PIE Lexicon Project
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Foma (Hulden 2009)
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Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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"Durch zweier Zeugen Mund wird alle Wahrheit kund" — August Fick
(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
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PIE



PIE √ɑɦgu- √ɑɦogu- √ɑɦegu- (sb.) ‘Spitze, Gipfel, Kopf, Felsgipfel’ (a.) ‘erste, oberste’ (adv.) ‘vor(an), zuerst’
(IEW 8-9)
(HiuA 183)
√ɑɦogu-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. ága-
(m.) ‘mountain, tree’
(KEWA 1:17)
1. PIE *ɑɦógu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦógu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦógu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦógu̯a-
3. ɦógu̯a-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *ɦágu̯a-
4. ɦágu̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *águ̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. águ̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → OInd. ága-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
OSax. aku-
(.) ‘head : Kopf : caput’
(ASächsWb. –)
(OSax. acu)
1. PIE *ɑɦogu̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦogu̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦogu̯o
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *ogu̯o
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. ogu̯o
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *oku̯o
4. oku̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aku̯a
5. aku̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *aku̯
6. aku̯
*-ku̯ → -ku̯
Change of root-final -ku̯ into -ku
R=ku̯›=ku → OSax. aku
√ɑɦegur-
(HEG H:235-6)
(HED 3: 287, Weitenberg 1984: 154, HIL. 395, AHPh. 144)
Hitt. ḫegur-
(NA4.n.) ‘Felsgipfel, Felsheiligtum, Fels’
(HEG H:235)
(Hitt. ḫé-kur, ḫé-gur, HHand. 49, EHS 276-7)
1. PIE *ɑɦegur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦegur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦegur-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫegur-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
RV. ágra-
(n.) ‘Spitze, äußerstes ende, Gipfel, Anfang’
(WbRV. 10)
(EWA 1:45-, KEWA 1:18)
1. PIE *ɑɦéguro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦéguro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦéguro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦégura-
3. ɦégura-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *égura-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. égura-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *égra-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. égra-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → RV. ágra-
LAv. aγra-
(a.) ‘der erste, oberste’
(AIWb. 48)
1. PIE *ɑɦeguro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦeguro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦeguro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦegura-
3. ɦegura-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *egura-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. egura-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *egra-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. egra-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *agra-
6. agra-
g → γ
Change of *g into γ
Rg›γ → LAv. aγra-
√ɑɦegurei-
RV. agre·gá-
(a.) ‘voran-gehend’
(WbRV. 11)
1. PIE *ɑɦegurei·gu̯óɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦegurei·gu̯óh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦegurei·gu̯óh-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *ɦegurei·gu̯áh-
3. ɦegurei·gu̯áh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *egurei·gu̯áh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. egurei·gu̯áh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *egurei·gu̯á-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. egurei·gu̯á-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *egrei·gá-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. egrei·gá-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *agrai·gá-
7. agrai·gá-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *agrē·gá-
8. agrē·gá-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → RV. agre·gá-
RV. agre·pā́-
(a.) ‘zuerst drinkend’
(WbRV. 12)
1. PIE *ɑɦegurei·pḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *ɑɦegurei·pā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ɑɦegurei·pā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦegurei·pā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ɦegurei·pā́h-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *egurei·pā́h-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. egurei·pā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *egurei·pā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. egurei·pā́-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *egrei·pā́-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. egrei·pā́-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *agrai·pā́-
7. agrai·pā́-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *agrē·pā́-
8. agrē·pā́-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → RV. agre·pā́-
Lat. agri·ppā-
(PN.m.) ‘agrippa’ ‹if PItal. *agrīpā-, cf. above (?)›
(Lat. agrippa)
1. PIE *eɑɦgurei·pēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *aɑɦgurei·pēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. aɑɦgurei·pēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *aɑɦgurei·pāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. aɑɦgurei·pāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *aɦgurei·pāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. aɦgurei·pāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *agurei·pāh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. agurei·pāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *agurei·pā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. agurei·pā-
*gu/u̯r → gr
Delabialization of u/u̯ between *g and *r
RgUr›gr → *agrei·pā-
7. agrei·pā-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *agrī·pā-
8. agrī·pā-
*īp → ipp
Change of īp into ipp
Rīp›ipp → Lat. agri·ppā-
LAv. aγrae·raϑa-
(I.m.) ‘EN. eines Gläubigen’
(AIWb. 49)
(LAv. aγraeraϑahe)
1. PIE *ɑɦegurei·rotɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦegurei·rotho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦegurei·rotho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦegurei·ratha-
3. ɦegurei·ratha-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *egurei·ratha-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. egurei·ratha-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *egrei·ratha-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. egrei·ratha-
*th → ϑ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›ϑ → *egrei·raϑa-
6. egrei·raϑa-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *agrai·raϑa-
7. agrai·raϑa-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → *agrae·raϑa-
8. agrae·raϑa-
g → γ
Change of *g into γ
Rg›γ → LAv. aγrae·raϑa-

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