PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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© 2014-2015 University of Helsinki

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(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
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PIE



PIE √kiɑhr- √giɑhr- ‘Herz’
(IEW 579-580)
√kei̯eɑhr-
Gr. κέαρ-
(n.) ‘Herz: heart’ (–› Gr. κῆρ with contraction)
(GEW 1:787-788)
(Gr. κέαρ [sgNA])
1. PIE *kéi̯eɑhr-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kéi̯aɑhr-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kéi̯aɑhr-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kéi̯ahr-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kéi̯ahr-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kéi̯ar-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kéi̯ar-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *kéar-
5. kéar-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. κέαρ-
√ki̯oɑhr-
Dor. κορίζᾱ-
(f.) ‘Herz, Magen, Mark bei Pflanzen’
(IEW 579-580)
(Cypr. κορίζα)
1. PIE *ki̯oɑhrídi̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ki̯oɑhrídi̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ki̯oɑhrídi̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ki̯ohrídi̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ki̯ohrídi̯āh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱohrídi̯āh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. ḱohrídi̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ḱorídi̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ḱorídi̯ā-
PIE *di̯ → j
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
Rdi̯›j → *ḱoríjā-
6. ḱoríjā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *koríjā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. koríjā-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *korízā-
8. korízā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. κορίζᾱ-
√ki̯ɑhēr-
Hitt. kēr-
(n.) ‘Herz: heart’
(HEG 2:584)
(Hitt. ki-ir [sgL], ŠÀ-ir [sgL])
1. PIE *ki̯ɑhēr-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ki̯hēr-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ki̯hēr-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱhēr-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ḱhēr-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *khēr-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. khēr-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. kēr-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Goth. hairþr-
(n.) ‘heart, bowels’ (cf. OHG. herder ‘bowels’)
(GoEtD. 171)
(Goth. hairþra [plA])
1. PIE *ki̯ɑhērtro
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ki̯hērtro
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ki̯hērtro
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱhērtro
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ḱhērtro
*ēRC → eRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ēRC
RēRC›eRC → *ḱhertro
(SPIE §2.5.8)
4. ḱhertro
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *khertro
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. khertro
*kh → x
Affricativization of *kh
Rkh›x → *xertro
6. xertro
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *xerþro
7. xerþro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *xerþra
8. xerþra
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *xirþra
9. xirþra
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *xirþr
10. xirþr
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *hirþr
11. hirþr
i → ai
Opening of i into ai
Ri›ai → Goth. hairþr
√ki̯eɑɦrd-
Gr. καρδίᾱ-
(f.) ‘Herz’
(GEW X:XX)
(Att. καρδία)
1. PIE *ki̯eɑɦrdíēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *ki̯aɑɦrdíēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. ki̯aɑɦrdíēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ki̯aɑɦrdíāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. ki̯aɑɦrdíāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ki̯aɦrdíāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. ki̯aɦrdíāh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱaɦrdíāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. ḱaɦrdíāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *ḱardíāh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. ḱardíāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ḱardíā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. ḱardíā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *kardíā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
8. kardíā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. καρδίᾱ-
Aeol. κάρζᾱ-
(f.) ‘Herz’
(GEW X:XX)
(Lesb. κάρζα)
1. PIE *ki̯éɑɦrdi̯ēɑh-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *ki̯áɑɦrdi̯ēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. ki̯áɑɦrdi̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ki̯áɑɦrdi̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. ki̯áɑɦrdi̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ki̯áɦrdi̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. ki̯áɦrdi̯āh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱáɦrdi̯āh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. ḱáɦrdi̯āh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *ḱárdi̯āh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. ḱárdi̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ḱárdi̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. ḱárdi̯ā-
PIE *di̯ → j
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
Rdi̯›j → *ḱárjā-
8. ḱárjā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *kárjā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
9. kárjā-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *kárzā-
10. kárzā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Aeol. κάρζᾱ-
√ki̯oɑɦrd-
Lat. cord-
(n.) ‘Herz’
(WH. 1:XX)
(Lat. cor, cordis)
1. PIE *ki̯oɑɦrd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ki̯oɦrd-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ki̯oɦrd-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱoɦrd-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ḱoɦrd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *ḱord-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ḱord-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *kord-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. kord-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. cord-
Dor. κορζίᾱ
(f.) ‘Herz’
(Grundr2 I:663)
(Cypr. κορζία)
1. PIE *ki̯oɑɦrdíēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ki̯oɑɦrdíāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ki̯oɑɦrdíāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ki̯oɦrdíāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ki̯oɦrdíāh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱoɦrdíāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. ḱoɦrdíāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *ḱordíāh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ḱordíāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ḱordíā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. ḱordíā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *kordíā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. kordíā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. κορδίᾱ-
√giɑɦrd-
Hitt. gard-
(UZUn.obl.) ‘Herz: UZUŠÀ’
(HHand. 74-5)
(Hitt. kar-ta, kar-da, kar-di, kar-ti, kar-ti-i, kar-ta-az, Kammenhuber (OLZ 1955:376)
1. PIE *gi̯ɑɦord-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gi̯ɦord-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gi̯ɦord-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *ǵɦord-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ǵɦord-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ǵɦard-
4. ǵɦard-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *gɦard-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. gɦard-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. gard-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Pal. gard-
(n.) ‘Herz’
(Pal. 19, 77)
(Pal. karti [sgL])
1. PIE *gi̯ɑɦord-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gi̯ɦord-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gi̯ɦord-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *ǵɦord-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ǵɦord-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ǵɦard-
4. ǵɦard-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *gɦard-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. gɦard-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Pal. gard-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. hr̥d-
(f.) ‘Herz, die inneren Organe, das Innere’
(WbRV. 1678)
(RV. hr̥dā́ [I], hr̥dé, hr̥dás [G], hr̥dí)
1. PIE *gi̯ɑɦr̥d-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gi̯ɦr̥d-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gi̯ɦr̥d-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *j́ɦr̥d-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. j́ɦr̥d-
*j́ɦ → ɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to ɦ
Rj́ɦ›ɦ → *ɦr̥d-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. ɦr̥d-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. hr̥d-
gAv. zǝrǝd-
(n.) ‘Herz’
(AIWb. 1692)
(gAv. zǝrǝdā-čā)
1. PIE *gi̯ɑɦr̥d-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gi̯ɦr̥d-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gi̯ɦr̥d-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *j́ɦr̥d-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. j́ɦr̥d-
*r̥ → ǝr
Change of *r̥ into ǝr
Rr̥›ǝr → *j́ɦǝrd-
4. j́ɦǝrd-
*r → rǝ
Anaptyxis of ǝ (Schwa)
Rr›rǝ → *j́ɦǝrǝd-
5. j́ɦǝrǝd-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *zɦǝrǝd-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
6. zɦǝrǝd-
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → gAv. zǝrǝd-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)


√kihɑr- (sb.) ‘Hermelin, Wiesel’ (a.) ‘grau’
(IEW. 573-4)
√kiehɑrm-
Lith. šermuõ·n
(m.) ‘Hermelin, Wiesel’
(LiEtWb. 965)
(Lith. šermuõ [sgN])
1. PIE *ki̯ehɑrmṓ·n
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ki̯ehrmṓ·n
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ki̯ehrmṓ·n
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *ćehrmṓ·n
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ćehrmṓ·n
*ṓ -› ō̃
Cirumflex intonation for ṓ
Rṓ›ō̃ → *ćehrmō̃·n
4. ćehrmō̃·n
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ćermō̃·n
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ćermō̃·n
*ć → š
From Satem *ć to š
R曚 → *šermō̃·n
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. šermō̃·n
ō̃ -› uõ
Change of ō̃ into uõ
Rō̃›uõ → Lith. šermuõ·n
Latv. ser̂muli-
(m.) ‘Hermelin, foetorius erminea’
(LiEtWb. 965)
(Latv. sęr̂mulis [sgN])
1. PIE *ki̯éhɑrmuli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ki̯éhrmuli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ki̯éhrmuli-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *ćéhrmuli-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ćéhrmuli-
*éHr → eHr̂
Latvian tone rule éhɑr into ehɑr̂
RAccLatv8 → *ćehr̂muli-
4. ćehr̂muli-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ćer̂muli-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ćer̂muli-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → Latv. ser̂muli-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
√kiohɑrm-
OHG. harm-
(st.m.) Wiesel, Hermelin, Haselmaus’
(Gl 11./12. Jh.)
1. PIE *ki̯ohɑrmo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ki̯ohrmo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ki̯ohrmo
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱohrmo
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ḱohrmo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ḱormo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ḱormo
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *kormo
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. kormo
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xormo
6. xormo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *xarma
7. xarma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *xarm
8. xarm
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → OHG. harm
Lith. šarmuõ·n
(m.) ‘wilde Katze, Hermelin, Wiese, mustela erminea’
(LiEtWb. 965)
1. PIE *ki̯ohɑrmṓ·n
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ki̯ohrmṓ·n
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ki̯ohrmṓ·n
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *ćohrmṓ·n
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ćohrmṓ·n
*ṓ -› ō̃
Cirumflex intonation for ṓ
Rṓ›ō̃ → *ćohrmō̃·n
4. ćohrmō̃·n
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ćormō̃·n
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ćormō̃·n
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ćarmō̃·n
6. ćarmō̃·n
*ć → š
From Satem *ć to š
R曚 → *šarmō̃·n
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. šarmō̃·n
ō̃ -› uõ
Change of ō̃ into uõ
Rō̃›uõ → Lith. šarmuõ·n
Lith. šarmuon-
(m.) ‘Wiesel’
(LiEtWb. 965)
1. PIE *ki̯ohɑrmōnihɑ́
PIE *iḫɑ́ → iḫí
Distant assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
RiHɑ́›iHí → *ki̯ohɑrmōnihí
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. ki̯ohɑrmōnihí
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ki̯ohrmōnihí
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ki̯ohrmōnihí
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *ćohrmōnihí
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. ćohrmōnihí
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ćormōnií
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ćormōnií
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *ćormōnī́
6. ćormōnī́
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ćarmōnī́
7. ćarmōnī́
*ć → š
From Satem *ć to š
R曚 → *šarmōnī́
(SPIE §4.8.4)
8. šarmōnī́
*ō → uo
Change of ō into uo
Rō›uo → *šarmuonī́
9. šarmuonī́
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
Rī́›ý → Lith. šarmuoný
Latv. sar̂muli-
(.) ‘Hermelin, Wiesel, Kaninchen’
(LiEtWb. 965)
(Latv. sar̂mulis)
1. PIE *ki̯óhɑrmuli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ki̯óhrmuli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ki̯óhrmuli-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *ćóhrmuli-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ćóhrmuli-
*óHr → oHr̂
Latvian tone rule óhɑr into ohɑr̂
RAccLatv9 → *ćohr̂muli-
4. ćohr̂muli-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ćor̂muli-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ćor̂muli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ćar̂muli-
6. ćar̂muli-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → Latv. sar̂muli-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
OHG. harmo-
(wk.m.*n-) ‘Wiesel, Hermelin, Haselmaus’
(Gloss)
1. PIE *ki̯ohɑrmu
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ki̯ohrmu
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ki̯ohrmu
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱohrmu
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ḱohrmu
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ḱormu
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ḱormu
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *kormu
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. kormu
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xormu
6. xormu
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *xarmu
7. xarmu
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *harmu
8. harmu
*-u → -o
Change of root-final -u into -o
R=u›=o → OHG. harmo
OSax. harmo-
(wk.m.*n-) ‘Hermelin’
(ASächsWb. 31)
1. PIE *ki̯ohɑrmu
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ki̯ohrmu
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ki̯ohrmu
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱohrmu
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ḱohrmu
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ḱormu
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ḱormu
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *kormu
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. kormu
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xormu
6. xormu
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *xarmu
7. xarmu
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *harmu
8. harmu
*-u → -o
Change of root-final -u into -o
R=u›=o → OSax. harmo
√kihaerm-
Illyr. carmō·n
(PN.) ‘Wiesel, cf. RätRom. carmún’
(IEW 573-4)
(Ven-Illyr. carmō [sgN], Steiermark)
1. PIE *kihɑermō·n
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *kihɑarmō·n
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. kihɑarmō·n
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kiharmō·n
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kiharmō·n
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱharmō·n
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. ḱharmō·n
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *kharmō·n
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. kharmō·n
*kh → k
Loss of *h in tenues aspirata *kh
Rkh›k → *karmō·n
6. karmō·n
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Illyr. carmō·n


PIE √kilmi- √kiolmi- √kielmi- ‘Holz’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√ki̯olmi-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. kalmi-
(GIŠc.) ‘Holzscheit’
(HHand. 70)
(Hitt. kal-mi-in)
1. PIE *ki̯olmi-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱolmi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ḱolmi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ḱalmi-
3. ḱalmi-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → Hitt. kalmi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
OPers. ϑarmi-
(sb.) ‘timber’
(OldP. 188)
(OPers. ϑarmiš [sgN])
1. PIE *ki̯olmi-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *ki̯ormi-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. ki̯ormi-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *ćormi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ćormi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ćarmi-
4. ćarmi-
*ć → ϑ
From Satem *ć to ϑ
Rć›ϑ → OPers. ϑarmi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
√ki̯olmisno-
Hitt. kalmišana-
(c.) ‘Holzscheit’
(HHand. 70)
(Hitt. kal-mi-ša-na-aš, kal-mi-ša-ni-, kal-mi-ša-ni-it)
1. PIE *ki̯olmisono-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱolmisono-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ḱolmisono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ḱalmisana-
3. ḱalmisana-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *kalmisana-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. kalmisana-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. kalmišana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. kalmišna-
(c.) ‘Holzscheit’
(HHand. 70)
(Hitt. kal-mi-iš-na-an, kal-mi-iš-ni-it)
1. PIE *ki̯olmisno-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱolmisno-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ḱolmisno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ḱalmisna-
3. ḱalmisna-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *kalmisna-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. kalmisna-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. kalmišna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ki̯olmisni-
Hitt. kalmišani-
(c.) ‘Holzscheit’
(HIL. 500)
(Hitt. [kal-mi-i]š-ša-ni-uš [plA])
1. PIE *ki̯olmisoni-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱolmisoni-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ḱolmisoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ḱalmisani-
3. ḱalmisani-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *kalmisani-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. kalmisani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. kalmišani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. kalmišeni-
(c.) ‘Holzscheit’
(HIL. 500)
(Hitt. kal-mi-še-ni-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *ki̯olmiseni-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱolmiseni-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ḱolmiseni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ḱalmiseni-
3. ḱalmiseni-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *kalmiseni-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. kalmiseni-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. kalmišeni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. kalmišni-
(c.) ‘Holzscheit’
(HIL. 500)
(Hitt. kal-mi-iš-ni-uš [plA])
1. PIE *ki̯olmisni-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱolmisni-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ḱolmisni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ḱalmisni-
3. ḱalmisni-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *kalmisni-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. kalmisni-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. kalmišni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √klm- √kolm- √kelm- ‘Sonnenstrahl, Glanz, Strahl’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√kolmo-
Hitt. kalma·šu-
(c.) ‘goldener Schmuckgegenstand’
(HHand. 70)
1. PIE *kolmo·su-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kalma·su-
2. kalma·su-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. kalma·šu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. kalma·zitaa-
(URU.) ‘Mann (LÚ) von K.’
(OGH. 166)
(Hitt. kal-ma-zi-da-[a] [All])
1. PIE *kolmo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. kalma·Σ-
Hitt. kalmana-
(.) ‘feuerholz’
(HEG I:467)
1. PIE *kolmono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. kalmana-
√kolmoro-
(HEG X:XX)
(HIL. 500-, Puhvel HED 4: 26f., Kimball (1999:380)
Hitt. kalmara-
(c.) ‘Sonnenstrahl, Strahl’ (not ‘Berg, Gebirge’)
(HHand. 70)
(Hitt. kal-ma-ra-az, kal-ma-ru-uš)
1. PIE *kolmoro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. kalmara-
Hitt. kalmara-
(n.) ‘Sonnenscheibe (aus Edelmetall)
(HHand. 70)
(Hitt. kal-ma-ra, gal-ma-ra [plNA])
1. PIE *kolmoro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. kalmara-
AV. kalmalí-
(m./f.?) ‘bunter, funkelnder Glanz’
(KEWA I:184)
1. PIE *koLmoLí-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *kolmolí-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. kolmolí-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → AV. kalmalí-
RV. kalmalīkín-
(a.) ‘bunt funkelnd’
(WbRV. 318)
(WH I:287)
1. PIE *koLmoLihɑ́ku̯ɑhín-
PIE *iḫɑ́ → iḫí
Distant assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
RiHɑ́›iHí → *koLmoLihíku̯ɑhín-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. koLmoLihíku̯ɑhín-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *koLmoLihíku̯hín-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. koLmoLihíku̯hín-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *kolmolihíku̯hín-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. kolmolihíku̯hín-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kalmalihíku̯hín-
5. kalmalihíku̯hín-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kalmaliíku̯ín-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. kalmaliíku̯ín-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *kalmaliíkín-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
7. kalmaliíkín-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → RV. kalmalī́kín-


PIE √kis- √kios-, √kies- ‘liegen, wohnen, weilen’ (sb.) ‘Platz, Gegend’ (postp.) ‘(an)statt’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√kios-
(Pyysalo)
LAv. a·sah-
(n.) ‘Gegend, Landstrich, Platz’
(AIWb. 209)
1. PIE *o·ki̯os-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *o·ćos-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. o·ćos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·ćas-
3. a·ćas-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *a·ćah-
4. a·ćah-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → LAv. a·sah-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
Hitt. kašaš
(postp.G.) ‘statt (?), anstatt (?)’
(HHand. 75)
(HEG I:533)
1. PIE *ki̯osos-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱosos-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ḱosos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ḱasas-
3. ḱasas-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *kasas-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. kasas-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. kašaš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. kašaša-
(URU.) ‘› Tapika’
(OGHErg. 69)
(Hitt. ga-ša-ša, ka-a-ša-ša
1. PIE *ki̯ososo-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱososo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ḱososo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ḱasasa-
3. ḱasasa-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *kasasa-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. kasasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. kašaša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√kieski̯o-
Gr. κέσκο-
(vb.M.iter.) ‘liegen’
(Hom. κέσκετο, παρεκέσκετο)
1. PIE *ki̯éski̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱésḱo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ḱésḱo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *késko-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. késko-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. κέσκο-
√kisi-
gAv. šay-
(pr.) ‘sich [L] aufhalten, wohnen, weilen’
(AIWb. 1706)
(gAv. šaēitī [3sg])
1. PIE *kisei̯-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *kišei̯-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. kišei̯-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *ćšei̯-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ćšei̯-
*ćš → š
Simplification of ćš into š
Rćš›š → *šei̯-
4. šei̯-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *šai̯-
5. šai̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → gAv. šay-
LAv. ši-
(pr.) ‘wohnen’
(AIWb. 1706)
(LAv. šyeiti [3pl])
1. PIE *kisi-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *kiši-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. kiši-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *ćši-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ćši-
*ćš → š
Simplification of ćš into š
Rćš›š → LAv. ši-
gAv. šya-
(pr.) ‘es halten mit [I]’
(AIWb. 1706)
(gAv. šyeintī [3pl])
1. PIE *kisi̯o-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIIr → *kiši̯o-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. kiši̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *ćši̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ćši̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ćši̯a-
4. ćši̯a-
*ćš → š
Simplification of ćš into š
Rćš›š → *ši̯a-
5. ši̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → gAv. šya-


√kiu- √ekiu- √okiu- (sb.) ‘Pferd, Vogel’
(IEW. 301-302)
√ōki̯u-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. āšu-
(sb.) ‘Pferd’
(CHLu. 1.1.8)
(EQUUS.ANIMAL-sù)
1. PIE *ōki̯u-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *ōću-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ōću-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *āću-
3. āću-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *āsu-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
4. āsu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. āšu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. āśu·héman-
(a.) ‘die Rosse antreibend’
(WbRV. 188)
1. PIE *ōki̯u·Σ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *ōću·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ōću·Σ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *āću·Σ-
3. āću·Σ-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → RV. āśu·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
√ekiu̯o-
RV. áśva-
(m./f.) ‘das Ross’
(WbRV. 140)
(KEWA XX, EWA XX)
1. PIE *ékiu̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *éću̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. éću̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *éću̯a-
3. éću̯a-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *éśu̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. éśu̯a-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *áśu̯a-
5. áśu̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. áśva-
Lat. equo-
(m.) ‘Pferd’
(WH I:XX)
(Lat. equus, equī
1. PIE *ekiu̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *eḱu̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. eḱu̯o-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *eku̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. eku̯o-
* ku/u̯ → q
Emergence of labiovelar q
RkU›q → *eqo-
4. eqo-
q → qu
Orthographic change of q to qu
Rq›qu → Lat. equo-
TochB. yakwa-
(m.) ‘horse’
(DTochB. 482)
(TochB. yakwe)
1. PIE *ekiu̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *eḱu̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. eḱu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eḱu̯a-
3. eḱu̯a-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯aḱu̯a-
4. i̯aḱu̯a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *i̯aku̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. i̯aku̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *yaku̯a-
6. yaku̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. yakwa-
OGaul. epo·rīg·redo-
(PN.m.) ‘Herrscher des Pferdewagens’
(LiEtWb. 20)
1. PIE *ekiu̯o·Σ·Σ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *eḱu̯o·Σ·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. eḱu̯o·Σ·Σ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *eku̯o·Σ·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. eku̯o·Σ·Σ-
*ku/u̯ → p
Bilabialization of labiovelar q into p
RkU›p → OGaul. epo·Σ·Σ-
√okiu̯ēɑh-
Lith. ašvà-
(f.) ‘Stute; Flussname’
(LiEtWb. 20)
(Lith. ašvà [sgN])
1. PIE *okiu̯ḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *okiu̯ā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. okiu̯ā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *okiu̯ā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. okiu̯ā́h
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *oću̯ā́h
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. oću̯ā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *oću̯ā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. oću̯ā́
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aću̯ā́
6. aću̯ā́
*ć → š
From Satem *ć to š
R曚 → *ašu̯ā́
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. ašu̯ā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *ašu̯ṓ
(XX:XX)
8. ašu̯ṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → *ašu̯à
9. ašu̯à
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. ašvà
RV. áśvā-
(f.) ‘die Stute’
(WbRV. 140)
1. PIE *ókiu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ókiu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ókiu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ókiu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ókiu̯āh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *óću̯āh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. óću̯āh-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *áću̯āh-
5. áću̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *áću̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. áću̯ā-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *áśu̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. áśu̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. áśvā-
gAv. aspā-
(f.) ‘(Ross)Stute’
(AIWb. 216)
(gAv. aspā-)
1. PIE *okiu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *okiu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. okiu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *okiu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. okiu̯āh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *oću̯āh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. oću̯āh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aću̯āh-
5. aću̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *aću̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. aću̯ā-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *asu̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
7. asu̯ā-
*su̯ → sp
Bilabialization of *u̯ after s
Rsu̯›sp → gAv. aspā-
√ekiu̯ēɑh-
OLith. ešva-
(f.) ‘Stute’ (Bretkun)
(LiEtWb. 20)
1. PIE *ekiu̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ekiu̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ekiu̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ekiu̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ekiu̯āh
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *eću̯āh
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. eću̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *eću̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. eću̯ā
*ć → š
From Satem *ć to š
R曚 → *ešu̯ā
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. ešu̯ā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *ešu̯ō
(XX:XX)
7. ešu̯ō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *ešu̯a
8. ešu̯a
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OLith. ešva
Lith. ded·ešvà-
(f.) ‘Vogelwicke; ‹cf. Latv. deda ‘gelbe Wicke’ ›’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *Π·ekiu̯ḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *Π·ekiu̯ā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·ekiu̯ā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·ekiu̯ā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·ekiu̯ā́h
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *Π·eću̯ā́h
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. Π·eću̯ā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·eću̯ā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·eću̯ā́
*ć → š
From Satem *ć to š
R曚 → *Π·ešu̯ā́
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. Π·ešu̯ā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *Π·ešu̯ṓ
(XX:XX)
7. Π·ešu̯ṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → *Π·ešu̯à
8. Π·ešu̯à
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. Π·ešvà
Lat. equā-
(f.) ‘Stute’
(WH I:XX)
1. PIE *ekiu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *ekiu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. ekiu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ekiu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ekiu̯āh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *eḱu̯āh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. eḱu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *eḱu̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. eḱu̯ā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *eku̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. eku̯ā-
* ku/u̯ → q
Emergence of labiovelar q
RkU›q → *eqā-
7. eqā-
q → qu
Orthographic change of q to qu
Rq›qu → Lat. equā-


√kiur- ‘Spize, Horn’
(IEW XX)
√kiurn-
Goth. haurn-
(n.) ‘κέρας, κεράτιον: cornu, siliqua’
(GoEtD. H51)
(Goth. haurn [sgN] Luk 1,69 CA; haurne [G] Luk 15,16 CA, HbGo. 54,4, 62,1a, 119,2)
1. PIE *ki̯urno
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱurno
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ḱurno
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *kurno
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. kurno
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xurno
4. xurno
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *xurna
5. xurna
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *xurn
6. xurn
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *hurn
7. hurn
*u → au
Allophonic change of *u into au
Ru›au → Goth. haurn
Goth. þut·haurn-
(n.) ‘Trompete; ne. trumpet ; σάλπιγξ; tuba’
(GoEtD. Þ62)
(Goth. þuthaurna [sgD] 1Kr 15,52 A B; 1Th 4,16 B, HbGo. 68,3)
1. PIE *Π·ki̯urno
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *Π·ḱurno
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. Π·ḱurno
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *Π·kurno
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·kurno
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *Π·xurno
4. Π·xurno
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·xurna
5. Π·xurna
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *Π·xurn
6. Π·xurn
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *Π·hurn
7. Π·hurn
*u → au
Allophonic change of *u into au
Ru›au → Goth. Π·haurn
√kiurni-
HLu. šurni-
(.) ‘Horn’
(CHLu. XX)
1. PIE *ki̯urni-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *ćurni-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ćurni-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *surni-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
3. surni-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. šurni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Goth. haurnja-
(vb.) ‘trompeten : blow a horn’
(GoEtD. 180)
1. PIE *ki̯urni̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱurni̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ḱurni̯o-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *kurni̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. kurni̯o-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xurni̯o-
4. xurni̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *xurni̯a-
5. xurni̯a-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *hurni̯a-
6. hurni̯a-
*u → au
Allophonic change of *u into au
Ru›au → *haurni̯a-
7. haurni̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Goth. haurnja-
Goth. haurnja·n-
(m.) ‘Hornbläser : flute (horn) player’
(GoEtD. 180)
1. PIE *ki̯urnei̯o·n-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ḱurnei̯o·n-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ḱurnei̯o·n-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *kurnei̯o·n-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. kurnei̯o·n-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xurnei̯o·n-
4. xurnei̯o·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *xurnei̯a·n-
5. xurnei̯a·n-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *xurnii̯a·n-
6. xurnii̯a·n-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *hurnii̯a·n-
7. hurnii̯a·n-
*u → au
Allophonic change of *u into au
Ru›au → *haurnii̯a·n-
8. haurnii̯a·n-
*ii̯a → ja
Loss of *i before i̯a
Rii̯a›i̯a → *haurni̯a·n-
9. haurni̯a·n-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Goth. haurnja·n-


√kɑhin- √gɑɦin- ‘brennen, glühen, glänzen, usw.
(IEW + XX
√kɑhin-
Lat. cini·flō-
(m.) ‘Sklave der die Brenneisen in glühender Asche heiß zu machen hatte’
(Lat. ciniflō, ciniflōnis)
1. PIE *kɑhíni·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khíni·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khíni·Σ-
*kh → k
Loss of *h in tenues aspirata *kh
Rkh›k → *kíni·Σ-
3. kíni·Σ-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *cíni·Σ-
4. cíni·Σ-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → Lat. cini·Σ-
Lat. cini·flōn-
(m.) ‘Sklave der die Brenneisen in glühender Asche heiß zu machen hatte’
(Lat. ciniflō, ciniflōnis)
1. PIE *kɑhíni·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khíni·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khíni·Σ-
*kh → k
Loss of *h in tenues aspirata *kh
Rkh›k → *kíni·Σ-
3. kíni·Σ-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *cíni·Σ-
4. cíni·Σ-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → Lat. cini·Σ-
Lat. cinis-
(m.) ‘Asche, Leichenasche, Asche(nhaufe)’
(WH. 1:217-8)
1. PIE *kɑhínis-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khínis-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khínis-
*kh → k
Loss of *h in tenues aspirata *kh
Rkh›k → *kínis-
3. kínis-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *cínis-
4. cínis-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → Lat. cinis-
Lat. cines-
(m.obl.) ‘Asche, Leichenasche, Asche(nhaufe)’
(Lat. cineris [sgG])
1. PIE *kɑhínes-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khínes-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khínes-
*kh → k
Loss of *h in tenues aspirata *kh
Rkh›k → *kínes-
3. kínes-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *cínes-
4. cínes-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → Lat. cines-
Lat. cinerārio-
(.) ‘XX’
(WH. 1:217-8)
1. PIE *kɑhínesēɑhrii̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kɑhínesāɑhrii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kɑhínesāɑhrii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khínesāhrii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. khínesāhrii̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *khínesārii̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. khínesārii̯o-
*kh → k
Loss of *h in tenues aspirata *kh
Rkh›k → *kínesārii̯o-
5. kínesārii̯o-
*VsV → VrV
Rhotacism of *s between vowels
RVsV›VrV → *kínerārii̯o-
6. kínerārii̯o-
*ii̯o → io
Loss *i̯ between i and o
Rii̯o›io → *kínerārio-
7. kínerārio-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *cínerārio-
8. cínerārio-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → Lat. cinerārio-
Gr. καίνυ-
(vb.) ‘sich auszeichnen, übertreffen’
(Gr. καίνυμαι [1sg])
1. PIE *keɑhínu-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑhínu-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑhínu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kahínu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kahínu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kaínu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kaínu-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. καίνυ-
√gɑɦinɑɦ-
Hitt. ginaḫa-
(KUR URU.) ‘-(?)-,OGHErg.79’
(OGH. 208)
(Hitt. ki-na-aḫ-ḫa, ki-na-aḫ-ḫa-az)
1. PIE *gɑɦíneɑɦo-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *gɑɦínaɑɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. gɑɦínaɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦínaɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦínaɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦínaɦa-
4. gɦínaɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *gínaɦa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. gínaɦa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → *gínaḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
6. gínaḫa-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → Hitt. ginaḫa-
Hitt. ginaḫi-
(KUR.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGH. 208)
(Hitt. ki-na-aḫ-ḫi)
1. PIE *gɑɦíneɑɦi-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *gɑɦínaɑɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. gɑɦínaɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦínaɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦínaɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *gínaɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. gínaɦi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → *gínaḫi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
5. gínaḫi-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → Hitt. ginaḫi-
√gɑɦínu-
HLu. ginu-
(cs.) ‘to burn’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. ARHA (‘FLAMMAE’) k[i-n]u-ti [3pl])
1. PIE *gɑɦínu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦínu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦínu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *gínu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. gínu-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → HLu. ginu-
HLu. ginu̯a-
(cs.) ‘to burn’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. (“FLAMMAE(?)”)ki-nu-wa/i-ha)
1. PIE *gɑɦínu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦínu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦínu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦínu̯a-
3. gɦínu̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *gínu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. gínu̯a-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → HLu. ginu̯a-
HLu. ginuša-
(cs.) ‘burn’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. ARHA (FLAMMAE(?) ki-[n]ú-sà-tú)
1. PIE *gɑɦínuso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦínuso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦínuso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦínusa-
3. gɦínusa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *gínusa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. gínusa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *gínuša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. gínuša-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → HLu. ginuša-
√gɑɦionoisto-
OHG. gan·eista-
(.) ‘Feuerfunken’
(Grundr2 I:628)
1. PIE *gɑɦion·oisto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦion·oisto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦion·oisto-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *ǵɦon·oisto-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ǵɦon·oisto-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *gɦon·oisto-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. gɦon·oisto-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gon·oisto-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. gon·oisto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gan·aista-
6. gan·aista-
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
Rai›ei → OHG. gan·eista-
√gɑɦionei-
Hitt. a·gnei-
(d.) ‘Feuergott im Ritual, HEG1:10, RDH. 119’
(OHP. 1:8)
(Hitt. ak-ni-iš, ak-ni-i, ak-ni-ia-aš, a-ak-ni, a-ak-ni-iš, Otten & Mayrhofer 1965 [OLZ 60]:545-552, K. K. Riemschneider StBoT 9:43-48)
1. PIE *o·gɑɦinei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·gɦinei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·gɦinei-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *o·ǵɦnei-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. o·ǵɦnei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·ǵɦnei-
4. a·ǵɦnei-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *a·gɦnei-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. a·gɦnei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. a·gnei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ḫurša·gnei̯a-
(vb.M.) ‘(im Feuer) bersten, verschmoren’
(HHand. 56)
1. PIE *hɑurso·gɑɦinei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hurso·gɦinei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hurso·gɦinei̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *hurso·ǵɦnei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. hurso·ǵɦnei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *hursa·ǵɦnei̯a-
4. hursa·ǵɦnei̯a-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *hursa·gɦnei̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. hursa·gɦnei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *hursa·gnei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. hursa·gnei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *hurša·gnei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. hurša·gnei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫurša·gnei̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√gɑɦinoi-
(Pyysalo)
OCS. znojĭ-
(m.) ‘Hitze’
(Sadnik √1145)
1. PIE *gɑɦinoi̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦinoi̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦinoi̯i-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *j́ɦnoi̯i-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. j́ɦnoi̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *j́ɦnai̯i-
4. j́ɦnai̯i-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *zɦnai̯i-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. zɦnai̯i-
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → *znai̯i-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. znai̯i-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *znoi̯i-
7. znoi̯i-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *znoji-
8. znoji-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → OCS. znojĭ-
OIcl. gneista-
(vb.) ‘Funken sprühen’
(ANEtWb. 178b)
(OIcl. gneista)
1. PIE *gɑɦinoisto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦinoisto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦinoisto-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *ǵɦnoisto-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ǵɦnoisto-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *gɦnoisto-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. gɦnoisto-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gnoisto-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. gnoisto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gnaista-
6. gnaista-
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
Rai›ei → OIcl. gneista-
OIcl. gneisti·n-
(m.) ‘Funken’
(ANEtWb. 178b)
(OIcl. gneisti [sgN])
1. PIE *gɑɦinoiste·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦinoiste·n-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦinoiste·n-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *ǵɦnoiste·n-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ǵɦnoiste·n-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *gɦnoiste·n-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. gɦnoiste·n-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gnoiste·n-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. gnoiste·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gnaiste·n-
6. gnaiste·n-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *gnaisti·n-
7. gnaisti·n-
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
Rai›ei → OIcl. gneisti·n-


PIE √kɑhl- √gɑɦl- ‘rufen, schreien, anlocken, usw.’
(IEW 428f. + XX)
(SPIE 426-7)
√gɑɦol- √gɑɦōl-
(HEG 1:465f., Kimball 1999: 412, Rieken 1999:378)
OIcl. gala-
(pr.) ‘schreien, singen’
(ANEtWb. 153)
(OIcl. gala [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦolo-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *golo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. golo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. gala-
Hitt. galgalinai-
(vb.)
(HEG I:467)
(Oettinger 1979:33)
1. PIE *gɑɦolgɑɦolinoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦolgɦolinoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦolgɦolinoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦalgɦalinai-
3. gɦalgɦalinai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. galgalinai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√gɑɦudɑɦ-
Hitt. gališ-
(vb.1.A.) ‘rufen, herbeirufen, anlocken’
(HHand. 70)
(Hitt. kal-li-iš-ta [3sg], kal-li-iš-du, HIL. 498f., HED4: 22f., Oettinger 1979:197)
1. PIE *gɑɦolis-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦolis-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦolis-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦalis-
3. gɦalis-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *galis-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. galis-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. gališ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. galištar-
(n.) ‘einladung’
Laroche: Lat. calare, 1961:29; Notes de linguistique anatolienne, Revue Hittite et asianique 19, fasc. 69:25-37
1. PIE *gɑɦolistor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦolistor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦolistor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦalistar-
3. gɦalistar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *galistar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. galistar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. galištar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√gɑɦel- √gɑɦēl-
Dor. κιχήλᾱ-
(f.) ‘Drossel’
(Syrac. κιχήλα-)
1. PIE *gɑɦígɑɦḗlēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gɑɦígɑɦḗlāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gɑɦígɑɦḗlāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦígɦḗlāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦígɦḗlāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦígɦḗlā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. gɦígɦḗlā-
*gɦ → kh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›kh → *khíkhḗlā-
5. khíkhḗlā-
khíkh -› kíkh
Grassmann's Law
Rkhíkh›kíkh → *kíkhḗlā-
6. kíkhḗlā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. κίχήλᾱ-
Gr. χελιδών-
(a.) ‘Schwalbe’
(Gr. χελιδών)
1. PIE *gɑɦeliɦɑdṓn
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦeliɦdṓn
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦeliɦdṓn
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *gɦelidṓn
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. gɦelidṓn
*gɦ → kh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›kh → *khelidṓn
4. khelidṓn
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. χελιδών


PIE √kɑhr- √gɑɦr- ‘greiffen, nehmen, halten’
√kɑhr-
√kɑhrp-
√gɑɦrgiɑɦ-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. gargan-
(GIŠ.) (hölzerner Behälter für Früchte)
(HHand. 73)
1. PIE *gɑɦorgi̯ɑɦon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦorgi̯ɦon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦorgi̯ɦon-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *gɦorǵɦon-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. gɦorǵɦon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦarǵɦan-
4. gɦarǵɦan-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *gɦargɦan-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. gɦargɦan-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. gargan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. ní (...) gr̥hnā-
(pr.9.) ‘hineingreifen’
(WbRV. 417)
(RV. ní (...) gr̥hnātu [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦrgi̯ɑɦnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·gɑɦrgi̯ɑɦnāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑɦrgi̯ɑɦnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·gɦrgi̯ɦnāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦrgi̯ɦnāh-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *Π·gɦrj́ɦnāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. Π·gɦrj́ɦnāh-
CrC → Cr̥C
Syllabification of *r in CrC
Rr›r̥ → *Π·gɦr̥j́ɦnāh-
5. Π·gɦr̥j́ɦnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·gɦr̥j́ɦnā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. Π·gɦr̥j́ɦnā-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmann → *Π·gr̥j́ɦnā-
(SPIE §4.6.4)
7. Π·gr̥j́ɦnā-
*j́ɦ → ɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to ɦ
Rj́ɦ›ɦ → *Π·gr̥ɦnā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
8. Π·gr̥ɦnā-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → *Π·gr̥ɦṇā-
9. Π·gr̥ɦṇā-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. Π·gr̥hā-
Hitt. gargar-
(GIŠn.) (hölzerner Behälter für Früchte)
(HHand. 73)
1. PIE *gɑɦorgi̯ɑɦor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦorgi̯ɦor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦorgi̯ɦor-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *gɦorǵɦor-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. gɦorǵɦor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦarǵɦar-
4. gɦarǵɦar-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *gɦargɦar-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. gɦargɦar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. gargar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. gargar...
(URU.) ‘mit dem Berg Nura (…) erwähnt’
(OGH. 182)
(Hitt. gargar[.......])
1. PIE *gɑɦorgi̯ɑɦor...
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦorgi̯ɦor...
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦorgi̯ɦor...
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *gɦorǵɦor...
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. gɦorǵɦor...
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦarǵɦar...
4. gɦarǵɦar...
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *gɦargɦar...
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. gɦargɦar...
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. gargar...
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. gargar·aima-
(GIŠn.) (ein hölzerner Gegenstand)
(HHand. 73)
1. PIE *gɑɦorgi̯ɑɦor·oimo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦorgi̯ɦor·oimo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦorgi̯ɦor·oimo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *gɦorǵɦor·oimo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. gɦorǵɦor·oimo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦarǵɦar·aima-
4. gɦarǵɦar·aima-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *gɦargɦar·aima-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. gɦargɦar·aima-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. gargar·aima-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. gargar·ali-
(GIŠn.) (Holz eines Obstbaumes)
(HHand. 73)
1. PIE *gɑɦorgi̯ɑɦor·oli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦorgi̯ɦor·oli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦorgi̯ɦor·oli-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *gɦorǵɦor·oli-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. gɦorǵɦor·oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦarǵɦar·ali-
4. gɦarǵɦar·ali-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *gɦargɦar·ali-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. gɦargɦar·ali-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. gargar·ali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√gɑɦrbɑɦ-


PIE √kɑht- √gɑɦt- √gɑɦd- (adv.) ‘nieder’ (sb.) ‘Ton, Erde, Land’
(IEW XX)
√kɑht-
(Pyysalo)
(Pyysalo: Lyd. + OCS.)
Gr. κατ·αιγίς
(adv.) ‘plötzlich herabfahrende Sturmwind’
(Gr. κατ·αιγίς)
1. PIE *keɑht·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑht·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑht·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kaht·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kaht·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kat·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kat·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. κατ·Σ-
Gr. κατ·ήνοκ-
(pf.) ‘XX’
(IEW. 317)
(Gr. κατήνοκα)
1. PIE *keɑht·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑht·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑht·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kaht·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kaht·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kat·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kat·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. κατ·Σ-
Lyd. kat·u-
(pret.) ‘write down’
(LydWb. 147)
(Lyd. katul [3pret.])
1. PIE *keɑht·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑht·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑht·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kaht·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kaht·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → Lyd. kat·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
OCS. kot·yga-
(f.) ‘Unter-kleid, Tunica’
(Sadnik √373)
1. PIE *keɑht·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑht·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑht·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kaht·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kaht·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kat·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kat·Σ-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → OCS. kot·Σ-
√gɑɦot-
(Pyysalo)
TochB. kät-
(vb.M.) ‘to lower, set down’
(DTochB. 159)
(TochB. käccītär [opt], LeToch1 159)
1. PIE *gɑɦot-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦot-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦot-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦat-
3. gɦat-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gat-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. gat-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → TochB. kat-
CLu. gat·marši-
(vb.) ‘to defecate’
(HIL. 501)
(CLu. kat-mar-ši-it-ti [3sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦot·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦot·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦot·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦat·Σ-
3. gɦat·Σ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. gat·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Goth. gaþ·þanmiþsandi-
(pret.) ‘mitsenden: συμπέμπειν: mittere cum’
(GoElB. 232,3)
(Goth. gaþþanmiþsandidedum 2Kr 8,18 A B)
1. PIE *gɑɦot·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦot·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦot·Σ-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *gɦoþ·Σ-
3. gɦoþ·Σ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *goþ·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. goþ·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. gaþ·Σ-
Goth. gaþ·þantraua-
(pr.) ‘θαρρεῖν, πέπεισθαι, πεποιθέναι, πιστεύειν, πιστοῦν
(XX:XX)
(Goth. gaþþantraua 2Tm 1,5 A B)
1. PIE *gɑɦot·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦot·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦot·Σ-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *gɦoþ·Σ-
3. gɦoþ·Σ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *goþ·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. goþ·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. gaþ·Σ-
√gɑɦoto
Hitt. gata
(adv.) ‘unten, hinab, herab: Sum. GAM’
(HHand. 76)
(HEG K:XX, kat-ta, ka-at-ta)
1. PIE *gɑɦoto
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦoto
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦoto
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦata
3. gɦata
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. gata
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. gata
(postpG/DL) ‘neben’; ‘unter, mit’
(HHand. 76)
(HIL. 537, kat-ta, ka-at-ta)
1. PIE *gɑɦoto
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦoto
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦoto
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦata
3. gɦata
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. gata
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. gatan
(adv.) ‘unten, HHand. 76’
(HEG 1:539ff.)
1. PIE *gɑɦoton
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦoton
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦoton
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦatan
3. gɦatan
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. gatan
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√gɑɦoti-
Hitt. gatei
(adv.) ‘down, along with’
(HIL. 537)
(Hitt. kat-ti-mi [encl.1sg], kat-ti-ti [encl.2sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦotei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦotei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦotei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦatei-
3. gɦatei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. gatei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
TochB. käccīya-
(impfA.)  ‘to lower, set down’
(DTochB. 159)
(TochB. käccīyem)
1. PIE *gɑɦotiɑ́hi̯o-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *gɑɦotiíhi̯o-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. gɑɦotiíhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦotiíhi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦotiíhi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦatiíhi̯a-
4. gɦatiíhi̯a-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *gɦaciíhi̯a-
5. gɦaciíhi̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦaciíi̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. gɦaciíi̯a-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gaciíi̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. gaciíi̯a-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *kaciíi̯a-
8. kaciíi̯a-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *kacī́i̯a-
9. kacī́i̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *kacī́ya-
10. kacī́ya-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → TochB. kacīya-
TochB. käccilya
(ger.) ‘to lower, set down’
(DTochB. 159)
(TochB. käccilya)
1. PIE *gɑɦotili̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦotili̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦotili̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦatili̯a-
3. gɦatili̯a-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
Rti›ci → *gɦacili̯a-
4. gɦacili̯a-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gacili̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. gacili̯a-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *kacili̯a-
6. kacili̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. kacilya-
√gɑɦedi-
(Pyysalo)
Arm. geti·n-
(sb.) ‘Boden’
(MA. 169)
1. PIE *gɑɦedi·nēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gɑɦedi·nāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gɑɦedi·nāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦedi·nāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦedi·nāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦedi·nā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. gɦedi·nā
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *gɦeti·nā
5. gɦeti·nā
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *geti·nā
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. geti·nā
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Arm. geti·na
Arm. get·na·bir
(a.) ‘den Boden ausgrabend’
(MA. 169)
1. PIE *gɑɦedì·nēɑh·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gɑɦedì·nāɑh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gɑɦedì·nāɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦedì·nāh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦedì·nāh·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦedì·nā·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. gɦedì·nā·Σ-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *gɦetì·nā·Σ-
5. gɦetì·nā·Σ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *getì·nā·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. getì·nā·Σ-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *getì·na·Σ-
7. getì·na·Σ-
*i → Ø
Loss of unaccented *i
Rì›0 → Arm. get·na·Σ-
Hitt. gaz·uu̯adna-
(URU.) ‘= Kizuwatna’
(OGHErg. 81)
(Hitt. GAZ-zu-ua-a[t-n]a)
1. PIE *gɑɦodi̯·uu̯odɑɦno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦodi̯·uu̯odɦno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦodi̯·uu̯odɦno-
PIE *di̯ → j
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
Rdi̯›j → *gɦoj·uu̯odɦno-
3. gɦoj·uu̯odɦno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦaj·uu̯adɦna-
4. gɦaj·uu̯adɦna-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *gaj·uu̯adna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. gaj·uu̯adna-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. gaz·uu̯adna-
Hitt. gez·uu̯adana-
(KUR URU.) ‘Kizuwatnean Land’
(OGH. 211-5)
(Hitt. ki-iz-zu-ua-ta-naKI)
1. PIE *gɑɦedi̯·uu̯odɑɦono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦedi̯·uu̯odɦono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦedi̯·uu̯odɦono-
PIE *di̯ → j
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
Rdi̯›j → *gɦej·uu̯odɦono-
3. gɦej·uu̯odɦono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦej·uu̯adɦana-
4. gɦej·uu̯adɦana-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *gej·uu̯adana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. gej·uu̯adana-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. gez·uu̯adana-
Hitt. gez·uu̯adna-
(URU.) ‘Kizuwatna- = Hur. gumani ‘Erde, Feld’
(OGH. 211-5)
(Hitt. ki-iz-zu-ua-at-na-an)
1. PIE *gɑɦedi̯·uu̯odɑɦno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦedi̯·uu̯odɦno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦedi̯·uu̯odɦno-
PIE *di̯ → j
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
Rdi̯›j → *gɦej·uu̯odɦno-
3. gɦej·uu̯odɦno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦej·uu̯adɦna-
4. gɦej·uu̯adɦna-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *gej·uu̯adna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. gej·uu̯adna-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. gez·uu̯adna-
√gɑɦdɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013:30)
Gr. μόρο·χθο-
(m.) ‘Ton zum Bleichen’
(GEW 2:256)
1. PIE *móro·gɑɦdɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *móro·gɦdɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. móro·gɦdɦo-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *móro·gɦtho-
3. móro·gɦtho-
*gɦ → kh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›kh → *móro·khtho-
4. móro·khtho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. μόρο·χθο-
Gr. χθών-
(f.) ‘Erde, Erdboden, Land’
(GEW 2:1098-9)
1. PIE *gɑɦdɑɦṓɑhn
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦdɦṓhn
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦdɦṓhn
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦdɦṓn
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. gɦdɦṓn
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *gɦthṓn
4. gɦthṓn
*gɦ → kh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›kh → *khthṓn
5. khthṓn
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. χθών
Phryg. γδαν-
(f.) ‘Mother Earth’
(IEW. 414)
1. PIE *gɑɦdɑɦeɑhn-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *gɑɦdɑɦaɑhn-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. gɑɦdɑɦaɑhn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦdɦahn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦdɦahn-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦdɦan-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. gɦdɦan-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *gɦdan-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. gɦdan-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *gdan-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. gdan-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Phryg. γδαν-


PIE √kɑhu- √gɑɦu- ‘sehen’
(IEW XX)
√kɑhu-
Lat. cāu-
(pf.) ‘sich in acht nehmen, sich vorsehen, usw.’
(Lat. cāuī, cautus ‘vorsichtich’)
1. PIE *kēɑhu̯-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhu̯-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhu̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhu̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhu̯-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāu̯-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kāu̯-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *cāu̯-
5. cāu̯-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. cāu-
RV. kav·aṣa-
(m.) ‘EN eines Mannes’
(WbRV. 318)
1. PIE *keɑhu̯·elɑhso-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑhu̯·elɑhso-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑhu̯·elɑhso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kahu̯·elhso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kahu̯·elhso-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *kahu̯·erhso-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. kahu̯·erhso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kahu̯·erhsa-
5. kahu̯·erhsa-
PIE *rHs -> ṣ
Fortunatov's Law for *rHs
RrHs›ṣ → *kahu̯·eṣa-
(SPIE §3.3.2)
6. kahu̯·eṣa-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kau̯·eṣa-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. kau̯·eṣa-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *kau̯·aṣa-
8. kau̯·aṣa-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. kav·aṣa-
√kɑhui-
Lat. caueo-
(pr.2.) ‘sich in acht nehmen, sich vorsehen, usw.’
(Lat. caueō)
1. PIE *keɑhu̯ei̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑhu̯ei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑhu̯ei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kahu̯ei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kahu̯ei̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kau̯ei̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kau̯ei̯o-
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
Rei̯o›eo → *kau̯eo-
5. kau̯eo-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *cau̯eo-
6. cau̯eo-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. caueo-
RV. kaví-
(a.) ‘weise, sinnig’ (m.) ‘der Weise’
(WbRV. 318-20)
1. PIE *keɑhu̯í-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑhu̯í-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑhu̯í-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kahu̯í-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kahu̯í-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kau̯í-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kau̯í-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. kaví-
RV. á·kavi-
(a.) ‘nicht weise’
(WbRV. 320)
1. PIE *Π·keɑhu̯i-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *Π·kaɑhu̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. Π·kaɑhu̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·kahu̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·kahu̯i-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·kau̯i-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·kau̯i-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. Π·kavi-
RV. kaví·kratu-
(a.) ‘eines Weisen Einsicht habend, einsichtsvoll’
(WbRV. 320)
1. PIE *keɑhu̯í·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑhu̯í·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑhu̯í·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kahu̯í·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kahu̯í·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kau̯í·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kau̯í·Σ-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. kaví·Σ-
√gɑɦu-
√gɑɦudɑɦ-
Gr. ὀ·φθαλμό-
(m.) ‘Auge’
(Gr. ὀφθαλμός)
1. PIE *o·gɑɦudɑɦ·hɑelmó-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *o·gɑɦudɑɦ·hɑalmó-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. o·gɑɦudɑɦ·hɑalmó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·gɦudɦ·halmó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. o·gɦudɦ·halmó-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *o·gɦudɦ·almó-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. o·gɦudɦ·almó-
*gɦu/u̯ → bɦ
Bilabialization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
RgɦU›bɦ → *o·bɦdɦ·almó-
5. o·bɦdɦ·almó-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *o·phdɦ·almó-
6. o·phdɦ·almó-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *o·phth·almó-
7. o·phth·almó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὀ·φθ·αλμό-
Gr. ὀ·φθαλμέο-
(pr.) ‘beäugeln, anschielen’
(GEW 2:452)
(Gr. ὀφθαλμέω)
1. PIE *o·gɑɦudɑɦ·hɑelméi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *o·gɑɦudɑɦ·hɑalméi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. o·gɑɦudɑɦ·hɑalméi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·gɦudɦ·halméi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. o·gɦudɦ·halméi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *o·gɦudɦ·alméi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. o·gɦudɦ·alméi̯o-
*gɦu/u̯ → bɦ
Bilabialization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
RgɦU›bɦ → *o·bɦdɦ·alméi̯o-
5. o·bɦdɦ·alméi̯o-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *o·phdɦ·alméi̯o-
6. o·phdɦ·alméi̯o-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *o·phth·alméi̯o-
7. o·phth·alméi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *o·phth·alméo-
8. o·phth·alméo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὀ·φθ·αλμέο-
Hitt. gudaru̯eni-
(c.) ‘Zeuge’
(HIL. 578)
(Hitt. ku-tar-ú-e-ni-eš [plN])
1. PIE *gɑɦudɑɦoru̯eni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦudɦoru̯eni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦudɦoru̯eni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦudɦaru̯eni-
3. gɦudɦaru̯eni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. gudaru̯eni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√gɑɦudɑɦru-
Lith. gudrù-
(a.) ‘wise’
(LiEtWb. XX)
1. PIE *gɑɦúdɑɦrú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦúdɦrú-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦúdɦrú-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis PLith. ù
RLiAcc3 → *gɦùdɦrù-
3. gɦùdɦrù-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *gɦùdrù-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. gɦùdrù-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → Lith. gùdrù-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
Hitt. gudru-
(.) ‘Zeuge’
(HIL. 578)
(Hitt. ku-ut-ru-ua-aš [N], ku-ut-ru-i [D], ku-ut-ru-e-eš [plN])
1. PIE *gɑɦudɑɦru-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦudɦru-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦudɦru-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. gudru-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. gudru̯āḫ-
(vb.1.) ‘zum Zeugen anrufen’
(HHand. 87)
(Hitt. ku-ut-ru-ua-aḫ [ipv2sg], ku-ut-ru-a-aḫ-ḫu-un)
1. PIE *gɑɦudɑɦru̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gɑɦudɑɦru̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gɑɦudɑɦru̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦudɦru̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦudɦru̯āh
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *gudru̯āh
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. gudru̯āh
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. gudru̯āḫ
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. gudru̯āḫu̯a-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘XX’
(HIL. 578)
(Hitt. ku-ut-ru-ua-aḫ-ḫu-u-ua-aš [sgG])
1. PIE *gɑɦudɑɦru̯ēɑhu̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gɑɦudɑɦru̯āɑhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gɑɦudɑɦru̯āɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦudɦru̯āhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦudɦru̯āhu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦudɦru̯āhu̯a-
4. gɦudɦru̯āhu̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *gudru̯āhu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. gudru̯āhu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. gudru̯āḫu̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. gudru̯ai-
(vb.1.) ‘bezeugen lassen’
(HHand. 87)
(Hitt. ku-u-ut-ru-ua-a-iz-zi [3sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦudɑɦru̯oi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦudɦru̯oi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦudɦru̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦudɦru̯ai-
3. gɦudɦru̯ai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. gudru̯ai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. gudru̯eni-
(c.) ‘Zeuge : witness’
(HHand. 87)
(Hitt. ku-ut-ru-e-ni-eš [plN])
1. PIE *gɑɦudɑɦru̯eni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦudɦru̯eni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦudɦru̯eni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. gudru̯eni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. gudru̯ešn-
(n.) ‘witnessing’
(HIL. 578)
(Hitt. ku-ut-ru-e-eš-ni [sgL])
1. PIE *gɑɦudɑɦru̯esn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦudɦru̯esn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦudɦru̯esn-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *gudru̯esn-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. gudru̯esn-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. gudru̯ešn-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. gudru̯an-
(N.act.) ‘Zeugenschaft’
(HHand. 87)
(HHand. 87) (Hitt. ku-ut-ru-ua-an-ni [DL])
1. PIE *gɑɦudɑɦru̯on-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦudɦru̯on-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦudɦru̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦudɦru̯an-
3. gɦudɦru̯an-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. gudru̯an-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √kɑhu- √gɑɦu- ‘schlagen, hauen, töten, kämpfen, stechen, treiben, jagen, schmieden, verfertigen, usw.’
(IEW. 535+491-3)
√kɑhu-
(IEW. 535 *kǝu-)
(WP. 1:330f.)
Lith. káu-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, hauen, umbringen, vernichten’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. káuti [inf.])
1. PIE *kḗɑhu-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *kā́ɑhu-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kā́hu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kā́hu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kā́u-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kā́u-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
Rā́RC›áRC → Lith. káu-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
Lith. káu-
(vb.refl.) ‘sich schlagen, kämpfen, ausgelassen sein, tollen’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. káutis [inf.])
1. PIE *kḗɑhu-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *kā́ɑhu-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kā́hu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kā́hu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kā́u-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kā́u-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
Rā́RC›áRC → Lith. káu-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
Latv. kaû-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, hauen, stechen, schlachten, treten’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Latv. kaût, kavu [pret.], kâvu [pret.])
1. PIE *kḗɑhu-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *kā́ɑhu-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kā́hu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kā́hu-
*ā́Hu → āHû
Latvian tone rule for *ā́Hu
RAccLatv2 → *kāhû-
4. kāhû-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāû-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāû-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → Latv. kaû-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
Lith. nu·káu-
(vb.) ‘erschlagen : kill’
(Senn 2:227)
(Lith. nu·káuti [inf.])
1. PIE *Π·kḗɑhu-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *Π·kā́ɑhu-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·kā́ɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·kā́hu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·kā́hu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·kā́u-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·kā́u-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
Rā́RC›áRC → Lith. Π·káu-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
Latv. nùo·kaû-
(vb.) ‘erschlagen, töten’
(IEW. 535)
(Latv. nùokaût [inf.])
1. PIE *Π·kḗɑhu-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *Π·kā́ɑhu-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·kā́ɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·kā́hu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·kā́hu-
*ā́Hu → āHû
Latvian tone rule for *ā́Hu
RAccLatv2 → *Π·kāhû-
4. Π·kāhû-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·kāû-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·kāû-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → Latv. Π·kaû-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
Pol. ku-
(pr.) ‘schmieden’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Pol. kuć [inf.], kuję [1sg])
1. PIE *kēɑhu-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhu-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kāu-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *kau-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. kau-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *kou-
6. kou-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *kū-
7. kū-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → Pol. ku-
TochB. kau-
(vb.) ‘= Skt. vadhāya- : töten’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kautsi-ś [inf.])
1. PIE *kēɑhu-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhu-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kāu-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → TochB. kau-
TochA. kāw-
(vb.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 85)
(TochA. kāw-e(ñc) [3pl])
1. PIE *kēɑhu̯-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhu̯-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhu̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhu̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhu̯-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāu̯-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kāu̯-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. kāw-
TochA. ko-
(vb.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 85)
(if in TochA. pko [ipv], HuIdg. 253-)
1. PIE *kēɑhu-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhu-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kāu-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
RāuC›auC → *kau-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
5. kau-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kō-
6. kō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. ko-
√kɑhuo-
OCS. kovo-
(pr.) ‘schmieden, verfertigen’
(Sadnik √374)
(OCS. kovǫ [1sg], PIE *e for presens)
1. PIE *keɑhu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kahu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kahu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kahu̯a-
4. kahu̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kau̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kau̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *kou̯o-
6. kou̯o-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OCS. kovo-
TochB. kawa-
(pret.A.) ‘kill’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kawam [1pl], *e for preterite)
1. PIE *keɑhu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kahu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kahu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kahu̯a-
4. kahu̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kau̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kau̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. kawa-
OSax. hawa-
(pr.) ‘hew, cut, strike, smite’
(ASaxD. 534)
(OSax. hawan [inf.], *e for presens)
1. PIE *keɑhu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑhu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kahu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kahu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kau̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kau̯o-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xau̯o-
5. xau̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *xau̯a-
6. xau̯a-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *hau̯a-
7. hau̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OSax. hawa-
√kɑhuɑh-
Lith. kovà-
(f.) ‘Kampf, Schlacht’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kovà [sgN])
1. PIE *kēɑhu̯ḗɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhu̯ḗɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhu̯ḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *kāɑhu̯ā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. kāɑhu̯ā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhu̯ā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. kāhu̯ā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāu̯ā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāu̯ā́
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *kōu̯ā́
(XX:XX)
6. kōu̯ā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *kōu̯ṓ
(XX:XX)
7. kōu̯ṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → *kōu̯à
8. kōu̯à
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *kou̯à
9. kou̯à
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. kovà
Lith. kovó-
(vb.) ‘kämpfen, ringen’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kovóti [inf.])
1. PIE *kēɑhu̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhu̯ḗɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhu̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *kāɑhu̯ā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. kāɑhu̯ā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhu̯ā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. kāhu̯ā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāu̯ā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāu̯ā́-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *kōu̯ā́-
(XX:XX)
6. kōu̯ā́-
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *kōu̯ṓ-
(XX:XX)
7. kōu̯ṓ-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *kou̯ṓ-
8. kou̯ṓ-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → *kou̯ó-
9. kou̯ó-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. kovó-
Latv. kava-
(f.) ‘Stich, Schlag, Art, Schicht’
(WH. 2:301)
Latv. kava [sgN]
1. PIE *koɑhu̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *koɑhu̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. koɑhu̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohu̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kohu̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kou̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kou̯ā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kau̯ā
5. kau̯ā
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *kavā
6. kavā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → Latv. kava
Serb. kòva-
(vb.) ‘schmieden, prägen’
(IEW. 535)
(Serb. kòvati [inf.], *e for presens)
1. PIE *kéɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *káɑhu̯ēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. káɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *káɑhu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. káɑhu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *káhu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. káhu̯āh-
áḫ → àḫ
Serbo-Croatian gravis rule
Rá›à → *kàhu̯āh-
5. kàhu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kàu̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. kàu̯ā-
*à → ò
Change of *à into ò
Rà›ò → *kòu̯ā-
7. kòu̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *kòvā-
8. kòvā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Serb. kòva-
OCS. kova-
(vb.) ‘schmieden, verfertigen’
(Sadnik √374)
(OCS. kovati [1sg])
1. PIE *keɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kaɑhu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. kaɑhu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kahu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. kahu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kau̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kau̯ā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *kou̯ā-
6. kou̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *kovā-
7. kovā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OCS. kova-
Russ. kova-
(vb.) ‘schmieden’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Russ. kovat’, kuju [1sg])
1. PIE *keɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kaɑhu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. kaɑhu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kahu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. kahu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kau̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kau̯ā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *kou̯ā-
6. kou̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *kovā-
7. kovā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Russ. kova-
Pol. kowa-
(vb.) ‘schmieden’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Pol. kować [inf.], kowam [1sg])
1. PIE *keɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kaɑhu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. kaɑhu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kahu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. kahu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kau̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kau̯ā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *kou̯ā-
6. kou̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *kovā-
7. kovā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *kova-
8. kova-
*v → w
Orthographic change of of *v into w
Rv›w → Pol. kowa-
OCS. po·kova-
(vb.) ‘beschlagen’
(Sadnik √374)
(OCS. pokovati [inf.])
1. PIE *Π·keɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *Π·kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. Π·kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·kaɑhu̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. Π·kaɑhu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·kahu̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. Π·kahu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·kau̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·kau̯ā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *Π·kou̯ā-
6. Π·kou̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *Π·kovā-
7. Π·kovā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OCS. Π·kova-
√kɑhuēhɑ-
Lith. kóvė-
(pret.) ‘schlagen, hauen, umbringen, vernichten’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kóviau, kóvė)
1. PIE *kḗɑhu̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *kā́ɑhu̯ēhɑ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhu̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kā́hu̯ēh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kā́hu̯ēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kā́u̯ē-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kā́u̯ē-
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *kṓu̯ē-
(XX:XX)
5. kṓu̯ē-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → *kóu̯ē-
6. kóu̯ē-
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → *kóu̯ė-
7. kóu̯ė-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. kóvė-
Serb. kòvē-
(vb.) ‘schmieden, prägen’
(IEW. 535)
(Serb. kòvēm [1sg])
1. PIE *kéɑhu̯ēhɑ-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *káɑhu̯ēhɑ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. káɑhu̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *káhu̯ēh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. káhu̯ēh-
áḫ → àḫ
Serbo-Croatian gravis rule
Rá›à → *kàhu̯ēh-
4. kàhu̯ēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kàu̯ē-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kàu̯ē-
*à → ò
Change of *à into ò
Rà›ò → *kòu̯ē-
6. kòu̯ē-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Serb. kòvē-
√kɑhuhɑl-
(Pyysalo)
OCS. na·kovalo-
(n.) ‘Amboss’
(Sadnik √374)
(OCS. nakovalo)
1. PIE *Π·koɑhu̯ōhɑlos
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·kohu̯ōhlos
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·kohu̯ōhlos
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·kahu̯ōhlas
3. Π·kahu̯ōhlas
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·kahu̯āhlas
4. Π·kahu̯āhlas
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·kau̯ālas
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·kau̯ālas
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *Π·kou̯ālos
6. Π·kou̯ālos
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root-final)
Ros=›o= → *Π·kou̯ālo
7. Π·kou̯ālo
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *Π·kovālo
8. Π·kovālo
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OCS. Π·kovalo
OCS. na·kovalĭno-
(n.) ‘Amboss’
(Sadnik √374)
(OCS. nakovalĭno)
1. PIE *Π·koɑhu̯ōhɑlinos
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·kohu̯ōhlinos
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·kohu̯ōhlinos
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·kahu̯ōhlinas
3. Π·kahu̯ōhlinas
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·kahu̯āhlinas
4. Π·kahu̯āhlinas
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·kau̯ālinas
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·kau̯ālinas
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *Π·kou̯ālinos
6. Π·kou̯ālinos
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root-final)
Ros=›o= → *Π·kou̯ālino
7. Π·kou̯ālino
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *Π·kovālino
8. Π·kovālino
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *Π·kovalino
9. Π·kovalino
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → OCS. Π·kovalĭno
RV. kū́ṭa-
(n.) ‘Hammer, Schlegel’
(KEWA I:250)
(RV. kū́ṭa-)
1. PIE *kɑ́huhɑlto-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *kúhuhɑlto-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. kúhuhɑlto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kúhuhlto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kúhuhlto-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *kúhuhrto-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. kúhuhrto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kúhuhrta-
5. kúhuhrta-
PIE *hRt → ṭ
Fortunatov’s Law for *hRt
RhRt›ṭ → *kúhuṭa-
(SPIE §3.3.2)
6. kúhuṭa-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kúuṭa-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. kúuṭa-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → RV. kū́ṭa-
√kɑhuɦɑd-
Lat. cūd-
(pf.) ‘schlagen, klopfen, stampfen, prägen’
(WH. 1:300)
(Lat. cūdī [1sg])
1. PIE *koɑhuɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohuɦd-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohuɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *kohud-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. kohud-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *koud-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. koud-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *kūd-
5. kūd-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. cūd-
TochA. kot-
(pret.A.) ‘spalten : dissecare, diffindere’
(Poucha. 86)
(TochA. kot)
1. PIE *koɑhuɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohuɦd-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohuɦd-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kahuɦd-
3. kahuɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *kahud-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kahud-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kaud-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kaud-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *kaut-
6. kaut-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kōt-
7. kōt-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. kot-
Lat. in·cūd-
(f.) ‘Amboß’
(Lat. incūs [sgN], incūdis [sgG])
1. PIE *Π·koɑhuɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·kohuɦd-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·kohuɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·kohud-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·kohud-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·koud-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·koud-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *Π·kūd-
5. Π·kūd-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. Π·cūd-
Lat. sub·cūd-
(f.) ‘Verklammerung, Haue’
(WH. 1:300)
(Lat. subcūs [sgN], subcūdis [sgG])
1. PIE *Π·koɑhuɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·kohuɦd-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·kohuɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·kohud-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·kohud-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·koud-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·koud-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *Π·kūd-
5. Π·kūd-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. Π·cūd-
TochB. kauta-
(vb.) ‘crush, chop, split’
(DTochB. 210)
(TochB. kautaṃ, kautatsiśco [inf.])
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdeɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kēɑhuɦɑdaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kēɑhuɦɑdaɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhuɦɑdaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. kāɑhuɦɑdaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhuɦdah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. kāhuɦdah-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *kāhudah-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāhudah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāuda-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. kāuda-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *kāuta-
7. kāuta-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → TochB. kauta-
TochB. kauta·no-
(impf.A.) ‘chop up, obj. bones’
(DTochB. 210)
(TochB. kautanoñ-c [3pl+encl.2sg])
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdo·nou-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhuɦɑdo·nou-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑdo·nou-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhuɦdo·nou-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦdo·nou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kāhuɦda·nau-
4. kāhuɦda·nau-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *kāhuda·nau-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāhuda·nau-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāuda·nau-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. kāuda·nau-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *kāuta·nau-
7. kāuta·nau-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kāuta·nō-
8. kāuta·nō-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → *kauta·nō-
9. kauta·nō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. kauta·no-
TochB. kauta·lñe-
(a.) ‘Skt. bhedana- = breaking’
(DTochB. 210)
(TochB. kautalñe-)
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdo·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhuɦɑdo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑdo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhuɦdo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦdo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kāhuɦda·Σ-
4. kāhuɦda·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *kāhuda·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāhuda·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāuda·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. kāuda·Σ-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *kāuta·Σ-
7. kāuta·Σ-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → TochB. kauta·Σ-
TochB. a·kauta·cce-
(a.) ‘unsplittable’
(DTochB. 3)
(TochB. akautacce [sgA], thunderbolt)
1. PIE *Π·kēɑhuɦɑdo·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·kāɑhuɦɑdo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·kāɑhuɦɑdo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·kāhuɦdo·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·kāhuɦdo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·kāhuɦda·Σ-
4. Π·kāhuɦda·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·kāhuda·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·kāhuda·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·kāuda·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. Π·kāuda·Σ-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *Π·kāuta·Σ-
7. Π·kāuta·Σ-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → TochB. Π·kauta·Σ-
Lat. cūdo-
(pr.3.) ‘schlagen, klopfen, stampfen, prägen’
(Lat. cūdō [1sg], cūdĕre [inf.])
1. PIE *koɑhuɦɑdo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohuɦdo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohuɦdo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *kohudo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. kohudo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *koudo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. koudo-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *kūdo-
5. kūdo-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. cūdo-
MidIr. cuad-
(vb.) ‘schlachten, kämpfen’
(WH. 1:301)
(but see Fick II4:88 apud WH)
1. PIE *koɑhuɦɑdo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohuɦdo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohuɦdo
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *kohudo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. kohudo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *koudo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. koudo
*ou → ō
Monophthongization of *ou into ō
Rou›ō → *kōdo
5. kōdo
*ō → ua
Brechung of *ō into ua
Rō›ua → *kuado
6. kuado
*-o → -Ø
Loss of root-final *o
R=o›=0 → *kuad
7. kuad
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → MidIr. cuad
TochB. kautā-
(pret.) ‘break’
(DTochB. 210)
(TochB. kautā-)
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhuɦɑdāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑdāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhuɦdāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦdāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *kāhudāh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kāhudāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāudā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāudā-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *kāutā-
6. kāutā-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → TochB. kautā-
TochB. kautā·tstsai-
(a.f.) ‘breakable, having a crack’
(DTochB. 210)
(TochB. kautātstsai-)
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdēɑh·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhuɦɑdāɑh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑdāɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhuɦdāh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦdāh·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *kāhudāh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kāhudāh·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāudā·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāudā·Σ-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *kāutā·Σ-
6. kāutā·Σ-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → TochB. kautā·Σ-
OCS. iz·kyda-
(vb.) ‘herauswerfen, abwerfen’
(Sadnik √434)
(OCS. izkyda-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑ́huɦɑdēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·kɑ́huɦɑdāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·kɑ́huɦɑdāɑh-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *Π·kúhuɦɑdāɑh-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
3. Π·kúhuɦɑdāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·kúhuɦdāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. Π·kúhuɦdāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·kúhudāh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·kúhudāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·kúudā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. Π·kúudā-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *Π·kū́dā-
7. Π·kū́dā-
*ū́
ū → y
Rū›y → *Π·kydā-
Change of ū́ into y
8. Π·kydā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OCS. Π·kyda-
OCS. sŭ·kyda-
(vb.refl.) ‘leer werden’
(Sadnik √434)
(OCS. sŭkyda-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑ́huɦɑdēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·kɑ́huɦɑdāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·kɑ́huɦɑdāɑh-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *Π·kúhuɦɑdāɑh-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
3. Π·kúhuɦɑdāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·kúhuɦdāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. Π·kúhuɦdāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·kúhudāh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·kúhudāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·kúudā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. Π·kúudā-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *Π·kū́dā-
7. Π·kū́dā-
*ū́
ū → y
Rū›y → *Π·kydā-
Change of ū́ into y
8. Π·kydā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OCS. Π·kyda-
Lat. caud·ec-
(m.) ‘Baumstamm, Klotz, gespaltenes Holz…’
(Lat. caudex, caudicis)
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑd·Σ
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhuɦɑd·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑd·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhuɦd·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦd·Σ
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *kāhud·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kāhud·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāud·Σ
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāud·Σ
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *kaud·Σ
(SPIE §2.5.8)
6. kaud·Σ
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. caud·Σ
Lat. cōd·ec-
(m.) ‘idem, … Züchtigungsblock, Notizbuch’
(WH. 1:136)
(Lat. cōdex [sgN])
1. PIE *kōɑhuɦɑd·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kōhuɦd·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kōhuɦd·Σ-
*ōhu → ōh
Loss of labial in *ōHu
RōHu›ōH → *kōhɦd·Σ-
3. kōhɦd·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *kōhd·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kōhd·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kōd·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kōd·Σ-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. cōd·Σ-
Lat. caud·icā-
(f.) ‘aus einem Baumstamm gemachter Kahn’
(WH. 1:136)
(Lat. caudica [sgN])
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑd·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhuɦɑd·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑd·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhuɦd·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦd·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *kāhud·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kāhud·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāud·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāud·Σ-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *kaud·Σ-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
6. kaud·Σ-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. caud·Σ-
Lat. cōd·icillo-
(n.) ‘kleiner Stamm, Scheitholz’
(WH. 1:136)
Lat. cōdicillum [sgNA])
1. PIE *kōɑhuɦɑd·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kōhuɦd·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kōhuɦd·Σ-
*ōhu → ōh
Loss of labial in *ōHu
RōHu›ōH → *kōhɦd·Σ-
3. kōhɦd·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *kōhd·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kōhd·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kōd·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kōd·Σ-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. cōd·Σ-
Latv. pa·kûdî-
(vb.) ‘antreiben’
(Sadnik √434)
(Latv. pakûdî-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑ́huɦɑdɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *Π·kɑ́huɦɑdíhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·kɑ́huɦɑdíhi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *Π·kúhuɦɑdíhi-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
3. Π·kúhuɦɑdíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·kúhuɦdíhi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. Π·kúhuɦdíhi-
*íHi → iHî
Latvian tone rule for *íHi
RAccLatv4 → *Π·kúhuɦdihî-
5. Π·kúhuɦdihî-
*úHu → uHû
Latvian tone rule for *úHu
RAccLatv5 → *Π·kuhûɦdihî-
6. Π·kuhûɦdihî-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·kuhûdihî-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. Π·kuhûdihî-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·kuûdiî-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
8. Π·kuûdiî-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *Π·kûdiî-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
9. Π·kûdiî-
*iî → î
Contraction of i and î
Riî›î → Latv. Π·kûdî-
TochA. kotlune-
(vb.sb.) ‘dissecare, diffindere : spalten’
(Poucha. 86)
(TochA. kotlune)
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdlunoi̯o
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhuɦɑdlunoi̯o
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑdlunoi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhuɦdlunoi̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦdlunoi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kāhuɦdlunai̯a
4. kāhuɦdlunai̯a
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *kāhudlunai̯a
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāhudlunai̯a
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāudlunai̯a
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. kāudlunai̯a
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *kāutlunai̯a
7. kāutlunai̯a
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
RāuC›auC → *kautlunai̯a
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
8. kautlunai̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *kautlunai̯
9. kautlunai̯
*a y → ē
Change of ay into ē in root-final
R=ay›=ē → *kautlunē
10. kautlunē
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kōtlunē
11. kōtlunē
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *kōtlune
12. kōtlune
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. kotlune
TochA. kotna-
(pret.A.) ‘dissecare, diffindere : spalten’
(Poucha. 86)
(TochA. kotnaṣ, kotnatsi [inf.])
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdno-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhuɦɑdno-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑdno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhuɦdno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦdno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kāhuɦdna-
4. kāhuɦdna-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *kāhudna-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāhudna-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāudna-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. kāudna-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *kāutna-
7. kāutna-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
RāuC›auC → *kautna-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
8. kautna-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kōtna-
9. kōtna-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. kotna-
TochA. kotne-
(pret.A.) ‘spalten : dissecare, diffindere’
(Poucha. 86)
(TochA. kotnecä [3pl])
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdnoi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhuɦɑdnoi-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑdnoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhuɦdnoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦdnoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kāhuɦdnai-
4. kāhuɦdnai-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *kāhudnai-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāhudnai-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāudnai-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. kāudnai-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *kāutnai-
7. kāutnai-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
RāuC›auC → *kautnai-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
8. kautnai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *kautnē-
9. kautnē-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kōtnē-
10. kōtnē-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *kōtne-
11. kōtne-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. kotne-
Lat. cūsso-
(pf.) ‘schlagen, klopfen, stampfen, prägen’
(WH. 1:300)
(Lat. cūssum [sgNA])
1. PIE *koɑhuɦɑdso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohuɦdso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohuɦdso-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *kohudso-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. kohudso-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *koudso-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. koudso-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *kūdso-
5. kūdso-
*ds → ss
Assimilation of *ds
Rds›ss → *kūsso-
6. kūsso-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → Lat. cūsso-
TochA. kākotur-
(absol.) ‘spalten : dissecare, diffindere’
(Poucha. 86)
(TochA. kākoturäṣ [sgAbl])
1. PIE *kēɑhkēɑhuɦɑdur-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhkāɑhuɦɑdur-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhkāɑhuɦɑdur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhkāhuɦdur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhkāhuɦdur-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *kāhkāhudur-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kāhkāhudur-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kākāudur-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kākāudur-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *kākāutur-
6. kākāutur-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
RāuC›auC → *kākautur-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
7. kākautur-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kākōtur-
8. kākōtur-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. kākotur-
√kɑhui-
Lith. káuja-
(pr.) ‘schlagen, hauen, umbringen, vernichten’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. káuju [1sg], *ē for presens)
1. PIE *kḗɑhui̯o-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *kā́ɑhui̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhui̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kā́hui̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kā́hui̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kā́ui̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kā́ui̯o-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
Rā́RC›áRC → *káui̯o-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. káui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *káui̯a-
6. káui̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Lith. káuja-
Latv. kaûja-
(pr.) ‘schlagen, hauen, stechen, schlachten, treten’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Latv. kaûju [1sg])
1. PIE *kḗɑhui̯o-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *kā́ɑhui̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhui̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kā́hui̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kā́hui̯o-
*ā́Hu → āHû
Latvian tone rule for *ā́Hu
RAccLatv2 → *kāhûi̯o-
4. kāhûi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāûi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāûi̯o-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *kaûi̯o-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
6. kaûi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kaûi̯a-
7. kaûi̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Latv. kaûja-
OCS. kujo-
(vb.) ‘schmieden, prägen’
(Sadnik √374)
(OCS. kujǫ [1sg])
1. PIE *kēɑhui̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhui̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhui̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhui̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kāhui̯a-
4. kāhui̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāui̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāui̯a-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *kaui̯a-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
6. kaui̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *koui̯o-
7. koui̯o-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *kūi̯o-
8. kūi̯o-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *kūjo-
9. kūjo-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → OCS. kujo-
Goth. hawi-
(n.) ‘χόρτος : Heu’
(GoEtD. 181)
(Goth. hawi, IEW.: “zu hauendes”, *o for noun)
1. PIE *koɑhui̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohui̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohui̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *koui̯o
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. koui̯o
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xoui̯o
4. xoui̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *xaui̯a
5. xaui̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *xaui̯
6. xaui̯
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *haui̯
7. haui̯
*-ui̯ → -u̯i
Change of root-final -ui̯ into -u̯i
R=ui̯›=u̯i → *hau̯i
8. hau̯i
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. hawi
OHG. hewi-
(n.) ‘Heu’
(ANEtWb. 226)
(OHG. hewi)
1. PIE *koɑhui̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohui̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohui̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *koui̯o
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. koui̯o
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xoui̯o
4. xoui̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *xaui̯a
5. xaui̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *xaui̯
6. xaui̯
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *haui̯
7. haui̯
*-ui̯ → -u̯i
Change of root-final -ui̯ into -u̯i
R=ui̯›=u̯i → *hau̯i
8. hau̯i
*awi → ewi
Umlaut of *au̯i to eu̯i
Rau̯i›eu̯i → *heu̯i
9. heu̯i
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. hewi
OSax. hōi-
(n.) ‘Heu : grass’
(ASächsWb. 35)
(OSax. hōi)
1. PIE *koɑhui̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohui̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohui̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *koui̯o
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. koui̯o
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xoui̯o
4. xoui̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *xaui̯a
5. xaui̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *xaui̯
6. xaui̯
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *haui̯
7. haui̯
*au → ō
Monophthongization of *au into ō
Rau›ōRestr → *hōi̯
8. hōi̯
*-i̯ → -i
Change of root-final i̯ into i
R=i̯›=i → OSax. hōi
Far. hoy-
(n.) ‘Heu : grass’
(ANEtWb. 226)
(Far. hoy)
1. PIE *koɑhui̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohui̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohui̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *koui̯o
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. koui̯o
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xoui̯o
4. xoui̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *xaui̯a
5. xaui̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *xaui̯
6. xaui̯
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *haui̯
7. haui̯
*-ui̯ → -u̯i
Change of root-final -ui̯ into -u̯i
R=ui̯›=u̯i → *hau̯i
8. hau̯i
*au̯i → oy
Umlaut for au̯i to oy
Rau̯i›oy → Far. hoy
OIcl. hey-
(n.) ‘Heu : grass’
(ANEtWb. 226)
(OIcl. Hey, Vries: ‘das abgehauene’ ?)
1. PIE *koɑhui̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohui̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohui̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *koui̯o
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. koui̯o
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xoui̯o
4. xoui̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *xaui̯a
5. xaui̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *xaui̯
6. xaui̯
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *haui̯
7. haui̯
*-ui̯ → -u̯i
Change of root-final -ui̯ into -u̯i
R=ui̯›=u̯i → *hau̯i
8. hau̯i
*awi → ewi
Umlaut of *au̯i to eu̯i
Rau̯i›eu̯i → *heu̯i
9. heu̯i
Reu̯i›ey → OIcl. hey
√kɑhuiēhɑ-
Serb. kȕjē-
(vb.) ‘schmieden, prägen’
(IEW. 535)
(Serb. kȕjēm [1sg])
1. PIE *kḗɑhui̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *kā́ɑhui̯ēhɑ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhui̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kā́hui̯ēh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kā́hui̯ēh-
ā́hu → āhȕ
Serbo-Croatian double gravis rule
Rā́ɦu›āHȕ → *kāhȕi̯ēh-
4. kāhȕi̯ēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāȕi̯ē-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāȕi̯ē-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *kāȕjē-
6. kāȕjē-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Serb. kaȕjē-
Pol. kuje-
(pr.) ‘schmieden’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Pol. kuję [1sg])
1. PIE *kēɑhui̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhui̯ēhɑ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhui̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhui̯ēh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhui̯ēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāui̯ē-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kāui̯ē-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *kaui̯ē-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. kaui̯ē-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *koui̯ē-
6. koui̯ē-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *kūi̯ē-
7. kūi̯ē-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *kūjē-
8. kūjē-
*ē → ĕ
Change of *ē into ĕ
Rē›ĕ → *kūjĕ-
9. kūjĕ-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → *kujĕ-
10. kujĕ-
*ĕ → e
Change of *ĕ into e
Rĕ›e → Pol. kuje-
√kɑhuiɑh-
Lith. kū́ja-
(f.) ‘Stelze : pale, stake’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kū́ja [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hui̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kɑ́hui̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kɑ́hui̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *kúhui̯āɑh
(SPIE §3.2.3)
3. kúhui̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kúhui̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. kúhui̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kúui̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kúui̯ā
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *kū́i̯ā
6. kū́i̯ā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *kū́i̯ō
(XX:XX)
7. kū́i̯ō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *kū́i̯a
8. kū́i̯a
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Lith. kū́ja
Latv. kũja-
(f.) ‘Stab, Stock, Keule’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Latv. kũja [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hui̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kɑ́hui̯āɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kɑ́hui̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *kúhui̯āɑh
(SPIE §3.2.3)
3. kúhui̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kúhui̯āh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. kúhui̯āh
*úHu → uHû
Latvian tone rule for *úHu
RAccLatv5 → *kuhûi̯āh
5. kuhûi̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kuûi̯ā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. kuûi̯ā
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *kûi̯ā
(SPIE §4.8.3)
7. kûi̯ā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → *kûi̯a
8. kûi̯a
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Latv. kûja
√kɑhuii-
Lith. kū́ji-
(.) ‘schwerer Schmiedehammer’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kū́jis [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hui̯i-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *kúhui̯i-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. kúhui̯i-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kúui̯i-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. kúui̯i-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *kū́i̯i-
4. kū́i̯i-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Lith. kū́ji-
RussCS. kyjĭ-
(.) ‘Hammer, Knüttel’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(RussCS. kyjĭ)
1. PIE *kɑ́hui̯i-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *kúhui̯i-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. kúhui̯i-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kúui̯i-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. kúui̯i-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *kū́i̯i-
4. kū́i̯i-
*ū́
ū → y
Rū›y → *kyi̯i-
Change of ū́ into y
5. kyi̯i-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *kyji-
6. kyji-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → RussCS. kyjĭ-
√kɑhuku-
OGaul. cōp-
(sb.) ‘Silbermünze der transpadanischen Boier’
(ACSS 1:1114)
(OGaul. cop.)
1. PIE *koɑhuku-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohuku-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohuku-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kouku-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. kouku-
*ku/u̯ → p
Bilabialization of labiovelar q into p
RkU›p → *koup-
4. koup-
*ou → ō
Monophthongization of *ou into ō
Rou›ō → *kōp-
5. kōp-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OGaul. cōp-
OIr. cuach-
(sb.) ‘combat, attaque’
(LEIA C-134)
(OIr. cuach, coach, *o for noun)
1. PIE *koɑhuku̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohuku̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohuku̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kouku̯o
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. kouku̯o
* ku/u̯ → q
Emergence of labiovelar q
RkU›q → *kouqo
4. kouqo
*ou → ō
Monophthongization of *ou into ō
Rou›ō → *kōqo
5. kōqo
*q → k
Delabialization of labiovelar *q
Rq›k → *kōko
6. kōko
*ō → ua
Brechung of *ō into ua
Rō›ua → *kuako
7. kuako
VkV → VkhV
Lenition of voiceless stop *k
Rk›kh → *kuakho
8. kuakho
-o → Ø
Loss of root-final -o
R=o›=0Restr → *kuakh
9. kuakh
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OIr. cuach
OInd. kóka-
(m.) ‘Wolf : wolf’
(KEWA I:268)
OInd. kókas [sgN])
1. PIE *koɑhúku̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohúku̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohúku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kahúku̯a-
3. kahúku̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kaúku̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kaúku̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *kaúka-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. kaúka-
aú → ṓ
Monophthongization of *aú
Raú›ṓ → *kṓka-
6. kṓka-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → OInd. kóka-
RV. kóka·yātu-
(m.) ‘Kobold in Gestalt eines Wolfes’
(WbRV. 352)
(KEWA I:268, nicht ‘Kukuk’, vs. Grassmann)
1. PIE *koɑhúku̯o·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohúku̯o·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohúku̯o·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kahúku̯a·Σ-
3. kahúku̯a·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kaúku̯a·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kaúku̯a·Σ-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *kaúka·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. kaúka·Σ-
aú → ṓ
Monophthongization of *aú
Raú›ṓ → *kṓka·Σ-
6. kṓka·Σ-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → RV. kóka·Σ-
√kɑhugɑɦii-
OSax. hōgi-
(n.) ‘Heu : grass’
(ASächsWb. 35)
(OSax. hōgi)
1. PIE *koɑhugɑɦi̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohugɦi̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohugɦi̯i-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *kohuǵɦi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. kohuǵɦi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kouǵɦi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kouǵɦi-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *kougɦi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. kougɦi-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xougɦi-
6. xougɦi-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *xougi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. xougi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *xaugi-
8. xaugi-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *haugi-
9. haugi-
*au → ō
Monophthongization of *au into ō
Rau›ōRestr → OSax. hōgi-
OEng. hīeg-
(.) ‘grass’
(ANEtWb. 226)
(OEng. hīeg-, ASaxD. –)
1. PIE *koɑhugɑɦi̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohugɦi̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohugɦi̯i-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *kohuǵɦi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. kohuǵɦi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kouǵɦi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kouǵɦi-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *kougɦi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. kougɦi-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xougɦi-
6. xougɦi-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *xougi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. xougi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *xaugi-
8. xaugi-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *haugi-
9. haugi-
*au → eā
Change of *au into eā
Rau›eā → *heāgi-
10. heāgi-
*eā—i → īe–Ø
Umlaut for eā—i
Reāgi›īeg → OEng. hīeg-
Far. hoyggj-
(n.) ‘Heu : grass’
(ANEtWb. 226)
(Far. hoyggj [sgNA])
1. PIE *koɑhugɑɦi̯igɑɦii̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohugɦi̯igɦii̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohugɦi̯igɦii̯o
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *kohuǵɦiǵɦi̯o
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. kohuǵɦiǵɦi̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kouǵɦiǵɦi̯o
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kouǵɦiǵɦi̯o
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *kougɦigɦi̯o
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. kougɦigɦi̯o
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xougɦigɦi̯o
6. xougɦigɦi̯o
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *xougigi̯o
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. xougigi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *xaugigi̯a
8. xaugigi̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *xaugigi̯
9. xaugigi̯
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *haugigi̯
10. haugigi̯
*au—i → oy—Ø
Umlaut for au—i
Raugi›oyg → *hoyggi̯
11. hoyggi̯
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Far. hoyggj
√kɑhugɑɦilo-
Russ. kuzló-
(n.) ‘Schmiedearbeit, Schmiedeesse’
(REW 1:682)
(Russ. kuzló [sgNA])
1. PIE *koɑhugɑɦilós
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohugɦilós
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohugɦilós
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *kohuj́ɦlós
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. kohuj́ɦlós
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kahuj́ɦlós
4. kahuj́ɦlós
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *kahuj́ɦlás
5. kahuj́ɦlás
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kauj́ɦlás
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. kauj́ɦlás
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *kauzɦlás
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
7. kauzɦlás
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → *kauzlás
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
8. kauzlás
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *kouzlás
9. kouzlás
*á → ó
Change of *á into ó
Rá›ó → *kouzlós
10. kouzlós
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *kūzlós
11. kūzlós
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → Russ. kuzlós
√kɑhugɑɦini-
ORuss. kuznĭ-
(f.) ‘Schmiederarbeit, Beschlag’
(REW 1:682)
(LiEtWb. 232)
1. PIE *koɑhugɑɦini-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohugɦini-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohugɦini-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *kohuj́ɦni-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. kohuj́ɦni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kahuj́ɦni-
4. kahuj́ɦni-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kauj́ɦni-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kauj́ɦni-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *kauzɦni-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
6. kauzɦni-
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → *kauzni-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. kauzni-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *kouzni-
8. kouzni-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *kūzni-
9. kūzni-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *kūznĭ-
10. kūznĭ-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → ORuss. kuznĭ-
RussCS. kuznĭcĭ-
(m.) ‘Schmied’
(REW 1:682)
(RussCS. kuznĭcĭ)
1. PIE *koɑhugɑɦiniku̯ɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohugɦiniku̯hi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohugɦiniku̯hi-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *kohuj́ɦniku̯hi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. kohuj́ɦniku̯hi-
*ku̯hi → chi 2nd palatalization of *ku̯hi (Slav.)
Rku̯hi›chi → *kohuj́ɦnichi-
4. kohuj́ɦnichi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kahuj́ɦnichi-
5. kahuj́ɦnichi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kauj́ɦnichi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. kauj́ɦnichi-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *kauzɦnichi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
7. kauzɦnichi-
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → *kauznichi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
8. kauznichi-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *kouznichi-
9. kouznichi-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *kūznichi-
10. kūznichi-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *kūznĭchĭ-
11. kūznĭchĭ-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → RussCS. kuznĭchĭ-
Russ. kuznéc-
(m.) ‘Schmied’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Russ. kuznéc [sgN])
1. PIE *koɑhugɑɦiníku̯ɑhi
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohugɦiníku̯hi
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohugɦiníku̯hi
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *kohuj́ɦníku̯hi
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. kohuj́ɦníku̯hi
*ku̯hi → chi 2nd palatalization of *ku̯hi (Slav.)
Rku̯hi›chi → *kohuj́ɦníchi
4. kohuj́ɦníchi
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kahuj́ɦníchi
5. kahuj́ɦníchi
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kauj́ɦníchi
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. kauj́ɦníchi
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *kauzɦníchi
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
7. kauzɦníchi
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → *kauzníchi
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
8. kauzníchi
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *kouzníchi
9. kouzníchi
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *kūzníchi
10. kūzníchi
*-i → Ø
Loss of root-final -i
R=i›=0 → *kūzních
11. kūzních
*í → é
Change of *i into e
Rí›é → *kūznéch
12. kūznéch
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → Russ. kuznéch
√kɑhugɑɦui-
Lith. kū́gi-
(.) ‘schwerer Schmiedehammer’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kū́gis [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hugɑɦu̯i-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *kúhugɑɦu̯i-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. kúhugɑɦu̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kúhugɦu̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kúhugɦu̯i-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kúugɦu̯i-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kúugɦu̯i-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *kúugɦi-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. kúugɦi-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *kū́gɦi-
6. kū́gɦi-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → Lith. kū́gi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
OPr. cugi-
(m.) ‘hamer = Hammer’
(APrS. 364)
(OPr. cugis [sgN], Voc. 518)
1. PIE *kɑ́hugɑɦu̯i-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *kúhugɑɦu̯i-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. kúhugɑɦu̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kúhugɦu̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kúhugɦu̯i-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kúugɦu̯i-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kúugɦu̯i-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *kúugɦi-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. kúugɦi-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *kū́gɦi-
6. kū́gɦi-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *kū́gi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. kū́gi-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *cū́gi-
8. cū́gi-
*ū́ → u
Absence of accent and quantity in OAnat.
Rū́›u → OPr. cugi-
(SPIE §XX)
√kɑhul-
Lith. kúl-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, dreschen, verprügeln’
(LiEtWb. 211-2)
(Lith. kùlti [inf.])
1. PIE *kɑ́hul-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *kúhul-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. kúhul-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kúul-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. kúul-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *kū́l-
4. kū́l-
*ū́RC → úRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ū́RC
Rū́RC›úRC → Lith. kúl-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
Latv. kul̃-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, dreschen, prügeln’
(LiEtWb. 211-2)
(Latv. kul̃t [inf.])
1. PIE *kɑ́hul-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *kúhul-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. kúhul-
*úHu → uHû
Latvian tone rule for *úHu
RAccLatv5 → *kuhûl-
3. kuhûl-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kuûl-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kuûl-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → Latv. kûl-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
Latv. kūl-
(m.) ‘zu dreschendes Gertreide’
(LiEtWb. 211)
(Latv. kūls [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hulo
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *kúhulo
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. kúhulo
*úHu → uHû
Latvian tone rule for *úHu
RAccLatv5 → *kuhûlo
3. kuhûlo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kuûlo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kuûlo
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *kûlo
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. kûlo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kûla
6. kûla
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Latv. kûl
Lith. kū̃lė-
(f.) ‘Dreschen, Drusch’
(LiEtWb. 211)
(Lith. kū̃lė [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hulē-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *kúhulē-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. kúhulē-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kúulē-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. kúulē-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *kū́lē-
4. kū́lē-
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → Lith. kū́lė-
Lith. kūlė̃-
(f.) ‘Dreschen, Drusch, Schlägel, Keule, Streitkolben’
(LiEtWb. 211)
(Lith. kūlė̃ [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hulḗ-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *kúhulḗ-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. kúhulḗ-
ḗ → ė̃
Change of ḗ into ė̃
RLiAcc8 → *kúhulė̃-
3. kúhulė̃-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kúulė̃-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kúulė̃-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → Lith. kū́lė̃-
TochA. kolune-
(vb.sb.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 85)
(TochA. kolune)
1. PIE *kēɑhulunoi̯o
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhulunoi̯o
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhulunoi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhulunoi̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhulunoi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kāhulunai̯a
4. kāhulunai̯a
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāulunai̯a
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāulunai̯a
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
RāuC›auC → *kaulunai̯a
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
6. kaulunai̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *kaulunai̯
7. kaulunai̯
*a y → ē
Change of ay into ē in root-final
R=ay›=ē → *kaulunē
8. kaulunē
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kōlunē
9. kōlunē
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *kōlune
10. kōlune
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. kolune
√kɑhun-
Lith. káuna-
(pr.) ‘schlagen, hauen, umbringen, vernichten’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. káunu [1sg])
1. PIE *kḗɑhuno-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *kā́ɑhuno-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhuno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kā́huno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kā́huno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kā́uno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kā́uno-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
Rā́RC›áRC → *káuno-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. káuno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lith. káuna-
Lith. nu·káuna-
(pr.) ‘to kill, strike’
(Senn II:227)
(Lith. nu·káuna [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·kḗɑhuno-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *Π·kā́ɑhuno-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·kā́ɑhuno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·kā́huno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·kā́huno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·kā́uno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·kā́uno-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
Rā́RC›áRC → *Π·káuno-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. Π·káuno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lith. Π·káuna-
Latv. kaûna-
(pr.) ‘schlagen, hauen, stechen, schlachten, treten’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Latv. kaûnu [1sg])
1. PIE *kḗɑhuno-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *kā́ɑhuno-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhuno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kā́huno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kā́huno-
*ā́Hu → āHû
Latvian tone rule for *ā́Hu
RAccLatv2 → *kāhûno-
4. kāhûno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāûno-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāûno-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *kaûno-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
6. kaûno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Latv. kaûna-
Lith. kaũni-
(.) ‘Handgemenge; Merkinē [Lith. ũ!]’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kaũnis [sgN])
1. PIE *kēɑhúni-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhúni-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhúni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhúni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhúni-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis PLith. ù
RLiAcc3 → *kāhùni-
4. kāhùni-
ā h ù → ā h ũ
Circumflex intonation for *āhù
RLiAcc7 → *kāhũni-
5. kāhũni-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāũni-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. kāũni-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → Lith. kaũni-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
Lith. kaunià-
(f.) ‘Handgemenge; Valkininkai’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kaunià [sgN])
1. PIE *kēɑhuni̯ḗɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhuni̯ḗɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuni̯ḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *kāɑhuni̯ā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. kāɑhuni̯ā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhuni̯ā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. kāhuni̯ā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāuni̯ā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāuni̯ā́
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *kauni̯ā́
(SPIE §2.5.8)
6. kauni̯ā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *kauni̯ṓ
(XX:XX)
7. kauni̯ṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → *kauni̯à
8. kauni̯à
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›iRestr → Lith. kaunià
Lith. kaunù-
(a.) ‘kampflustig, kämpferisch’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kaunùs [sgN]; or *o-grade ?)
1. PIE *kēɑhunú-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhunú-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhunú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhunú-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhunú-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis PLith. ù
RLiAcc3 → *kāhunù-
4. kāhunù-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāunù-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāunù-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → Lith. kaunù-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
√kɑhur-
TochA. kākor-
(absol.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 85)
(TochA. kākoräṣ [absol])
1. PIE *kēɑhkēɑhur-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhkāɑhur-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhkāɑhur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhkāhur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhkāhur-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kākāur-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kākāur-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
RāuC›auC → *kākaur-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
5. kākaur-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kākōr-
6. kākōr-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. kākor-
√kɑhus-
TochB. kaus-
(pret.A.) ‘kill’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kausa [3sg])
1. PIE *kēɑhus-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhus-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhus-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhus-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhus-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāus-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kāus-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → TochB. kaus-
TochA. kos-
(vb.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 85)
(TochA. kossi [inf.])
1. PIE *kēɑhus-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhus-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhus-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhus-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhus-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāus-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kāus-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
RāuC›auC → *kaus-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
5. kaus-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kōs-
6. kōs-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. kos-
TochA. kosa-
(pr.A.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 85)
(TochA. kosam)
1. PIE *kēɑhuso-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhuso-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhuso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhuso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kāhusa-
4. kāhusa-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāusa-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāusa-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
RāuC›auC → *kausa-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
6. kausa-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kōsa-
7. kōsa-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. kosa-
TochB. kause-
(pr.A.) ‘kill, strike down, destroy’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kauseṃ [3pl])
1. PIE *kēɑhusoi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhusoi-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhusoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhusoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kāhusai-
4. kāhusai-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāusai-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāusai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *kāusē-
6. kāusē-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → *kausē-
7. kausē-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. kause-
TochB. kausemana-
(pr.pt.M.) ‘= Skt. bhidyamāna-’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kausem[ane] [m.sgN])
1. PIE *kēɑhusoimono-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhusoimono-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusoimono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhusoimono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhusoimono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kāhusaimana-
4. kāhusaimana-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāusaimana-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāusaimana-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *kāusēmana-
6. kāusēmana-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → *kausēmana-
7. kausēmana-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. kausemana-
TochA. kosmān-
(pr.pt.M.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 85)
(TochA. kosmāṃ [sgN])
1. PIE *kēɑhusmōno
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhusmōno
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusmōno
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhusmōno
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhusmōno
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kāhusmōna
4. kāhusmōna
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *kāhusmāna
5. kāhusmāna
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāusmāna
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. kāusmāna
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
RāuC›auC → *kausmāna
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
7. kausmāna
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *kausmān
8. kausmān
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kōsmān
9. kōsmān
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. kosmān
√kɑhusο-
OInd. kṣá-
(ao.) ‘töten’
(Grundr2 1:405)
(Lex. ákṣata [3sg])
1. PIE *kɑhusó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khusó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khusó-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *khušó-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. khušó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *khušá-
4. khušá-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *khšá-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. khšá-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *kšá-
6. kšá-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → OInd. kṣá-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
RV. tuvi·kṣá-
(a.) ‘viele vernichtend’
(WbRV. 543)
(RV. tuvikṣá-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·khusó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·khusó-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *Π·khušó-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. Π·khušó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·khušá-
4. Π·khušá-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *Π·khšá-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. Π·khšá-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *Π·kšá-
6. Π·kšá-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. Π·kṣá-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
√kɑhusi-
TochB. kauṣ-
(pr.M.) ‘kill, strike down, destroy’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kauṣträ [3sg])
1. PIE *kēɑhusi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhusi-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhusi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhusi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāusi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kāusi-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
Rsi›ṣ → *kāuṣ-
5. kāuṣ-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → TochB. kauṣ-
TochB. kauṣ-
(pr.A.) ‘kill, strike down, destroy’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kauṣäm [3sg+encl.])
1. PIE *kēɑhusi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhusi-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhusi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhusi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāusi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kāusi-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
Rsi›ṣ → *kāuṣ-
5. kāuṣ-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → TochB. kauṣ-
TochA. koṣā-
(vb.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. koṣā [ipv3sg.A.])
1. PIE *kēɑhusi̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhusi̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusi̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhusi̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhusi̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāusi̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kāusi̯ā-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
Rsi̯›ṣ → *kāuṣā-
5. kāuṣā-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
RāuC›auC → *kauṣā-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
6. kauṣā-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kōṣā-
7. kōṣā-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. koṣā-
TochB. kauṣenta-
(sb.) ‘murderer’
(DTcohB. 212)
(TochB. kauṣenta-)
1. PIE *kēɑhusi̯ointeɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kēɑhusi̯ointaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kēɑhusi̯ointaɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhusi̯ointaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. kāɑhusi̯ointaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhusi̯ointah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. kāhusi̯ointah-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kāhusi̯aintah-
5. kāhusi̯aintah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāusi̯ainta-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. kāusi̯ainta-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
Rsi̯›ṣ → *kāuṣainta-
7. kāuṣainta-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *kāuṣēnta-
8. kāuṣēnta-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → *kauṣēnta-
9. kauṣēnta-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. kauṣenta-
TochB. kauṣeñca-
(pr.pt.) ‘= mr̥tyuhantā’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kauṣeñca-)
1. PIE *kēɑhusi̯ointi̯eɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kēɑhusi̯ointi̯aɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kēɑhusi̯ointi̯aɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhusi̯ointi̯aɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. kāɑhusi̯ointi̯aɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhusi̯ointi̯ah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. kāhusi̯ointi̯ah-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kāhusi̯ainti̯ah-
5. kāhusi̯ainti̯ah-
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
Rti̯›c → *kāhusi̯aincah-
6. kāhusi̯aincah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāusi̯ainca-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. kāusi̯ainca-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
Rsi̯›ṣ → *kāuṣainca-
8. kāuṣainca-
*nc → ñc
Palatalization of *n before c
Rnc›ñc → *kāuṣaiñca-
9. kāuṣaiñca-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *kāuṣēñca-
10. kāuṣēñca-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → *kauṣēñca-
11. kauṣēñca-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. kauṣeñca-
TochB. kauṣalle-
(ger.) ‘kill, strike down, destroy’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kauṣalle)
1. PIE *kēɑhusi̯olnoi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhusi̯olnoi-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusi̯olnoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhusi̯olnoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhusi̯olnoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kāhusi̯alnai-
4. kāhusi̯alnai-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāusi̯alnai-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāusi̯alnai-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
Rsi̯›ṣ → *kāuṣalnai-
6. kāuṣalnai-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *kāuṣallai-
7. kāuṣallai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *kāuṣallē-
8. kāuṣallē-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → *kauṣallē-
9. kauṣallē-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → TochB. kauṣalle-
TochA. koṣänt-
(sb.m.) ‘carnifex : hangman, executer’
(Poucha 85 & 88)
(TochA. koṣänt)
1. PIE *kēɑhusi̯ont-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhusi̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusi̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhusi̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhusi̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kāhusi̯ant-
4. kāhusi̯ant-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāusi̯ant-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāusi̯ant-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
Rsi̯›ṣ → *kāuṣant-
6. kāuṣant-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
RāuC›auC → *kauṣant-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
7. kauṣant-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kōṣant-
8. kōṣant-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. koṣant-
TochA. koṣlye-
(vb.a.) ‘to be killed’
(Poucha 85)
(TochA. koṣlyes)
1. PIE *kēɑhusili̯oi̯o
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhusili̯oi̯o
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusili̯oi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhusili̯oi̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhusili̯oi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kāhusili̯ai̯a
4. kāhusili̯ai̯a
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāusili̯ai̯a
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāusili̯ai̯a
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
Rsi›ṣ → *kāuṣli̯ai̯a
6. kāuṣli̯ai̯a
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
RāuC›auC → *kauṣli̯ai̯a
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
7. kauṣli̯ai̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *kauṣli̯ai̯
8. kauṣli̯ai̯
*a y → ē
Change of ay into ē in root-final
R=ay›=ē → *kauṣli̯ē
9. kauṣli̯ē
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kōṣli̯ē
10. kōṣli̯ē
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *kōṣli̯e
11. kōṣli̯e
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *koṣli̯e
12. koṣli̯e
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochA. koṣlye
√kɑhusi-
OInd. kṣi-
(√pr.) ‘vernichten’
(GEW 2:1015)
(in OInd. kṣidhi [2sg])
1. PIE *kɑhusi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khusi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khusi-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *khuši-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. khuši-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *khši-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. khši-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *kši-
5. kši-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → OInd. kṣi-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
gAv. xšay-
(√pr.) ‘verderben’
(AIWb. 550)
(gAv. xšayō [inf.] ‘um zu verderben’)
1. PIE *kɑhusei̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khusei̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khusei̯-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiIr → *khušei̯-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. khušei̯-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *khšei̯-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. khšei̯-
*Ths/š → Ts/š
Loss of *h between stop and s/š
RChS›CS → *kšei̯-
5. kšei̯-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *kšai̯-
6. kšai̯-
PIE *kš → xš
Change of *k into x before *š
Rkš›xš → *xšai̯-
7. xšai̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → gAv. xšay-
OInd. kṣāy-
(ao.P.) ‘destroy, etc.’
(MonWil. 328)
(OInd. kṣāy-)
1. PIE *kɑhusōi̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khusōi̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khusōi̯-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *khušōi̯-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. khušōi̯-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *khušāi̯-
4. khušāi̯-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *khšāi̯-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. khšāi̯-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *kšāi̯-
6. kšāi̯-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *kṣāi̯-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
7. kṣāi̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. kṣāy-
OInd. kṣáya-
(pr.) ‘vernichten, vergehen lassen’
(KEWA 1:286)
(OInd. kṣáyati [3sg], MonWil. 328 = RV. 4.6.14.)
1. PIE *kɑhuséi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khuséi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khuséi̯o-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *khušéi̯o-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. khušéi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *khušéi̯a-
4. khušéi̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *khšéi̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. khšéi̯a-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *kšéi̯a-
6. kšéi̯a-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *kšái̯a-
7. kšái̯a-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *kṣái̯a-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
8. kṣái̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. kṣáya-
OInd. kṣayá-
(m.) ‘Verlust, Zerstörung’
(KEWA 1:287)
(OInd. kṣayá-)
1. PIE *kɑhusoi̯ó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khusoi̯ó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khusoi̯ó-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *khušoi̯ó-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. khušoi̯ó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *khušai̯ó-
4. khušai̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *khušai̯á-
5. khušai̯á-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *khšai̯á-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. khšai̯á-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *kšai̯á-
7. kšai̯á-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *kṣai̯á-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
8. kṣai̯á-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. kṣayá-
√kɑhusii-
OInd. kṣayaya-
(cs.) ‘destroy, ruin, make an end, corrupt’
(MonWil. 328)
(OInd. kṣayaya-)
1. PIE *kɑhusoi̯ei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khusoi̯ei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khusoi̯ei̯o-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *khušoi̯ei̯o-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. khušoi̯ei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *khušai̯ei̯a-
4. khušai̯ei̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *khšai̯ei̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. khšai̯ei̯a-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *kšai̯ei̯a-
6. kšai̯ei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *kšai̯ai̯a-
7. kšai̯ai̯a-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *kṣai̯ai̯a-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
8. kṣai̯ai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. kṣayaya-
OInd. cikṣiy-
(pf.) ‘destroy, ruin, make an end, corrupt’
(MonWil. 328)
(OInd. cikṣiyathas)
1. PIE *kɑhu̯ikɑhusii̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khu̯ikhusii̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khu̯ikhusii̯-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *khu̯ikhušii̯-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. khu̯ikhušii̯-
PIE *khu̯ → čhu̯
2nd palatalization of *khu̯
Rkhu̯›čhu̯ → *čhu̯ikhušii̯-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. čhu̯ikhušii̯-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *čhu̯ikhšii̯-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. čhu̯ikhšii̯-
*ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RČU›Č → *čhikhšii̯-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. čhikhšii̯-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *čhikšii̯-
7. čhikšii̯-
*č → c
From 2nd palatalization *č to c
Rč›c → *chikšii̯-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
8. chikšii̯-
*ch → c
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *ch
Rch›c → *cikšii̯-
9. cikšii̯-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *cikṣii̯-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
10. cikṣii̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. cikṣiy-
RV. kṣī́ya-
(pr.) ‘hinschwinden, abnehmen, sich vermindern’
(WbRV. 367)
(RV. kṣī́yante [3pl])
1. PIE *kɑhusiíi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khusiíi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khusiíi̯o-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *khušiíi̯o-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. khušiíi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *khušiíi̯a-
4. khušiíi̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *khšiíi̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. khšiíi̯a-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *kšiíi̯a-
6. kšiíi̯a-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *kšī́i̯a-
7. kšī́i̯a-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *kṣī́i̯a-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
8. kṣī́i̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. kṣī́ya-
RV. á·kṣīya·māna-
(pr.pt.M.a.) ‘unversiegbar, unvergänglich’
(WbRV. 7)
(RV. ákṣīyamāna-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusiii̯o·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·khusiii̯o·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·khusiii̯o·Σ-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *Π·khušiii̯o·Σ-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. Π·khušiii̯o·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·khušiii̯a·Σ-
4. Π·khušiii̯a·Σ-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *Π·khšiii̯a·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. Π·khšiii̯a·Σ-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *Π·kšiii̯a·Σ-
6. Π·kšiii̯a·Σ-
*ii → ī
Contraction of i and i
Rii›ī → *Π·kšīi̯a·Σ-
7. Π·kšīi̯a·Σ-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *Π·kṣīi̯a·Σ-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
8. Π·kṣīi̯a·Σ-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·kṣīya·Σ-
√kɑhusin-
(Pyysalo)
RV. kṣiṇ-
(pr.) ‘vernichten’
(WbRV. 367)
(RV. kṣiṇánti [3pl])
1. PIE *kɑhusin-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khusin-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khusin-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *khušin-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. khušin-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *khšin-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. khšin-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *kšin-
5. kšin-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *kṣin-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
6. kṣin-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. kṣiṇ-
Gr. ψίνο-
(vb.) ‘Blüten/Früchte abfallen lassen, verlieren’
(GEW 2:1138)
(Gr. ψίνεσθαι [inf.], GrGr. I:326)
1. PIE *kɑhusíno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khusíno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khusíno-
*khu/u̯ → ph
Bilabialization of labiovelar *khu/u̯
RkhU›ph → *phsíno-
3. phsíno-
*phs → ps
Loss of *h between *p and *s
Rphs›ps → *psíno-
4. psíno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ψίνο-
RV. kṣiṇā-
(pr.) ‘vernichten’
(WbRV. 367)
(RV. kṣiṇāti [3sg])
1. PIE *kɑhusinēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kɑhusināɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kɑhusināɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khusināh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. khusināh-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *khušināh-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. khušināh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *khušinā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. khušinā-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *khšinā-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. khšinā-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *kšinā-
7. kšinā-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *kṣinā-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
8. kṣinā-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. kṣiṇā-
RV. prá (...) kṣiṇā-
(pr.) ‘vernichten’
(WbRV. 367)
(RV. prá (...) kṣiṇām [1sg])
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusinēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·kɑhusināɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·kɑhusināɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·khusināh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·khusināh-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *Π·khušināh-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. Π·khušināh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·khušinā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·khušinā-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *Π·khšinā-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. Π·khšinā-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *Π·kšinā-
7. Π·kšinā-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *Π·kṣinā-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
8. Π·kṣinā-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. Π·kṣiṇā-
Gr. ψινάζο-
(pr.A.) ‘Blüten/Früchte abfallen lassen, verlieren’
(GEW 2:1138)
(Gr. ψινάζειν [inf.])
1. PIE *kɑhusinéɑɦdi̯o-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *éɑ
Réɑ›áɑ → *kɑhusináɑɦdi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kɑhusináɑɦdi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khusináɦdi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. khusináɦdi̯o-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *khusinádi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. khusinádi̯o-
*khu/u̯ → ph
Bilabialization of labiovelar *khu/u̯
RkhU›ph → *phsinádi̯o-
5. phsinádi̯o-
PIE *di̯ → j
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
Rdi̯›j → *phsinájo-
6. phsinájo-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *phsinázo-
7. phsinázo-
*phs → ps
Loss of *h between *p and *s
Rphs›ps → *psinázo-
8. psinázo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ψινάζο-
OInd. kṣiṇu-
(pr.5.) ‘vernichten, vergehen lassen’
(GEW 2:1015)
(OInd. kṣinumas [1pl])
1. PIE *kɑhusinu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khusinu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khusinu-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *khušinu-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. khušinu-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *khšinu-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. khšinu-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *kšinu-
5. kšinu-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *kṣinu-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
6. kṣinu-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → OInd. kṣiṇu-
OInd. kṣiṇo-
(pr.5.) ‘vernichten, vergehen lassen’
(KEWA 1:289)
(VS. kṣinómi [3sg])
1. PIE *kɑhusineu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khusineu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khusineu-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *khušineu-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. khušineu-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *khšineu-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. khšineu-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *kšineu-
5. kšineu-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *kšinau-
6. kšinau-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kšinō-
7. kšinō-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *kṣinō-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
8. kṣinō-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → *kṣiṇō-
9. kṣiṇō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → OInd. kṣiṇo-
√kɑhusibɑɦ-
LinB. qσιπεσ-
(n.obl.) ‘Schlachtschwert’
(GEW 2:336)
(LinB. qi-si-pe-e [du])
1. PIE *kɑhusibɑɦes-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khusibɦes-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khusibɦes-
*khu/u̯ → qh
Emergence of labiovelar *qh
RkhU›qh → *qhsibɦes-
3. qhsibɦes-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›ph → *qhsiphes-
4. qhsiphes-
*qh → q
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *qh
Rqh›q → *qsiphes-
5. qsiphes-
*ph → p
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *ph
Rph›p → *qsipes-
6. qsipes-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. qσιπεσ-
√kɑhusis-
OInd. kṣéṣ-
(ao.) ‘vernichten, usw.’
(GEW 2:1015)
(OInd. kṣeṣṭa, kṣeṣṭhās)
1. PIE *kɑhuseís-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khuseís-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khuseís-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *khušeís-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. khušeís-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *khušeíš-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. khušeíš-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *khšeíš-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. khšeíš-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *kšeíš-
6. kšeíš-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *kšaíš-
7. kšaíš-
aí → ḗ
Monophthongization of *aí
Raí›ḗ → *kšḗš-
8. kšḗš-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *kṣḗṣ-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
9. kṣḗṣ-
ḗ → é
Change of ḗ into é
Rḗ›é → OInd. kṣéṣ-
√kɑhusit-
(IEW. 487)
TochA. koṣt-
(pr.A.) ‘affligere, cadere : schlagen’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. koṣtam, koṣt)
1. PIE *kēɑhusit-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhusit-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusit-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhusit-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhusit-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāusit-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kāusit-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
Rsi›ṣ → *kāuṣt-
5. kāuṣt-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
RāuC›auC → *kauṣt-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
6. kauṣt-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kōṣt-
7. kōṣt-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. koṣt-
TochA. koṣt-
(pret.A.) ‘affligere, cadere : schlagen’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. koṣt, koṣtar)
1. PIE *kēɑhusit-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhusit-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusit-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhusit-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhusit-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāusit-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kāusit-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
Rsi›ṣ → *kāuṣt-
5. kāuṣt-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
RāuC›auC → *kauṣt-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
6. kauṣt-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kōṣt-
7. kōṣt-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. koṣt-
TochA. koṣt-
(sb.) ‘acies : Schneide’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. koṣt [sgN])
1. PIE *kēɑhusit-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhusit-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusit-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhusit-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhusit-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāusit-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kāusit-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
Rsi›ṣ → *kāuṣt-
5. kāuṣt-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
RāuC›auC → *kauṣt-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
6. kauṣt-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kōṣt-
7. kōṣt-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. koṣt-
TochA. koṣtl-
(vb.a.) ‘affligere, cadere : schlagen’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. koṣtlaṃ [sgL])
1. PIE *kēɑhusitlo
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhusitlo
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusitlo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhusitlo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhusitlo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kāhusitla
4. kāhusitla
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāusitla
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāusitla
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
Rsi›ṣ → *kāuṣtla
6. kāuṣtla
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
RāuC›auC → *kauṣtla
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
7. kauṣtla
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *kauṣtl
8. kauṣtl
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kōṣtl
9. kōṣtl
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. koṣtl
TochA. koṣtlune-
(vb.a.) ‘affligere, cadere : schlagen’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. koṣtluneyo)
1. PIE *kēɑhusitlunoio
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhusitlunoio
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusitlunoio
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhusitlunoio
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhusitlunoio
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kāhusitlunaia
4. kāhusitlunaia
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāusitlunaia
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāusitlunaia
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
Rsi›ṣ → *kāuṣtlunaia
6. kāuṣtlunaia
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
RāuC›auC → *kauṣtlunaia
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
7. kauṣtlunaia
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *kauṣtlunai
8. kauṣtlunai
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *kauṣtlunē
9. kauṣtlunē
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kōṣtlunē
10. kōṣtlunē
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *kōṣtlune
11. kōṣtlune
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. koṣtlune
TochA. koṣtluneṣi-
(vb.a.poss.) ‘affligere, cadere : schlagen’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. koṣtluneṣi-)
1. PIE *kēɑhusitlunoisí-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhusitlunoisí-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusitlunoisí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhusitlunoisí-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhusitlunoisí-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kāhusitlunaisí-
4. kāhusitlunaisí-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kāusitlunaisí-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kāusitlunaisí-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
Rsi›ṣ → *kāuṣtlunaisí-
6. kāuṣtlunaisí-
*sí → ṣí
Palatalization of *sí
Rsí›ṣ → *kāuṣtlunaiṣí-
7. kāuṣtlunaiṣí-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
RāuC›auC → *kauṣtlunaiṣí-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
8. kauṣtlunaiṣí-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *kauṣtlunēṣí-
9. kauṣtlunēṣí-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kōṣtlunēṣí-
10. kōṣtlunēṣí-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *kōṣtluneṣí-
11. kōṣtluneṣí-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *koṣtluneṣí-
12. koṣtluneṣí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → TochA. koṣtluneṣi-
TochA. kākoṣtu-
(pret.pt.) ‘affligere, cadere : schlagen’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. kākoṣtu)
1. PIE *kēɑhkēɑhusitu-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *kāɑhkāɑhusitu-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kāɑhkāɑhusitu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kāhkāhusitu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kāhkāhusitu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kākāusitu-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kākāusitu-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
Rsi›ṣ → *kākāuṣtu-
5. kākāuṣtu-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
RāuC›auC → *kākauṣtu-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
6. kākauṣtu-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kākōṣtu-
7. kākōṣtu-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. kākoṣtu-
√kɑhusito-
OInd. kṣitá-
(pt.) ‘vergehend, abnehmend, sich erschöpfend’
(WbRV. 367)
(KEWA 1:289)
1. PIE *kɑhusitó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khusitó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khusitó-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *khušitó-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. khušitó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *khušitá-
4. khušitá-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *khšitá-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. khšitá-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *kšitá-
6. kšitá-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → OInd. kṣitá-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
RV. á·kṣita-
(pt.) ‘unvergänglich’
(WbRV. 6)
(OInd. śrávaḥ áksitam ‘unerwüstlicher Ruhm’)
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusito-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·khusito-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·khusito-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *Π·khušito-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. Π·khušito-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·khušita-
4. Π·khušita-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *Π·khšita-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. Π·khšita-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *Π·kšita-
6. Π·kšita-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. Π·kṣita-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
RV. án·upa·kṣita-
(pt.) ‘unerschöpflich’
(WbRV. 60)
(RV. ánupakṣita-)
1. PIE *Π·Π·kɑhusito-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·Π·khusito-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·Π·khusito-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *Π·Π·khušito-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. Π·Π·khušito-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·Π·khušita-
4. Π·Π·khušita-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *Π·Π·khšita-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. Π·Π·khšita-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *Π·Π·kšita-
6. Π·Π·kšita-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. Π·Π·kṣita-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
RV. á·vi·kṣita-
(pt.) ‘unvermindert’
(WbRV. 130)
(RV. ávikṣita-)
1. PIE *Π·Π·kɑhusito-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·Π·khusito-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·Π·khusito-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *Π·Π·khušito-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. Π·Π·khušito-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·Π·khušita-
4. Π·Π·khušita-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *Π·Π·khšita-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. Π·Π·khšita-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *Π·Π·kšita-
6. Π·Π·kšita-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. Π·Π·kṣita-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
RV. á·pra·kṣita-
(pt.) ‘unvergänglich, unerschöpflich’
(WbRV. 78)
(RV. áprakṣita-)
1. PIE *Π·Π·kɑhusito-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·Π·khusito-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·Π·khusito-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *Π·Π·khušito-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. Π·Π·khušito-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·Π·khušita-
4. Π·Π·khušita-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *Π·Π·khšita-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. Π·Π·khšita-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *Π·Π·kšita-
6. Π·Π·kšita-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. Π·Π·kṣita-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
√kɑhusitɑh-
RV. á·kṣitā·vasu-
(a.) ‘unvergängliches Gut besitzend’
(WbRV. 7)
(RV. ákṣitāvasu-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusitēɑh·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·kɑhusitāɑh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·kɑhusitāɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·khusitāh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·khusitāh·Σ-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *Π·khušitāh·Σ-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. Π·khušitāh·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·khušitā·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·khušitā·Σ-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *Π·khšitā·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. Π·khšitā·Σ-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *Π·kšitā·Σ-
7. Π·kšitā·Σ-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. Π·kṣitā·Σ-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
RV. kṣitā́·yus-
(a.) ‘dessen Leben dahinschwindet’
(WbRV. 367)
(RV. kṣitā́yus-)
1. PIE *kɑhusitḗɑh·Σ-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *kɑhusitā́ɑh·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kɑhusitā́ɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khusitā́h·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. khusitā́h·Σ-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *khušitā́h·Σ-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. khušitā́h·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *khušitā́·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. khušitā́·Σ-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *khšitā́·Σ-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. khšitā́·Σ-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *kšitā́·Σ-
7. kšitā́·Σ-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. kṣitā́·Σ-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
√kɑhusiti-
Gr. ψίσι-
(f.) ‘ἀπώλεια’
(GEW 2:1138)
(Hes. ψίσι-, GrGr. I:326)
1. PIE *kɑhusítsi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khusítsi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khusítsi-
*khu/u̯ → ph
Bilabialization of labiovelar *khu/u̯
RkhU›ph → *phsítsi-
3. phsítsi-
*phs → ps
Loss of *h between *p and *s
Rphs›ps → *psítsi-
4. psítsi-
*ts → s
Loss of dental in *ts
Rts›s → *psísi-
5. psísi-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ψίσι-
AV. kṣití-
(f.) ‘Untergang, das Dahinschwinden, Vergehen’
(WbRV. 368)
(AV. kṣití-, KEWA 1:289)
1. PIE *kɑhusití-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khusití-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khusití-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *khušití-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. khušití-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *khšití-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. khšití-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *kšití-
5. kšití-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → AV. kṣití-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
RV. á·kṣiti-
(a.) ‘unvergänglich’
(WbRV. 7)
(RV. ákṣiti-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusiti-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·khusiti-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·khusiti-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *Π·khušiti-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. Π·khušiti-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *Π·khšiti-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. Π·khšiti-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *Π·kšiti-
5. Π·kšiti-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. Π·kṣiti-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
√kɑhusen-
AV. kṣaṇiṣ-
(ao.) ‘verletzen’
(WbRV. 362)
(AV. kṣaṇiṣṭhās)
1. PIE *kɑhusenis-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khusenis-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khusenis-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *khušenis-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. khušenis-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *khušeniš-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
4. khušeniš-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *khšeniš-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. khšeniš-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *kšeniš-
6. kšeniš-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *kšaniš-
7. kšaniš-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *kṣaniṣ-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
8. kṣaniṣ-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → AV. kṣaṇiṣ-
OInd. kṣaṇó-
(pr.) ‘verletzen, verwunden : hurt, injure, wound’
(KEWA 1:284)
(OInd. kṣanómi)
1. PIE *kɑhuseneú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khuseneú-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khuseneú-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *khušeneú-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. khušeneú-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *khšeneú-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. khšeneú-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *kšeneú-
5. kšeneú-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *kšanaú-
6. kšanaú-
aú → ṓ
Monophthongization of *aú
Raú›ṓ → *kšanṓ-
7. kšanṓ-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *kṣanṓ-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
8. kṣanṓ-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → *kṣaṇṓ-
9. kṣaṇṓ-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → OInd. kṣaṇó-
√kɑhusop-
OInd. kṣapaya-
(cs.A.) ‘zerstören, vernichten’
(KEWA 1:286)
(OInd. kṣapaya-)
1. PIE *kɑhusopei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khusopei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khusopei̯o-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *khušopei̯o-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. khušopei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *khušapei̯a-
4. khušapei̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *khšapei̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. khšapei̯a-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *kšapei̯a-
6. kšapei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *kšapai̯a-
7. kšapai̯a-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *kṣapai̯a-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
8. kṣapai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. kṣapaya-
√kɑhuser-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. kṣára-
(pr.A.) ‘verschwinden’
(KEWA 1:287)
(OInd. kṣára-)
1. PIE *kɑhuséro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khuséro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khuséro-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *khušéro-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. khušéro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *khušéra-
4. khušéra-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *khšéra-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. khšéra-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *kšéra-
6. kšéra-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *kšára-
7. kšára-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → OInd. kṣára-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
Gr. ψείρο-
(pr.) ‘vernichten, usw.’
(LSJ. 2019)
(Hes. ψείρει · φθείρει, GEW –)
1. PIE *kɑhuséri̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khuséri̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khuséri̯o-
*khu/u̯ → ph
Bilabialization of labiovelar *khu/u̯
RkhU›ph → *phséri̯o-
3. phséri̯o-
*phs → ps
Loss of *h between *p and *s
Rphs›ps → *pséri̯o-
4. pséri̯o-
*éri̯ → eír
Epenthesis of *i
Réri̯›eír → *pseíro-
5. pseíro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ψείρο-
√kɑhusot-
OInd. kṣata-
(pf.pt.) ‘verletzt’
(KEWA 1:284)
(OInd. kṣata-, *o-grade for noun ?)
1. PIE *kɑhusoto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khusoto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khusoto-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *khušoto-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. khušoto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *khušata-
4. khušata-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *khšata-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. khšata-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *kšata-
6. kšata-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → OInd. kṣata-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
RV. á·kṣata-
(pt.) ‘unverletzt’
(WbRV. 6)
(RV. ákṣata-, KEWA 1:284)
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusoto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·khusoto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·khusoto-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *Π·khušoto-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. Π·khušoto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·khušata-
4. Π·khušata-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *Π·khšata-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. Π·khšata-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *Π·kšata-
6. Π·kšata-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. Π·kṣata-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
OPers. a·xšata-
(pret.pt.) ‘unverletzt, unverstört’
(AIWb. 51)
(OPers. axšata-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusoto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·khusoto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·khusoto-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiIr → *Π·khušoto-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. Π·khušoto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·khušata-
4. Π·khušata-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *Π·khšata-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. Π·khšata-
*Ths/š → Ts/š
Loss of *h between stop and s/š
RChS›CS → *Π·kšata-
6. Π·kšata-
PIE *kš → xš
Change of *k into x before *š
Rkš›xš → OPers. Π·xšata-
OInd. kṣati-
(f.) ‘Vernichtung, Beschädigung’
(KEWA 1:284)
(OInd. kṣati-)
1. PIE *kɑhusoti-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khusoti-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khusoti-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *khušoti-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
3. khušoti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *khušati-
4. khušati-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *khšati-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. khšati-
PIE *khṣ → kṣ
Loss of *h between k and ṣ
Rkhš›kš → *kšati-
6. kšati-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → OInd. kṣati-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
√kɑhustɑhi-
Lith. káusty-
(vb.) ‘beschlagen, mit Eisen beschlagen’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. káustyti [inf.])
1. PIE *kḗɑhustɑ́hi-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *kā́ɑhustɑ́hi-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhustɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *kā́ɑhustíhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
3. kā́ɑhustíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kā́hustíhi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. kā́hustíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kā́ustíi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kā́ustíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *kā́ustī́-
6. kā́ustī́-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
Rā́RC›áRC → *káustī́-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
7. káustī́-
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
Rī́›ý → Lith. káustý-
√kɑhuu-
TochB. kakawu-
(pt.) ‘having killed’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kakawu)
1. PIE *keɑhkoɑhu̯u-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑhkoɑhu̯u-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑhkoɑhu̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kahkohu̯u-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kahkohu̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kahkahu̯u-
4. kahkahu̯u-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kakau̯u-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kakau̯u-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. kakawu-
OLatv. er·kavu-
(pt.) ‘erschlagen habend’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(in OLatv. erkawusz [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·koɑhu̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·kohu̯u-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·kohu̯u-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·kou̯u-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·kou̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·kau̯u-
4. Π·kau̯u-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OLatv. Π·kavu-
√kɑhuuo-
OEng. ge·heāw-
(n.) ‘striking together, gnashing, grinding’
(ASaxD. 524)
(OEng. geheāw, *o-grade for noun)
1. PIE *Π·koɑhuu̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·kohuu̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·kohuu̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·kouu̯o
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·kouu̯o
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *Π·xouu̯o
4. Π·xouu̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·xauu̯a
5. Π·xauu̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *Π·xauu̯
6. Π·xauu̯
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *Π·hauu̯
7. Π·hauu̯
*au → eā
Change of *au into eā
Rau›eā → *Π·heāu̯
8. Π·heāu̯
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OEng. Π·heāw
√kɑhuuɑh-
OGaul. cōu-
(sb.) ‘Silbermünze usw.’
(ACSS 1:1114)
(OGaul. coov, wenn ‘gestampft’ ?)
1. PIE *koɑhuu̯ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohuu̯h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohuu̯h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kouu̯-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. kouu̯-
*ou → ō
Monophthongization of *ou into ō
Rou›ō → *kōu̯-
4. kōu̯-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → *kōu-
5. kōu-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OGaul. cōu-
TochB. a·kauwsa-
(a.) ‘uncut (?)’
(DTochB. 3)
(TochB. ekṣinekaṃñana misa akauwse ///)
1. PIE *Π·kēɑhuu̯ɑhso
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·kāɑhuu̯ɑhso
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·kāɑhuu̯ɑhso
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·kāhuu̯hso
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·kāhuu̯hso
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·kāhuu̯hsa
4. Π·kāhuu̯hsa
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·kāuu̯sa
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·kāuu̯sa
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → *Π·kauu̯sa
6. Π·kauu̯sa
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. Π·kauwsa
TochB. kowä-
(pr.) ‘kill’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kowän [3sg+encl.])
1. PIE *keɑhuu̯eɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑhuu̯aɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑhuu̯aɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kahuu̯ah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kahuu̯ah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kauu̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kauu̯a-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kōu̯a-
5. kōu̯a-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *kou̯a-
6. kou̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. kowa-
OSax. hauwa-
(vb.) ‘hew, cut, strike, smite’
(ASaxD. 534)
(OSax. hauwan [inf.])
1. PIE *keɑhuu̯eɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑhuu̯aɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑhuu̯aɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kahuu̯ah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kahuu̯ah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kauu̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kauu̯a-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xauu̯a-
5. xauu̯a-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *hauu̯a-
6. hauu̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OSax. hauwa-
OEng. heāwa-
(pr.) ‘hew, cut, strike, smite with a sharp weapon’
(ASaxD. 524)
OEng. heāwan [inf.])
1. PIE *keɑhuu̯eɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑhuu̯aɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑhuu̯aɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kahuu̯ah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kahuu̯ah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kauu̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kauu̯a-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xauu̯a-
5. xauu̯a-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *hauu̯a-
6. hauu̯a-
*au → eā
Change of *au into eā
Rau›eā → *heāu̯a-
7. heāu̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OEng. heāwa-
√kɑhuui-
OHG. houwi-
(n.) ‘grass’
(GoEtD. 181)
(OHG. houwi)
1. PIE *koɑhuu̯i
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohuu̯i
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohuu̯i
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kouu̯i
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. kouu̯i
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xouu̯i
4. xouu̯i
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *xauu̯i
5. xauu̯i
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *hauu̯i
6. hauu̯i
*au → ou
Change of au into ou
Rau›ou → *houu̯i
7. houu̯i
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. houwi
OEng. hīewe·stán-
(m.) ‘hewn stone’
(ASaxD. 534)
(OEng. hiéwestán)
1. PIE *koɑhuu̯i·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohuu̯i·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohuu̯i·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kouu̯i·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. kouu̯i·Σ-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xouu̯i·Σ-
4. xouu̯i·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *xauu̯i·Σ-
5. xauu̯i·Σ-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *hauu̯i·Σ-
6. hauu̯i·Σ-
*au → eā
Change of *au into eā
Rau›eā → *heāu̯i·Σ-
7. heāu̯i·Σ-
*eā—e → īe–e
Umlaut for eā—e
Reāu̯i›īeu̯e → *hīeu̯e·Σ-
8. hīeu̯e·Σ-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OEng. hīewe·Σ-
√kɑhuuu-
OSax. hauwo-
(vb.) ‘hauen : to hew, beat’
(ASächsWb. 31)
(OSax. hauwon [inf.])
1. PIE *keɑhuu̯u
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑhuu̯u
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑhuu̯u
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kahuu̯u
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kahuu̯u
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kauu̯u
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kauu̯u
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xauu̯u
5. xauu̯u
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *hauu̯u
6. hauu̯u
*-u → -o
Change of root-final -u into -o
R=u›=o → *hauu̯o
7. hauu̯o
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OSax. hauwo
OHG. houwo-
(vb.) ‘hauen : to hew, beat’
(GoEtD. 181)
(OHG. houwon [inf.])
1. PIE *keɑhuu̯u
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑhuu̯u
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑhuu̯u
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kahuu̯u
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kahuu̯u
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kauu̯u
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kauu̯u
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xauu̯u
5. xauu̯u
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *hauu̯u
6. hauu̯u
*-u → -o
Change of root-final -u into -o
R=u›=o → *hauu̯o
7. hauu̯o
*au → ou
Change of au into ou
Rau›ou → *houu̯o
8. houu̯o
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. houwo
TochB. kakawor-
(sb.) ‘= -hatvā’
(DTochB. 209)
(TochB. kakawormeṃ)
1. PIE *keɑhkeɑhu̯our-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑhkaɑhu̯our-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑhkaɑhu̯our-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kahkahu̯our-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kahkahu̯our-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kahkahu̯aur-
4. kahkahu̯aur-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kakau̯aur-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. kakau̯aur-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *kakau̯ōr-
6. kakau̯ōr-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *kakau̯or-
7. kakau̯or-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. kakawor-
√kɑhuɦɑd-
RV. khudá-
(vb.) ‘hineinstossen : thrust into’
(WbRV. 374)
(RV. khudáta kapr̥thám [sgA], KEWA 1:310)
1. PIE *kɑhúɦɑdó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khúɦdó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khúɦdó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *khúɦdá-
3. khúɦdá-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → RV. khúdá-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√kɑɦeuɦɑd-
(IEW. 955)
(unfinished)
RV. coda-
(pr.) ‘in Bewegung setzen, antreiben, fördern’
(WbRV. 456)
(RV. codata [2pl])
1. PIE *kɑheuɦɑdo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kheuɦdo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kheuɦdo-
PIE *kh → čh
2nd palatalization of *kh
Rkh›čh → *čheuɦdo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. čheuɦdo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *čheuɦda-
4. čheuɦda-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *čheuda-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. čheuda-
*č → c
From 2nd palatalization *č to c
Rč›c → *cheuda-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. cheuda-
*ch → c
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *ch
Rch›c → *ceuda-
7. ceuda-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *cauda-
8. cauda-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *cōda-
9. cōda-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → RV. coda-
RV. códa-
(m.) ‘Werkzeug zum Antreiben, Stachel, Peitsche’
(WbRV. 458)
(RV. códa-)
1. PIE *kɑheúɦɑdo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kheúɦdo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kheúɦdo-
PIE *kh → čh
2nd palatalization of *kh
Rkh›čh → *čheúɦdo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. čheúɦdo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *čheúɦda-
4. čheúɦda-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *čheúda-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. čheúda-
*č → c
From 2nd palatalization *č to c
Rč›c → *cheúda-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. cheúda-
*ch → c
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *ch
Rch›c → *ceúda-
7. ceúda-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *caúda-
8. caúda-
aú → ṓ
Monophthongization of *aú
Raú›ṓ → *cṓda-
9. cṓda-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → RV. códa-
RV. codáya-
(cs.) ‘schärfen, wetzen’
(WbRV. 457)
(RV. codáyāmi [1sg])
1. PIE *kɑheuɦɑdéi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kheuɦdéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kheuɦdéi̯o-
PIE *kh → čh
2nd palatalization of *kh
Rkh›čh → *čheuɦdéi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. čheuɦdéi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *čheuɦdéi̯a-
4. čheuɦdéi̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *čheudéi̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. čheudéi̯a-
*č → c
From 2nd palatalization *č to c
Rč›c → *cheudéi̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. cheudéi̯a-
*ch → c
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *ch
Rch›c → *ceudéi̯a-
7. ceudéi̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *caudéi̯a-
8. caudéi̯a-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *caudái̯a-
9. caudái̯a-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *cōdái̯a-
10. cōdái̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *cōdáya-
11. cōdáya-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → RV. codáya-
√kɑhul-
Lat. per·cul-
(pf.) ‘zu Boden schlagen, zerzschmettern’
(Lat. perculī [1sg])
1. PIE *Π·kɑhúl-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·khúl-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·khúl-
*kh → k
Loss of *h in tenues aspirata *kh
Rkh›k → *Π·kúl-
3. Π·kúl-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *Π·cúl-
4. Π·cúl-
*ú → u
Orthographic change of *ú into u
Rú›u → Lat. Π·cul-
Latv. kulinâ-
(vb.) ‘wiederholt schlagen, schütteln, rüttern’
(LiEtWb. 211-2)
(Latv. kulinâ-)
1. PIE *kɑhúlinḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *kɑhúlinā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. kɑhúlinā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khúlinā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. khúlinā́h-
*ā́H → âH
Latvian tone rule for *ā́h
RAccLatv3 → *khúlinâh-
4. khúlinâh-
ú -› ù
Latvian tone rule ú -› ù
RAccLatv11 → *khùlinâh-
5. khùlinâh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *khùlinâ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. khùlinâ-
*kh → k
Loss of *h in tenues aspirata *kh
Rkh›k → Latv. kùlinâ-
Lat. per·culso-
(pf.) ‘zu Boden schlagen, zerschmettern’
(WH. 1:225)
(Lat. culsus [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·kɑhúltso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·khúltso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·khúltso-
*kh → k
Loss of *h in tenues aspirata *kh
Rkh›k → *Π·kúltso-
3. Π·kúltso-
*ts → s
Loss of dental in *ts
Rts›s → *Π·kúlso-
4. Π·kúlso-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *Π·cúlso-
5. Π·cúlso-
*ú → u
Orthographic change of *ú into u
Rú›u → Lat. Π·culso-
√kɑheuuɑh-
(Pyysalo)
TochB. śauw-
(cs.pret.) ‘let be killed’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. sauwwa [1sg])
1. PIE *kɑhēuu̯ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khēuu̯h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khēuu̯h-
PIE *ē → i̯ ā
Change of *ē into i̯ā
Rē›i̯ā → *khi̯āuu̯h-
3. khi̯āuu̯h-
*khi̯ → śh
2nd palatalization for velar kh
Rkhi̯›śh → *śhāuu̯h-
4. śhāuu̯h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *śāuu̯-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. śāuu̯-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → *śauu̯-
6. śauu̯-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. śauw-
OEng. heōw-
(pret.) ‘hew, cut, strike, smite with a sharp weapon’
(ASaxD. 524)
(OEng. heōw)
1. PIE *kɑhēuu̯ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khēuu̯h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khēuu̯h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *khēuu̯-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. khēuu̯-
*ēRC → eRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ēRC
RēRC›eRC → *kheuu̯-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
4. kheuu̯-
*kh → x
Affricativization of *kh
Rkh›x → *xeuu̯-
5. xeuu̯-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *xiuu̯-
6. xiuu̯-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *hiuu̯-
7. hiuu̯-
*iu → eō
Change of *iu into eō
Riu›eō → *heōu̯-
8. heōu̯-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OEng. heōw-
OIcl. hiō-
(pret.) ‘hauen’
(GoEtD. 181)
(OIcl. hiō)
1. PIE *kɑhēuu̯ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *khēuu̯h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. khēuu̯h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *khēuu̯
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. khēuu̯
*ēRC → eRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ēRC
RēRC›eRC → *kheuu̯
(SPIE §2.5.8)
4. kheuu̯
*kh → x
Affricativization of *kh
Rkh›x → *xeuu̯
5. xeuu̯
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *xiuu̯
6. xiuu̯
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *hiuu̯
7. hiuu̯
*eu → iō
Change of *iu into iō
Riu›iō → *hiōu̯
8. hiōu̯
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *hiōv
9. hiōv
-v → Ø
Loss of -v in root-final position
R=v›=0 → OIcl. hiō
TochB. śowsa-
(cs.pret.) ‘let be killed’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. śowsa-)
1. PIE *kɑheuu̯ɑhso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kheuu̯hso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kheuu̯hso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kheuu̯hsa-
3. kheuu̯hsa-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *khi̯auu̯hsa-
4. khi̯auu̯hsa-
*khi̯ → śh
2nd palatalization for velar kh
Rkhi̯›śh → *śhauu̯hsa-
5. śhauu̯hsa-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *śauu̯sa-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. śauu̯sa-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *śōu̯sa-
7. śōu̯sa-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *śou̯sa-
8. śou̯sa-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. śowsa-
√gɑɦub-
(Pyysalo)
(or √gaɦuɦab- ?)
OCS. pa·guba-
(f.) ‘Verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. paguba, *o-grade for noun)
1. PIE *Π·goɑɦubēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·goɑɦubāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·goɑɦubāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·goɦubāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·goɦubāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·gaɦubāh-
4. Π·gaɦubāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·gaubāh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·gaubāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·gaubā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. Π·gaubā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *Π·goubā-
7. Π·goubā-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *Π·gūbā-
8. Π·gūbā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *Π·gūba-
9. Π·gūba-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → OCS. Π·guba-
OCS. gyba-
(vb.) ‘zugrunde gehen, verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gyba-)
1. PIE *gɑ́ɦubēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gɑ́ɦubāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gɑ́ɦubāɑh-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *gúɦubāɑh-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
3. gúɦubāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gúɦubāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. gúɦubāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *gúubāh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gúubāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gúubā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. gúubā-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *gū́bā-
7. gū́bā-
*ū́
ū → y
Rū›y → *gybā-
Change of ū́ into y
8. gybā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OCS. gyba-
OCS. po·gyba-
(vb.) ‘zugrunde gehen, verderben, verlieren’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. po·gyba-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑ́ɦubēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·gɑ́ɦubāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑ́ɦubāɑh-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *Π·gúɦubāɑh-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
3. Π·gúɦubāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·gúɦubāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. Π·gúɦubāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·gúubāh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·gúubāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·gúubā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. Π·gúubā-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *Π·gū́bā-
7. Π·gū́bā-
*ū́
ū → y
Rū›y → *Π·gybā-
Change of ū́ into y
8. Π·gybā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OCS. Π·gyba-
Goth. kaupatja-
(vb.) ‘κολαφίζειν : strike, puffet’
(GoEtD. 216)
(Goth. kaupatja-, *ē-grade for verb ?)
1. PIE *gēɑɦubeɑɦdi̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *gēɑɦubaɑɦdi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. gēɑɦubaɑɦdi̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gāɑɦubaɑɦdi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. gāɑɦubaɑɦdi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gāɦubaɦdi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. gāɦubaɦdi̯o-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *gāubadi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gāubadi̯o-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *gaubadi̯o-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
6. gaubadi̯o-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *kaubadi̯o-
7. kaubadi̯o-
*b → p
Loss of voice of media *b
Rb›p → *kaupadi̯o-
8. kaupadi̯o-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *kaupati̯o-
9. kaupati̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kaupati̯a-
10. kaupati̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → Goth. kaupatja-
Goth. kaupatid-
(pt.) ‘κολαφίζειν : strike, puffet’
(GoEtD. 216)
(Goth. kaupatidai [plN])
1. PIE *gēɑɦubeɑɦdidɑɦo
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *gēɑɦubaɑɦdidɑɦo
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. gēɑɦubaɑɦdidɑɦo
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gāɑɦubaɑɦdidɑɦo
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. gāɑɦubaɑɦdidɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gāɦubaɦdidɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. gāɦubaɦdidɦo
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *gāubadidɦo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gāubadidɦo
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *gaubadidɦo
(SPIE §2.5.8)
6. gaubadidɦo
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *kaubadidɦo
7. kaubadidɦo
*b → p
Loss of voice of media *b
Rb›p → *kaupadidɦo
8. kaupadidɦo
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *kaupatidɦo
9. kaupatidɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *kaupatido
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
10. kaupatido
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *kaupatida
11. kaupatida
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → Goth. kaupatid
√gɑɦubɑhi-
SCr. gùbi-
(vb.) ‘verderben’
(REW 1:317)
(SCr. gùbiti [inf.]
1. PIE *gḗɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *gā́ɑɦubɑ́hi-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gā́ɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *gā́ɑɦubíhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
3. gā́ɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gā́ɦubíhi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. gā́ɦubíhi-
ā́hu → āhȕ
Serbo-Croatian double gravis rule
Rā́ɦu›āHȕ → *gāɦȕbíhi-
5. gāɦȕbíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *gāȕbíhi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. gāȕbíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gāȕbíi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
7. gāȕbíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *gāȕbī́-
8. gāȕbī́-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *gaȕbī́-
9. gaȕbī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → SCr. gbí-
Sloven. gubí-
(vb.) ‘verlieren’
(REW 1:317)
(Sloven. gubíti [inf.])
1. PIE *gēɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *gāɑɦubíhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
3. gāɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gāɦubíhi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. gāɦubíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *gāubíhi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gāubíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gāubíi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. gāubíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *gāubī́-
7. gāubī́-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *gaubī́-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
8. gaubī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *goubī́-
9. goubī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *gūbī́-
10. gūbī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *gūbí-
11. gūbí-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → Sloven. gubí-
Russ. gubí-
(vb.) ‘verderben, zu grunde richten’
(REW 1:317)
(Russ. gubít’ [inf.])
1. PIE *gēɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *gāɑɦubíhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
3. gāɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gāɦubíhi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. gāɦubíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *gāubíhi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gāubíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gāubíi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. gāubíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *gāubī́-
7. gāubī́-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *gaubī́-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
8. gaubī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *goubī́-
9. goubī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *gūbī́-
10. gūbī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *gūbí-
11. gūbí-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → Russ. gubí-
OCS. gubi-
(vb.) ‘ὀλεθρεύειν : vernichten, verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gubi-)
1. PIE *gēɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *gāɑɦubíhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
3. gāɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gāɦubíhi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. gāɦubíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *gāubíhi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gāubíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gāubíi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. gāubíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *gāubī́-
7. gāubī́-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *gaubī́-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
8. gaubī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *goubī́-
9. goubī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *gūbī́-
10. gūbī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *gūbí-
11. gūbí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → *gūbi-
12. gūbi-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → OCS. gubi-
OCS. po·gubi-
(vb.) ‘vernichten, verderben, verlieren’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. po·gubi-)
1. PIE *Π·gēɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *Π·gāɑɦubíhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
3. Π·gāɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·gāɦubíhi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. Π·gāɦubíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·gāubíhi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·gāubíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·gāubíi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. Π·gāubíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *Π·gāubī́-
7. Π·gāubī́-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *Π·gaubī́-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
8. Π·gaubī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *Π·goubī́-
9. Π·goubī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *Π·gūbī́-
10. Π·gūbī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *Π·gūbí-
11. Π·gūbí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → *Π·gūbi-
12. Π·gūbi-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → OCS. Π·gubi-
Czech. hubi-
(vb.) ‘verderben, vertilgen’
(REW 1:317)
(Czech. hubiti [inf.])
1. PIE *gēɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *gāɑɦubíhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
3. gāɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gāɦubíhi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. gāɦubíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *gāubíhi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gāubíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gāubíi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. gāubíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *gāubī́-
7. gāubī́-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *gaubī́-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
8. gaubī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *goubī́-
9. goubī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *gūbī́-
10. gūbī́-
*g → ɦ
Change of *g into ɦ
Rg›ɦ → *ɦūbī́-
11. ɦūbī́-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *hūbī́-
12. hūbī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *hūbí-
13. hūbí-
ū -› ou
Change of ū into ou
Rū›ou → Czech. houbí-
Pol. gubi-
(vb.) ‘verderben, verliedern’
(REW 1:317)
(Pol. gubić [inf.])
1. PIE *gēɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *gāɑɦubíhi-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
3. gāɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gāɦubíhi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. gāɦubíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *gāubíhi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gāubíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gāubíi-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. gāubíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *gāubī́-
7. gāubī́-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *gaubī́-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
8. gaubī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *goubī́-
9. goubī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *gūbī́-
10. gūbī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *gūbí-
11. gūbí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → *gūbi-
12. gūbi-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → Pol. gubi-
OCS. gubiteljĭ-
(m.) ‘Vernichter, Verderber’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gubiteljĭ-)
1. PIE *goɑɦubɑ́hiteli̯i-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *goɑɦubíhiteli̯i-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. goɑɦubíhiteli̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *goɦubíhiteli̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. goɦubíhiteli̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gaɦubíhiteli̯i-
4. gaɦubíhiteli̯i-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *gaubíhiteli̯i-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gaubíhiteli̯i-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gaubíiteli̯i-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. gaubíiteli̯i-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *gaubī́teli̯i-
7. gaubī́teli̯i-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *goubī́teli̯i-
8. goubī́teli̯i-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *gūbī́teli̯i-
9. gūbī́teli̯i-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *gūbī́telji-
10. gūbī́telji-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *gūbī́teljĭ-
11. gūbī́teljĭ-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *gūbíteljĭ-
12. gūbíteljĭ-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → *gūbiteljĭ-
13. gūbiteljĭ-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → OCS. gubiteljĭ-
OCS. gubitelĭnŭ-
(a.) ‘verderblich’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gubitelĭnŭ-)
1. PIE *goɑɦubɑ́hitelino
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *goɑɦubíhitelino
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. goɑɦubíhitelino
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *goɦubíhitelino
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. goɦubíhitelino
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gaɦubíhitelina
4. gaɦubíhitelina
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *gaubíhitelina
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gaubíhitelina
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gaubíitelina
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. gaubíitelina
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *gaubī́telina
7. gaubī́telina
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *goubī́telino
8. goubī́telino
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *goubī́telinu
9. goubī́telinu
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *gūbī́telinu
10. gūbī́telinu
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *gūbī́telĭnu
11. gūbī́telĭnu
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *gūbítelĭnu
12. gūbítelĭnu
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → *gūbitelĭnu
13. gūbitelĭnu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → *gūbitelĭnŭ
14. gūbitelĭnŭ
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → OCS. gubitelĭnŭ
OCS. gubitelĭstvo-
(n.) ‘Verderben, Vernichtung’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gubitelĭstvo-)
1. PIE *goɑɦubɑ́hitelistu̯os
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *goɑɦubíhitelistu̯os
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. goɑɦubíhitelistu̯os
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *goɦubíhitelistu̯os
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. goɦubíhitelistu̯os
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gaɦubíhitelistu̯as
4. gaɦubíhitelistu̯as
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *gaubíhitelistu̯as
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gaubíhitelistu̯as
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gaubíitelistu̯as
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. gaubíitelistu̯as
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *gaubī́telistu̯as
7. gaubī́telistu̯as
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *goubī́telistu̯os
8. goubī́telistu̯os
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root-final)
Ros=›o= → *goubī́telistu̯o
9. goubī́telistu̯o
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *gūbī́telistu̯o
10. gūbī́telistu̯o
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *gūbī́telistvo
11. gūbī́telistvo
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *gūbī́telĭstvo
12. gūbī́telĭstvo
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *gūbítelĭstvo
13. gūbítelĭstvo
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → *gūbitelĭstvo
14. gūbitelĭstvo
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → OCS. gubitelĭstvo
√gɑɦubin-
OCS. pa·gubĭnŭ-
(a.) ‘verderblich’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pagubĭnŭ-)
1. PIE *Π·goɑɦubino
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·goɦubino
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·goɦubino
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·gaɦubina
3. Π·gaɦubina
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·gaubina
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·gaubina
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *Π·goubino
5. Π·goubino
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *Π·goubinu
6. Π·goubinu
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *Π·gūbinu
7. Π·gūbinu
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *Π·gūbĭnu
8. Π·gūbĭnu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → *Π·gūbĭnŭ
9. Π·gūbĭnŭ
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → OCS. Π·gubĭnŭ
OCS. pa·gubĭnikŭ-
(m.) ‘Verderber’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pagubĭnikŭ-)
1. PIE *Π·goɑɦubineiku̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·goɦubineiku̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·goɦubineiku̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·gaɦubineiku̯a
3. Π·gaɦubineiku̯a
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·gaubineiku̯a
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·gaubineiku̯a
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *Π·gaubineika
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. Π·gaubineika
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *Π·goubineiko
6. Π·goubineiko
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *Π·goubineiku
7. Π·goubineiku
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *Π·gūbineiku
8. Π·gūbineiku
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *Π·gūbinīku
9. Π·gūbinīku
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *Π·gūbĭnīku
10. Π·gūbĭnīku
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → *Π·gūbĭniku
11. Π·gūbĭniku
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → *Π·gūbĭnikŭ
12. Π·gūbĭnikŭ
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → OCS. Π·gubĭnikŭ
√gɑɦubēli-
OCS. gybĕlĭ-
(f.) ‘Verderben, Vergeudung, Verlust’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gybĕlĭ-)
1. PIE *gɑ́ɦubēli-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *gúɦubēli-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. gúɦubēli-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *gúubēli-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. gúubēli-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *gū́bēli-
4. gū́bēli-
*ū́
ū → y
Rū›y → *gybēli-
Change of ū́ into y
5. gybēli-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *gybēlĭ-
6. gybēlĭ-
*ē → ĕ
Change of *ē into ĕ
Rē›ĕ → OCS. gybĕlĭ-
OCS. po·gybĕlĭ-
(f.) ‘Verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pogybĕlĭ-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑ́ɦubēli-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *Π·gúɦubēli-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. Π·gúɦubēli-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·gúubēli-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·gúubēli-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *Π·gū́bēli-
4. Π·gū́bēli-
*ū́
ū → y
Rū›y → *Π·gybēli-
Change of ū́ into y
5. Π·gybēli-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *Π·gybēlĭ-
6. Π·gybēlĭ-
*ē → ĕ
Change of *ē into ĕ
Rē›ĕ → OCS. Π·gybĕlĭ-
OCS. po·gybĕlĭnŭ-
(a.) ‘verderblich, des Verderbens’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pogybĕlĭnŭ-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑ́ɦubēlino
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *Π·gúɦubēlino
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. Π·gúɦubēlino
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·gúɦubēlina
3. Π·gúɦubēlina
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·gúubēlina
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·gúubēlina
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *Π·gū́bēlina
5. Π·gū́bēlina
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *Π·gū́bēlino
6. Π·gū́bēlino
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *Π·gū́bēlinu
7. Π·gū́bēlinu
*ū́
ū → y
Rū›y → *Π·gybēlinu
Change of ū́ into y
8. Π·gybēlinu
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *Π·gybēlĭnu
9. Π·gybēlĭnu
*ē → ĕ
Change of *ē into ĕ
Rē›ĕ → *Π·gybĕlĭnu
10. Π·gybĕlĭnu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. Π·gybĕlĭnŭ
√gɑɦubli-
OCS. gubljo-
(vb.) ‘vernichten, verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gubljǫ [1sg], *ē-grade for verb ?)
1. PIE *gēɑɦubli̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gāɑɦubli̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gāɑɦubli̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gāɦubli̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gāɦubli̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gāɦubli̯a-
4. gāɦubli̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *gāubli̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gāubli̯a-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *gaubli̯a-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
6. gaubli̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *goubli̯o-
7. goubli̯o-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *gūbli̯o-
8. gūbli̯o-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *gūbljo-
9. gūbljo-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → OCS. gubljo-
Russ. gubljo-
(vb.) ‘verderben, zu grunde richten’
(REW 1:317)
(Russ. gubljú [1sg])
1. PIE *gēɑɦubli̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gāɑɦubli̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gāɑɦubli̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gāɦubli̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gāɦubli̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gāɦubli̯a-
4. gāɦubli̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *gāubli̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gāubli̯a-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *gaubli̯a-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
6. gaubli̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *goubli̯o-
7. goubli̯o-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *gūbli̯o-
8. gūbli̯o-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *gūbljo-
9. gūbljo-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → Russ. gubljo-
OCS. po·gubljo-
(vb.) ‘vernichten, verderben, verlieren’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pogubljǫ [1sg])
1. PIE *Π·gēɑɦubli̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·gāɑɦubli̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·gāɑɦubli̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·gāɦubli̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·gāɦubli̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·gāɦubli̯a-
4. Π·gāɦubli̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·gāubli̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·gāubli̯a-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *Π·gaubli̯a-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
6. Π·gaubli̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *Π·goubli̯o-
7. Π·goubli̯o-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *Π·gūbli̯o-
8. Π·gūbli̯o-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *Π·gūbljo-
9. Π·gūbljo-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → OCS. Π·gubljo-
OCS. po·gublja-
(vb.) ‘vernichten, verderben, verlieren’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pogublja-)
1. PIE *Π·gēɑɦubli̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·gāɑɦubli̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·gāɑɦubli̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·gāɦubli̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·gāɦubli̯āh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·gāubli̯āh-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·gāubli̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·gāubli̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. Π·gāubli̯ā-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *Π·gaubli̯ā-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
6. Π·gaubli̯ā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *Π·goubli̯ā-
7. Π·goubli̯ā-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *Π·gūbli̯ā-
8. Π·gūbli̯ā-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *Π·gūbljā-
9. Π·gūbljā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *Π·gūblja-
10. Π·gūblja-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → OCS. Π·gublja-
OCS. po·gubljeni·je-
(n.) ‘Vernichtung, Verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pogubljenije)
1. PIE *Π·goɑɦub·li̯enei·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·goɦub·li̯enei·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·goɦub·li̯enei·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·gaɦub·li̯enei·Σ-
3. Π·gaɦub·li̯enei·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·gaub·li̯enei·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·gaub·li̯enei·Σ-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *Π·goub·li̯enei·Σ-
5. Π·goub·li̯enei·Σ-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
Rou›ū → *Π·gūb·li̯enei·Σ-
6. Π·gūb·li̯enei·Σ-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *Π·gūb·li̯enī·Σ-
7. Π·gūb·li̯enī·Σ-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *Π·gūb·ljenī·Σ-
8. Π·gūb·ljenī·Σ-
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → *Π·gūb·ljeni·Σ-
9. Π·gūb·ljeni·Σ-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
Rū›u → OCS. Π·gub·ljeni·Σ-
√gɑɦubn-
OCS. po·gybeni·je-
(n.) ‘Verderben, Verderblichkeit’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pogybenije)
1. PIE *Π·gɑ́ɦubenei·Σ-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *Π·gúɦubenei·Σ-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. Π·gúɦubenei·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·gúubenei·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·gúubenei·Σ-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *Π·gū́benei·Σ-
4. Π·gū́benei·Σ-
*ū́
ū → y
Rū›y → *Π·gybenei·Σ-
Change of ū́ into y
5. Π·gybenei·Σ-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *Π·gybenī·Σ-
6. Π·gybenī·Σ-
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. Π·gybeni·Σ-
OCS. gybnǫ-
(vb.) ‘zugrunde gehen, verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gybnǫ-)
1. PIE *gɑ́ɦubnun
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *gúɦubnun
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. gúɦubnun
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *gúubnun
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. gúubnun
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *gū́bnun
4. gū́bnun
*ū́
ū → y
Rū›y → *gybnun
Change of ū́ into y
5. gybnun
*-un → -ǫ
Emergence of nasal vowel ǫ
Run›ǫ → OCS. gybnǫ
OCS. po·gybnǫ
(vb.) ‘zugrunde gehen, verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. po·gybnǫ)
1. PIE *Π·gɑ́ɦubnun
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *Π·gúɦubnun
(SPIE §3.2.3)
2. Π·gúɦubnun
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *Π·gúubnun
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·gúubnun
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *Π·gū́bnun
4. Π·gū́bnun
*ū́
ū → y
Rū›y → *Π·gybnun
Change of ū́ into y
5. Π·gybnun
*-un → -ǫ
Emergence of nasal vowel ǫ
Run›ǫ → OCS. Π·gybnǫ
√gɑɦu-
(IEW. 491-3 gu̯hen-)
(WP. 1:679f., WH. 1:332f.)
Hitt. gu·guš-
(vb.) ‘zerstoßen’
(HHand. 82)
(Hitt. ku-ku-uš-zi [3sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦu·gɑɦus-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦu·gɦus-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦu·gɦus-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *gu·gus-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. gu·gus-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. gu·guš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OIcl. hǫgg-
(m.) ‘Hieb, Stoss, Schlag’
(ANEtWb. 280)
(OIcl. hǫgg-, *o-grade for noun)
1. PIE *koɑhgɑɦugɑɦi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kohgɦugɦi̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kohgɦugɦi̯o
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *kohgɦuǵɦo
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. kohgɦuǵɦo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kogɦuǵɦo
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kogɦuǵɦo
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *kogɦugɦo
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. kogɦugɦo
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xogɦugɦo
6. xogɦugɦo
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *xogugo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. xogugo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *xaguga
8. xaguga
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *xagug
9. xagug
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *hagug
10. hagug
*a — u → ǫ — Ø
Umlaut for a — u
Ragu›ǫg → OIcl. hǫgg
OIcl. hǫggva-
(vb.) ‘hauen’
(ANEtWb. 280)
(OIcl. hǫggva, PGerm. *hagu·gua-)
1. PIE *keɑhgɑɦugɑɦu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *kaɑhgɑɦugɑɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. kaɑhgɑɦugɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kahgɦugɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. kahgɦugɦu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *kagɦugɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. kagɦugɦu̯o-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
Rk›x → *xagɦugɦu̯o-
5. xagɦugɦu̯o-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *xagugu̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. xagugu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *xagugu̯a-
7. xagugu̯a-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
Rx›h → *hagugu̯a-
8. hagugu̯a-
*a — u → ǫ — Ø
Umlaut for a — u
Ragu›ǫg → *hǫggu̯a-
9. hǫggu̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OIcl. hǫggva-
√gɑɦuo-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. gu̯a-