PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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© 2014-2017 University of Helsinki

"Durch zweier Zeugen Mund wird alle Wahrheit kund" — August Fick
(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
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PIE



PIE √o- (pron.) ‘dieser’
(IEW 281-2)
(+ Pyysalo; compare PIE *e ‘idem’)
√o-
Hitt. a·
(pers/dem.pron.) ‘er, sie, es’
(HEG 1:1-3)
(Hitt. ·aš, ·an, etc, HiuA 58f.)
1. PIE *o·
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a·
Pal. a·
(pers/dem.pron.) ‘er, sie, es’
(DPal. 48-9)
(Hitt. -aš, -an, -at)
1. PIE *o·
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. a·
ORuss. o·se
(intj.) ‘ecce!’
(IEW 281-2)
(ORuss. ose)
1. PIE *o·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·Σ-
2. a·Σ-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → ORuss. o·Σ-
√oni-
(HEG I:29)
(HW2 A: 81, HIL. 209-10)
Hitt. a·ni-
(dem.pron.) ‘jener, [IŠ-TU AN-NI-I]Š, GÚ.R[I.TA]’
(HEG 1:29-30)
(Hitt. an-ni-iš KBo 1.42 iii 33)
1. PIE *o·ni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a·ni-
Hitt. a·ni·šan
(adv.) ‘einst, früher’
(HEG 1:31)
1. PIE *o·ni·son
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·ni·san
2. a·ni·san
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. a·ni·šan
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √o- (pref.) ‘zu’ (end.) ‘allativum’
(IEW 280-1)
(Pedersen + Pyysalo)
√o·
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. a·šma
(adv.) ‘zuerst, erstens’
(HEG A:84)
(For a·, cf. Neu apud Tischler)
1. PIE *o·smo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·sma
2. a·sma
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. a·šma
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. ὄ·ψο-
(n.) ‘Zu·kost, Zu·brot, bes. Fleisch’
(GEW 2:459)
1. PIE *ó·bɑɦso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ó·bɦso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ó·bɦso-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *ó·phso-
3. ó·phso-
*phs → ps
Loss of *h between *p and *s
Rphs›ps → *ó·pso-
4. ó·pso-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄ·ψο-
gAv. a·idyu-
(a.) ‘tüchtig zu [D], brauchbar, nützlich’
(AIWb. 65-6)
1. PIE *o·dɑɦi̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·dɦi̯u-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·dɦi̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·dɦi̯u-
3. a·dɦi̯u-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *a·di̯u-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. a·di̯u-
*adi → aidi
Anaptyxis of *i
RadI›aidI → *a·idi̯u-
5. a·idi̯u-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → gAv. a·idyu-
TochA. a·kälyme
(postp.G) ‘versus’
(Poucha 1)
(TochA. kälyme = ‘Gegend, Richtung’)
1. PIE *o·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → TochA. a·Σ-
LAv. a·sah-
(n.) ‘Gegend, Landstrich, Platz’
(AIWb. 209)
1. PIE *o·ki̯os-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *o·ćos-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. o·ćos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·ćas-
3. a·ćas-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *a·ćah-
4. a·ćah-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → LAv. a·sah-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
Goth. a·mal-
(PN.m.) ‘tapfer, tätig: active, brave’
(GoEtWb. 6)
(Goth. amals [sgN])
1. PIE *o·molo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·mala
2. a·mala
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Goth. a·mal
Goth. a·mala·bairgan-
(PN.) ‘tapfer·bergend’
(GoEtWb. 11)
(Goth. amalabairga)
1. PIE *o·molo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. a·mala·Σ-
Gr. ὀ·ρέγο-
(pr.) (die Hand) ‘zu erreichen suchen, hinstrecken, darreichen, sich strecken’
(GEW 2:412-413)
(Gr. ὀρέγω)
1. PIE *o·réɦɑgi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·réɦgi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·réɦgi̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *o·réɦǵo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. o·réɦǵo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *o·réǵo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. o·réǵo-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *o·régo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. o·régo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὀ·ρέγο-
Oss. '·r'zw-
(vb.) ‘errichten’
(KEWA 2:425)
(Oss. arazun [inf.])
1. PIE *o·reɦɑgi̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·reɦgi̯u-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·reɦgi̯u-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *o·reɦj́u-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. o·reɦj́u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·reɦj́u-
4. a·reɦj́u-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *a·rej́u-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. a·rej́u-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *a·rezu-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
6. a·rezu-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *a·razu-
7. a·razu-
*u → w
Orthographic change of *u into w
Ru›w → *a·razw-
8. a·razw-
*a → '
Orthographic change of *a into '
Ra›' → Oss. '·r'zw-
√·o
(HiuA:29)
Hitt. ·a
(end.) ‘allative singular, in, to, “whither”’
(HIL. 195)
(The allative case is also called ‘directive’ and ‘absolutive’)
1. PIE *·o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ·a
Gr. .ο
(end.) ‘allative singular; in, to’
(HIL. 195)
(Gr. aπο, υπο, πρ·ό, etc.)
1. PIE *.o
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. .ο
RV. ·a
(end.) ‘allative singular; in, to’
(HIL. 195)
(RV. ápa, úpa, prá, etc.; also RV. aṅgá)
1. PIE *·o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → RV. ·a
LAv. ·a
(end.) ‘allative singular; in, to’
(HIL. 195)
(LAv. apa, upa, fra, etc.)
1. PIE *·o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → LAv. ·a


PIE √o- ‘horse, bird, eagle’ (as OLith. ešva- (f.) ‘Stute’ and Lith. ded·ešvà- (f.) ‘Vogelwicke’)
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√o-
HLu. a
(n?.) ‘horse’
(CHLu. 1.1.8)
(HIL. 282: EQUUS.ANIMALá=pa= wá/í=ta, KARATEPE 1 §8 Ho.)
1. PIE *o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. a
Hitt. a·u̯idei-
(.) ‘Sphinx (?) ‹Lit. “Adler·Löwe”›’
(HEG 1:99-100)
(Compare Hitt. wizi- ‘lion’(?))
1. PIE *o·u̯idɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·u̯idɦei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·u̯idɦei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·u̯idɦei-
3. a·u̯idɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. a·u̯idei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OHG. a-
(vb.) ‘festinare, vadere’
(EWAhd. 1)
(OHG. a [2sg] îla du!, bura dih!)
1. PIE *o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OHG. a-


PIE √ō- (vb.) ‘machen’ (sb.) ‘Arm, Macht, Kraft’ (end.) ‘Instrumental’
(IEW —)
(Pyysalo)
√ō-
HLu. ā-
(vb.) ‘do, celebrate, make’
(CHLu. 10.19.2)
(HLu. á-ha [1sg], (HLu. á-wa/i-’ [10.19.5])
1. PIE *ō-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → HLu. ā-
CLu. ā-
(vb.) ‘machen’
(DLL. 23-24)
(CLu. a-ti [3sg], a-ḫa [1sg])
1. PIE *ō-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → CLu. ā-
LycA. a-
(vb.) ‘machen’
(DLycLg. 2)
(Lyc. adi [pr3sg], ade [pret3sg], adẽ [pret3sg])
1. PIE *ō-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ā-
2. ā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → LycA. a-
Lith. ·uo-
(sg.instr.) ‘the (thematic) instrumental ending’
(XX:XX)
(Lith. ·u [sgI], ·uo·j- [sgIdef.])
1. PIE *·ō-
*ō → uo
Change of ō into uo
Rō›uo → Lith. ·uo-


PIE √e- (pron.) ‘dieser’
(IEW 281-2)
(+ Pyysalo; compare PIE *o ‘idem’)
√e-
Hitt. e·
(pers/dem.pron.) ‘er, sie, es’
(HEG 1:1-3)
(Hitt. ·ei [plN])
Pal. e·
(pers/dem.pron.) ‘er, sie, es’
(DPal. 48-9)
(Pal. ·ei [plN])
Hitt. e·ḫu-
(vb.A.) ‘kommen ‹with Hitt. hu- ‘eilen’›’
(HHand. 30)
(Hitt. e-ḫu [ipv2sg])
1. PIE *e·hɑu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *e·hu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. e·hu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. e·ḫu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. e·ni-
(dem.pron.) ‘that one’
(HEG 1:106-7)
(HiuA §54, e-ni-iš, e-ni, e-ni-uš)
Hitt. e·ni·šan
(adv.) ‘thus, as stated’
(HIL. 260-1)
(Hitt. e-ni-iš-ša-an)
1. PIE *e·ni·son
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *e·ni·san
2. e·ni·san
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. e·ni·šan
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. a·di.á
(adv.) ‘an diesem Tage, heute’
(WbRV. 39)
(RV. adiá)
1. PIE *e·diɑHó
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *e·diHó
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. e·diHó
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *e·diHá
3. e·diHá
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → *e·di.á
4. e·di.á
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → RV. a·di.á


PIE √ɑɦgu- √ɑɦogu- √ɑɦegu- ‘Spitze, Gipfel, Kopf, Felsgipfel’ (a.) ‘erste, oberste’ (adv.) ‘vor(an), zuerst’
(IEW. 8-9)
(HiuA:183)
√ɑɦogu-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. ága-
(m.) ‘mountain, tree’
(KEWA I:17)
1. PIE *ɑɦógu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦógu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦógu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦógu̯a-
3. ɦógu̯a-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *ɦágu̯a-
4. ɦágu̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *águ̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. águ̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → OInd. ága-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
OSax. aku-
(.) ‘head, Kopf : caput’
(ASächsWb. –)
(OSax. acu,
1. PIE *ɑɦogu̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦogu̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦogu̯o
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *ogu̯o
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. ogu̯o
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *oku̯o
4. oku̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aku̯a
5. aku̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *aku̯
6. aku̯
*-ku̯ → -ku̯
Change of root-final -ku̯ into -ku
R=ku̯›=ku → OSax. aku
√ɑɦegur-
(HEG 1:235-6)
(HED 3: 287, Weitenberg 1984: 154, HIL. 395, Melchert 1994:144)
Hitt. ḫegur-
(NA4n.) ‘Felsgipfel, Felsheiligtum, Fels’
(HEG 2:235)
(Hitt. ḫé-kur, ḫé-gur, HHand. 49, EHS 276-7)
1. PIE *ɑɦegur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦegur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦegur-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫegur-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
RV. ágra-
(n.) ‘Spitze, äußerstes ende, Gipfel, Anfang’
(WbRV. 10)
(EWA1:45-, KEWA1:18)
1. PIE *ɑɦéguro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦéguro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦéguro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦégura-
3. ɦégura-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *égura-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. égura-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *égra-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. égra-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → RV. ágra-
LAv. aγra-
(a.) ‘der erste, oberste’
(AIWb. 48)
1. PIE *ɑɦeguro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦeguro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦeguro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦegura-
3. ɦegura-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *egura-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. egura-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *egra-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. egra-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *agra-
6. agra-
g → γ
Change of *g into γ
Rg›γ → LAv. aγra-
√ɑɦegurei-
RV. agre·gá-
(a.) ‘voran-gehend’
(WbRV. 11)
1. PIE *ɑɦegurei·gu̯óɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦegurei·gu̯óh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦegurei·gu̯óh-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *ɦegurei·gu̯áh-
3. ɦegurei·gu̯áh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *egurei·gu̯áh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. egurei·gu̯áh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *egurei·gu̯á-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. egurei·gu̯á-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *egrei·gá-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. egrei·gá-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *agrai·gá-
7. agrai·gá-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *agrē·gá-
8. agrē·gá-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → RV. agre·gá-
RV. agre·pā́-
(a.) ‘zuerst drinkend’
(WbRV. 12)
1. PIE *ɑɦegurei·pḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *ɑɦegurei·pā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ɑɦegurei·pā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦegurei·pā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦegurei·pā́h-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *egurei·pā́h-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. egurei·pā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *egurei·pā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. egurei·pā́-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *egrei·pā́-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. egrei·pā́-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *agrai·pā́-
7. agrai·pā́-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *agrē·pā́-
8. agrē·pā́-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → RV. agre·pā́-
Lat. agri·ppā-
(PN.m.) ‘agrippa’ ‹ if PItal. *agrīpā-, cf. above (?) ›
(OxLatD. 91)
(Lat. agrippa)
1. PIE *eɑɦgurei·pēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *aɑɦgurei·pēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. aɑɦgurei·pēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *aɑɦgurei·pāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. aɑɦgurei·pāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *aɦgurei·pāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. aɦgurei·pāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *agurei·pāh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. agurei·pāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *agurei·pā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. agurei·pā-
*gu/u̯r → gr
Delabialization of u/u̯ between *g and *r
RgUr›gr → *agrei·pā-
7. agrei·pā-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *agrī·pā-
8. agrī·pā-
*īp → ipp
Change of īp into ipp
Rīp›ipp → Lat. agri·ppā-
LAv. aγrae·raϑa-
(Im.) ‘EN. eines Gläubigen’
(AIWb. 49)
(LAv. aγraeraϑahe)
1. PIE *ɑɦegurei·rotɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦegurei·rotho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦegurei·rotho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦegurei·ratha-
3. ɦegurei·ratha-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *egurei·ratha-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. egurei·ratha-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *egrei·ratha-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. egrei·ratha-
*th → ϑ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›ϑ → *egrei·raϑa-
6. egrei·raϑa-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *agrai·raϑa-
7. agrai·raϑa-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → *agrae·raϑa-
8. agrae·raϑa-
g → γ
Change of *g into γ
Rg›γ → LAv. aγrae·raϑa-


PIE √hɑ- (vb.) ‘lassen (≈ Hitt. lai-), ‘glauben, erlauben, vertrauen, bleiben’ (pref.) ‘-los, un-, nicht-, ohne- (≈ Hitt. lie)’
(IEW 512 + 756-758)
(Pyysalo: OAnat. + IE)
√hɑe-
(HEG 1:120-1)
(HW2 H:1., HED 3:9, Melchert 1994:176-7)
Hitt. ḫa-
(vb.) ‘acceptieren, vertrauen, glauben’
(HEG I:120-1)
(Hitt. ḫa-mi [1sg], ḫa-ad-du, ḫa-at-tén [2pl], if ‘(zu)lassen (?)’, SHV: 67, 360f.)
1. PIE *hɑe-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑa-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑa-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ha-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. ḫa-
(vb.) ‘allow: erlauben, zulassen’
(LuwCorp.)
(1. CEKKE Karkamiš § 21, HLu. ha-i [3sg])
1. PIE *hɑe-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑa-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑa-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ha-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. ḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑe
(IEW 756-758)
(Not *n̥, cf. TochAB a·!)
Gr. ἀ·
(neg.pref.) ‘verneinendes, privatives’
(GEW 1:1)
1. PIE *hɑe·
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑa·
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑa·
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ha·
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ha·
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *a·
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. a·
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀ·
Gr. ἄ·ϊρο-
(a.) ‘un-happy’ (Gr. ī)
(in Gr. ἶρος ἄϊρος ‘Iros, (the) unhappy’)
1. PIE *hɑé·Σ
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *hɑá·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑá·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *há·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. há·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *á·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. á·Σ
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἄ·Σ
TochA. a·sinät-
(adv.) ‘in-satiabiliter’
(Poucha 13)
1. PIE *hɑe·Σ
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑa·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑa·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ha·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ha·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochA. a·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
TochA. a·pärkar
(adj.adv.) ‘non longus, brevis’ (TochA. parkär)
(Poucha 6)
1. PIE *hɑe·Σ
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑa·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑa·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ha·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ha·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochA. a·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
RV. a·sinvá-
(a.) ‘unersättlich’
(WbRV. 154)
(RV. asinvám vavrám)
1. PIE *hɑe·Σ
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑa·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑa·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ha·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ha·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. a·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
TochA. a·sinät
(adv.) ‘insatiabiliter’
(Poucha 13)
(TochA. asinät)
1. PIE *hɑe·Σ
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑa·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑa·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ha·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ha·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochA. a·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
TochB. a·tāmo
(sb.) ‘unfruitful (barren) ground’ ‹täm- ‘gebären’›
(DTochB. 9)
1. PIE *hɑe·Σ
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑa·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑa·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ha·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ha·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. a·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
TochB. a·tākatte
(a.) ‘unfounded, untrue’
(DTochB. 9)
1. PIE *hɑe·Σ
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑa·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑa·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ha·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ha·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. a·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
RV. á·deva-
(a.) ‘nicht göttlich, gottlos, den Göttern feindlich’
(WbRV. 37-8)
1. PIE *hɑé·Σ
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *hɑá·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑá·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *há·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. há·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. á·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√hɑē-
(Pyysalo)
(Or *éhɑe?, cf. Latv. ã·lava-!)
Lith. o·lau-
(a.) ‘un·verheiratet, ledig’
(LiEtWb. 516)
(For Lith. √lau- cf. Goth. liuga- ‘heiraten’, GoEtD. 235)
1. PIE *hɑē·Σ
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *hɑā·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑā·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hā·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hā·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ā·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ā·Σ
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *ō·Σ
(XX:XX)
5. ō·Σ
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → Lith. o·Σ
Lith. o·lava-
(a.) ‘un·verheiratet, ledig’
(LiEtWb. 516)
1. PIE *hɑē·Σ
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *hɑā·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑā·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hā·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hā·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ā·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ā·Σ
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *ō·Σ
(XX:XX)
5. ō·Σ
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → Lith. o·Σ
Latv. ã·lava-
(f.) ‘nicht trächtige/milchende Kuh’
(LiEtWb. 516)
1. PIE *hɑē·Σ
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *hɑā·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑā·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hā·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hā·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Latv. ā·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
RV. ā́·deva-
(a.) ‘gottlos’
(WbRV. 176-7)
(RV. ā́deva-)
1. PIE *hɑḗ·Σ
PIE *ɑḗ → ɑā́
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑḗ
Rɑḗ›ɑā́ → *hɑā́·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑā́·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hā́·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hā́·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. ā́·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
RV. ā́·sat-
(n.) ‘das Nichtseiende, Unwahrheit, Lüge’
(WbRV. 153)
1. PIE *hɑḗ·Σ
PIE *ɑḗ → ɑā́
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑḗ
Rɑḗ›ɑā́ → *hɑā́·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑā́·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hā́·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hā́·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. ā́·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
RV. ā́·sat-
(a.) ‘nicht seined, unwahr, unheilsam’
(WbRV. 153)
1. PIE *hɑḗ·Σ
PIE *ɑḗ → ɑā́
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑḗ
Rɑḗ›ɑā́ → *hɑā́·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑā́·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hā́·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hā́·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. ā́·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
TochA. ā·knāts-
(a.) ‘foolish, stupid’ (sb.) ‘fool’
(DTochB. 3)
1. PIE *hɑē·Σ
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *hɑā·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑā·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hā·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hā·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochA. ā·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
TochA. ā·knats-
(a.) ‘i-gnorans, stultus’
(Poucha 16)
1. PIE *hɑē·Σ
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *hɑā·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑā·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hā·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hā·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochA. ā·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
TochA. ā·knatsune
(sb.abst.) ‘i-gnorantia, in-scientia’
(Poucha 16)
1. PIE *hɑē·Σ
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *hɑā·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑā·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hā·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hā·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochA. ā·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√hɑi-
TochB. e·ṣpirtatte-
(a.) ‘unturned ‹to B. spārtt- ‘turn’›’
(DTochB. 99)
1. PIE *hɑei·Σ
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑai·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑai·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hai·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hai·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ai·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ai·Σ
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *ē·Σ
5. ē·Σ
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. e·Σ
TochB. e·trenkätte-
(a.) ‘not sticking to, unattached’
(DTochB. 81)
1. PIE *hɑei·Σ
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑai·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑai·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hai·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hai·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ai·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ai·Σ
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *ē·Σ
5. ē·Σ
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. e·Σ
OIcl. ei
(adv.) ‘nicht; ‹or *hɑēi = TochB. ai-?’
(ANEtWb. 95)
1. PIE *hɑei
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑai
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑai
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hai
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hai
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ai
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ai
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
Rai›ei → OIcl. ei
OIcl. ei·gi
(adv.) ‘nicht: nec, non’
(ANEtWb. 95)
1. PIE *hɑei·Σ
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑai·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑai·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hai·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hai·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ai·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ai·Σ
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
Rai›ei → OIcl. ei·Σ
TochB. ai·kacce-
(a.) ‘not removing’
(DTochB. 102)
1. PIE *hɑēi·Σ
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *hɑāi·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑāi·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hāi·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hāi·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *āi·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. āi·Σ
āi → ai
Orthographic change of āi into ai
Rāi›ai → TochB. ai·Σ
√hɑio-
(HEG 1:120)
Hitt. ḫaa-
(vb.) ‘vertrauen, jemandes etwas glauben’
(HHand. 34)
(Hitt. ḫa-a, ḫa-a-mi [1sg], ḫa-a-ši, ḫa-a-ir)
1. PIE *hɑei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑai̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑai̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hai̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hai̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hai̯a-
4. hai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *haa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
5. haa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫaa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑioi-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ḫaai-
(pr.A.) ‘to believe, trust, to be convinced’
(HIL. 313)
(Hitt. ḫa-a-iš [3sg])
1. PIE *hɑei̯oi-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑai̯oi-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑai̯oi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hai̯oi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hai̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hai̯ai-
4. hai̯ai-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *haai-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
5. haai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫaai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Alb. je
(.) ‘Erlaubnis’ ‹cf. Goth. us·laubja- ‘erlauben’›
(WP I:203)
1. PIE *hɑi̯oi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hi̯oi̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hi̯oi̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *i̯oi̯o
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. i̯oi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *i̯ai̯a
4. i̯ai̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *i̯ai̯
5. i̯ai̯
*ai/i̯ → e
Monophthongization of *ai/i̯ into e
RaI›e → *i̯e
(XX:XX)
6. i̯e
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Alb. je


PIE √hɑ (pref.) ‘cum’ (conj.) ‘-que’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo)
√hɑe
Gr. ἀ·
(pref.) ‘α copulativum’
(LSJ. 1)
1. PIE *hɑe·
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑa·
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑa·
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ha·
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ha·
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *a·
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. a·
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀ·
Gr. ἀ·μέλδω
(vb.pref.) ‘cf. Gr. μέλδω’
(GEW 2:199)
(Hes. ἀμέλδειν : τήκειν)
1. PIE *hɑe·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑa·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑa·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ha·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ha·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *a·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. a·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀ·Σ-
CLu. ·ḫa
(encl.conj.) ‘et’
(DLL. 37)
(CLu. ·ḫa)
1. PIE *·hɑe
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *·hɑa
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ·hɑa
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *·ha
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ·ha
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ·ḫa
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Pal. ·ḫa
(encl.conj.) ‘et’
(HHand. 34)
1. PIE *·hɑe
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *·hɑa
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ·hɑa
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *·ha
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ·ha
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Pal. ·ḫa
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √hɑ (pref.) ‘gleich’ (ptcl.) ‘id’
(IEW 280-1)
(Pyysalo)
√hɑo
CLu. ·ḫa
(marque l’ emphase) ‘aussi, meme’
(DLL. 37)
1. PIE *·hɑo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *·ho
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ·ho
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *·ha
3. ·ha
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ·ḫa
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Gr. ὀ·γάστωρ
(.) ‘ὁμογαστωρ’
(LSJ. 1196)
1. PIE *hɑo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ho·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ho·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *o·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. o·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὀ·Σ-
Gr. ὄ·πατρο-
(a.) ‘by the same father’
1. PIE *hɑó·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hó·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hó·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ó·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. ó·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄ·Σ-
LAv. a·vånt-
(pt.) ‘gleich erscheinen wie –’
(AIWb. 952)
1. PIE *hɑo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ho·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ho·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ha·Σ-
3. ha·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → LAv. a·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Gr. ὄ·τριχες
(a.) ‘with like hair’
(Gr. ὄθριξ, ὄτριχες)
1. PIE *hɑó·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hó·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hó·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ó·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. ó·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄ·Σ-


PIE √hɑ- (pref.prep.postp.end.) ‘in-, zu-’
(IEW —)
(Pyysalo)
√hɑe-
Gr. .α
(end.) ‘the accusative singular ending ‹not *n̥›’
(GrGr. 545)
(Gr. ·α)
1. PIE *.hɑe
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *.hɑa
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. .hɑa
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *.ha
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. .ha
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *.a
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. .a
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. .α
Umbr. ·a
(postp.) ‘zu, cf. Umbr. ař, Lat. ad’
(WH. 1:11)
(OUmbr. ·a, cf. WbOU. › ad = ař)
1. PIE *·hɑe
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *·hɑa
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ·hɑa
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *·ha
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ·ha
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Umbr. ·a
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Gr. .α
(adv.end.) ‘XX’
(GrGr. 622-3)
(Gr. ·α)
1. PIE *.hɑe
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *.hɑa
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. .hɑa
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *.ha
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. .ha
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *.a
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. .a
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. .α
TochA. ·
(sgA.) ‘XX’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *·hɑe
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *·hɑa
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ·hɑa
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *·ha
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ·ha
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *·a
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ·a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → TochA. ·
TochB. ·
(sgA.) ‘XX’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *·hɑe
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *·hɑa
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ·hɑa
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *·ha
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ·ha
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. ·a
(SPIE §2.1.4)


PIE √hɑi- ‘glänzen, brennen’
(IEW 11-12 *ai-)
√hɑi-
(HEG A:3)
Pal. ḫaa-
(vb.) ‘heiß, warm sein’
(DPal. 53)
(Pal. ḫa-a-ri [3sg], ḫa-a-an-ta, ḫa-an-ta)
1. PIE *hɑoi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hoi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hoi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hai̯a-
3. hai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *haa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. haa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Pal. ḫaa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑin-
Pal. ḫaan-
(pt.n.) ‘warm, heiß’
(DPal. 53)
(Pal. ḫa-a-an[(-)?)
1. PIE *hɑoi̯on-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hoi̯on-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hoi̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hai̯an-
3. hai̯an-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *haan-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. haan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Pal. ḫaan-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
gAv. ayān-
(n.) ‘Tag’
(AIWb. 157)
(LAv. ayą [sgL], gAv. ayąn [sgG])
1. PIE *hɑoi̯ōn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hoi̯ōn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hoi̯ōn-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hai̯ōn-
3. hai̯ōn-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *hai̯ān-
4. hai̯ān-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ai̯ān-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ai̯ān-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → gAv. ayān-
√hɑir-
(IEW 12)
(Pyysalo 2013:217)
gAv. ayar-
(n.) ‘Tag’
(AIWb. 157)
(gAv. ayarǝ̄ [sgNA])
1. PIE *hɑei̯or-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑai̯or-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑai̯or-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hai̯or-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hai̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hai̯ar-
4. hai̯ar-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ai̯ar-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ai̯ar-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → gAv. ayar-
Arm. aire-
(vb.) ‘verbrennen, anzünden’
(ArmGr. 418-9)
(Arm. airel [inf.])
1. PIE *hɑeire-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaire-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaire-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haire-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haire-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Arm. aire-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Hitt. ḫir·ina-
(UDUNm.) ‘Schmeltzofen’
(HEG 2:237)
(Hitt. ḫi-ri-na-aš)
1. PIE *hɑir·ino-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hir·ino-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hir·ino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hir·ina-
3. hir·ina-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫir·ina-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
LAv. uz·īrah-
(n.) ‘Nachmittag’
(AIWb. 410)
1. PIE *Π·hɑ́iros-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *Π·híiros-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·híiros-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·híiras-
3. Π·híiras-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·íiras-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·íiras-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *Π·ī́ras-
5. Π·ī́ras-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *Π·ī́rah-
6. Π·ī́rah-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → LAv. Π·īrah-


PIE √hɑi- √ɦɑi- ‘Stein, Bein, Ei, Hode’
(IEW 783-4+)
(Pyysalo)
√hɑi-
(Pyysalo)
TochA. āy-
(m.) ‘os’
1. PIE *hɑōi̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hōi̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hōi̯-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *hāi̯-
3. hāi̯-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *āi̯-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. āi̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochA. āy-
TochB. āy-
(sb.) ‘Bein : bone’
(DTochB. 45-6)
(LÉDT 15, āy)
1. PIE *hɑōi̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hōi̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hōi̯-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *hāi̯-
3. hāi̯-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *āi̯-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. āi̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. āy-
√hɑoiɑh-
TochB. ayā·ṣa-
(a.gen.) ‘prtng to bone’
(DTochB. 45-6)
(TochB. ayāṣṣe)
1. PIE *hɑoi̯ēɑh·si̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *hɑoi̯āɑh·si̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑoi̯āɑh·si̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hoi̯āh·si̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hoi̯āh·si̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hai̯āh·si̯a-
4. hai̯āh·si̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ai̯ā·si̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ai̯ā·si̯a-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
Rsi̯›ṣ → *ai̯ā·ṣa-
6. ai̯ā·ṣa-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. ayā·ṣa-
√hɑoii-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ḫai̯a·ḫai̯a-
(NA4.) ‘‹Stein (?)›’
(HHand. 35)
(Hitt. ḫaia(-)ḫaia)
1. PIE *hɑoii̯o·hɑoii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hoii̯o·hoii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hoii̯o·hoii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *haii̯a·haii̯a-
3. haii̯a·haii̯a-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *haia·haia-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. haia·haia-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → *hai̯a·hai̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
5. hai̯a·hai̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫai̯a·ḫai̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. ḫai̯a-
(I.) ‘-(?)-’
(CHLu. 10.36.53)
(HLu. Iha-ia)
1. PIE *hɑoii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hoii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hoii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *haii̯a-
3. haii̯a-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *haia-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. haia-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → *hai̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
5. hai̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. ḫai̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OHG. ei-
(n.) ‘Ei : egg’
(IEW 784)
1. PIE *hɑoii̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hoii̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hoii̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oii̯o
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. oii̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aii̯a
4. aii̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *aii̯
5. aii̯
*aii̯ → ei
Umlaut *aii̯ → ei
Raii̯›ei → OHG. ei
OSax. ei-
(n.) ‘Ei : egg’
(ASächsWb. 15)
1. PIE *hɑoii̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hoii̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hoii̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oii̯o
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. oii̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aii̯a
4. aii̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *aii̯
5. aii̯
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
Rai›ei → *eii̯
6. eii̯
*-i̯ → -i
Change of root-final i̯ into i
R=i̯›=i → *eii
7. eii
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → *ēi
8. ēi
Change of Rēi into ei
Rēi›ei → OSax. ei
√hɑisto-
OCS. isto
(n.) ‘Hode’
(Sadnik √314)
1. PIE *hɑ́isto-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *híisto-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. híisto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *híista-
3. híista-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *íista-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. íista-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́sta-
5. ī́sta-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *ī́sto-
6. ī́sto-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *ísto-
7. ísto-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → OCS. isto-
OIcl. eista·n-
(wk.f.) ‘Hode : testicle’
(ANEtWb. 98)
1. PIE *hɑoisdo·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hoisdo·n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hoisdo·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oisdo·n-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. oisdo·n-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *oisto·n-
4. oisto·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aista·n-
5. aista·n-
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
Rai›ei → OIcl. eista·n-
√ɦɑisdo-
(HEG 1:237-8)
Hitt. ḫišdaa-
(É.) ‘Mausoleum = É.NA4 = ‘Steinhaus’
(HHand. 49)
(Hitt. ḫé-eš-ta-a [sgNA], ḫi-iš-ta-a-aš [G], ḫe-eš-ti-i
1. PIE *ɦɑisdoi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦisdoi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦisdoi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦisdai̯a-
3. ɦisdai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *ɦisdaa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. ɦisdaa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ɦišdaa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ɦišdaa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫišdaa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. ḫišdaa-
(GKLc.) ‘-(?)-’
(HHand. 51)
(CLu. ḫi-iš-da-a, HIL. 404)
1. PIE *ɦɑisdoi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦisdoi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦisdoi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦisdai̯a-
3. ɦisdai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *ɦisdaa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. ɦisdaa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ɦišdaa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ɦišdaa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫišdaa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫišdaa-
(d.) ‘Histaa-; RDH. 74, REL. 55’
OHP. 1:148)
(Hitt. ḫi-iš-ta-a, Hitt. ḫé-eš-ta-a-aš)
1. PIE *ɦɑisdoi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦisdoi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦisdoi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦisdai̯a-
3. ɦisdai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *ɦisdaa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. ɦisdaa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ɦišdaa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ɦišdaa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫišdaa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Kpd. ḫišdaa·ḫšu-
(LÚ.c.)
(NOMS. 374A)
(Kpd. ḫi-iš-ta-aḫ-šu)
1. PIE *ɦɑisdoi̯o·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦisdoi̯o·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦisdoi̯o·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦisdai̯a·Σ-
3. ɦisdai̯a·Σ-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *ɦisdaa·Σ-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. ɦisdaa·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ɦišdaa·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ɦišdaa·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Kpd. ḫišdaa·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Kpd. ḫišdaa·ḫšušar-
(LÚ.c.)
(NOMS. 375A)
(Kpd. ḫi-iš-ta-aḫ-šu-šar)
1. PIE *ɦɑisdoi̯o·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦisdoi̯o·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦisdoi̯o·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦisdai̯a·Σ-
3. ɦisdai̯a·Σ-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *ɦisdaa·Σ-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. ɦisdaa·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ɦišdaa·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ɦišdaa·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Kpd. ḫišdaa·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫišdaša-
(LÚc.) ‘Vorsteher des Éḫešta’
(HHand. 51)
1. PIE *ɦɑisdoso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦisdoso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦisdoso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦisdasa-
3. ɦisdasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ɦišdaša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ɦišdaša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫišdaša-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OInd. eḍ·ūka-
(m.) ‘charnel-house, reliquary’
(KEWA1:127)
1. PIE *ɦɑoisd·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦoisd·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦoisd·Σ-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *ɦoišd·Σ-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. ɦoišd·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦaišd·Σ-
4. ɦaišd·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *aišd·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. aišd·Σ-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *ēšd·Σ-
6. ēšd·Σ-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *ēṣd·Σ-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
7. ēṣd·Σ-
*ṣd → ṣḍ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rṣd›ṣḍ → *ēṣḍ·Σ-
8. ēṣḍ·Σ-
PIE *ṣḍ → ẓḍ
Voicing of ṣ into ẓ before ḍ
Rṣḍ›ẓḍ → *ēẓḍ·Σ-
9. ēẓḍ·Σ-
PIE *ẓ → Ø
Loss of ẓ
Rẓ›0 → *ēḍ·Σ-
10. ēḍ·Σ-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → OInd. eḍ·Σ-
√ɦɑisdei-
Hitt. ḫišdei-
(Én.) ‘ein Kultgebäude, Mausoleum (?)’
(HHand. 49)
(Hitt. ḫé-eš-ti-i [sgNA?])
1. PIE *ɦɑisdei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦisdei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦisdei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ɦišdei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. ɦišdei-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫišdei-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√ɦɑisdum-
Hitt. ḫišduma-
(LÚc.) ‘am ḫešta- Beschäftigter’
(HHand. 49)
(Hitt. ḫi-iš-tu-um-ma-aš, ḫé-eš-tu-u-ma-aš)
1. PIE *ɦɑisdumo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦisdumo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦisdumo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦisduma-
3. ɦisduma-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ɦišduma-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ɦišduma-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫišduma-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Kpd. ḫišduman
(LÚ.c.)
(NOMS. 377)
(Kpd. ḫi-iš-du-ma-an)
1. PIE *ɦɑisdumon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦisdumon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦisdumon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦisduman-
3. ɦisduman-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ɦišduman-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ɦišduman-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Kpd. ḫišduman-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫišdumna-
(c.) ‘am ḫešta- Beschäftigter’
(HHand. 49)
(Hitt. ḫé-eš-tu-um-na-aš, ḫé-eš-tu-u-um-ni, ḫé-eš-tu-u-um-ni-eš)
1. PIE *ɦɑisdumno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦisdumno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦisdumno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦisdumna-
3. ɦisdumna-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ɦišdumna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ɦišdumna-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫišdumna-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√ɦɑiou-
TochB. āyo-
(sb.) ‘bone’
(DTochB. 45)
(TochB. āyo)
1. PIE *ɦɑōi̯ou-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦōi̯ou-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦōi̯ou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦōi̯au-
3. ɦōi̯au-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ɦāi̯au-
4. ɦāi̯au-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *āi̯au-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. āi̯au-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *āi̯ō-
6. āi̯ō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *āi̯o-
7. āi̯o-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. āyo-


PIE √hɑi-, √ɦɑi- ‘verneigen, Reverenz erweisen, verbeugen, geben, opfern’
(IEW –)
(HEG I:250: Hitt. ḫink1/2- ‘zuteilen’ + Pyysalo)
√ɦɑining-
(Rieken 1999:336, Melchert 1994:176)
Hitt. ḫining-
(vb.) ‘sich verneigen, Reverenz erweisen’
(HIL. 315)
(Hitt. ḫi-ni-i[k], ḫi-ni-ik-zi, ḫi-in-ik-zi, ḫi-en-ik-ta)
1. PIE *ɦɑining-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦining-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦining-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫining-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√ɦɑing-
(HEG 1:246-51)
(HED 3:295, (HIL. 314-, Puhvel HED 3: 289f., 292f.)
Hitt. ḫaing-
(vb.intr.) ‘sich verneigen, Reverenz erweisen’
(HHand. 35)
(Hitt. ḫa-ik-t[a-ri], [ḫa-i]k-ta-ri, ḫa-ik-ta)
1. PIE *ɦɑeing-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑaing-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑaing-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦaing-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦaing-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫaing-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫing-
(vb.) ‘sich verneigen, Reverenz erweisen’
(HHand. 35)
(Hitt. ḫé-ik-ta, ḫi-in-ga-ri, ḫi-ik-ta)
1. PIE *ɦɑing-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦing-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦing-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫing-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫing-
(vb.1.) ‘übergeben, überlassen, opfern’
(HHand. 50)
(Oettinger 1979:93)
1. PIE *ɦɑing-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦing-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦing-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫing-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√ɦɑingo-
Hitt. ḫainga-
(vb.) ‘sich verneigen, Reverenz erweisen’
(HIL. 314)
(Hitt. ḫa-in-kán-ta)
1. PIE *ɦɑeingo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑaingo-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑaingo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦaingo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦaingo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦainga-
4. ɦainga-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫainga-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫinga-
(vb.) ‘sich verneigen, Reverenz erweisen’
(HIL. 314)
(Hitt. ḫi-in-ga, ḫi-in-ga-zi ḫi-in-kat-ta, ḫi-i-in-kán-ta)
1. PIE *ɦɑingo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦingo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦingo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦinga-
3. ɦinga-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫinga-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫingan-
(*n.) ‘gift’
(HIL. 315)
(Hitt. IGI.DU8.A-an-ni)
1. PIE *ɦɑingon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦingon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦingon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦingan-
3. ɦingan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫingan-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫinganu-
(cs1.) ‘zur Verbeugung (ver)anlassen’
(HHand. 50)
(Hitt. ḫi-in-ga-nu-zi)
1. PIE *ɦɑingonu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦingonu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦingonu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦinganu-
3. ɦinganu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫinganu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫingaške/a-
(vb.iter.)
(HIL. 315)
(Hitt. ḫi-in-ga-aš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *ɦɑingoski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦingoski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦingoski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ɦingosḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦingosḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦingasḱe/a-
4. ɦingasḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *ɦingaske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. ɦingaske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ɦingaške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. ɦingaške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫingaške/a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√ɦɑingei-
Hitt. ḫingei-
(vb.) ‘sich verneigen, Reverenz erweisen’
(HIL. 315)
(Hitt. ḫi-in-ki-ez-zi)
1. PIE *ɦɑingei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦingei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦingei-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫingei-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫingeiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘sich verneigen, Reverenz erweisen’
(EHS 445)
(Hitt. ḫi-in-ki-iš-ke/a-, ḫi-in-ki-eš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *ɦɑingeiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦingeiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦingeiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ɦingeisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦingeisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦingeisḱe/a-
4. ɦingeisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *ɦingeiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. ɦingeiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *ɦingeiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. ɦingeiške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫingeiške/a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√ɦɑingu-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ḫingula-
(a.) ‘offerant’
(HIL. 315)
(Hitt. ḫi-in-ku-la-aš)
1. PIE *ɦɑingulo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦingulo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦingulo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦingula-
3. ɦingula-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫingula-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫingum-
(vb.sb.) ‘Geschenk, Ehrengabe’
(HEG I:249)
(Hitt. ḫingum[uš] [plA], Rieken (1999:336))
1. PIE *ɦɑingum-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦingum-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦingum-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫingum-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Gr. ἄεμμα-
(n.) ‘bow, bow-string’
(Gr. ἄεμμα)
1. PIE *ɦɑéi̯engumeɑh-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *ɦɑái̯engumeɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑái̯engumeɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *ɦɑái̯engumaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
3. ɦɑái̯engumaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦái̯engumah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. ɦái̯engumah-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *ái̯engumah-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ái̯engumah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ái̯enguma-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. ái̯enguma-
*gu/u̯ → b
Bilabialization of labiovelar into b
RgU›b → *ái̯enbma-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
7. ái̯enbma-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *áenbma-
8. áenbma-
*nP → mP
Change of nP into mP
RnP›mP → *áembma-
9. áembma-
*bm → mm
Assimilation of b and m
Rbm›mm → *áemmma-
10. áemmma-
*si̯ → s
Simplification of *mmm
Rmmm›mm → *áemma-
11. áemma-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἄεμμα-
Hitt. ḫingun-
(n.obl.) ‘gift, offering’
(HIL. 315)
(Hitt. ḫé-en-ku-ni)
1. PIE *ɦɑingun-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦingun-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦingun-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫingun-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫingur-
(n.) ‘Darreichung, Geschenk, Ehrengabe’
(HHand. 50)
1. PIE *ɦɑingur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦingur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦingur-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫingur-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫingu̯ar-
(n.) [mng.] ‘Verbeugung’
(HHand. 50)
(Hitt. ḫi-in-ku-ua-ar, ḫé-en-ku-ua-aš, ḫi-in-ku-ua-an-zi)
1. PIE *ɦɑingu̯or-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦingu̯or-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦingu̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦingu̯ar-
3. ɦingu̯ar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫingu̯ar-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫingu̯ar-
(n.) [mng.] ‘Darreichung, Geschenk, Ehrengabe’
(HHand. 50)
(Hitt. ḫinkuar [sgNA], ḫinkuaš [sgG], ḫinkumuš [plA])
1. PIE *ɦɑingu̯or-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦingu̯or-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦingu̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦingu̯ar-
3. ɦingu̯ar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫingu̯ar-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫingur-
(n.) ‘gift, offering’
(HIL. 315)
(Hitt. ḫé-en-gur, ḫi-in-ku-ua-ri [plN])
1. PIE *ɦɑingur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦingur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦingur-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫingur-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√ɦɑinu-
(Melchert 1994:166)
Hitt. ḫinu-
(vb.) ‘make bow’
(Melchert 1994:166)
(Hitt. ḫinuzi [3sg])
1. PIE *ɦɑinu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦinu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦinu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫinu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √hɑi- √ɦɑi- (vb.) ‘ergreifen, nehmen, fassen, halten’
(IEW 10-11)
√hɑindɑɦi-
(Pyysalo)
TochA. ents-
(vb.) ‘capere, praehendere: ergreifen, fassen, nehmen’
(Poucha 39)
1. PIE *hɑeindɑɦi̯-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaindɑɦi̯-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaindɑɦi̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haindɦi̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haindɦi̯-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *hainjɦ-
4. hainjɦ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ainjɦ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ainjɦ-
*jɦ → j
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *jɦ
Rjɦ›j → *ainj-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. ainj-
*j → t s
Loss of voice of media *j
Rj›ts → *aints-
7. aints-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *ēnts-
8. ēnts-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochA. ents-
TochA. ents-
(m.) ‘cupiditas, suarum rerum studium’
(Poucha 39)
(TochA. ents, eṃts)
1. PIE *hɑeindɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaindɑɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaindɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haindɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haindɦi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *haindɦi̯a-
4. haindɦi̯a-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *hainjɦa-
5. hainjɦa-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ainjɦa-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. ainjɦa-
*jɦ → j
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *jɦ
Rjɦ›j → *ainja-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. ainja-
*j → t s
Loss of voice of media *j
Rj›ts → *aintsa-
8. aintsa-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *ēntsa-
9. ēntsa-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochA. entsa-
TochB. entse-
(m.sg.) ‘greed, envy’
(DTochB. 87)
(TochB. entseño, entsesa)
1. PIE *hɑeindɑɦi̯oi-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaindɑɦi̯oi-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaindɑɦi̯oi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haindɦi̯oi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haindɦi̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *haindɦi̯ai-
4. haindɦi̯ai-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *hainjɦai-
5. hainjɦai-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ainjɦai-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. ainjɦai-
*jɦ → j
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *jɦ
Rjɦ›j → *ainjai-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. ainjai-
*j → t s
Loss of voice of media *j
Rj›ts → *aintsai-
8. aintsai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *ēntsē-
9. ēntsē-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. entse-
TochA. entsu-
(pret.pt.) ‘capere, praehendere’
(Poucha 39)
(in TochA. eṃtsu)
1. PIE *hɑeindɑɦi̯u-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaindɑɦi̯u-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaindɑɦi̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haindɦi̯u-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haindɦi̯u-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *hainjɦu-
4. hainjɦu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ainjɦu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ainjɦu-
*jɦ → j
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *jɦ
Rjɦ›j → *ainju-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. ainju-
*j → t s
Loss of voice of media *j
Rj›ts → *aintsu-
7. aintsu-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *ēntsu-
8. ēntsu-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochA. entsu-
Hitt. ḫinzu-
(URUDU.) ‘Art Waffe’
(HHand. 49)
1. PIE *hɑindɑɦi̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hindɦi̯u-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hindɦi̯u-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *hinjɦu-
3. hinjɦu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *hinju-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hinju-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *hinzu-
5. hinzu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫinzu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫinzuda-
(URU.) ‘in der Umbebug von Išuwa und Paḫuwa’
(OGH. 110)
(Ḫi. ḫé-en-zu-ta-an [sgA], ḫi-in-zu-ú-ta, ḫi]-in-zu-ta)
1. PIE *hɑeindɑɦi̯udɑɦo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaindɑɦi̯udɑɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaindɑɦi̯udɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haindɦi̯udɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haindɦi̯udɦo-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *hainjɦudɦo-
4. hainjɦudɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hainjɦudɦa-
5. hainjɦudɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *hainjuda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. hainjuda-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *hainzuda-
7. hainzuda-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫainzuda-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑinu-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. αἴνυ-
(vb.) ‘nehmen : prendre, saisir’
(GEW 1:41)
(Gr. αἴνυμαι [1sg])
1. PIE *hɑeínu-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaínu-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaínu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haínu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haínu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aínu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. aínu-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. αἴνυ-
TochA. sāṃtk·enu-
(sb.m.) ‘medicus’
(Poucha 363)
1. PIE *Π·hɑeinu-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *Π·hɑainu-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. Π·hɑainu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·hainu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·hainu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·ainu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·ainu-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *Π·ēnu-
5. Π·ēnu-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochA. Π·enu-


PIE √hɑi- (sb.) ‘Wehe, Ächzen, Zauberspruch’
(IEW 10)
√hɑi
Gr. αἴ
(intj.) ‘Ai!’
(GEW 1:30)
1. PIE *hɑeí
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaí
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaí
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haí
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haí
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aí
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. aí
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. αἴ
√hɑis-
CLu. ḫiš·ḫiša·ši-
(c.) Zauberspruch: spell (?)’ (HHand. 51)
(DLL. 46)
(CLu. ḫi-iš-ḫi-ša-aš-ši-in-za [plA], ḫi-iš-ḫi-ša-aš-ši-zi OHP 1:153-)
1. PIE *hɑis·hɑiso·si-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *his·hiso·si-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. his·hiso·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *his·hisa·si-
3. his·hisa·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hiš·hiša·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hiš·hiša·ši-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫiš·ḫiša·ši-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑeishɑegi-
Gr. αἰάζο-
(pr.A.) ‘ächzen, jammern, klagen’
(GEW 1:30)
(Gr. αἰάζω [1sg])
1. PIE *hɑeisɦɑégii̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaisɦɑégii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaisɦɑégii̯o-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *hɑaisɦɑágii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
3. hɑaisɦɑágii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haisɦágii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. haisɦágii̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *haisɦáǵi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. haisɦáǵi̯o-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *haisáǵi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. haisáǵi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aisáǵi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. aisáǵi̯o-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *aisági̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
8. aisági̯o-
*gi̯ -› z
Palatalization of gi̯ to z
Rgi̯›z → *aisázo-
9. aisázo-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *aiházo-
10. aiházo-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *aiázo-
11. aiázo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. αἰάζο-
Gr. αἴαγματ-
(n.) ‘das Ächzen’
(GEW 1:30)
1. PIE *hɑeísɦɑegimeɑht-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaísɦɑagimeɑht-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaísɦɑagimeɑht-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *hɑaísɦɑagimaɑht-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
3. hɑaísɦɑagimaɑht-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haísɦagimaht-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. haísɦagimaht-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *haísɦaǵmaht-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. haísɦaǵmaht-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *haísaǵmaht-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. haísaǵmaht-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aísaǵmat-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. aísaǵmat-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *aísagmat-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
8. aísagmat-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *aíhagmat-
9. aíhagmat-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *aíagmat-
10. aíagmat-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. αἴαγματ-


PIE √hɑiki-, √ɦaigi- ‘aus, von (– her), ver- ; in, an, bei, nach’
(IEW 1044 [diff.])
(Pyysalo: Anat. + BSL)
√hɑiki-
(Pyysalo)
Lith. ìš
(prep.G) ‘aus, von, von — her’
(ALiEtWb. I:19-20)
1. PIE *hɑíki
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *híki
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. híki
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *híć
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. híć
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *hìć
4. hìć
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ìć
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ìć
*ć → š
From Satem *ć to š
R曚 → Lith. ìš
(SPIE §4.8.4)
OPr. is
(prep.D) ‘aus’
(ALiEtWb. I:19)
1. PIE *hɑiki
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hiki
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hiki
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *hić
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. hić
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ić
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ić
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → OPr. is
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
Russ. ís
(prepG.) ‘aus, von’
(REW 1:473)
(ALiEtWb. 19)
1. PIE *hɑ́iki
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *híiki
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. híiki
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *híić
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. híić
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *íić
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. íić
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́ć
5. ī́ć
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *ī́s
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
6. ī́s
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → Russ. ís
Lyd. is·qasãn-
(vb.) ‘besitzen’ (?)
(LydWb. 135)
1. PIE *hɑiki·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hiki·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hiki·Σ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *hić·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. hić·Σ-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *his·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
4. his·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lyd. is·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lyd. is·l-
(a.) ‘angefangen’ (?)
(LydWb. 135)
(Lyd. islλ [sgDL])
1. PIE *hɑiki·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hiki·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hiki·Σ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *hić·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. hić·Σ-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *his·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
4. his·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lyd. is·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lyd. is·kubto-
(sb.) ‘nachkommenschaft’
(LydWb. 135)
(Lyd. iskubto)
1. PIE *hɑiki·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hiki·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hiki·Σ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *hić·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. hić·Σ-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *his·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
4. his·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lyd. is·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lyd. is·t
(prep.) ‘in, an, bei’ (?) (= Aram. ‘l)
(LydWb. 135)
(Lyd. ist)
1. PIE *hɑiki·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hiki·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hiki·Σ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *hić·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. hić·Σ-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *his·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
4. his·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lyd. is·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√ɦɑigi-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. ḫiz·ai-
(vb.) ‘aushändigen, anvertrauen (?)’
(HHand. 51)
(CLu. ḫi-iz-za-in-du [3pl], Laroche DLL. 46)
1. PIE *ɦɑigi·oi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦigi·oi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦigi·oi-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦij́·oi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦij́·oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦij́·ai-
4. ɦij́·ai-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *ɦiz·ai-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. ɦiz·ai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫiz·ai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. ḫiz·au-
(vb.) ‘aushändigen, anvertrauen (?)’
(HHand. 51)
(Laroche DLL. 46, ḫi-iz-za-ú-un-du [3pl])
1. PIE *ɦɑigi·oi̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦigi·oi̯u-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦigi·oi̯u-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦij́·oi̯u-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦij́·oi̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦij́·ai̯u-
4. ɦij́·ai̯u-
* ai̯u → au
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *u
Rai̯u›au → *ɦij́·au-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
5. ɦij́·au-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *ɦiz·au-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
6. ɦiz·au-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫiz·au-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lith. iž·noumo-
(vb.) ‘verpachten, in Pacht haben’
(LiEtWb. 512)
(Žem. ižnoumoti)
1. PIE *ɦɑigi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦigi·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦigi·Σ-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦij́·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦij́·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *ij́·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ij́·Σ-
*j́ → ž
From Satem *j́ to ž
Rj́›ž → Lith. iž·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
OLith. ìž·da-
(m.) ‘Schatz, Reichtum’
(ALiEtWb. I-23-24)
(Sadnik 317)
1. PIE *ɦɑígi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦígi·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦígi·Σ-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦíj́·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦíj́·Σ-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *ɦìj́·Σ-
4. ɦìj́·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *ìj́·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ìj́·Σ-
*j́ → ž
From Satem *j́ to ž
Rj́›ž → OLith. ìž·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
Latv. iz
(prep.G) ‘aus’
(ALiEtWb. I-19)
1. PIE *ɦɑigi
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦigi
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦigi
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦij́
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦij́
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *ij́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ij́
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → Latv. iz
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
OCS. iz
(prep.G) ‘aus, von’
(Sadnik 317)
1. PIE *ɦɑ́igi
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *ɦíigi
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. ɦíigi
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦíij́
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦíij́
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *íij́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. íij́
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́j́
5. ī́j́
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *ī́z
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
6. ī́z
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *íz
7. íz
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → OCS. iz
Russ. ízo
(prep.G) ‘aus, von’
(REW 1:473)
(ALiEtWb. I-19)
1. PIE *ɦɑ́igios
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *ɦíigios
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. ɦíigios
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦíij́os
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦíij́os
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦíij́as
4. ɦíij́as
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *íij́as
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. íij́as
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́j́as
6. ī́j́as
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *ī́zas
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
7. ī́zas
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *ī́zos
8. ī́zos
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root-final)
Ros=›o= → *ī́zo
9. ī́zo
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → Russ. ízo
Russ. íz
(prep.G) ‘aus, von’
(REW 1:473)
(ALiEtWb. I-19)
1. PIE *ɦɑ́igi
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *ɦíigi
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. ɦíigi
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦíij́
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦíij́
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *íij́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. íij́
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́j́
5. ī́j́
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *ī́z
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
6. ī́z
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → Russ. íz
SCr. iz
(prep.G) ‘aus, von’
(REW 1:473)
(ALiEtWb. I:19)
1. PIE *ɦɑ́igi
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *ɦíigi
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. ɦíigi
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦíij́
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦíij́
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *íij́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. íij́
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́j́
5. ī́j́
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *ī́z
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
6. ī́z
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → SCr. íz
SCr. iza
(prep.G) ‘hinter, nach’
(REW 1:473)
(ALiEtWb. I:19)
1. PIE *ɦɑ́igiōɑɦd
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *ɦíigiōɑɦd
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. ɦíigiōɑɦd
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦíigiōɦd
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦíigiōɦd
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦíij́ōɦd
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. ɦíij́ōɦd
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *ɦíij́āɦd
5. ɦíij́āɦd
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *íij́ād
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. íij́ād
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́j́ād
7. ī́j́ād
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *ī́zād
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
8. ī́zād
*-d → Ø
Loss of root-final -d
R=d›=0 → *ī́zā
9. ī́zā
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *ī́za
10. ī́za
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → SCr. íza
Lat. īg·nōscō
(vb.) ‘verzeihen, ein Einsehen haben, Nachsicht üben’
(WH. 1:677)
1. PIE *ɦɑ́igi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *ɦíigi·Σ-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. ɦíigi·Σ-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *ɦíiǵ·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦíiǵ·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *íiǵ·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. íiǵ·Σ-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́ǵ·Σ-
5. ī́ǵ·Σ-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *ī́g·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. ī́g·Σ-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → Lat. īg·Σ-
Lat. ig·itur
(adv.) ‘dann, demnach, folglich, also; Lit. *‘ausgehend von’’
(WH. 1:675)
1. PIE *ɦɑigi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦigi·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦigi·Σ-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *ɦiǵ·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦiǵ·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *iǵ·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. iǵ·Σ-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → Lat. ig·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
Lat. īg·nōminia
(f.) ‘Schimpf, Schande’
(WH. 1:676)
1. PIE *ɦɑ́igi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *ɦíigi·Σ-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. ɦíigi·Σ-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *ɦíiǵ·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦíiǵ·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *íiǵ·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. íiǵ·Σ-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́ǵ·Σ-
5. ī́ǵ·Σ-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *ī́g·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. ī́g·Σ-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → Lat. īg·Σ-
Latv. aiz
(.) ‘hinter, jenseits’
(IEW 452)
1. PIE *ɦɑoigi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦoigi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦoigi-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦoij́-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦoij́-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *oij́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. oij́-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aij́-
5. aij́-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → Latv. aiz-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
Latv. aiz·mìrs-
(vb.) ‘vergessen’
(IEW. 738)
(Latv. aizmìrst)
1. PIE *ɦɑoigi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦoigi·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦoigi·Σ-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *ɦoij́·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ɦoij́·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *oij́·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. oij́·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aij́·Σ-
5. aij́·Σ-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → Latv. aiz·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)


PIE √hɑil-, √ɦɑil- (vb.) ‘treiben’ (sb.) ‘Einzäunung, Stall, Hof’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√hɑilo-
Hitt. ḫila-
() ((É).) ‘Hof, Einzäunung, Viehhof’ (Sum. TÙR)
(ḪEG 2:241-)
(Hitt. ḫi-i-la-aš, ḫi-la-aš, ḫi-i-la-an, ḫi-e-la-aš [G], ḫi-li [DL])
1. PIE *hɑilo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hila-
3. hila-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫila-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫila-
(PÚ.) (Im Kontext der ON › Lawata)
(OGH. 528)
(Hitt. ḫi-la-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑilo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hila-
3. hila-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫila-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. ḫila·madu-
(LÚ.c.) ‹ of honey-sweet mouth ›
(NOMS. 352a)
(Hitt. ḫi-la-ma-ad-du(-un) [All]-[A])
1. PIE *hɑilo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hila·Σ-
3. hila·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫila·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. ḫila·ru̯ada-
(LÚ.c.) (prince de Malatya-)
(NOMS. 355)
(in Urar. ḫi-la-ru-a-da)
1. PIE *hɑilo·ru̯odɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilo·ru̯odɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilo·ru̯odɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hila·ru̯adɦa-
3. hila·ru̯adɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *hila·ru̯ada-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hila·ru̯ada-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫila·ru̯ada-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫila·dKAL-
(LÚ.c.) ‘‹yard-protector›’
(NOMS. 356)
(Hitt. ḫe-el-la-dKAL)
1. PIE *hɑilo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hila·Σ-
3. hila·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫila·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫila·ziba-
(d.) ‘‹genius of yard›
(OHP. 1:150)
(Hitt. ḫe-el-la-zi-pa [Abs], GhR. 281, 299, 611; RDH. 67)
1. PIE *hɑilo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hila·Σ-
3. hila·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫila·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑiloi-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ḫilai-
(vb.dn.) ‘Einen Hof (= ḫila-) haben’
(HHand. 49)
(Hitt. ḫi-la-iz-zi (Von Mond oder Sonne))
1. PIE *hɑiloi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hiloi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hiloi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilai-
3. hilai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫilai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OInd. īlaya-
(cs.) ‘in Bewegung setzen’
(KEWA III:96)
1. PIE *hɑ́iLei̯o-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *híiLei̯o-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. híiLei̯o-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *híilei̯o-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. híilei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *híilei̯a-
4. híilei̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *íilei̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. íilei̯a-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́lei̯a-
6. ī́lei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *ī́lai̯a-
7. ī́lai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. ī́laya-
√hɑili-
(Pyysalo)
Lat. agn·īli-
(n.) ‘Schaf·stall’
(WH. 1:23)
1. PIE *Π·hɑ́ili-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *Π·híili-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·híili-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·íili-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·íili-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *Π·ī́li-
4. Π·ī́li-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → Lat. Π·īli-
Lat. ou·īli-
(n.) ‘Schaf·stall’
1. PIE *Π·hɑ́ili-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *Π·híili-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·híili-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·íili-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·íili-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *Π·ī́li-
4. Π·ī́li-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → Lat. Π·īli-
Lat. equ·īli-
(n.) ‘Pferde·stall’
(WH. 1:412)
1. PIE *Π·hɑ́ili-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *Π·híili-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·híili-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·íili-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·íili-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *Π·ī́li-
4. Π·ī́li-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → Lat. Π·īli-
Hitt. ḫilei̯a-
(LÚ.c.) (scribe)
(NOMS. 357)
(Hitt. ḫi-li-ia-aš)
1. PIE *hɑilei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilei̯a-
3. hilei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫilei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑilik-
Hitt. ḫilika-
(URU.) ‘› Naḫita’
(OGH. 108)
(Hitt. ḫi-li-iq-qa-za [Abl])
1. PIE *hɑiliko-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hiliko-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hiliko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilika-
3. hilika-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫilika-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. ḫilikei-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(CHLu. 2.15/2.5)
(HLu. hi?-li-ki-zi(URBS) [pl])
1. PIE *hɑilikei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilikei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilikei-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. ḫilikei-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑilomo-
Hitt. ḫilama-
(URU.) ‘= URUKI.LAM = Torbau’
(HEG 1:243-4)
(Hitt. ḫi-lam-ma-a [All])
1. PIE *hɑilomo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilomo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilomo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilama-
3. hilama-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫilama-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫilamar-
(n.) ‘Torbau, Säulenhalle, Portikus’ (KI.LAM)
(HHand. 49)
(Hitt. ḫi-lam-mar
1. PIE *hɑilomor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilomor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilomor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilamar-
3. hilamar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫilamar-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫilama·tei̯a-
(URU.) ‘Torbau+treten (?)’
(OGH. 108)
(Hitt. ḫi-lam-ma-at-ti-ia [All])
1. PIE *hɑilomo·tei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilomo·tei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilomo·tei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilama·tei̯a-
3. hilama·tei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫilama·tei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫilamad-
(LÚc.) ‘Tempelangestellter, Pförtner’
(HHand. 49)
(Hitt. ḫi-lam-ma-ti-eš [plN], ḫi-lam-ma-at-ta-aš)
1. PIE *hɑilomodɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilomodɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilomodɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilamadɦ-
3. hilamadɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *hilamad-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hilamad-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫilamad-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑilomn-
Hitt. ḫilamn-
(n.) ‘Torbau, Säulenhalle, Portikus’
(HIL. 399)
(Hitt. ḫi-lam-na-aš, ḫi-lam-ni, ḫi-lam-na)
1. PIE *hɑilomn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilomn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilomn-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilamn-
3. hilamn-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫilamn-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫilamnant-
(c.) ‘Torbau, Säulenhalle, Portikus’ (KI.LAM)
(HHand. 49)
(Hitt. ḫi-lam-na-an-za [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑilomnont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilomnont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilomnont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilamnant-
3. hilamnant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫilamnant-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫilamni-
(c.) ‘courtier (?)’
(HIL. 399)
(Hitt. ḫi-lam-ni-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑilomni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilomni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilomni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilamni-
3. hilamni-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫilamni-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑilomi-
Hitt. ḫilami-
(LÚc.) ‘Tempelangestellter, Pförtner’
(HHand. 49)
(Hitt. ḫi-lam-mi-iš [sgN], ḫi-lam-mi-e-eš [plN])
1. PIE *hɑilomi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilomi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilomi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilami-
3. hilami-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫilami-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫilamili
(adv.) ‘in der Art eines Pförtners’ (?)
(HHand. 49)
(Hitt. ḫi-lam-mi-li)
1. PIE *hɑilomili-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilomili-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilomili-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilamili-
3. hilamili-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫilamili-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫilamini-
(c.) ‘courtier (?)’
(HIL. 399)
(Hitt. ḫi-lam-mi-in-ni-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑilomini-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilomini-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilomini-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilamini-
3. hilamini-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫilamini-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑilon-
Hitt. ḫilan-
(n.obl.) ‘yard’
(HIL. 399)
(Hitt. ḫi-l[a-a]n-na-aš [sgG])
1. PIE *hɑilon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilan-
3. hilan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫilan-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Pal. ḫilan·ziba-
(d.) ‘‹genie of yard›’
(OHP. 1:150)
(Pal. ḫi-la-an-z[i-p]a-aš, ḫi-la-an-zi-pí, HHand. 49); (DPal. 55)
1. PIE *hɑilon·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilon·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilon·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilan·Σ-
3. hilan·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Pal. ḫilan·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. ḫilana·[…
(.) ‘yard·[…’
(HHand. 49)
1. PIE *hɑilono·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilono·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilono·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilana·Σ-
3. hilana·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫilana·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. ḫilana-
(*.) ‘yard’
(CHLu. 1.1.63)
(in HLu. PORTA-la-na)
1. PIE *hɑilono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilana-
3. hilana-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. ḫilana-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑiloni-
Hitt. ḫilani-
(LÚ.c.) (divers)
(NOMS. 353)
(Hitt. ḫi-la-ni-iš, ḫe-el-la-ni)
1. PIE *hɑiloni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hiloni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hiloni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilani-
3. hilani-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫilani-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫilani-
(LÚ.c.) (autre)
(NOMS. 353)
(Hitt. ḫi-il-la-an-ni-iš)
1. PIE *hɑiloni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hiloni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hiloni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilani-
3. hilani-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫilani-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑilos-
(Pyysalo)
CS. jagn·ilo-
(n.) ‘locus ubi oves ‹ jagn-› parturiunt’
(IEW 9)
1. PIE *Π·hɑ́ilos
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *Π·híilos
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·híilos
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·híilas
3. Π·híilas
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·íilas
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·íilas
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *Π·ī́las
5. Π·ī́las
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *Π·ī́los
6. Π·ī́los
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root-final)
Ros=›o= → *Π·ī́lo
7. Π·ī́lo
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *Π·ílo
8. Π·ílo
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → CS. Π·ilo
CLu. ḫilaša-
(d.) ‘god of Hila-’
(OHP. 1:150-52)
(CLu. ḫi-la-aš-ša-an [D])
1. PIE *hɑiloso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hiloso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hiloso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilasa-
3. hilasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hilaša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hilaša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫilaša-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫilaši-
(d.) ‘god of Hila-’
(OHP. 1:150-52)
(Hitt. ḫi-i-la-aš-ši, GhR. 133, 281-2, 613-4, Haas 1972-75:409-410, RDH. 69, REL 73, 1143-4)
1. PIE *hɑilosi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilosi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilosi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilasi-
3. hilasi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hilaši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hilaši-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫilaši-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. ḫilašid-
(d.) ‘(CLuLex. 68)’
(OHP. 1:150-52)
(CLu. ḫi-la-aš-ši-ti [D], Laroche 1946/7:67f.; RHA XV (1957) 15ff.)
1. PIE *hɑilosidɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilosidɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilosidɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilasidɦ-
3. hilasidɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *hilasid-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hilasid-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hilašid-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. hilašid-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫilašid-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑilosumi-
Hitt. ḫilašumei̯a-
(GIŠ.) ‘eine Pflanze mit verwertbarem Samen’
(HHand. 49)
1. PIE *hɑilosumei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilosumei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilosumei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilasumei̯a-
3. hilasumei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hilašumei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hilašumei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫilašumei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫilašumei̯a-
(GIŠ.) ‘- (?) -’
(HHand. 49)
1. PIE *hɑilosumei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilosumei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilosumei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilasumei̯a-
3. hilasumei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hilašumei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hilašumei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫilašumei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑilodɑɦor-
Hitt. ḫiladar-
(n.) ‘Wirtschafshof (?)’
(HHand. 50)
1. PIE *hɑilodɑɦor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilodɦor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilodɦor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hiladɦar-
3. hiladɦar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *hiladar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hiladar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫiladar-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑil·ugɑɦi̯oni-
Hitt. ḫil·ugani-
(.) ‘carriage’
(HIL. 322)
(Hitt. ḫi-lu-kà-ni-im [sgG])
1. PIE *hɑil·ugɑɦi̯oni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hil·ugɦi̯oni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hil·ugɦi̯oni-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *hil·uǵɦoni-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. hil·uǵɦoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hil·uǵɦani-
4. hil·uǵɦani-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *hil·ugɦani-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. hil·ugɦani-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *hil·ugani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. hil·ugani-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫil·ugani-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √hɑil-, √ɦɑil- ‘Gewässer, Naß, Schleim, usw.’
(IEW. 499)
√hɑilu-
Hitt. ḫilu̯a·dala-
(DUG n.) ‘ein Gefäß ≈ DUGhaluadala-’
(HHand. 49)
1. PIE *hɑilu̯o·dɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilu̯o·dɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilu̯o·dɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilu̯a·dɦala-
3. hilu̯a·dɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *hilu̯a·dala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hilu̯a·dala-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫilu̯a·dala-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Gr. ἴ̄λῡσ-
(f.) ‘Schlamm, Kot’ [Gr. ī, ū]
(IEW. 499)
1. PIE *hɑ́iluɑhus-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *híiluɑhus-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. híiluɑhus-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *híiluhus-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. híiluhus-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *íiluus-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. íiluus-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́luus-
5. ī́luus-
*uu → ū
Contraction of u and u
Ruu›ū → *ī́lūs-
6. ī́lūs-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἴ̄λῡσ-


PIE √hɑil- (vb.) ‘brennen, glänzen’ (sb.) ‘Flamme, Gold(?)’
(IEW 11-12)
√hɑil-
Hitt. ḫilara-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGHErg. 38)
(Hitt. ḫi-la-ra[(-) [Stf.])
1. PIE *hɑiloro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hiloro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hiloro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilara-
3. hilara-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫilara-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫilari·zi-
(m.c.) ‘-(?)-; ›suffix ·zi- unexplained!›’
(NOMS. 354)
(Hitt. ḫe-el-la-ri-iz-zi [abs.])
1. PIE *hɑilori·dɑɦi̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilori·dɦi̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilori·dɦi̯i-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *hilori·jɦi-
3. hilori·jɦi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilari·jɦi-
4. hilari·jɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *hilari·ji-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. hilari·ji-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *hilari·zi-
6. hilari·zi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫilari·zi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Gr. μαρ·ίλη-
(f.) ‘gluhende Asche’ [Gr. ī]
(GEW 2:175-6)
(Gr. μαρίλη, Peeters 221-2 [wL.])
1. PIE *meɑhr·hɑ́ilēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *maɑhr·hɑ́ilēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. maɑhr·hɑ́ilēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *maɑhr·hɑ́ilāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. maɑhr·hɑ́ilāɑh-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *maɑhr·híilāɑh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
4. maɑhr·híilāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mahr·híilāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
5. mahr·híilāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mar·íilā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. mar·íilā-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *mar·ī́lā-
7. mar·ī́lā-
ā –> ē (Att)
Attican change of ā –› ē
Rā›ēAtt → *mar·ī́lē-
8. mar·ī́lē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μαρ·ί̄λη-
CLu. ḫilu̯adei-
(.) ‘Gegenstand aus Gold’
(HHand. 49)
(KLu. ḫeluati-)
1. PIE *hɑilu̯odɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilu̯odɦei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilu̯odɦei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilu̯adɦei-
3. hilu̯adɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *hilu̯adei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hilu̯adei-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫilu̯adei-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √hɑil- (vb.) ‘wachsen, gedeihen’ (suff.) ‘Baum, Pflanze’
(IEW —)
√hɑil-
OCS. il·osŭ-
(m.) ‘ein Baumkrankheit’
(Sadnik p. 36)
(for the suffix, cf. Suśr. rak·asā- ‘a form of leprosy’, KEWA 3:30)
1. PIE *hɑ́il·oso
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *híil·oso
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. híil·oso
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *híil·asa
3. híil·asa
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *íil·asa
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. íil·asa
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́l·asa
5. ī́l·asa
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *ī́l·oso
6. ī́l·oso
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *ī́l·osu
7. ī́l·osu
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *íl·osu
8. íl·osu
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → *il·osu
9. il·osu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. il·osŭ
√hɑilu-
CLu. ḫilu̯a-
(GIŠ.n.) (eine Pflanze/Gegenstand aus Holz)
(DLL. 45)
(CLu. ḫi-i-lu-[ua], ḫe-e-[lu-ua])
1. PIE *hɑilu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hilu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hilu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hilu̯a-
3. hilu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫilu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √hɑim-, √ɦɑim- ‘Feuer, Hitze, Rauch, Dampf, Starrheit, Fieber’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√hɑimo-
(HEG 1:123)
(HED H:8, HIL. –)
Hitt. ḫaḫima-
(c.) ‘eine Krankheit: Erstarrung, Starrheit (?)’
(HEG 1:123)
(HHand. 34, Hitt. ḫaḫima-)
1. PIE *hɑehɑimo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑahɑimo-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑahɑimo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hahimo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hahimo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hahima-
4. hahima-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫaḫima-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OIcl. eim-
(m.) ‘Feuer, Rauch, Dampf’
(ANEtWb. 96)
(OIcl. eimr [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑeimo
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaimo
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaimo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haimo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haimo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aimo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. aimo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aima
5. aima
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
Rai›ei → *eima
6. eima
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → OIcl. eim
OIcl. īm-
(n.) ‘Staub’
(ANEtWb. 285)
(cf. ModNorw. īm ‘Geruch’)
1. PIE *hɑ́imo
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *híimo
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. híimo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *íimo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. íimo
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́mo
4. ī́mo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ī́ma
5. ī́ma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *ī́m
6. ī́m
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → OIcl. īm
Far. īm-
(.) ‘Russ auf einer Kessel’
(ANEtWb. 285)
1. PIE *hɑ́imo
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *híimo
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. híimo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *íimo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. íimo
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́mo
4. ī́mo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ī́ma
5. ī́ma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *ī́m
6. ī́m
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → Far. īm
ModIcl. īma-
(.) ‘Hitze’
(ANEtWb. 285)
1. PIE *hɑ́imo-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *híimo-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. híimo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *íimo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. íimo-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́mo-
4. ī́mo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ī́ma-
5. ī́ma-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → ModIcl. īma-
OIcl. īma-
(vb.) ‘heftig werden’
(ANEtWb. 285)
(OIcl. īmast [inf.])
1. PIE *hɑ́imo-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *híimo-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. híimo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *íimo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. íimo-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́mo-
4. ī́mo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ī́ma-
5. ī́ma-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → OIcl. īma-
OIcl. eimi·n-
(m.) ‘Rauch, Dampf, Feuer’
(ANEtWb. 96)
1. PIE *hɑeime·n-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaime·n-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaime·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haime·n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haime·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aime·n-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. aime·n-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *aimi·n-
5. aimi·n-
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
Rai›ei → OIcl. eimi·n-
Norw. īmen-
(pt.) ‘erzürnt’
(ANEtWb. 96)
1. PIE *hɑ́imono
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *híimono
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. híimono
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *íimono
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. íimono
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́mono
4. ī́mono
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ī́mana
5. ī́mana
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *ī́man
6. ī́man
*an → en
Rising of a into e before n-
R=an›=en → *ī́men
7. ī́men
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → Norw. īmen
OIcl. eim·yrja·n-
(wk.f.) ‘glühende Asche’
(ANEtWb. 96)
1. PIE *hɑeim·hɑusii̯ó·n-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaim·hɑusii̯ó·n-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaim·hɑusii̯ó·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haim·husii̯ó·n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haim·husii̯ó·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aim·usii̯ó·n-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. aim·usii̯ó·n-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *aim·usii̯á·n-
5. aim·usii̯á·n-
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
Rai›ei → *eim·usii̯á·n-
6. eim·usii̯á·n-
*usii̯á → ysi̯á
Umlaut for usii̯á → ysi̯á
Rusii̯á›ysi̯á → *eim·ysi̯á·n-
7. eim·ysi̯á·n-
ysi̯á → yri̯á
Verner's Law
Rysi̯á›yri̯á → *eim·yri̯á·n-
8. eim·yri̯á·n-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *eim·yrjá·n-
9. eim·yrjá·n-
*á → a
Loss/absence of accent
Rá›a → OIcl. eim·yrja·n-
ArchHG. eim·uria·n-
(wk.f.) ‘Aschenglut, Glut, heiße/glühende Asche’
(EWAhd. 2:988, IEW. 347)
1. PIE *hɑeim·hɑusii̯ó·n-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaim·hɑusii̯ó·n-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaim·hɑusii̯ó·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haim·husii̯ó·n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haim·husii̯ó·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aim·usii̯ó·n-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. aim·usii̯ó·n-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *aim·usii̯á·n-
5. aim·usii̯á·n-
*usii̯á → usi̯á
Change of usii̯á to usi̯á
Rusii̯á›usi̯á → *aim·usi̯á·n-
6. aim·usi̯á·n-
usi̯á → uri̯á
Verner's Law
Rusi̯á›uri̯á → *aim·uri̯á·n-
7. aim·uri̯á·n-
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
Rai›ei → *eim·uri̯á·n-
8. eim·uri̯á·n-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → *eim·uriá·n-
9. eim·uriá·n-
*á → a
Loss/absence of accent
Rá›a → ArchHG. eim·uria·n-


PIE √hɑim- (sb.) ‘Schein, Bild, Nachbildung’
(IEW 505)
√hɑim-
Hitt. ḫima-
(c.) Nachahmung, Nachbildung, Substitut im Opferkult’
(HEG 1:245-246)
(Hitt. ḫi-im-ma-aš, ḫi-im-ma-an, ḫi-im-mi-e-[eš], ḫi-mu-uš)
1. PIE *hɑimo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *himo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. himo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hima-
3. hima-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫima-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
TochB. īma-
(m.) ‘consciousness, awareness, thought’
(DToch. 66)
(TochB. īme [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑ́imo-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *híimo-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. híimo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *híima-
3. híima-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *íima-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. íima-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́ma-
5. ī́ma-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → TochB. īma-
Hitt. ḫimali-
(LÚ.c.N.ag.) ‘Betreuer des ḫima- (?)’
(HHand. 50)
(Hitt. ḫi-im-ma-al-li-iš [sgN]
1. PIE *hɑimoli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *himoli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. himoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *himali-
3. himali-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫimali-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Kpd. ḫimalei̯a-
(I.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 359)
(Kpd. ḫi-ma-li-ia)
1. PIE *hɑimolei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *himolei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. himolei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *himalei̯a-
3. himalei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Kpd. ḫimalei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫimanu-
(m.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 360)
(Hitt. ḫi-ma-nu-uš[..)
1. PIE *hɑimonu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *himonu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. himonu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *himanu-
3. himanu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫimanu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑimeɑh-
Lat. im·āgōn-
(f.) ‘Bild, Abbild, Schein, Gestalt, Vorstellung,...’
(WH. 1:680)
(Lat. imāgō [N], imāginis [sgG])
1. PIE *hɑim·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *him·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. him·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. im·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. im·āginā-
(vb.1.M.) ‘sich vorstellen, sich einbilden’
(WH. 1:680)
(Lat. imāginor, imāginārī)
1. PIE *hɑim·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *him·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. him·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. im·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. im·āguncula-
(f.dim.) ‘kleines Bild’
(WH. 1:680)
1. PIE *hɑim·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *him·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. him·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. im·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Arm. imana-
(pr.) ‘to reflect, imagine’ : ‘vermuten’
(WH. 1:17)
(ArmGr. –, imanam [1sg])
1. PIE *hɑimeɑhnēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *hɑimaɑhnēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. hɑimaɑhnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *hɑimaɑhnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. hɑimaɑhnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *himahnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. himahnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *imanā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. imanā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Arm. imana-
Arm. imast-
(sb.) ‘Vermutung: intelligence; ‹stem ?›’
(WH. 1:17)
(ArmGr. –)
1. PIE *hɑimeɑhst-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *hɑimaɑhst-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. hɑimaɑhst-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *himahst-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. himahst-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Arm. imast-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Arm. imastun-
(a.) ‘wise, ‹stem ?›’
(ArmGr. 1:–)
1. PIE *hɑimeɑhstun-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *hɑimaɑhstun-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. hɑimaɑhstun-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *himahstun-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. himahstun-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Arm. imastun-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
TochB. imassu-
(a.) ‘mindful, aware’
(DTochB. 66)
1. PIE *hɑimeɑhssu-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *hɑimaɑhssu-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. hɑimaɑhssu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *himahssu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. himahssu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → TochB. imassu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√hɑimi-
Kpd. ḫimaa-
(I.c.)
(NOMS. 358)
(Kpd. ḫi-ma-a)
1. PIE *hɑimoi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *himoi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. himoi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *himai̯a-
3. himai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *himaa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. himaa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Kpd. ḫimaa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
TochA. īme-
(m.) ‘cogitatum = Skt. smr̥ti-’
(Poucha 34)
(TochA. īme)
1. PIE *hɑ́imoi̯o
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *híimoi̯o
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. híimoi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *híimai̯a
3. híimai̯a
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *íimai̯a
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. íimai̯a
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́mai̯a
5. ī́mai̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *ī́mai̯
6. ī́mai̯
*a y → ē
Change of ay into ē in root-final
R=ay›=ē → *ī́mē
7. ī́mē
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochA. ī́me
TochA. ime-
(m.) ‘consciousness, awareness, thought’
(Poucha 34)
(TochA. ime)
1. PIE *hɑimoi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *himoi̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. himoi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *himai̯a
3. himai̯a
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *imai̯a
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. imai̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *imai̯
5. imai̯
*a y → ē
Change of ay into ē in root-final
R=ay›=ē → *imē
6. imē
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochA. ime
TochB. ime·ṣṣa-
(a.) ‘prtng to awareness or thought’
(DTochB. 66)
(TochB. imeṣṣe)
1. PIE *hɑimoi·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *himoi·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. himoi·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *himai·Σ
3. himai·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *imai·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. imai·Σ
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *imē·Σ
5. imē·Σ
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. ime·Σ
TochB. īmi-
(m.) ‘consciousness, awareness, thought’
(DTochB. 66)
1. PIE *hɑ́imi-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *híimi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. híimi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *íimi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. íimi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́mi-
4. ī́mi-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → TochB. īmi-
Lat. imitā-
(pr.1.M.) ‘nachahmen’
(WH. 1:680)
(Lat. imitor [1sg])
1. PIE *hɑimitēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *hɑimitāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑimitāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *himitāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. himitāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. imitā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√hɑimu-
OLith. aimù-
(a.) ‘von schönen Gestalt’
(LiEtWb. 2)
1. PIE *hɑeimú-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaimú-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaimú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haimú-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haimú-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis PLith. ù
RLiAcc3 → *haimù-
4. haimù-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OLith. aimù-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lat. aemulo-
(a.) ‘nacheifernd, wetteifernd’ (m.) ‘Nebenbühler’
(WH. 1:17)
1. PIE *hɑeimulo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaimulo-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaimulo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haimulo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haimulo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aimulo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. aimulo-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → Lat. aemulo-
Lat. aemulā-
(pr.1.) ‘nach-, wetteifern, eifersüchtig sein’
(WH. 1:17)
(Lat. aemulor, aemulārī)
1. PIE *hɑeimulēɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaimulēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaimulēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *hɑaimulāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. hɑaimulāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haimulāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. haimulāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aimulā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. aimulā-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → Lat. aemulā-
Hitt. ḫimu̯a-
(KUR.URU.) ‘Bei ›Kaštama: DKašk 104’
(OGH. 108-9)
(Hitt. ḫi-mu-ua, ḫi-im-mu-ua
1. PIE *hɑimu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *himu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. himu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *himu̯a-
3. himu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫimu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫimu̯ili-
(m.c.) ‘général de Suppil. Ier, grand échanson’
(NOMS. 361.1)
(Hitt. ḫi-im-mu-DINGIRLIM)
1. PIE *hɑimu̯ili-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *himu̯ili-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. himu̯ili-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫimu̯ili-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫimu̯ili-
(m.c.) ‘le même (?); autre’
(NOMS. 361.2)
(Hitt. ḫi-mu-u-i-li-iš, ḫi-mu-i-li)
1. PIE *hɑimu̯ili-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *himu̯ili-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. himu̯ili-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫimu̯ili-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √hɑin- ‘Wasser, Gewässer, Tropf’ (vb.) ‘schöpfen, nässen, abwaschen’
(IEW. 774)
(+ Pyysalo: Hitt. & CLu.)
√hɑin-
Hitt. ḫin-
(vb.) ‘schöpfen ‹see Hitt. hani- ‘id.’›’
(HIL. 329)
(Hitt. ḫi-e-ni-ir, ḫi-ni-ir)
1. PIE *hɑin-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hin-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hin-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫin-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑining-
Hitt. ḫining-
(vb.M.) ‘nässen, abwaschen (?)’
(HHand. 50)
(Hitt. ḫé-u-uš ḫi-ni-ik-ta; ḫé-e-a-u-it ḫi-ni-ik-ta)
1. PIE *hɑiningɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hiningh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hiningh-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *hining-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. hining-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫining-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑinori-
Hitt. ḫinarei̯a-
(URU.) ‘Dorf im Land Kinara’
(OGH. 109)
(Hitt. ḫi-na-ri-ia-aš, [DUGUD-Eid])
1. PIE *hɑinorei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hinorei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hinorei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hinarei̯a-
3. hinarei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫinarei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫinari-
(.) ‘eine Gartenpflanze’
(HHand. 50)
(Hitt. ḫinari[(-))
1. PIE *hɑinori-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hinori-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hinori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hinari-
3. hinari-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫinari-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫinari-
(d.) ‘Hinari ‹cf. above and below›’
(OHP. 1:152)
(Hitt. ḫi-na-a-ri-iš [N])
1. PIE *hɑinori-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hinori-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hinori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hinari-
3. hinari-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫinari-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫinari·u̯anta-
() ((KUR)URU) “In kaškäischem Gebiet, › Tumana.”
(OGH. 109-10)
(Hitt. ḫi-na-ri-ua-an-da [All], DKašk. 42, 95)
1. PIE *hɑinori·u̯onto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hinori·u̯onto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hinori·u̯onto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hinari·u̯anta-
3. hinari·u̯anta-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫinari·u̯anta-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑinoru-
CLu. ḫinaru-
(ua-a-tar.) ‘e. hydronymischer Begriff = (?)’
(OGH. 529)
(CLu. ḫi-in-na-ru-u-ua-aš [N])
1. PIE *hɑinoru-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hinoru-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hinoru-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hinaru-
3. hinaru-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫinaru-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√ɦɑind-
(IEW. 774)
(Pyysalo: Tocharian)
TochB. intra-
(.) ‘in a list of medical ingredients’
(DTochB. 64)
(TochB. intra(-))
1. PIE *ɦɑindreɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *ɦɑindraɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. ɦɑindraɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦindrah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦindrah-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *indrah-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. indrah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *indra-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. indra-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → TochB. intra-
OLatv. indra-
(ÍDf.) ‘Indra’
(IEW 774)
(LiEtWb. –)
1. PIE *ɦɑindrēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ɦɑindrāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ɦɑindrāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦindrāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦindrāh
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *indrāh
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. indrāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *indrā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. indrā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → OLatv. indra
OLatv. indrica-
(ÍDf.) ‘Indrica’
(IEW 774)
(LiEtWb. –)
1. PIE *ɦɑindrikui̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ɦɑindrikui̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ɦɑindrikui̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦindrikui̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦindrikui̯āh
PIE *kui̯ → čui̯
2nd palatalization of *ku
Rkui̯›čui̯ → *ɦindričui̯āh
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. ɦindričui̯āh
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *indričui̯āh
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. indričui̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *indričui̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. indričui̯ā
*ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RČU›Č → *indriči̯ā
(SPIE §4.8.3)
7. indriči̯ā
*č → c
From 2nd palatalization *č to c
Rč›c → *indrici̯ā
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
8. indrici̯ā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → *indrici̯a
9. indrici̯a
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → OLatv. indricja
RV. índu-
(m.) ‘lichter Tropfen, im RV. = Soma-’
(WbRV. 212)
1. PIE *ɦɑíndu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦíndu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦíndu-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → RV. índu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lith. indu-
(ÍDm.) ‘Indu’
(IEW 774)
(LiEtWb. –)
1. PIE *ɦɑindu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦindu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦindu-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → Lith. indu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)


PIE √hɑiru- (sb.) ‘Bote, Schwur, Eid’
(IEW XX)
√hɑeiru-
Goth. airu-
(m.) ‘Bote’
(GoEtD. 19)
(Goth. airus [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑeiru-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑairu-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑairu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hairu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hairu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Goth. airu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
RV. mitra·éru-
(m.pl) ‘Verschworene’
(WbRV. 1041)
(RV. mitraírun [plA])
1. PIE *mitro·hɑeíru-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *mitro·hɑaíru-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. mitro·hɑaíru-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *mitro·haíru-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. mitro·haíru-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *mitra·haíru-
4. mitra·haíru-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *mitra·aíru-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. mitra·aíru-
aí → ḗ
Monophthongization of *aí
Raí›ḗ → *mitra·ḗru-
6. mitra·ḗru-
ḗ → é
Change of ḗ into é
Rḗ›é → RV. mitra·éru-
√hɑirun-
CLu. ḫirun-
(n.) ‘Schwur, Eid : serment, HHand. 50’
(DLL. 45)
(CLu. ḫi(-i)-ru(-ú)-un [sgNA])
1. PIE *hɑirun-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hirun-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hirun-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫirun-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑirudɑɦ
CLu. ḫiruda-
(n.) ‘Schwur, Eid, HHand. 50’
(DLL. 45)
(CLu. ḫi-i-ru-ú-ta)
1. PIE *hɑirudɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hirudɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hirudɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hirudɦa
3. hirudɦa
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *hiruda
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hiruda
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫiruda
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫiruda-
(n.) ‘Schwur, Eid’
(DLL. 45)
(Hitt. ḫi-ru-ta-za [Abl])
1. PIE *hɑirudɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hirudɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hirudɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hirudɦa
3. hirudɦa
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *hiruda
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hiruda
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫiruda
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √hɑis- √ɦɑis- (sb.) ‘Gott, Herr’ (vb.) ehren’ (a.) ‘beachtenswert, sacer, divinus’
(IEW 16)
(+ Pyysalo)
√hɑis-
(Pyysalo)
Marruc. ais-
(m.) ‘Gott’
(WbOU. 69)
(Marruc. aisos ‘dis’ [plD])
1. PIE *hɑeis-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑais-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑais-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hais-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hais-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Marruc. ais-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lyd. iśa-
(c.) ‘Herr, Gusmani Sprache 17 (1971): 6’
(LydWb. 138)
(Lyd. iśa-)
1. PIE *hɑiso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hiso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hiso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hisa-
3. hisa-
PIE * s → ś
Orthographic change of *s into ś
Rs›ś → *hiśa-
4. hiśa-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lyd. iśa-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Umbr. ēs·ono-
(a.) ‘sacer, divinus’
(WbOU. 238)
(Umbr. esonu)
1. PIE *hɑeis·ono-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑais·ono-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑais·ono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hais·ono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hais·ono-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ais·ono-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ais·ono-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → Umbr. ēs·ono-
Uolsc. ēs·aristo-
(n.) ‘sacri·ficium’
(WbOU. 233)
(Uolsc. esaristom)
1. PIE *hɑeis·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑais·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑais·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hais·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hais·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ais·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ais·Σ-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → Uolsc. ēs·Σ-
√hɑisolo-
Hitt. ḫišala-
(a.) viell. ‘beachtenswert, wichtig, erwähnenswert’
(HHand. 49)
1. PIE *hɑisolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hisolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hisolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hisala-
3. hisala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hišala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hišala-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫišala-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. ḫišala-
(a.) viell. ‘beachtenswert, wichtig, erwähnenswert’
(DLL. 45)
(CLu. ḫi-iš-ša-al-la)
1. PIE *hɑisolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hisolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hisolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hisala-
3. hisala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hišala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hišala-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫišala-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫišalant-
(a.) [mng.] ‘beachtet, berücksichtig’
(HHand. 49)
1. PIE *hɑisolont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hisolont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hisolont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hisalant-
3. hisalant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hišalant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hišalant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫišalant-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫišalant-
(d.) ‘preceded by dirḫant-’
(OHP. 1:153-4)
(Hitt. ḫe-eš-ša-la-an-te-eš [plN], ḫi-iš-ša-al-la-an-du-uš [plA], G. McMahon (1991:247-8), REL. 93)
1. PIE *hɑisolont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hisolont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hisolont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hisalant-
3. hisalant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hišalant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hišalant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫišalant-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑisu-
OGaul. aisu-
(m.) ‘G. des Kriegs’
(ACSS 1:54)
(OGaul. AESV)
1. PIE *hɑeisu-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaisu-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaisu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haisu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haisu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OGaul. aisu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OGaul. ēsu-
(m.) ‘Hauptgott der Gallier’
(WH. 1:419)
(OGaul. esus, Lucan. 1,455 ē-)
1. PIE *ehɑisu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ehisu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ehisu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *eisu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. eisu-
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → OGaul. ēsu-
OGaul. ēsu·uio-
(PN.m.) ‘‹Cf. OGaul. ·uio-›’
(ACSS 1:1478)
(OGaul. esu·uius [sgN])
1. PIE *ehɑisu·u̯io-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ehisu·u̯io-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ehisu·u̯io-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *eisu·u̯io-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. eisu·u̯io-
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → *ēsu·u̯io-
4. ēsu·u̯io-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ēsu·uio-
OGaul. ēsu·nerto-
(PN.) ‘Kraft der Esus’
(LEIA N-10)
(OGaul. esunertus)
1. PIE *ehɑisu·nerto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ehisu·nerto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ehisu·nerto-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *eisu·nerto-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. eisu·nerto-
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → OGaul. ēsu·nerto-
Osc. aisuso-
(sb.) ‘sacrificiis’
(WbOU. 68-70)
(Osc. aisusis [plAbl])
1. PIE *hɑeisuso-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaisuso-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaisuso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haisuso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haisuso-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Osc. aisuso-
(SPIE §2.1.4)


PIE √hɑis- (sb.) ‘Deichsel’
(IEW 298)
√hɑiso-
Hitt. ḫiša-
(GIŠc.) ‘Deichsel : carriage pole’
(HEG I:252)
(Hitt. ḫi-iš-ša-an, HHand. 50)
1. PIE *hɑiso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hiso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hiso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hisa-
3. hisa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hiša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hiša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫiša-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
RV. ékeṣa-
(a.) ‘eine [éka] Deichsel habend’
(WbRV. 297)
(RV. ékeṣam rátham)
1. PIE *hɑeíku̯ohɑiso-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaíku̯ohɑiso-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaíku̯ohɑiso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haíku̯ohiso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haíku̯ohiso-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *haíku̯ohišo-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. haíku̯ohišo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *haíku̯ahiša-
5. haíku̯ahiša-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aíku̯aiša-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. aíku̯aiša-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *aíkaiša-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
7. aíkaiša-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *aíkēša-
8. aíkēša-
aí → ḗ
Monophthongization of *aí
Raí›ḗ → *ḗkēša-
9. ḗkēša-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *ḗkēṣa-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
10. ḗkēṣa-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *ḗkeṣa-
11. ḗkeṣa-
ḗ → é
Change of ḗ into é
Rḗ›é → RV. ékeṣa-
√hɑisɑh-
RV. īṣā́-
(f.) ‘die Deichsel’
(WbRV. 238)
1. PIE *hɑ́isḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *hɑ́isā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑ́isā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́i›íi → *híisā́ɑh
(SPIE §3.2.6)
3. híisā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *híisā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. híisā́h
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *híišā́h
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
5. híišā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *íišā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. íišā́
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *ī́šā́
7. ī́šā́
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. ī́ṣā́
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)


PIE √hɑiu- (sb.) ‘Gewässer’ (vb.) ‘befeuchten’
(IEW –)
(Čop 1971a:141f.: Gr.; Pyysalo: OLith.)
√hɑeiu-
(Čop 1971)
Gr. αἰο·νάο-
(pr.) ‘befeuchten, bähen’
(Gr. αἰο·νάω, Melchert 1994:102)
1. PIE *hɑeiu̯o·néɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaiu̯o·néɑhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaiu̯o·néɑhi̯o-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *hɑaiu̯o·náɑhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
3. hɑaiu̯o·náɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haiu̯o·náhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. haiu̯o·náhi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aiu̯o·nái̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. aiu̯o·nái̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *aiu̯o·náo-
6. aiu̯o·náo-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *aio·náo-
7. aio·náo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. αἰο·νάο-
√hɑiou-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ḫi̯au-
(c.) ‘Regen’
(HHand. 49)
(Hitt. ḫé-e-ia-ua-a, hé-e-ia-ue-es [plN])
1. PIE *hɑi̯ou-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hi̯ou-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hi̯ou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hi̯au-
3. hi̯au-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫi̯au-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. a·ḫi̯au̯a-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGH. 1-2)
(Hitt. aḫ-ḫi-ia-ua)
1. PIE *o·hɑi̯ou̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·hi̯ou̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·hi̯ou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·hi̯au̯a-
3. a·hi̯au̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. a·ḫi̯au̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. a·ḫi̯au̯aa-
(KUR.URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGH. 1-2)
(Hitt. aḫ-ḫi-ia-ua-a)
1. PIE *o·hɑi̯ou̯oi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·hi̯ou̯oi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·hi̯ou̯oi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·hi̯au̯ai̯a-
3. a·hi̯au̯ai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → *a·hi̯au̯aa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. a·hi̯au̯aa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. a·ḫi̯au̯aa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑiuo-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ḫiu-
(c.) ‘Regen’
(HEG 1:238-)
(Hitt. ḫé-e-uš [sgN], ḫé-i-ú-un [A])
1. PIE *hɑiu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hiu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hiu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫiu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. a·ḫiu̯a-
(KUR.) ‘cf. above & below’
(OGH. 1-2)
(Hitt. aḫ-ḫi-ú-u[a])
1. PIE *o·hɑiu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·hiu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·hiu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·hiu̯a-
3. a·hiu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. a·ḫiu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫiu̯a·nei̯a-
(vb.) ‘to rain’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *hɑiu̯o·nei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hiu̯o·nei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hiu̯o·nei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hiu̯a·nei̯a-
3. hiu̯a·nei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫiu̯a·nei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OLith. iva-
(f.) ‘Insel’
(ALiEtWb. I-22)
1. PIE *hɑiu̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *hɑiu̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑiu̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hiu̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hiu̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *iu̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. iu̯ā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *iu̯ō
(XX:XX)
5. iu̯ō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *iu̯a
6. iu̯a
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OLith. iva


PIE √hɑku- √ɦɑgu- (vb.) ‘sehen’ (sb.) ‘Auge’
(IEW 775-777, *oku̯-; LIV2 : 297-298 *h3eku̯-)
√hɑoku-
Gr. ὄπ-
(f.) ‘the eye, face’
(Gr. ὄπα [sgA])
1. PIE *hɑóku-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hóku-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hóku-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *óku-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. óku-
*ku/u̯ → p
Bilabialization of labiovelar q into p
RkU›p → *óp-
4. óp-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄπ-
√hɑokusi-
Gr. ὄψι-
(f.) ‘appearance’
(Gr. ὄψις, ὄψεως)
1. PIE *hɑókusi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hókusi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hókusi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ókusi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. ókusi-
*ku/u̯ → p
Bilabialization of labiovelar q into p
RkU›p → *ópsi-
4. ópsi-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄψι-
√hɑekusiso-
Gr. ἀψίο-
(n.) ‘τὸ πρόσωπον’
(LSJ 299)
(Hes. ἀψίον · τὸ πρόσωπον)
1. PIE *hɑekusíso-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑakusíso-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑakusíso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hakusíso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hakusíso-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *akusíso-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. akusíso-
*ku/u̯ → p
Bilabialization of labiovelar q into p
RkU›p → *apsíso-
5. apsíso-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *apsího-
6. apsího-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *apsío-
7. apsío-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀψίο-
√ɦɑgu-
√ɦɑegu̯eɑhn-
Arm. akan-
(sb.) ‘Auge’
(Solta 1960:55)
(Arm. akn [sgN], akan [sgG])
1. PIE *ɦɑegu̯eɑhn-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑagu̯eɑhn-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑagu̯eɑhn-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *ɦɑagu̯aɑhn-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
3. ɦɑagu̯aɑhn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦagu̯ahn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. ɦagu̯ahn-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *agu̯ahn-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. agu̯ahn-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *agu̯an-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. agu̯an-
*gU → g
Loss of labial after velar
RgU›g → *agan-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
7. agan-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → Arm. akan-
√ɦɑgu̯i-
AV. al·ají-
(f.) ‘Einzündung des Auges; ‹-ají- = ‘Auge’›’
(EWA1:125)
(AV. al·ají-)
1. PIE *Π·ɦɑegu̯í-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *Π·ɦɑagu̯í-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. Π·ɦɑagu̯í-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ɦagu̯í-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·ɦagu̯í-
PIE *gu̯ → ǰu̯
2nd palatalization of *gu̯
Rgu̯›ǰu̯ → *Π·ɦaǰu̯í-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. Π·ɦaǰu̯í-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·aǰu̯í-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·aǰu̯í-
*ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RČU›Č → *Π·aǰí-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. Π·aǰí-
*ǰ → j
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to j
Rǰ›j → AV. Π·ají-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
OInd. al·ajī-
(f.) Name einer Augenkrankheit’
(EWA1:125)
(MonWil. 94, Suśr. al·ajī-)
1. PIE *Π·ɦɑegu̯iɑ́h-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *Π·ɦɑagu̯iɑ́h-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. Π·ɦɑagu̯iɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *Π·ɦɑagu̯iíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
3. Π·ɦɑagu̯iíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ɦagu̯iíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. Π·ɦagu̯iíh-
PIE *gu̯ → ǰu̯
2nd palatalization of *gu̯
Rgu̯›ǰu̯ → *Π·ɦaǰu̯iíh-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ɦaǰu̯iíh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·aǰu̯iíh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. Π·aǰu̯iíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·aǰu̯ií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. Π·aǰu̯ií-
*ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RČU›Č → *Π·aǰií-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
8. Π·aǰií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *Π·aǰī́-
9. Π·aǰī́-
*ǰ → j
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to j
Rǰ›j → OInd. Π·ajī́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
OPr. agina-
(m.) ‘ouge’ [Voc. 80] d.i. ‘Auge’
(APrS. 296)
(OPr. agins [sgN])
1. PIE *ɦɑegu̯ino-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *ɦɑagu̯ino-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑagu̯ino-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦagu̯ino-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦagu̯ino-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *agu̯ino-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. agu̯ino-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *agino-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. agino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OPr. agina-


PIE √hɑku- √ɦɑgu- (sb.) ‘Wasser, Fluß, Öl, Salbe, usw.’
(IEW 23 + IEW XX)
(Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√hɑku-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ḫaku-
(?) ‹LÚ.c.› ‘dignitaire de Šaiztawa-; ‹if ‘Aquarius’ ’
(NOMS. 248)
(Hitt. ḫa-ak-ku)
1. PIE *hɑeku-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaku-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaku-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haku-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haku-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫaku-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫaku·nai-
(DUG?.) ‘Gefäß für Öl, ‹Ölgefäß›’
(HEG I:124-5)
(EHS 207)
1. PIE *hɑeku·noi-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaku·noi-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaku·noi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haku·noi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haku·noi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *haku·nai-
4. haku·nai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫaku·nai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lith. ak·elė-
(EN.dim.) ‘XX’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *hɑeku̯·elēhɑ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaku̯·elēhɑ-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaku̯·elēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haku̯·elēh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haku̯·elēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aku̯·elē-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. aku̯·elē-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *ak·elē-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. ak·elē-
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → Lith. ak·elė-
√hɑku̯ēah-
Lat. aquā-
(f.) ‘Wasser, Wasserleitung’
(WH. 1:60)
1. PIE *hɑeku̯ēɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaku̯ēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaku̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *hɑaku̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. hɑaku̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haku̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. haku̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aku̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. aku̯ā-
* ku/u̯ → q
Emergence of labiovelar q
RkU›q → *aqā-
6. aqā-
q → qu
Orthographic change of q to qu
Rq›qu → Lat. aquā-
Goth. aƕa-
(f.) ‘Fluß, Gewässer’
(GoEtD. A-60)
1. PIE *hɑeku̯ēɑh
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaku̯ēɑh
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaku̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *hɑaku̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. hɑaku̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haku̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. haku̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aku̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. aku̯ā
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *axu̯ā
6. axu̯ā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *axu̯ō
(XX:XX)
7. axu̯ō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *axu̯a
8. axu̯a
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *ahu̯a
9. ahu̯a
hw → ƕ
Monophonemization of hw into ƕ
Rhu̯›ƕ → Goth. aƕa
Russ. oká-
(ID.) ‘Wasserleitung, Fluß, Gewässer’
(REW 2:258-9)
1. PIE *hɑeku̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaku̯ḗɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaku̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *hɑaku̯ā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. hɑaku̯ā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haku̯ā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. haku̯ā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aku̯ā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. aku̯ā́-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *akā́-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. akā́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *okā́-
7. okā́-
*ā́ → a
Change of *ā́ into á
Rā́›á → Russ. oká-
√ɦɑgu-
RV. ā́ji.a-
(n.) ‘Opferschmalz, die geschmolzene Butter’
(WbRV. 173)
(RV. ā́jia-)
1. PIE *hɑḗgu̯iɑHo-
PIE *ɑḗ → ɑā́
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑḗ
Rɑḗ›ɑā́ → *hɑā́gu̯iɑHo-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑā́gu̯iɑHo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hā́gu̯iHo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hā́gu̯iHo-
PIE *gu̯ → ǰu̯
2nd palatalization of *gu̯
Rgu̯›ǰu̯ → *hā́ǰu̯iHo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. hā́ǰu̯iHo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hā́ǰu̯iHa-
5. hā́ǰu̯iHa-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RH›' → *hā́ǰu̯i.a-
6. hā́ǰu̯i.a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ā́ǰu̯i.a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. ā́ǰu̯i.a-
*ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RČU›Č → *ā́ǰi.a-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
8. ā́ǰi.a-
*ǰ → j
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to j
Rǰ›j → RV. ā́ji.a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
RV. aktú-
(m.) [in mng.] ‘Salbe’
(WbRV. 5)
1. PIE *hɑegutú-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑagutú-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑagutú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hagutú-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hagutú-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *agutú-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. agutú-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *agtú-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. agtú-
*g → k
Devoicing of *g before *t
Rgt›kt → RV. aktú-


PIE √hɑl-, √ɦɑl- ‘Hürde, Hof, Umrahmung’ (vb.) ‘eifassen, ausstatten’
(IEW 672)
(+ Pyysalo)
√hɑl-
(HEG 1:128-9)
Hitt. ḫal-
(n.) ‘Hürde für Großvieh, Viehhof, Mauer’
(HIL. 319)
(Hitt. ḫa-a-li [DL])
1. PIE *hɑel-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑal-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑal-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hal-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hal-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫal-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑli-
Hitt. ḫali-
(n.) ‘Hürde für Großvieh, Viehhof, Mauer’
(HHand. 36)
(Hitt. ḫa-a-li [NA], ḫa-a-li-ia-aš, ḫa-al-li-ia)
1. PIE *hɑeli-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑali-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑali-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hali-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hali-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫali-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑlis-
(HEG 1:132)
Hitt. ḫališa-
(.) ‘Einfassung, Umrahmung’ ?
(HHand. 36)
(Hitt. ḫališaz [sgAbl], EHS 328)
1. PIE *hɑeliso-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaliso-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaliso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haliso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haliso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halisa-
4. halisa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hališa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. hališa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫališa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫališei̯a-
(vb.) ‘einfassen, ausstatten, schmücken’
(HEG 1:132)
(in Hitt. ḫališei̯auar, cf. below)
1. PIE *hɑelisei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalisei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalisei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halisei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halisei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halisei̯a-
4. halisei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hališei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. hališei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫališei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫališei̯au̯ar-
(vb.sb.) ‘= Akd. uḫḫuzzu ‘überzogen’
(EHS 492n1.)
1. PIE *hɑelisei̯ou̯or-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalisei̯ou̯or-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalisei̯ou̯or-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halisei̯ou̯or-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halisei̯ou̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halisei̯au̯ar-
4. halisei̯au̯ar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hališei̯au̯ar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. hališei̯au̯ar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫališei̯au̯ar-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑlisso-
IllyrG. λισσο-
(URU.m.) ‘cour, palais, forum’
(DLG. 204)
(Illyr. λισσος)
1. PIE *hɑlisso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hlisso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hlisso-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lisso-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. lisso-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → IllyrG. λισσο-
Illyr. lisso-
(URU.n.) ‘cour, palais, forum’
(DLG. 204)
(Illyr. lissum)
1. PIE *hɑlisso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hlisso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hlisso-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Illyr. lisso-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OBret. liss-
(.) ‘cour’
(DLG. 204)
1. PIE *hɑlisso
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hlisso
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hlisso
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lisso
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. lisso
*-o → -Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R=o›=0 → OBret. liss
Cymr. llys-
(.) ‘cour, palais, forum’
1. PIE *hɑlisso
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hlisso
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hlisso
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lisso
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. lisso
*-o → -Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R=o›=0 → *liss
4. liss
R=ss›=s → *lis
5. lis
*l- → ll-
Gemination of root-initial *l-
Rl=›ll= → Cymr. llis
Bret. less-
(.) ‘cour, tribunal’
(DLG. 204)
(Bret. les)
1. PIE *hɑlisso
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hlisso
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hlisso
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lisso
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. lisso
*iCo → eCo
Lowering of *i into e
Risso›esso → *lesso
4. lesso
*-o → -Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R=o›=0 → Bret. less
OIr. less-
(.) ‘court yard’
(OIr. less)
1. PIE *hɑlisso
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hlisso
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hlisso
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *lisso
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. lisso
*iCo → eCo
Lowering of *i into e
Risso›esso → *lesso
4. lesso
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → OIr. less
√hɑlist-
(IEW. 672-3)
[WP. 2:405]
OEng. līsta·n-
(f.) ‘list, hem, border, selvage’
(OEng. líste, lístane)
1. PIE *hɑleistēɑh·n-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *hɑleistāɑh·n-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑleistāɑh·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hleistāh·n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hleistāh·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *leistā·n-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. leistā·n-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *leista·n-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. leista·n-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → OEng. līsta·n-
OIcl. lista·n-
(f.) ‘Rand, Leiste’
(ANEtWb. 358)
(Spät erzeugt, ‹OIcl. i !›)
1. PIE *hɑlistēɑh·n-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *hɑlistāɑh·n-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑlistāɑh·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hlistāh·n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hlistāh·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *listā·n-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. listā·n-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → OIcl. lista·n-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
OHG. līsta·n-
(f.) ‘bandförmiger Streifen, Saum, Borte, Leiste, limbus, fimbria’
(ASaxD. 643)
1. PIE *hɑleistēɑh·n-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *hɑleistāɑh·n-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑleistāɑh·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hleistāh·n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hleistāh·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *leistā·n-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. leistā·n-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *leista·n-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. leista·n-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → OHG. līsta·n-
OGaul. listinā-
(URU.) ‘en Belgique’
(DLG. 204)
(OGaul. listinas, ACSS 2:240-42, UKS. 247, DGVB 244, LEB 185, VKG 1, 367)
1. PIE *hɑlistinēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *hɑlistināɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑlistināɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hlistināh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hlistināh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OGaul. listinā
(SPIE §2.1.4)


PIE √hɑl- √ɦal- (vb.) ‘wachen, sehen’ (sb.) ‘Wächter, Hüter’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√hɑele/o-
(Pyysalo)
(HEG 1:129)
Gr. ἄπ.αλο-
(pr.) Hes. = ‘ἀμελοῦντες’
(Hes. ἀπ·αλέντες [plN])
1. PIE *hɑép.hɑelo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑép.hɑalo-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑép.hɑalo-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *hɑáp.hɑalo-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
3. hɑáp.hɑalo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *háp.halo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. háp.halo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *áp.alo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. áp.alo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἄπ.αλο-
Gr. ἀλε·βεβάο-
(vb.) ‘ἐρευνᾶν’
(LSJ. 61)
(Hes. ἀλεβεβᾶν · ἐρευνᾶν)
1. PIE *hɑele·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑale·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑale·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hale·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hale·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ale·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ale·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀλε·Σ-
√hɑeleio-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ḫalei̯a-
(c.) ‘Wache, Nachtwache’
(EHS 176)
1. PIE *hɑelei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halei̯a-
4. halei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫalei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Gr. ἄλεο-
(vb.) ‘to guard’
(LSJ. 61)
(Gr. ἄλεε · φύλασσε)
1. PIE *hɑélei̯o-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *hɑálei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑálei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hálei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hálei̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *álei̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. álei̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *áleo-
5. áleo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἄλεο-
Gr. ἀπ.άλεο-
(inf.) ‘Hes. = ἀμελεῖν’
(LSJ. 176)
(Gr. ἀπ·αλεῖν)
1. PIE *hɑep.hɑélei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑap.hɑélei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑap.hɑélei̯o-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *hɑap.hɑálei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
3. hɑap.hɑálei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hap.hálei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. hap.hálei̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ap.álei̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ap.álei̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *ap.áleo-
6. ap.áleo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀπ.άλεο-
Hitt. ḫalei̯a·dala-
(c.N.ag.) ‘Hüter, Wachter’
(HHand. 36)
1. PIE *hɑelei̯o·dɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalei̯o·dɑɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalei̯o·dɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halei̯o·dɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halei̯o·dɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halei̯a·dɦala-
4. halei̯a·dɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *halei̯a·dala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. halei̯a·dala-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫalei̯a·dala-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √hɑl- (sb.) ‘Höhlung’ (a.) ‘tief’ (vb.) ‘niederknien, -fallen, sich prosternieren’
(IEW. 88)
(Pyysalo 2013:156-7)
√hɑl-
OInd. āra-
(m.) ‘Höhlung’
(EWA 3:23)
(KEWA 1:77)
1. PIE *hɑēlo-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *hɑālo-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑālo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hālo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hālo-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *hāro-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. hāro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hāra-
5. hāra-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OInd. āra-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Lith. olà-
(f.) ‘Höhle, Grube; ‹not ‹- MidLG. hol ‘Höhle, Grube’.’
(LiEtWb. 516)
1. PIE *hɑēlḗɑh
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ɑē
Rɑē›ɑā → *hɑālḗɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. hɑālḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *hɑālā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. hɑālā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hālā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. hālā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ālā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ālā́
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *ōlā́
(XX:XX)
6. ōlā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *ōlṓ
(XX:XX)
7. ōlṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → *ōlà
8. ōlà
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → Lith. olà
√hɑli-
Gr. ἄλι-
(c.) ‘shallow vessel, saucer’
(LSJ. 66)
(Gr. ἄλιρ [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑéli-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *hɑáli-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑáli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *háli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. háli-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *áli-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. áli-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἄλι-
Gr. ἀλί·βατο-
(a.) ‘high, steep, deep, abysmal’
(Gr. ἀλίβατος)
1. PIE *hɑelí·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalí·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalí·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halí·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halí·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *alí·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. alí·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀλί·Σ-
Hitt. ḫalei̯a-
(vb.) ‘niederknien, sich prosternieren, niederfallen’
(HEG I:130-1)
1. PIE *hɑelei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halei̯a-
4. halei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫalei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑlu-
(Oettinger 1979:484-5)
Hitt. haleia- + Hitt. halu-
Hitt. ḫalu-
(a.) ‘tief’ (sb.) ‘Höhlung’
(HEG 1:135-6)
1. PIE *hɑelu-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalu-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫalu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lat. aluo-
(f.) ‘Höhlung, Wölbung’
(Lat. aluus [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑelu̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *alu̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. alu̯o-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. aluo-
OInd. ·arvīṣa-
(.) ‘a hole from which vapours arise’
(Burrow 1976:33)
1. PIE *hɑelu̯·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalu̯·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu̯·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halu̯·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halu̯·Σ-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *haru̯·Σ-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. haru̯·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aru̯·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. aru̯·Σ-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OInd. arv·Σ-


PIE √hɑl- √ɦɑl- (a.) ‘gläzend, weiß, heiß, rein’ (sb.) ‘Tag, Jahr, Zeit’
(IEW. 24 [diff.])
(Pyysalo)
√hɑli-
(Pyysalo 2013:128)
(HEG I:129-30)
HLu. ḫalei-
(sb.) ‘day’
(CHLu. 1.1.6)
(HLu. (“DIES‹”›)ha-lí-za)
1. PIE *hɑelei-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalei-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halei-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. ḫalei-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. ḫalei-
(sb.) ‘Tag’
(DLL. 38)
(CLu. ḫal-li-ia [sgD])
1. PIE *hɑelei-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalei-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halei-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫalei-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. ḫali-
(.) ‘= Ḫattušili’
(CHLu. 6.2.17c)
(HLu. HÁLI-i-sa)
1. PIE *hɑeli-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑali-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑali-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hali-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hali-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. ḫali-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫali·[…
(URU.) “In der Gegend von › Tuwanuwa ?”
(OGH. 69)
(Hitt. ḫal-li[)
1. PIE *hɑeli·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑali·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑali·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hali·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hali·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫali·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Lat. ōli-
(adv.bs.) ‘einmal, einst, zuweilen’
(Lat. ōlim [adv.])
1. PIE *hɑōli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hōli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hōli-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lat. ōli-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OInd. par·āri
(adv.) ‘in the year before last’
(MonWil. 589)
1. PIE *Π·hɑōli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·hōli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·hōli-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *Π·hōri-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. Π·hōri-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·hāri-
4. Π·hāri-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OInd. Π·āri-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OInd. par·āri·tna-
(a.) ‘belonging to the year before last’
(IEW. 24 [diff.])
1. PIE *Π·hɑōli·tno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·hōli·tno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·hōli·tno-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *Π·hōri·tno-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. Π·hōri·tno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·hōri·tna-
4. Π·hōri·tna-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·hāri·tna-
5. Π·hāri·tna-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OInd. Π·āri·tna-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√hɑleio-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. ḫalei̯a-
(sb.) ‘day’
(CHLu. 1.1.32)
(HLu. (“DIES”)ha-li-ia-za)
1. PIE *hɑelei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halei̯a-
4. halei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. ḫalei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Gr. τινθ·αλέο-
(a.) ‘kochend heiß’
(GEW 2:902)
1. PIE *tintɑh·hɑeléi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *tintɑh·hɑaléi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. tintɑh·hɑaléi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tinth·haléi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tinth·haléi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *tinth·aléi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. tinth·aléi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *tinth·aléo-
5. tinth·aléo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. τινθ·αλέο-
Hitt. ḫalei̯at-
(.) ‘Tag’
(HHand. 36)
1. PIE *hɑelei̯ot-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalei̯ot-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalei̯ot-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halei̯ot-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halei̯ot-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halei̯at-
4. halei̯at-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫalei̯at-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. ḫalei̯ata-
(SISKUR.SISKUR.) ‘purification-offering (?)’
(DLL. 39)
(CLu. ḫal-li-ia-at-ta-an-za [plA])
1. PIE *hɑelei̯oto-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalei̯oto-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalei̯oto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halei̯oto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halei̯oto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halei̯ata-
4. halei̯ata-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫalei̯ata-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑlis-
CLu. ḫališa-
(sb.) ‘pureté’
(DLL. 38)
(HLu. ḫa-li-iš-ša, ḫa-li-eš-ša)
1. PIE *hɑeliso-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaliso-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaliso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haliso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haliso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halisa-
4. halisa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hališa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. hališa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫališa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. ḫališi-
(.) ‘= Ḫattušili-’
(CHLu. 6.3.1)
(HLu. HÁ+LI-si-sá)
1. PIE *hɑelisi-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalisi-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalisi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halisi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halisi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hališi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hališi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. ḫališi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √hɑl- √ɦɑl- (a.) ‘vollständig, ganz, unversehrt’
(IEW 24-5)
√hɑlo-
Goth. ala·mod-
(PN.m.) ‘Alamod, a deacon’
(GoEtD. 25)
1. PIE *hɑolo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *holo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. holo·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *olo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. olo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. ala·Σ-
Goth. ala·funs-
(PN.m.) ‘Sp. alfonso = willig’
(GoEtD. 131)
1. PIE *hɑolo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *holo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. holo·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *olo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. olo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. ala·Σ-
Goth. ala·mann-
(m.) ‘all people, humanity’
(GoEtD. 25)
1. PIE *hɑolo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *holo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. holo·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *olo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. olo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. ala·Σ-
√hɑli-
TochB. alya-
(a.) ‘entire, uncastrated (rams)’
(DTochB. 53)
(TochB. alyi yrim)
1. PIE *hɑoli̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *holi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. holi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hali̯a-
3. hali̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ali̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ali̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. alya-
Arm. ołǰ-
(a.) ‘whole, sound : gesund, ganz, vollständig’
(ArmGr. 481)
1. PIE *hɑoligɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *holigɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. holigɦu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oligɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. oligɦu̯o-
gɦu/u̯ → ǰɦ
Palatalization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
RgɦU›ǰɦ → *oliǰɦo-
4. oliǰɦo-
*ǰɦ → ǰ
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *ǰɦ
Rǰɦ›ǰ → *oliǰo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. oliǰo-
*li → ł
Change of *li into ł
Rli›ł → Arm. ołǰo-
Arm. aṙ·ołǰ-
(a.) ‘gesund, vollständig, unversehrt’
(ArmGr. 1:416)
1. PIE *Π·hɑoligɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·holigɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·holigɦu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·oligɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·oligɦu̯o-
gɦu/u̯ → ǰɦ
Palatalization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
RgɦU›ǰɦ → *Π·oliǰɦo-
4. Π·oliǰɦo-
*ǰɦ → ǰ
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *ǰɦ
Rǰɦ›ǰ → *Π·oliǰo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. Π·oliǰo-
*li → ł
Change of *li into ł
Rli›ł → Arm. Π·ołǰo-
Arm. amb·ołǰ-
(a.) ‘vollständig, ganz, unversehrt’
(ArmGr. 1:416)
1. PIE *Π·hɑoligɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·holigɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·holigɦu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·oligɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·oligɦu̯o-
gɦu/u̯ → ǰɦ
Palatalization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
RgɦU›ǰɦ → *Π·oliǰɦo-
4. Π·oliǰɦo-
*ǰɦ → ǰ
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *ǰɦ
Rǰɦ›ǰ → *Π·oliǰo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. Π·oliǰo-
*li → ł
Change of *li into ł
Rli›ł → Arm. Π·ołǰo-
Lith. aliái
(adv.) ‘völlig’
(LiEtWb. 7)
1. PIE *hɑolióɑhi
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *holióhi
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. holióhi
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oliói
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. oliói
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aliói
4. aliói
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → Lith. aliái
√hɑln-
Osc. allo-
(a.f.) ‘ganz, gesamt’
(WbOU. 81)
(Osc. allo [f.sgN])
1. PIE *hɑelno-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalno-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *alno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. alno-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → Osc. allo-
Lat. all·ert-
(a.) ‘sollers, gelehrt, gebilded, geschickt’
(WH. X:XX)
(ANEtWb. 7)
1. PIE *hɑeln·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaln·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaln·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haln·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haln·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aln·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. aln·Σ-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → Lat. all·Σ-
Goth. all-
(a.) ‘all, ganz, jeder’
(Goth. alls [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑelno
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalno
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalno
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halno
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halno
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *alno
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. alno
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alna
5. alna
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *aln
6. aln
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → Goth. all
OIcl. all-
(a.) ‘all, jeder’
(ANEtWb. 7)
1. PIE *hɑelno
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalno
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalno
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halno
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halno
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *alno
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. alno
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alna
5. alna
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *aln
6. aln
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → OIcl. all


PIE √hɑl- (sb.) ‘Wasser, Gewässer, “liquidus”, usw.’
(IEW. XX+664-665)
(Pyysalo)
√hɑli-
Russ. olĭga-
(f.) ‘morastiger Sumpf : morass’
(REW 2:266)
1. PIE *hɑeligēɑɦ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaligēɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaligēɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *hɑaligāɑɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. hɑaligāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haligāɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. haligāɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *haligā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. haligā-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aligā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. aligā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *oligā-
7. oligā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *oliga-
8. oliga-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → Russ. olĭga-
Arm. ali-
(sb.) ‘wave’
(ArmGr. 412)
(Arm. ali-k‘ [plN])
1. PIE *hɑelí-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalí-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halí-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halí-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *alí-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. alí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → Arm. ali-
√hɑlin-
(HEG I:128)
OInd. alin·jara-
(.) ‘Wassertopf’
(EWA III:16)
(KEWA I:55f., OInd. aliñ·jara-)
1. PIE *hɑeLin·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaLin·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaLin·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haLin·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haLin·Σ-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *halin·Σ-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. halin·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → OInd. alin·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Gr. ἀλίνο-
(pr.) ‘ἀλείφειν’
(LSJ. 66)
(Gr. ἀλίνω)
1. PIE *hɑelíno-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalíno-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalíno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halíno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halíno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *alíno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. alíno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀλίνο-
Gr. ἀλινό-
(m.pl.) ‘ἐπαφρόδιτοι’
(LSJ. 66)
(Gr. ἀλινοί · ἐπαφρόδιτοι [Cret.])
1. PIE *hɑelinó-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalinó-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalinó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halinó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halinó-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *alinó-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. alinó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀλινό-
Hitt. ḫalin·zu-
(Ún.) ‘eine Teichpflanze, ‘Wasserlinse’ ?’
(HHand. 36)
(Hitt. ḫalinzu-)
1. PIE *hɑelin·dɑɦi̯u-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalin·dɑɦi̯u-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalin·dɑɦi̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halin·dɦi̯u-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halin·dɦi̯u-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *halin·jɦu-
4. halin·jɦu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *halin·ju-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. halin·ju-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *halin·zu-
6. halin·zu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫalin·zu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫalin·zuu̯a-
(ÍD.) ‘im Kontext ›Kum(a)ra › Šalmaku › Šeḫrija’
(OGH. 527)
(Hitt. ḫa-le-en-zu-ua [Stf.])
1. PIE *hɑelin·dɑɦi̯uu̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalin·dɑɦi̯uu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalin·dɑɦi̯uu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halin·dɦi̯uu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halin·dɦi̯uu̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *halin·jɦuu̯o-
4. halin·jɦuu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halin·jɦuu̯a-
5. halin·jɦuu̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *halin·juu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. halin·juu̯a-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *halin·zuu̯a-
7. halin·zuu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫalin·zuu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫalin·zuu̯a-
(URU.) ‘Nicht weit entfernt von Nerik’
(OGH. 102-3)
(Hitt. ḫa-li-en-zu-ua, ḫa-li-in-zu-ua-aš)
1. PIE *hɑelin·dɑɦi̯uu̯o
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalin·dɑɦi̯uu̯o
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalin·dɑɦi̯uu̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halin·dɦi̯uu̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halin·dɦi̯uu̯o
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *halin·jɦuu̯o
4. halin·jɦuu̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halin·jɦuu̯a
5. halin·jɦuu̯a
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *halin·juu̯a
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. halin·juu̯a
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *halin·zuu̯a
7. halin·zuu̯a
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫalin·zuu̯a
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑlibɑɦ-
Gr. ἀλείφο-
(pr.) ‘einölen, salben’
(Gr. ἀλείφω)
1. PIE *hɑeleíbɑɦo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaleíbɑɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaleíbɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haleíbɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haleíbɦo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aleíbɦo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. aleíbɦo-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *aleípho-
5. aleípho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀλείφο-
Arm. ałb·iur-
(sb.) ‘Quelle’
(EtDiArm. 32-3)
1. PIE *hɑelibɑɦ·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalibɑɦ·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalibɑɦ·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halibɦ·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halibɦ·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *alibɦ·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. alibɦ·Σ-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *alib·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. alib·Σ-
*li → ł
Change of *li into ł
Rli›ł → Arm. ałb·Σ-
Arm. ałb·ewr
(sb.) ‘spring, fountain, Persson Wz. 126’
(ArmGr. 415)
(Arm. ałbewr; ałber [sgG])
1. PIE *hɑelibɑɦ·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalibɑɦ·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalibɑɦ·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halibɦ·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halibɦ·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *alibɦ·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. alibɦ·Σ-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → *alib·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. alib·Σ-
*li → ł
Change of *li into ł
Rli›ł → Arm. ałb·Σ-
√hɑli·σo-
Gr. ἄλει·σο-
(n.) ‘Trinkgefäß mit zwei Henkeln’
(GEW 1:67)
(WP II:392, IEW. 664-665, ἄλεισον)
1. PIE *hɑélei·Σ-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *hɑálei·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑálei·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hálei·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hálei·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *álei·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. álei·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἄλει·Σ-
√hɑliu-
Hitt. ḫaliu̯a·ni-
(.) ‘Rhyton, Trinkhorn’
(HHand. 36)
1. PIE *hɑeliu̯o·ni-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaliu̯o·ni-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaliu̯o·ni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haliu̯o·ni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haliu̯o·ni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *haliu̯a·ni-
4. haliu̯a·ni-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫaliu̯a·ni-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑlu-
Hitt. ḫalu̯a·na-
(.) ‘Rhyton, Trinkhorn’
(HHand. 37)
1. PIE *hɑelu̯o·no-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalu̯o·no-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu̯o·no-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halu̯o·no-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halu̯o·no-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halu̯a·na-
4. halu̯a·na-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫalu̯a·na-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫalu̯a·na-
(PÚc.) ‘S. > Aldanni.’
(OGH. 527)
(Hitt. ḫal-ua-an-na-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑelu̯o·no-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalu̯o·no-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu̯o·no-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halu̯o·no-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halu̯o·no-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halu̯a·na-
4. halu̯a·na-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫalu̯a·na-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫalu̯a·na-
(ḪUR.SAG.) ‘Göttlicher Berg, verehrt in > Urišta.
(OGH. 74-5)
(Hitt. ḫal-ua-an-na-(an))
1. PIE *hɑelu̯o·no-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalu̯o·no-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu̯o·no-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halu̯o·no-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halu̯o·no-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halu̯a·na-
4. halu̯a·na-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫalu̯a·na-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫalu̯a·ni-
(c.) ‘Gefäss für Flüssigkeiten’
(HEG1:132, 138-9)
1. PIE *hɑelu̯o·ni-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalu̯o·ni-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu̯o·ni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halu̯o·ni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halu̯o·ni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halu̯a·ni-
4. halu̯a·ni-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫalu̯a·ni-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫalu̯a·dala-
(DUG.) ‘ein Gefäß’
(XX:XX)
(Hitt. DUGḫaluatala-)
1. PIE *hɑelu̯o·dɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalu̯o·dɑɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu̯o·dɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halu̯o·dɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halu̯o·dɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halu̯a·dɦala-
4. halu̯a·dɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *halu̯a·dala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. halu̯a·dala-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫalu̯a·dala-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OIcl. ǫldr-
(n.) ‘Trinkgelage’
(ANEtWb. 686)
1. PIE *hɑeludɑɦro
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaludɑɦro
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaludɑɦro
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haludɦro
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haludɦro
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aludɦro
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. aludɦro
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *aludro
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. aludro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aludra
6. aludra
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *aludr
7. aludr
*a — u → ǫ — Ø
Umlaut for a — u
Ralu›ǫl → OIcl. ǫldr
Lith. aluntà-
(f.) ‘Flußname’
(LiEtWb. 8)
1. PIE *hɑeluntḗɑh
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaluntḗɑh
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaluntḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *hɑaluntā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. hɑaluntā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haluntā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. haluntā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aluntā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. aluntā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *aluntṓ
(XX:XX)
6. aluntṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → Lith. aluntà
Dac. ἀλουτᾱ́-
(.) ‘a river name’
(XX:XX)
(Dac. ἀλουτάς)
1. PIE *hɑeloutḗɑh
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaloutḗɑh
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaloutḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *hɑaloutā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. hɑaloutā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haloutā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. haloutā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aloutā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. aloutā́
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dac. ἀλουτᾱ́


PIE √hɑl- (vb.) ‘zerstören, zertreten’
√hɑl-
Gr. ὄλωλ-
(pf.intr.) ‘verderben’
(Gr. ὄλωλα)
1. PIE *hɑólehɑol
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hólehol
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hólehol
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *óleol
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. óleol
*eo → ō
Contraction of e and o
Reo›ō → *ólōl
4. ólōl
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄλωλ
√hɑlo-
(HW2 H: 18)
(Puhvel HED 3: 13, SHV: 81, Melchert 1994:82)
Hitt. ḫala·nei̯a-
(vb.A.) ‘zertreten, zerstören’ (HHand. 35)
(EHS 561)
1. PIE *hɑolo·nei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *holo·nei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. holo·nei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hala·nei̯a-
3. hala·nei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫala·nei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫala·nei̯a-
(vb.M.) ‘zertreten, zerstören ‹obj. ‘field’›’
(HHand. 35)
(Hitt. nu A.ŠÀ-aš-ti-iš ḫal-la-ni-ia-at-ta-ri)
1. PIE *hɑolo·nei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *holo·nei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. holo·nei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hala·nei̯a-
3. hala·nei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫala·nei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. arḫa ḫala·neiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘zerstören’
(HIL. 318)
1. PIE *Π·hɑolo·neiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·holo·neiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·holo·neiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *Π·holo·neisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·holo·neisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·hala·neisḱe/a-
4. Π·hala·neisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *Π·hala·neiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. Π·hala·neiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *Π·hala·neiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. Π·hala·neiške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·ḫala·neiške/a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑli-
(Adams: Toch. + Lat.)
Lat. ab·oleo-
(pr.) ‘destroy, do away’
(Lat. ab·oleō)
1. PIE *Π·hɑolei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·holei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·holei̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·olei̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·olei̯o-
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
Rei̯o›eo → Lat. Π·oleo-
Gr. πυδ.αλίζο·-
(pr.) ‘mit dem Fuß/Huf ausschlagen’
(GEW 2:620)
(Gr. πυδαλίζω)
1. PIE *Π·hɑelíɦɑdi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *Π·hɑalíɦɑdi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. Π·hɑalíɦɑdi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·halíɦdi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·halíɦdi̯o-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·halídi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·halídi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·alídi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·alídi̯o-
PIE *di̯ → j
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
Rdi̯›j → *Π·alíjo-
6. Π·alíjo-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *Π·alízo-
7. Π·alízo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·αλίζο-
√hɑlin-
CLu. ḫalina-
(vb.?) ‘krank sein (?), HHand. 36’
(DLL. 39)
1. PIE *hɑolino-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *holino-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. holino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halina-
3. halina-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫalina-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Gr. ἐν·αλίνο-
(pr.) ‘engrave, inscribe’
(XX:XX)
(Gr. ἐναλίνω)
1. PIE *en·hɑelíno-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *en·hɑalíno-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. en·hɑalíno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *en·halíno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. en·halíno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *en·alíno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. en·alíno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἐν·αλίνο-
√hɑlis-
CLu. ḫališ-
(n.) ‘Krankheit (?)’
(HHand. 36)
1. PIE *hɑolis-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *holis-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. holis-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halis-
3. halis-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hališ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hališ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫališ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Gr. ἀλοιάο-
(pr.) ‘thresh, bruise, crush, destroy’
(Gr. ἀλοιάω)
1. PIE *hɑeloiséɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaloiséɑhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaloiséɑhi̯o-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *hɑaloisáɑhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
3. hɑaloisáɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haloisáhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. haloisáhi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aloisái̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. aloisái̯o-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *aloihái̯o-
6. aloihái̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *aloiháo-
7. aloiháo-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *aloiáo-
8. aloiáo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀλοιάο-
Gr. ἀπ.αλοιάο-
(pr.) ‘thresh out, bruise, crush, destroy’
(LSJ. 176)
(Gr. ἀπάλοιάω)
1. PIE *hɑep.hɑeloiséɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑap.hɑaloiséɑhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑap.hɑaloiséɑhi̯o-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *hɑap.hɑaloisáɑhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
3. hɑap.hɑaloisáɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hap.haloisáhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. hap.haloisáhi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ap.aloisái̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ap.aloisái̯o-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *ap.aloihái̯o-
6. ap.aloihái̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *ap.aloiháo-
7. ap.aloiháo-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *ap.aloiáo-
8. ap.aloiáo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀπ.αλοιάο-
Gr. ἀλινό-
(a.) ‘schwach’ (mit Gr. ī)
(XX:XX)
(Gr. ἀλινός)
1. PIE *hɑelisnó-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalisnó-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalisnó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halisnó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halisnó-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *alisnó-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. alisnó-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *alihnó-
5. alihnó-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *alinó-
6. alinó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀλινό-
Dor. ἰν·αλαλισ-
(pf.) ‘engrave, inscribe’
(LSJ. 553)
(Cypr. ἰν·αλαλισμένα)
1. PIE *in·hɑelhɑeliss-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *in·hɑalhɑaliss-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. in·hɑalhɑaliss-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *in·halhaliss-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. in·halhaliss-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *in·alaliss-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. in·alaliss-
*ss → s
Degemination of *ss
Rss›s → *in·alalis-
5. in·alalis-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. ἰν·αλαλισ-


PIE √hɑl- ‘agitare, aemulare’
(IEW 28)
(+ Pyysalo: OAnat.)
√hɑelondɑɦi̯o-
CLu. ḫalanza-
(vb.) ‘drohen, anreizen(?); ‹or ‘agitate’ vel sim. ?›’
(HEG1:127)
(KLu. ḫalanzata [3sg], HHand. 35)
1. PIE *hɑelondɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalondɑɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalondɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halondɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halondɦi̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *halonjɦo-
4. halonjɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halanjɦa-
5. halanjɦa-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *halanzɦa-
6. halanzɦa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫalanza-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑeli-
(IEW 28 al- ‘brennen’)
Goth. ali·gernu-
(PN.m.) ‘XX’
(GoEtWb. 5)
(Goth. ali·gernus)
1. PIE *hɑeli·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑali·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑali·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hali·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hali·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Goth. ali·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Goth. ali·ulfu-
(PN.m.) ‘XX’
(GoEtWb. 5)
(Goth. ali·ulfus)
1. PIE *hɑeli·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑali·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑali·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hali·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hali·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Goth. ali·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√hɑelion-
Goth. aljan-
(n.) ‘Eifer: avidity, eagerness, ζῆλος: aemulatio’
(GoEtD. A126)
(Goth. aljan Rom 10,2 A [NA], aljana Rom 10,19 A)
1. PIE *hɑeli̯ono
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑali̯ono
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑali̯ono
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hali̯ono
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hali̯ono
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ali̯ono
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ali̯ono
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ali̯ana
5. ali̯ana
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *ali̯an
6. ali̯an
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Goth. aljan
Goth. aljano-
(vb.) ‘eifern (für) strive for: ζηλοῦν: aemulari’
(Goth. aljanon Gal 4,18 A; aljanond Gal 4,17 A; aljanonds 2Kr 11,2 B; aljanoþ 1Kr 13,4 A; Gal 4,17 A)
1. PIE *hɑelei̯onēɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalei̯onēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalei̯onēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *hɑalei̯onāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. hɑalei̯onāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halei̯onāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. halei̯onāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *alei̯onā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. alei̯onā-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *alei̯anā-
6. alei̯anā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *alei̯anō-
(XX:XX)
7. alei̯anō-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *alii̯anō-
8. alii̯anō-
*ii̯a → ja
Loss of *i before i̯a
Rii̯a›i̯a → *ali̯anō-
9. ali̯anō-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *aljanō-
10. aljanō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → Goth. aljano-
Goth. in·aljano-
(vb.) ‘zornig machen: παραζηλοῦν, aemulari’
(XX:XX)
(Goth. inaljanom 1Kr 10,22 A; inaljanoþ 2Kr 13,5 GlA
1. PIE *en·hɑelei̯onēɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *en·hɑalei̯onēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. en·hɑalei̯onēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *en·hɑalei̯onāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. en·hɑalei̯onāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *en·halei̯onāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. en·halei̯onāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *en·alei̯onā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. en·alei̯onā-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *en·alei̯anā-
6. en·alei̯anā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *en·alei̯anō-
(XX:XX)
7. en·alei̯anō-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *in·alii̯anō-
8. in·alii̯anō-
*ii̯a → ja
Loss of *i before i̯a
Rii̯a›i̯a → *in·ali̯anō-
9. in·ali̯anō-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *in·aljanō-
10. in·aljanō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → Goth. in·aljano-
√hɑelu-
Gr. ἄλυ-
(f.) ‘agitation’
(LSJ. XX)
(Gr. ἄλυς [sgN], ἄλυς [plA])
1. PIE *hɑélu-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *hɑálu-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑálu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hálu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hálu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *álu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. álu-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἄλυ-
√hɑeluoi-
Hitt. ḫalu̯ai-
(vb.) ‘streiten’
(HHand. 37)
1. PIE *hɑelu̯oi-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalu̯oi-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu̯oi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halu̯oi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halu̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halu̯ai-
4. halu̯ai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫalu̯ai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫalu̯ai-
(c.) ‘Streit, Zank, Feindschaft’
(HEG I:137-8)
1. PIE *hɑelu̯oi-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalu̯oi-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu̯oi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halu̯oi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halu̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halu̯ai-
4. halu̯ai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫalu̯ai-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑeluei-
Pal. ḫalu̯ei-
(c.) ‘Attribut oder verbalform; Tabarna-’
(HHand. 37)
(Pal. ta-ba-ar-na-aš? ḫal-lu-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑelu̯ei-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalu̯ei-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu̯ei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halu̯ei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halu̯ei-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Pal. ḫalu̯ei-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑeluosi-
Hitt. ḫalu̯aši-
(c.) ‘ein Orakelvogel’
(HHand. 37)
1. PIE *hɑelu̯osi-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalu̯osi-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu̯osi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halu̯osi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halu̯osi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halu̯asi-
4. halu̯asi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *halu̯aši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. halu̯aši-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫalu̯aši-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑeluodɑɦ-
CLu. ḫalu̯adei-
(GKL.) ‘ein psychischer Zustand’
(DLL. 39)
(CLu. ḫal-ua-ti-ia [sgDL]; KLuN 475- ‘im Übereifer’)
1. PIE *hɑelu̯odɑɦei-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalu̯odɑɦei-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu̯odɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halu̯odɦei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halu̯odɦei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halu̯adɦei-
4. halu̯adɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *halu̯adei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. halu̯adei-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. ḫalu̯adei-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫalu̯adnali-
(a.) ‘gereizt, erbost, erregt ?’
(HHand. 37)
1. PIE *hɑelu̯odɑɦnoli-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalu̯odɑɦnoli-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu̯odɑɦnoli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halu̯odɦnoli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halu̯odɦnoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halu̯adɦnali-
4. halu̯adɦnali-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *halu̯adnali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. halu̯adnali-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫalu̯adnali-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫalu̯adnaza-
(vb.) ‘erregt werden’
(HHand. 37)
1. PIE *hɑelu̯odɑɦnodɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalu̯odɑɦnodɑɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu̯odɑɦnodɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halu̯odɦnodɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halu̯odɦnodɦi̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *halu̯odɦnojɦo-
4. halu̯odɦnojɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halu̯adɦnajɦa-
5. halu̯adɦnajɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *halu̯adnaja-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. halu̯adnaja-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *halu̯adnaza-
7. halu̯adnaza-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫalu̯adnaza-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √hɑl- ‘klein, wenig, arm, elend, schlecht, schwach’
(IEW 310 + 667)
(Pyysalo)
√hɑli-
Hitt. ḫalia-
(?.) ‘(ein kleines Tier)’
(HEG H:131)
(EHS 169)
1. PIE *hɑeli̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑali̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑali̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hali̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hali̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hali̯a-
4. hali̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫali̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑliK-
Arm. ałk'at-
(a.) ‘arm, dürftig, wenig, knapp’
(EtDiArm. 42-43)
(Arm. ałk'at)
1. PIE *hɑeliku̯eɑɦdo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaliku̯eɑɦdo-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaliku̯eɑɦdo-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *hɑaliku̯aɑɦdo-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
3. hɑaliku̯aɑɦdo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haliku̯aɦdo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. haliku̯aɦdo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *haliku̯ado-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. haliku̯ado-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aliku̯ado-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. aliku̯ado-
*kU → k
Loss of labial after velar
RkU›k → *alikado-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
7. alikado-
*k → kʼ
Glottalization of *k
Rk›k' → *alik'ado-
8. alik'ado-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *alik'ato-
9. alik'ato-
*li → ł
Change of *li into ł
Rli›ł → Arm. ałk'ato-
Arm. ałk'at-
(sb.) ‘armer Bettler’
(EtDiArm. 42-43)
(Arm. ałk'at)
1. PIE *hɑeliku̯eɑɦdo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaliku̯eɑɦdo-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaliku̯eɑɦdo-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *hɑaliku̯aɑɦdo-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
3. hɑaliku̯aɑɦdo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haliku̯aɦdo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. haliku̯aɦdo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *haliku̯ado-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. haliku̯ado-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aliku̯ado-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. aliku̯ado-
*kU → k
Loss of labial after velar
RkU›k → *alikado-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
7. alikado-
*k → kʼ
Glottalization of *k
Rk›k' → *alik'ado-
8. alik'ado-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *alik'ato-
9. alik'ato-
*li → ł
Change of *li into ł
Rli›ł → Arm. ałk'ato-
Arm. ałk'at·ana-
(vb.) ‘bin (oder werde) arm’
(XX:XX)
(Arm. ałk'atanam [1sg])
1. PIE *hɑeliku̯eɑɦd·hɑeneɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaliku̯eɑɦd·hɑaneɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaliku̯eɑɦd·hɑaneɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *hɑaliku̯aɑɦd·hɑanaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
3. hɑaliku̯aɑɦd·hɑanaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haliku̯aɦd·hanah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. haliku̯aɦd·hanah-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *haliku̯ad·hanah-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. haliku̯ad·hanah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aliku̯ad·hana-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. aliku̯ad·hana-
*kU → k
Loss of labial after velar
RkU›k → *alikad·hana-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
7. alikad·hana-
*k → kʼ
Glottalization of *k
Rk›k' → *alik'ad·hana-
8. alik'ad·hana-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *alik'at·hana-
9. alik'at·hana-
*li → ł
Change of *li into ł
Rli›ł → Arm. ałk'at·hana-
OIr. līach-
(a.) ‘elend, unglücklich’
(DIL. 433)
1. PIE *hɑleiku̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hleiku̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hleiku̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *leiku̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. leiku̯o-
* ku/u̯ → q
Emergence of labiovelar q
RkU›q → *leiqo-
4. leiqo-
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → *lēqo-
5. lēqo-
*q → k
Delabialization of labiovelar *q
Rq›k → *lēko-
6. lēko-
VkV → VkhV
Lenition of voiceless stop *k
Rk›kh → *lēkho-
7. lēkho-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OIr. lēcho-
√hɑlig-
Gr. ὀλίγο-
(a.) ‘klein’
(IEW. 667)
1. PIE *hɑolígo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *holígo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. holígo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *olígo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. olígo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὀλίγο-
Arm. ałk.ałk-
(a.) ‘armselig, dürftig, gering, schlecht’
(IEW. 310 [diff.])
1. PIE *hɑelig.hɑelig-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalig.hɑalig-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalig.hɑalig-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halig.halig-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halig.halig-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *alig.alig-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. alig.alig-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *alik.alik-
5. alik.alik-
*li → ł
Change of *li into ł
Rli›ł → Arm. ałk.ałk-


PIE √hɑl- (vb.) ‘binden’ (sb.) ‘Band, Ring, usw.’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√hɑelo-
Hitt. ḫala·lei̯a-
(KUŠ.) ‘Gegenstand aus Leder’
(HHand. 35)
1. PIE *hɑelo·lei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalo·lei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalo·lei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halo·lei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halo·lei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hala·lei̯a-
4. hala·lei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫala·lei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑelikɑh-
Arm. ałx-
(sb.) ‘lock; ring’
(EDArmIH. 24)
(Bible+)
1. PIE *hɑelikɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalikɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalikɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halikh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halikh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *alikh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. alikh-
*kh → x
Affricativization of *kh
Rkh›x → *alix-
5. alix-
*li → ł
Change of *li into ł
Rli›ł → Arm. ałx-
Arm. ałx-
(sb.) ‘furniture, possessions’
(EDArmIH. 24)
(Bible+)
1. PIE *hɑelikɑh
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalikɑh
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalikɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halikh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halikh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *alikh
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. alikh
*kh → x
Affricativization of *kh
Rkh›x → *alix
5. alix
*li → ł
Change of *li into ł
Rli›ł → Arm. ałx
Arm. ałx-
(sb.) ‘crowd, group of wayfarers’
(EDArmIH. 24)
(Bible+)
1. PIE *hɑelikɑh
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalikɑh
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalikɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halikh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halikh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *alikh
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. alikh
*kh → x
Affricativization of *kh
Rkh›x → *alix
5. alix
*li → ł
Change of *li into ł
Rli›ł → Arm. ałx
√hɑeln-
(Pyysalo)
OIr. all-
(n.) ‘bride, rêne’
(LEIA A-61 [oE])
(OIr. all .i. srían, also OIr. alla ‘ab alligatione equorum’)
1. PIE *hɑelno
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalno
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalno
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halno
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halno
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *alno
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. alno
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *allo
5. allo
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → OIr. all
OIr. ad·all-
(n.) ‘bride, rêne’
(LEIA A-61)
1. PIE *Π·hɑelno
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *Π·hɑalno
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. Π·hɑalno
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·halno
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·halno
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·alno
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·alno
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *Π·allo
5. Π·allo
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → OIr. Π·all
Gr. ἄλλικ-
(f.) ‘χλαμύς’
(GEW 1:76)
(in Thess. ἄλλιξ, ἄλλικα [sgA])
1. PIE *hɑélniki-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *hɑálniki-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑálniki-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hálniki-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hálniki-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *hálniḱ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. hálniḱ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *álniḱ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. álniḱ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *álnik-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. álnik-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *állik-
7. állik-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἄλλικ-


PIE √hɑl- ‘wohnen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√hɑl-
Gr. ἀλέο-
(vb2.) ‘οἰκεῖ’
(LSJ. 62)
(Hes. ἀλεῖ · οἰκεῖ)
1. PIE *hɑeléi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaléi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaléi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haléi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haléi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aléi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. aléi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *aléo-
5. aléo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀλέο-
√hɑlin·dɑɦu-
(HEG 1:128)
(DLL. 134f., EHS 252)
Hitt. ḫalin·deu-
(É.n.) ‘Wohnpalast, Palast’
(HHand. 36)
1. PIE *hɑelin·dɑɦeu-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalin·dɑɦeu-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalin·dɑɦeu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halin·dɦeu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halin·dɦeu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *halin·deu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. halin·deu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫalin·deu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫalin·du-
(É.n.) ‘Wohnpalast, Palast’
(HHand. 36)
1. PIE *hɑelin·dɑɦu-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalin·dɑɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalin·dɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halin·dɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halin·dɦu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *halin·du-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. halin·du-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫalin·du-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫalin·du̯a-
(É.n.) ‘Wohnpalast, Palast’
(HHand. 36)
1. PIE *hɑelin·dɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑalin·dɑɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalin·dɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *halin·dɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. halin·dɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *halin·dɦu̯a-
4. halin·dɦu̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *halin·du̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. halin·du̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫalin·du̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑli·daɦu-
Hitt. ḫali·deu-
(É.n.) ‘Wohnpalast, Palast’
(Weitenberg 1984:318)
(Hitt. Éḫa-li-en-ti-u-i = Éḫ]a-li-ti-u-i)
1. PIE *hɑeli·dɑɦeu-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑali·dɑɦeu-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑali·dɑɦeu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hali·dɦeu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hali·dɦeu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *hali·deu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hali·deu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫali·deu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫali·du-
(É.n.) ‘Wohnpalast, Palast’
(Weitenberg 1984:328)
(Hitt. Éḫa-li-tu-as [plDL])
1. PIE *hɑeli·dɑɦu-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑali·dɑɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑali·dɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hali·dɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. hali·dɦu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *hali·du-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hali·du-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫali·du-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √hɑl- (sb.) ‘Erde, Ton, Lehm’
(IEW –)
(Not to Lat. lino- ‘(be)smear’ !)
√hɑelei̯o-
Hitt. tut·ḫaleia-
(m.c.) Tudhalia šar kiššati: King of the Earth’
(NOMS. 1389.2)
(Hitt. du/tu-ud-ḫa-li-ia(-aš, -an, Ugar. tdġl, ttġl, Hebr. tid‘al))
1. PIE *Π·hɑelei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *Π·hɑalei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. Π·hɑalei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·halei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·halei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·halei̯a-
4. Π·halei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·ḫalei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Kpd. tut·ḫaleia-
(Ic.)
(NOMS. 1389.1)
(Kpd. tù-ud-ḫa-li-a)
1. PIE *Π·hɑelei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *Π·hɑalei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. Π·hɑalei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·halei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·halei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·halei̯a-
4. Π·halei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Kpd. Π·ḫalei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. tut·ḫaleia-
(URU.) ‘[...] Ḫatti, Löwe [...] als in der Stadt T. […]’
(OGH. 445)
(Hitt. tu-ut-ḫa-li-ia; […] die Gottheiten sind in die Stadt Ariuwa hinuntergegangen [...]’)
1. PIE *Π·hɑelei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *Π·hɑalei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. Π·hɑalei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·halei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·halei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·halei̯a-
4. Π·halei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·ḫalei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. tut·ḫaleia-
(HUR.SAG.) ‘wohl im hethitischen Kernland’
(OGH. 446)
(Hitt. tu-ut-ḫa-li-ia, du-ut-ḫa-li-ia-aš)
1. PIE *Π·hɑelei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *Π·hɑalei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. Π·hɑalei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·halei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·halei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·halei̯a-
4. Π·halei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·ḫalei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. tutu·ḫaleia-
(.) ‘Tudhalia (Ugar. tdġl, ttġl, Hebr. tid‘al)
(NOMS. 1389.4)
(Hitt. du-ud-du-ḫa-li-ia-aš)
1. PIE *Π·hɑelei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *Π·hɑalei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. Π·hɑalei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·halei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·halei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·halei̯a-
4. Π·halei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. Π·ḫalei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑlin-
(HEG 1:131-)
Hitt. ḫaleina-
(c./n.?) ‘=Sum. IM : Ton, Lehm’
(HHand. 36)
(Hitt. ḫa-li-i-na-aš [sgG] zeri ‘cup’, tešumi ‘cup’)
1. PIE *hɑeleino-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑaleino-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaleino-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *haleino-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. haleino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *haleina-
4. haleina-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫaleina-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√hɑlis-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. leṣṭu-
(m.) ‘Erdklumpen, Scholle’
(KEWA 3:112)
1. PIE *hɑLoistu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hLoistu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hLoistu-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *hloistu-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. hloistu-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is