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lat. uc.sōr·-
(f.) ‘Weib, Frau, Gattin’
(Lat. uxor, ōris)
1. PIE *Π.sōr-
*ōRC → oRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ōRC
RōRC›oRC → Lat. Π.sor·-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
OIr. tē·or-
(f.) ‘drei’
(XX:XX)
(OIr. tē·oir ‹- PIE *teisores)
1. PIE *tei·sor-
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → OIr. tē·sor-
√soro-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. ḫašu·šara-
(c.) ‘Großkönigin’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. ha-su-sa5+ra/i-[i?),
1. PIE *Π·soro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·sara-
2. Π·sara-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. Π·šara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ḫašu·šara-
(*c.) ‘Großkönigin’
(HIL. 382, HIL. 846-
(HLu. MUNUS.LUGAL-ra)
1. PIE *Π·soro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·sara-
2. Π·sara-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. Π·šara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ešḫa·šara-
(c.) ‘GAŠAN : domina’
(XX:XX)
Hitt. ešḫa·šara-
1. PIE *esɑho·soro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *esho·soro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. esho·soro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *esha·sara-
3. esha·sara-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ešha·šara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ešha·šara-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ešḫa·šara-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. nana·šara-
(c.) ‘sister (?)’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. (FEMINA)na-na-sa5ra/i-za)
1. PIE *nono·soro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nana·sara-
2. nana·sara-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. nana·šara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Arm. hor-
(sb.) ‘daughter’s husband, son-in-law’
(IHArm. 420)
1. PIE *soro-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → Arm. horo-
√sorhɑi-
(Oettinger 1986 [IF 91]:116-128)
Hitt. a·šārḫi-
(EZEN4.) ‘Fest der Weiblichkeit’
(HEG A:78, HHand. 27)
(Hitt. ašarḫiaš [sgG])
1. PIE *o·sōrhɑi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·sōrhi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·sōrhi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·sōrhi-
3. a·sōrhi-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *a·sārhi-
4. a·sārhi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *a·šārhi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. a·šārhi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. a·šārḫi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
LAv. hāirišī-
(f.) ‘Weib(chen) (geschlechtlich)’
(AIWb. 1806-7)
1. PIE *sōrhɑisiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *sōrhɑisiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. sōrhɑisiíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *sōrhisiíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. sōrhisiíh-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *sōrhišiíh-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. sōrhišiíh-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *sārhišiíh-
5. sārhišiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *sārišií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. sārišií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *sārišī́-
7. sārišī́-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *hārišī́-
8. hārišī́-
*ārI → āirI
Anaptyxis of *i
RārI›āirI → *hāirišī́-
9. hāirišī́-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → LAv. hāirišī-
√sr-
OInd. ti·sr-
(num.f.pl) ‘drei’
(OInd. tisraḥ [plN])
OInd. cáta·sr-
(f.pl) ‘vier’
(WbRV. 433)
1. PIE *ku̯éto·sr-
PIE *ku̯ → ču̯
2nd palatalization of *ku̯
Rku̯›ču̯ → *ču̯éto·sr-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
2. ču̯éto·sr-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ču̯éta·sr-
3. ču̯éta·sr-
*ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RČU›Č → *čéta·sr-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. čéta·sr-
*č → c
From 2nd palatalization *č to c
Rč›c → *céta·sr-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. céta·sr-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → OInd. cáta·sr-
Hitt. a·šraḫi-
(EZEN4.) ‘Fest der Weiblichkeit’
(HHand. 27)
1. PIE *o·srohɑi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·srohi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·srohi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·srahi-
3. a·srahi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *a·šrahi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. a·šrahi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. a·šraḫi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. a·šraḫidaši-
(EZEN4c.) ‘Fest der Weiblichkeit’
(DLL. 34)
1. PIE *o·srohɑidosi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·srohidosi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·srohidosi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·srahidasi-
3. a·srahidasi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *a·šrahidaši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. a·šrahidaši-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. a·šraḫidaši-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. nana·šrei̯a-
(c.) ‘Schwester’
(HHand. 144)
1. PIE *nono·srei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *nana·srei̯a-
2. nana·srei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. nana·šrei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. a·šrulaḫiša-
(.) ‘Weiblichkeit’
(Weitenberg 1984:294)
1. PIE *o·srulohɑiso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·srulohiso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·srulohiso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·srulahisa-
3. a·srulahisa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *a·šrulahiša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. a·šrulahiša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. a·šrulaḫiša-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √ses- (vb.) ‘wachsen, gedeihen’ (sb.) ‘Frucht, Getreide, Saatfeld, Ernte’
(IEW XX)
√ses-
(Kimball 1999:440)
Hitt. šeš-
(vb.) ‘gedeihen : prosper, proliferate’
(HIL. 873)
1. PIE *ses-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šeš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šeša-
() ((GIŠ)c.) ‘Frucht, Ernte’
(HHand. 149)
(Hitt. še-e-ša)
1. PIE *seso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sesa-
2. sesa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šeša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. sasá-
(n./m.?) ‘Saatfeld, Getreide, Feldfrucht’
(EWA1:717)
(KEWA3:450, WbRV. 1494)
1. PIE *sesó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *sesá-
2. sesá-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. sasá-
Kpd. šeša·ḫšušar-
() ((f.)c.) ‘Frucht·Königin’
(NOMS. 1158A)
(Kpd. ší-ša-aḫ-šu-šar)
1. PIE *seso·hɑsusor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *seso·hsusor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. seso·hsusor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sesa·hsusar-
3. sesa·hsusar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *šeša·hšušar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. šeša·hšušar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Kpd. šeša·ḫšušar-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. šešala-
(c.) ‘Obst-pflücker’
(HHand. 149)
1. PIE *sesolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sesala-
2. sesala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šešala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šešan-
(n.) ‘Obstertrag, Obst’
(HHand. 149)
1. PIE *seson-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sesan-
2. sesan-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šešan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


√st- ‘essen’
(IEW XX [diff.])
(Pyysalo: Anat. + Gr.)
√sto-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. parku̯·ašta·nani-
(NINDA) ‘ein Gebäck’
(HHand. 123)
1. PIE *porku̯·osto·noni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parku̯·asta·nani-
2. parku̯·asta·nani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. parku̯·ašta·nani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ašta·u̯ar-
(n.) ‘eine Speise, die von Schwangeren gemieden wird’
(HHand. 28)
1. PIE *osto·u̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *asta·u̯ar-
2. asta·u̯ar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. ašta·u̯ar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. ešta-
(vb.) ‘‹feed (?)›, HHand. 66)
(DLL. 53)
(CLu. a-ti-a-aš iš-ta-ḫa ua-a-š[u] ‹if “And I fed them well for you (?)”›)
1. PIE *esto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *esta-
2. esta-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. ešta-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. ἀρι·στο-
(n.) ‘breakfast’
(GEW 1:140)
(Gr. ἀρι·στον)
1. PIE *Π·sto-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·στο-
Gr. δειπνη·στο-
(.) ‘XX’
(GEW 1:358)
1. PIE *Π·sto-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·στο-
Gr. δορπη·στο-
(.) ‘XX’
(GEW 1:358)
1. PIE *Π·sto-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·στο-
Hitt. parku̯·ašta·nani-
(NINDA) ‘ein Gebäck’
(HHand. 123)
1. PIE *porku̯·osto·noni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *parku̯·asta·nani-
2. parku̯·asta·nani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. parku̯·ašta·nani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√steɑh-
Hitt. eštaḫ-
(vb.1.A.) ‘schlucken, kosten’
(HEG I:420-1)
(Hitt. iš-taḫ-te-e-ni, iš-taḫ-ta [3sg])
1. PIE *e·steɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *e·staɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. e·staɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *e·stah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. e·stah-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *e·štah-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. e·štah-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. e·štaḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. eštaḫa-
(vb.) ‘to taste, to try (food or drinks)’
(HIL. 479)
(Hitt. iš-taḫ-ḫa-an-zi [3pl])
1. PIE *e·steɑho-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *e·staɑho-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. e·staɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *e·staho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. e·staho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *e·staha-
4. e·staha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *e·štaha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. e·štaha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. e·štaḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. eštaḫa·dala-
(MUNUSc.) ‘Vorkosterin (?)’
(HED 2:463)
HEG I:86, Puhvel HED 1/2: 463
1. PIE *e·steɑho·dɑɦolo-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *e·staɑho·dɑɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. e·staɑho·dɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *e·staho·dɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. e·staho·dɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *e·staha·dɦala-
4. e·staha·dɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *e·staha·dala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. e·staha·dala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *e·štaha·dala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. e·štaha·dala-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. e·štaḫa·dala-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√steɑhi-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. ἀρι·στάο-
(vb.) ‘have a breakfast’
(GEW1:140)
1. PIE *Π·stéɑhi̯o-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *Π·stáɑhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. Π·stáɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·stáhi̯o-
(SPIE §2