PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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© 2014-2017 University of Helsinki

"Durch zweier Zeugen Mund wird alle Wahrheit kund" — August Fick
(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
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PIE



PIE √u- √ou- √eu- (vb.A.) ‘sehen’ (vb.MP.) ‘gesehen werden, sich zeigen, erscheinen’
(IEW 78)
(Pyysalo)
√u-
Hitt. u-
(vb.1.2.) ‘sehen’ (Sum. IGI), auch ‘lesen’
(HHand. 29, 184)
(Hitt. u-uḫ-ḫi, ú-me-ni, u-uḫ-ḫu-un)
Hitt. u-
(vb.2.M.) ‘gesehen werden; sich zeigen’
(HHand. 184)
(XX)
√ou-
Hitt. au-
(vb.1.2.) ‘sehen’ (Sum. IGI), auch ‘lesen’
(HHand. 29)
(Hitt. a-ú, a-ut-ti, a-ú-me-ni, a-ú-ma-ni, a-ut-te-ni)
1. PIE *ou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. au-
√uo
Hitt. uu̯a-
(vb.) ‘sehen, ansehen : to see, look’
(HIL. 270-1)
(Hitt. ú-ua-al-lu, ú-ua-an-du, u-ua-u-ua-aš-ta-ri, u-ua-an-zi)
1. PIE *uu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uu̯a-
CLu. au̯a-
(vb.) ‘look here, behold’
(HIL. 271)
(CLu. a-a-ua, a-ua)
1. PIE *ou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. au̯a-
Russ. avo-
(vb.) ‘sehen’
(REW 1:231-2)
(Russ. avo·s’ = ‘ec·ce, siehe da’)
1. PIE *ōu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōu̯a-
2. ōu̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *āu̯a-
3. āu̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *āu̯o-
4. āu̯o-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *āvo-
5. āvo-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Russ. avo-
Lith. và-
(vb.) ‘sehen’
(LiEtWb. 1208)
(Lith. vàt ‘siehe da, fürwahr, freilich’)
1. PIE *u̯ó-
ó → ò
Emergence of gravis PLith. ò
RLiAcc5 → *u̯ò-
2. u̯ò-
PIE *ò → à
Change of *ò into à
Rò›à → *u̯à-
3. u̯à-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. và-
ORuss. vo-
(vb.) ‘sehen’
(REW 1:231)
(ORuss. vo·se = ‘ec·ce : siehe da’)
1. PIE *u̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯a-
2. u̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *u̯o-
3. u̯o-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → ORuss. vo-
Russ. vo-
(vb.) ‘sehen’
(REW 1:232)
(Russ. vo·t ‘sieh da, hier’)
1. PIE *u̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯a-
2. u̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *u̯o-
3. u̯o-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Russ. vo-
√ui-
CLu. u̯i-
(vb.) ‘sehen, erscheinen (?), HHand. 202’
(DLL. 110)
(CLu. ú-i-it-ta-ri, ú-i-it-ta-ru, ú-i-in-tar)
Hitt. u̯i-
(vb.M.) ‘sehen’
(HHand. 191)
(in Hitt. uelut [ipv1sg])
Hitt. u̯iu̯i
(intj.) ‘he!’
(HHand. 203)
√uui-
CLu. uu̯i-
(vb.M.) ‘sehen’ (oder ‘erscheinen’ ?)
(HHand. 191)
(CLu. ú-ui-en-tar [3pl], DLL. 111)
Hitt. uu̯i-
(vb.) ‘to see, look’
(HIL. 271)
(Hitt. u-ui5-el-lu-ut)
√uuon-
Hitt. uu̯an-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘gesehen werden, sichtbar sein’
(HIL. 271)
(Hitt. ú-ua-an-na-aš, ú-ua-an-na=ia [inf.])
1. PIE *uu̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uu̯an-
Hitt. uu̯ant-
(pt.) ‘gesehen, angesehen’
(HIL. 271)
1. PIE *uu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uu̯ant-
Hitt. para·uu̯ant-
(LÚc.) ‘Aufseher, Beobachter, Aufpasser’
(HHand. 121)
(Hitt. parauuant-)
1. PIE *Π·uu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·uu̯ant-
Hitt. uu̯antu-
(inf.bs.)
(HHand. 189)
(Hitt. uuantu=ia [inf.])
1. PIE *uu̯ontu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uu̯antu-
√us-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. uš-
(vb.) ‘sehen : see, look’
(HIL. 270)
(Hitt. uš-te-ni [2pl])
1. PIE *us-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. uš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. auš-
(vb.1.) ‘IGI; sehen, lesen’
(HHand. 29)
(Hitt. a-uš-zi, a-uš-te-ni [2pl], a-uš-ta, a-uš-du)
1. PIE *ous-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aus-
2. aus-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. auš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. auš-
(vb.2.) ‘sehen’
(HIL. 270)
(Hitt. a-uš-ta-at [3sg])
1. PIE *ous-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aus-
2. aus-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. auš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uskie/o-
Hitt. uške/a-
(.) ‘sehen’
(HIL. 271)
(Hitt. ú-uš-ke/a-, uš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *uski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *usḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. usḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *usḱe/a-
3. usḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *uske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. uske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. uške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uskiskie/o-
Hitt. uškiške/a-
(vb.) ‘sehen’
(HIL. 271)
(Hitt. uš-ki-iš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *uski̯iski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *usḱisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. usḱisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *usḱisḱe/a-
3. usḱisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *uskiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. uskiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. uškiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. uškiškadala-
(c.) ‘guard, watchman’
(HIL. 271)
(Hitt. uš-ki-iš-ga-tal-la-aš)
1. PIE *uski̯iski̯odɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uski̯iski̯odɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uski̯iski̯odɦolo-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *usḱisḱodɦolo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. usḱisḱodɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *usḱisḱadɦala-
4. usḱisḱadɦala-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *uskiskadɦala-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. uskiskadɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *uskiskadala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. uskiskadala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. uškiškadala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. uškiškatali-
(c.) ‘guard, watchman’
(HIL. 271)
(Hitt. uš-ki[š-kat]-tal-li-uš)
1. PIE *uski̯iski̯otoli-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *usḱisḱotoli-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. usḱisḱotoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *usḱisḱatali-
3. usḱisḱatali-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *uskiskatali-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. uskiskatali-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. uškiškatali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. uškiškedalan-
(n.) ‘guard duty’
(HIL. 271)
(Hitt. uš-ki-iš-ke-tal-la-ni)
1. PIE *uski̯iski̯edɑɦolon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uski̯iski̯edɦolon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uski̯iski̯edɦolon-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *usḱisḱedɦolon-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. usḱisḱedɦolon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *usḱisḱedɦalan-
4. usḱisḱedɦalan-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *uskiskedɦalan-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. uskiskedɦalan-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *uskiskedalan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. uskiskedalan-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. uškiškedalan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. uškiškatalan-
(n.) ‘guard duty’
(HIL. 271)
(Hitt. uš-ki-iš-ga-at-tal[-la-an-ni])
1. PIE *uski̯iski̯otɑholon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uski̯iski̯otholon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uski̯iski̯otholon-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *usḱisḱotholon-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. usḱisḱotholon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *usḱisḱathalan-
4. usḱisḱathalan-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *uskiskathalan-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. uskiskathalan-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *uskiskatalan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. uskiskatalan-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. uškiškatalan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√usseio-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. μετ·ουσέο-
(pr.) ‘περιβλέπω, ἀφορῶ, ἀποβλέπω’ (Hes.)
(LSJ. 1121)
(Gr. μετ·ουσῶ [1sg])
1. PIE *Π·ousséi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *Π·ousséo-
2. Π·ousséo-
*ss → s
Degemination of *ss
Rss›s → *Π·ouséo-
3. Π·ouséo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·ουσέο-
√uodɑɦ-
Hitt. uu̯adala-
(c.) ‘Seer’
(HIL. 271)
(Hitt. ú-ua-tal-lu-uš [plA])
1. PIE *uu̯odɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uu̯odɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uu̯odɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *uu̯adɦala-
3. uu̯adɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. uu̯adala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. para·uu̯adala-
(c.) ‘Späher’ (?)
(HHand. 121)
1. PIE *Π·uu̯odɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·uu̯odɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·uu̯odɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·uu̯adɦala-
3. Π·uu̯adɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. Π·uu̯adala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. uu̯adar-
(vb.sb.) ‘XX’
(HIL. 271)
(Hitt. ú-ua-a-tar, ú-ua-tar)
1. PIE *uu̯odɑɦor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uu̯odɦor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uu̯odɦor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *uu̯adɦar-
3. uu̯adɦar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. uu̯adar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √u- (vb.) ‘kommen, geschehen’ (sb.) ‘das Kommen’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo)
√u-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. u·u̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘kommen’
(HHand. 189)
(Hitt. ú-ua-ši [2sg], ú-ua-az-zi [3sg])
1. PIE *u·u̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u·u̯a-
√uo-
LAv. frā·va-
(vb.) ‘geschehen : happen, come’
(AIWb. 932)
(LAv. frāvōit [3sg], Bartholomae 1895 §268.37)
1. PIE *Π·u̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯a-
2. Π·u̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. Π·va-
HLu. au̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘come’
(CHLu. 2.45.3)
(HLu. a-wa/i-ti [3sg])
1. PIE *ou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. au̯a-
HLu. au̯a-
(vb.) ‘come’
(CHLu. 4.3.2)
(HLu. (“PES”)á-wa/i-tà [3pers], á-wa/i-?-ti)
1. PIE *ou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. au̯a-
Hitt. u·u̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘kommen’
(HHand. 189)
(Hitt. uuat [ipv2sg], uuadu [3sg])
1. PIE *u·u̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u·u̯a-
√uɑh-
LAv. ava·vā-
(vb.) = Pahl. apē āyet
(AIWb. 176)
(LAv. avavāite [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·u̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·u̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·u̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·u̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·u̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·u̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. Π·vā-
√uuont-
Hitt. uu̯ant-
(pt.) ‘kommend’
(HIL. 1147)
(Hitt. ú-ua-an-t-
1. PIE *uu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uu̯ant-
√uuou-
Hitt. uu̯au̯a-
(inf.) ‘XX’
(HIL. 1147)
(Hitt. ú-u̯a-u-an-zi)
1. PIE *uu̯ou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uu̯au̯a-
Hitt. uu̯au̯a-
(n.) ‘das (ein)Kommen’
(HHand. 191)
(Hitt. EGIR-pa uwawaš EZEN4)
1. PIE *uu̯ou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uu̯au̯a-
HLu. uu̯au̯a-
(PN.)
(CHLu. 2.43.1.)
(HLu. u-wa/i-wa/i-sa)
1. PIE *uu̯ou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. uu̯au̯a-
Hitt. uu̯au̯ar
(N.act.) ‘XX’
(XX:XX)
(HIL. –)
1. PIE *uu̯ou̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uu̯au̯ar-
√ui-
((HIL. 1147-)
Hitt. u̯i-
(vb.) ‘happen’
(XX:XX)
(“EGIR-pa-ma ú-it Iam-mu-na DUMU.LUGAL BA.ÚŠ)
Hitt. au̯i-
(vb.) ‘to come’
(DLL. 36)
(in ‘CLu.’ a-ú-i-mi)
1. PIE *ou̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. au̯i-
CLu. au̯i-
(vb.) ‘to come’
(DLL. 36)
(CLu. a-ú-i-ši [3sg], a-ú-i-ti, a-ú-i-ḫa)
1. PIE *ou̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. au̯i-
HLu. au̯i-
(vb.) ‘come’
(CHLu. 444)
(HLu. á-wa/i-i-tu [3pl])
1. PIE *ou̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. au̯i-
Pal. au̯i-
(vb.) wohl ‘kommen, (HHand. 30)’
(DPal. 53)
(Pal. a-ú-in-t[a [3pl])
1. PIE *ou̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. au̯i-
CLu. au̯ei̯a-
(vb.) ‘to come (?)’
(DLL. 36)
(CLu. a-ui-ia-aḫ-ḫa [1sg])
1. PIE *ou̯ei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. au̯ei̯a-
√uimo-
CLu. au̯ima-
(pt.) ‘gekommen’
(HHand. 30)
1. PIE *ou̯imo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. au̯ima-


PIE √uɑhi- (a.) ‘gut, heilig’
(Pyysalo)
√uɑhi-
Hitt. u̯aḫai̯a-
(KUR URU.) ‘=URUuašḫaia- ‘heilig (?)’
(OGH. 477)
(Hitt. ua-ḫa-ia [All], ‘Auf dem Berg Ilurija (...) > Ilu[ (...) > Kapiruḫa’)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhoii̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhoii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhoii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahoii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahoii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ahaii̯a-
4. u̯ahaii̯a-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *u̯ahaia-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
5. u̯ahaia-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → *u̯ahai̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
6. u̯ahai̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯aḫai̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
TochB. wey-
(sgL) “having placed it weyaṃ for seven days”
(DTochB. 609)
(TochB. weyaṃ [sgL])
1. PIE *u̯eɑhii̯-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhii̯-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhii̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahii̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahii̯-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯aii̯-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯aii̯-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *u̯ēi̯-
5. u̯ēi̯-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *u̯ei̯-
6. u̯ei̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *u̯ey-
7. u̯ey-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. wey-
TochA. weyem-
(a.indecl.) ‘mirificus, mirus’
(Poucha 305)
(TochA. weyeṃ)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhii̯oim-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhii̯oim-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhii̯oim-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahii̯oim-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahii̯oim-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ahii̯aim-
4. u̯ahii̯aim-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯aii̯aim-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. u̯aii̯aim-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *u̯ēi̯ēm-
6. u̯ēi̯ēm-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *u̯ei̯em-
7. u̯ei̯em-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *u̯eyem-
8. u̯eyem-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. weyem-
√ueɑhi̯el-
Arm. vayel-
(a.) ‘decent, worthy, proper’
(EtDiArm. 591-2)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhi̯el-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhi̯el-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhi̯el-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahi̯el-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahi̯el-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ai̯el-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯ai̯el-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *u̯ayel-
5. u̯ayel-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Arm. vayel-
Arm. vayel·k‘-
(sb.) ‘enjoyment, delight’
(EtDiArm. 591-2)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhi̯el·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhi̯el·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhi̯el·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahi̯el·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahi̯el·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ai̯el·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯ai̯el·Σ-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *u̯ayel·Σ-
5. u̯ayel·Σ-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Arm. vayel·Σ-
Arm. vayele-
(vb.) ‘enjoy’
(EtDiArm. 591-2)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhi̯ele-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhi̯ele-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhi̯ele-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahi̯ele-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahi̯ele-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ai̯ele-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯ai̯ele-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *u̯ayele-
5. u̯ayele-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Arm. vayele-
Arm. vayel·uch’
(a.) ‘decent, pleasant, delightful’
(EtDiArm. 591-2)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhi̯el·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhi̯el·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhi̯el·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahi̯el·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahi̯el·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ai̯el·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯ai̯el·Σ-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *u̯ayel·Σ-
5. u̯ayel·Σ-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Arm. vayel·Σ-


PIE √uehɑ-, √uohɑ-, √uhɑ- (vb.) ‘wenden, drehen, bewegen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√uehɑ-
(Pyysalo 2013:130f.)
Hitt. u̯eḫ-
(vb.1.A.) ‘sich wenden, drehen, (hin und her)bewegen’)
(HHand. 200)
(Hitt. ú-e-eḫ-zi [3sg], Kimball 1999:210, HIL. 1149f)
1. PIE *u̯ehɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯eh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯eḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Umbr. ue-
(vb.) ≈ ‘wenden’
(WbOU. 835-6)
(Umbr. uetu [3sg])
1. PIE *u̯ehɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯eh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯e-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. u̯e-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Umbr. ue-
√uehɑi-
(Pyysalo)
LinB. ϝει·εχεσ-
(a.) ‘describing wheels’
(DMycGr. 411)
(LinB. we-je-ke-a2 [plNA PY 286 = Sa787], DMycGr. 373)
1. PIE *u̯ehɑi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ehi·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ehi·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ei·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. u̯ei·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. ϝει·Σ-
ODor. ϝέοσ-
(n.) ‘Reihe’
(GEW X:XX)
(Locr. κατὰ ϝέος ‘der Reihe nach’)
1. PIE *u̯éhɑi̯os-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯éhi̯os-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯éhi̯os-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯éi̯os-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. u̯éi̯os-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *u̯éos-
4. u̯éos-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → ODor. ϝέοσ-
Hitt. u̯eḫiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘sich wenden, patroullieren’
(HHand. 200)
(Hitt. ú-e-ḫi-eš-ke/a-, Also ‘hin- und herbewegen, durchstreifen’)
1. PIE *u̯ehɑiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ehiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ehiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯ehisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯ehisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ehisḱe/a-
4. u̯ehisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯ehiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯ehiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *u̯ehiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. u̯ehiške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯eḫiške/a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. u̯eḫiška·dala-
(LÚc.) ‘Herumstreifer, Patrouille’
(HHand. 200)
1. PIE *u̯ehɑiski̯o·dɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ehiski̯o·dɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ehiski̯o·dɦolo-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯ehisḱo·dɦolo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯ehisḱo·dɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ehisḱa·dɦala-
4. u̯ehisḱa·dɦala-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯ehiska·dɦala-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯ehiska·dɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *u̯ehiska·dala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. u̯ehiska·dala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *u̯ehiška·dala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. u̯ehiška·dala-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯eḫiška·dala-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. u̯aḫišn-
(n.) ‘Schwenkung’
(HHand. 191)
(Hitt. uaḫišnaš [sgG])
1. PIE *u̯ohɑisn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ohisn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ohisn-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ahisn-
3. u̯ahisn-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *u̯ahišn-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. u̯ahišn-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯aḫišn-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√uehɑn-
Hitt. u̯eḫan-
(n.) ‘Wenden, Wendung’
(HHand. 191)
(Hitt. ueḫanaš [sgG])
1. PIE *u̯ehɑen-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *u̯ehɑan-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. u̯ehɑan-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ehan-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ehan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯eḫan-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. u̯aḫan-
(n.) ‘Wenden, Wendung’
(HHand. 191)
(Hitt. uaḫanaš [sgG])
1. PIE *u̯ohɑen-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *u̯ohɑan-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. u̯ohɑan-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ohan-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ohan-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ahan-
4. u̯ahan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯aḫan-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√uohɑu-
Hitt. u̯eḫu-
(n.N.act.) ‘Drehung, Runde’
(HHand. 200)
(Hitt. ANŠE.KUR.RA.MEŠ ueḫuaš
1. PIE *u̯ehɑu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ehu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ehu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯eḫu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. u̯aḫu-
(vb.) ‘sich wenden, drehen, bewegen’
(HHand. 200)
(Hitt. ua-aḫ-ḫu-zi [KBo 3.25 iii 4])
1. PIE *u̯ohɑu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ohu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ohu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ahu-
3. u̯ahu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯aḫu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√uhɑ-
(Goetze, Pedersen MS p. 74)
Hitt. uḫ-
(vb.) ‘sich wenden’
(Oettinger 1979:100)
(Hitt. ú-uḫ-zi [3sg]; ‹or to Hitt. √unḫ- (?!)›)
1. PIE *uhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. uḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
ODor. ϝᾱ́να-
(vb.) ‘winnow : worfeln’
(GEW 1:41)
(Hes. ϝᾶναι · περιπτίσαι)
1. PIE *uhɑénseɑh-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *uhɑánseɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. uhɑánseɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *uhɑánsaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
3. uhɑánsaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uhánsah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. uhánsah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *uánsa-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. uánsa-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *uánha-
6. uánha-
*ánh → ā́nh
Lengthening of *á before nh
Ránh›ā́nh → *uā́nha-
7. uā́nha-
*uA → u̯A
Desyllabification of uA into u̯A
RuA›u̯A → *u̯ā́nha-
8. u̯ā́nha-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *u̯ā́na-
9. u̯ā́na-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → ODor. ϝᾱ́να-
Gr. αἴνο-
(vb.) winnow : worfeln’
(GEW 1:41)
(Gr. XX)
1. PIE *uhɑéni̯o-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *uhɑáni̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. uhɑáni̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uháni̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. uháni̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *uáni̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. uáni̯o-
*áni̯ → aín
Epenthesis of *i
Ráni̯›aín → *uaíno-
5. uaíno-
*uA → u̯A
Desyllabification of uA into u̯A
RuA›u̯A → *u̯aíno-
6. u̯aíno-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *aíno-
7. aíno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. αἴνο-


PIE √uɑhri- (a.) ‘link, schlecht’
(IEW 56 [diff.])
(+ Pyysalo: Pal.)
√ueɑhro-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. u̯aḫra-
(c.) ‘Weh, Leid, Pein’
(DLL. 23)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhro-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhro-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ahra-
4. u̯ahra-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. u̯aḫra-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. u̯aḫra-
(.) (magisches Formelwort)
(HHand. 192)
(Hitt. aḫran uaḫran)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhro-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhro-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ahra-
4. u̯ahra-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯aḫra-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OInd. var·āka-
(a.) ‘wretched, low, miserable, pitiable’
(MonWil. 921)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhr·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhr·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhr·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahr·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahr·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ar·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯ar·Σ-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OInd. var·Σ-
√uɑhri-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. u̯aḫri-
(vb.dn.) ‘wehklagen’
(DLL. 105)
(KLu. ua-aḫ-ri-it-ti [3sg])
1. PIE *u̯eɑhri-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhri-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhri-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahri-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahri-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. u̯aḫri-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Pal. u̯aḫari-
(vb.) ‘zum Schlechten hinwenden’
(HHand. 191)
(see DPal. 77)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhori-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhori-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhori-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahori-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ahari-
4. u̯ahari-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Pal. u̯aḫari-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Pal. u̯aḫari̯ant-
(pt.) ‘-(?)-’
(DPal. 77)
(Pal. ua-ḫa-ri-ia-an-za [sgN])
1. PIE *u̯eɑhori̯ont-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhori̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhori̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahori̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahori̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ahari̯ant-
4. u̯ahari̯ant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Pal. u̯aḫari̯ant-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Gr. ἀριστερό-
(a.) ‘der linke, links’
(GEW 1:139-40)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhristeró-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhristeró-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhristeró-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahristeró-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahristeró-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯aristeró-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯aristeró-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *aristeró-
5. aristeró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀριστερό-
LAv. vairyastara-
(a.) ‘link(en Seite)’
(AIWb. 1373)
(LAv. vairyastarǝm)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhri̯ostero-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhri̯ostero-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhri̯ostero-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahri̯ostero-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahri̯ostero-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ahri̯astera-
4. u̯ahri̯astera-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ari̯astera-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. u̯ari̯astera-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯ari̯astara-
6. u̯ari̯astara-
*ari → airi
Anaptyxis of *i
RarI›airI → *u̯airi̯astara-
7. u̯airi̯astara-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *u̯airyastara-
8. u̯airyastara-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. vairyastara-


PIE √ui- (sb.) ‘Geburt, Frau, Bruder, Sohn’
√ui-
Hitt. gašulia·u̯i-
(f.c.) (fille de Ḫatušili III, femme de Bentešilna)
(NOMS. 539)
(in Akd. ga-aš-šu-li-ia-ú-i-e, gaš-šu-li-ia-ui)
√uio-
Hitt. gašulia·ui̯a-
(f.c.) (princesse hittite, femme de Muršili II (?))
(NOMS. 539)
(Hitt. gaš-šu-li-ia-ui(-aš) [All-(N)])
1. PIE *Π·ui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·ui̯a-
Hitt. arma·ui̯a-
(fdc.*) ‘Mond-XX’
(NOMS. 140)
(Hitt. fdMI-ui-ia-aš: fdSIN-ui-ia)
1. PIE *ormo·ui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. arma·ui̯a-
Hitt. ašpuna·ui̯a-
(f.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 177)
(Hitt. aš-pu-na-ui-ia)
1. PIE *Π·ui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·ui̯a-
Hitt. iara·ui̯a-
(f.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 432)
(Hitt. ia-ra-ui-aš [sgN/G?])
1. PIE *Π·ui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·ui̯a-
Hitt. maraša·ui̯a-
(f.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 759)
(Hitt. ma-ra-aš-ša-ui-ia-aš)
1. PIE *Π·ui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·ui̯a-
Hitt. šanda·ui̯a-
(f.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 1102)
(Hitt. ša-an-ta-ui-aš)
1. PIE *Π·ui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·ui̯a-
AV. bhrātr̥·vya-
(m.) ‘Brudersohn, Vetter’
(WbRV. 967)
1. PIE *Π·u̯i̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯i̯a-
2. Π·u̯i̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *Π·vi̯a-
3. Π·vi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → AV. Π·vya-
RV. abhrātr̥·vyá-
(a.) ‘ohne Nebenbühler seiend’
(WbRV. 89)
1. PIE *Π·u̯i̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·u̯i̯á-
2. Π·u̯i̯á-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *Π·vi̯á-
3. Π·vi̯á-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·vyá-
LAv. brātr·uya-
(m.) ‘Bruderssohn’ (f.-ā) ‘Bruderstochter’
(AIWb. 972)
1. PIE *Π·ui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ui̯a-
2. Π·ui̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. Π·uya-
LAv. zāma·uya-
(m.) ‘Bruder des Schwiegersohns’
(AIWb. 1689)
(LAv. zāmaoya-)
1. PIE *Π·ui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ui̯a-
2. Π·ui̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. Π·uya-
Lat. patruo·-
(m.) ‘Vatersbruder, Onkel väterlicherseits’
(WH. 2:263)
Lat. patruus [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·ui̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. Π·uio-
√uin-
TochA. wena-
(vb.) ‘agere, (e)nasci, (pro)germinare’
(Poucha 303)
(TochA. wena)
1. PIE *u̯oino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aina-
2. u̯aina-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *u̯ēna-
3. u̯ēna-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *u̯ena-
4. u̯ena-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. wena-
√uip-
OIcl. vīf-
(n.) ‘Frau, Gatte, usw.’
(ANEtWb 661)
1. PIE *u̯eipo
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›fRestr → *u̯eifo
2. u̯eifo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯eifa
3. u̯eifa
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *u̯īfa
4. u̯īfa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯īf
5. u̯īf
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OIcl. vīf


PIE √uois- √ueis- √uis- (vb.) ‘gedeihen, grünen, sich (ver)mehren’ (sb.) ‘Baum, Sproß, Frucht’
(IEW. 1133)
(WP I:242)
√uois-
Lith. vaisà
(f.) ‘Fruchtbarkeit’
(LiEtWb. 1184)
1. PIE *u̯oisḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *u̯oisā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯oisā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯oisā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯oisā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯oisā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯oisā́
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aisā́
5. u̯aisā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *u̯aisṓ
(XX:XX)
6. u̯aisṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → *u̯aisà
7. u̯aisà
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. vaisà
Lith. vaĩsiu-
(.) ‘Frucht, Ergebnis, Resultat’
(LiEtWb. 1184)
(Lith. vaĩsius [sgN])
1. PIE *u̯oísi̯u-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *u̯oìsi̯u-
2. u̯oìsi̯u-
oì → oĩ
Circumflex intonation for oì
RLiAcc13 → *u̯oĩsi̯u-
3. u̯oĩsi̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aĩsi̯u-
4. u̯aĩsi̯u-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›iRestr → *u̯aĩsiu-
5. u̯aĩsiu-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. vaĩsiu-
√ueis-
(Pyysalo)
Lith. vs-
(vb.) ‘durch Fortpflanzung sich vermehren, (er)zeugen’
(LiEtWb. 1214)
(Lith. veĩsti, veisiù)
1. PIE *u̯eís-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *u̯eìs-
2. u̯eìs-
eì → eĩ
Circumflex intonation for eì
RLiAcc14 → *u̯eĩs-
3. u̯eĩs-
eí -› iẽ
Change of eí to iẽ
Reĩ›iẽ → *u̯iẽs-
4. u̯iẽs-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. viẽs-
Latv. vies-
(vb.) ‘(auf-, er-)ziehen, verbreiten (ver)mehren’
(LiEtWb. 1214)
(Latv. viest [inf.])
1. PIE *u̯eis-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *veis-
2. veis-
*ei -> ie
Change of *ei into ie
Rei›ie → Latv. vies-
Latv. vies-
(vb.refl.) ‘gedeihen’
(LiEtWb. 1214)
(Latv. viesties [inf.])
1. PIE *u̯eis-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *veis-
2. veis-
*ei -> ie
Change of *ei into ie
Rei›ie → Latv. vies-
OPr. weisi-
(m.) ‘Frucht’
(APrS. 459)
(OPr. wēisi-)
1. PIE *u̯eisi-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *veisi-
2. veisi-
*v → w
Orthographic change of of *v into w
Rv›w → OPr. weisi-
OEng. wīsa·n-
(f.) ‘sprout, stalk’
(ASaxD. 1241)
(OEng. wíse, wísan)
1. PIE *u̯eiso·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯eisa·n-
2. u̯eisa·n-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *u̯īsa·n-
3. u̯īsa·n-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OEng. wīsa·n-
Hitt. u̯eišar-
(GIŠ) ‘ein Baum oder Holz’
(HHand. 184)
(Hitt. ú-i-eš-šar [KUB 7. 37, 12], HIL. 1171)
1. PIE *u̯eisor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯eisar-
2. u̯eisar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯eišar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uis-
Lith. vìs-
(vb.) ‘sich fortpflanzen, vermehren’
(LiEtWb. 1265)
(Lith. vìsti [inf.])
1. PIE *u̯ís-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *u̯ìs-
2. u̯ìs-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. vìs-
Lat. uir·eo-
(pr.2.) ‘grün sein, grünen’
(Lat. uireō, uirēre)
1. PIE *u̯is·ei̯o-
*VsV → VrV
Rhotacism of *s between vowels
RVsV›VrV → *u̯ir·ei̯o-
2. u̯ir·ei̯o-
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
Rei̯o›eo → *u̯ir·eo-
3. u̯ir·eo-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. uir·eo-
Lith. vislù-
(a.) ‘fruchtbar’
(LiEtWb. 1265)
1. PIE *u̯islù-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. vislù-


PIE √uis- √uois- √ueis- ‘bedrängen, drücken’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo: RV. + Anat.)
√uis-
RV. viṣ·pitá-
(n.) ‘Not, Gefahr, Bedrängnis [RV. ·pit- ‘food’]’
(WbRV. 1310)
1. PIE *u̯is·pitó-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *u̯iš·pitó-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. u̯iš·pitó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *u̯iš·pitá-
3. u̯iš·pitá-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *viš·pitá-
4. viš·pitá-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. viṣ·pitá-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
√uisi-
LycB. wisei-
(vb.) ‘(op)press’
(Melchert 1994:242,291)
(LycB. wisei)
1. PIE *u̯isei-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → LycB. wisei-
CLu. uišei-
(vb.) ‘(op)press’
(KLuN 1990:549f.)
(CLu. išiita)
1. PIE *u̯isei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. u̯išei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uisuri-
Hitt. uišurei̯a-
(vb.1.A.) ‘(op)press, constrict: drücken, bedrängen’
(HIL. 1171)
(Kimball 1999:439, Rieken 1999:355, Eichner 1973:77)
1. PIE *u̯isurei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯isurei̯a-
2. u̯isurei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯išurei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √uidɑɦ- √uoidɑɦ- √ueidɑɦ- ‘stoßen, schießen, schädigen, versehren’
(IEW 1115 + 1127-8 [diff.])
(Pyysalo)
√uidɑɦ-
RV. ni (…) vividh·-
(pf.) ‘niederstoßen, niederschießen’
(WbRV. 1359)
(in RV. ni vividhvâns)
1. PIE *Π·u̯iu̯idɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯iu̯idɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·u̯iu̯idɦ-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *Π·vividɦ-
3. Π·vividɦ-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. Π·vividh-
√uidɑɦο-
(Pyysalo)
LAv. vaeδa-
(m.) ‘Wurfgeschoss’
(AIWb. 1320)
1. PIE *u̯oidɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯oidɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯oidɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aidɦa-
3. u̯aidɦa-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯aida-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. u̯aida-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → *u̯aeda-
5. u̯aeda-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → *u̯aeδa-
6. u̯aeδa-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. vaeδa-
CLu. u̯ida-
(vb.) ‘divide’
(Melchert 1983:158)
(No attestation or locus provided by M. !)
1. PIE *u̯idɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯idɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯idɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯idɦa-
3. u̯idɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. u̯ida-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯iu̯ida-
(vb.) ‘strike, urge’
(Melchert 1983:10)
(No attestation or locus provided by M. !)
1. PIE *u̯iu̯idɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯iu̯idɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯iu̯idɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯iu̯idɦa-
3. u̯iu̯idɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯iu̯ida-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uidɑɦi-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. u̯idai-
(vb.) ‘smash, strike’
(Melchert 1994:231)
(No attestation or locus provided by M. !)
1. PIE *u̯idɑɦoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯idɦoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯idɦoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯idɦai-
3. u̯idɦai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. u̯idai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. a·u̯idei-
(.) ‘Sphinx’
(HEG 1:99-100)
(Melchert 1994:168), Puhvel 1984: 247)
1. PIE *o·u̯idɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·u̯idɦei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·u̯idɦei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·u̯idɦei-
3. a·u̯idɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. a·u̯idei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯eiz-
(vb.) ‘strike, urge’
(Melchert 1983:10)
(No attestation or locus provided by M. !)
1. PIE *u̯eidɑɦi̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eidɦi̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯eidɦi̯-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *u̯eijɦ-
3. u̯eijɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *u̯eij-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. u̯eij-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. u̯eiz-
Hitt. arla·u̯izi-
(LÚ.c.) ‘‹= Hitt. LÚ.UR.MAḪ (?)›’
(NOMS. 130a)
(Hitt. ar-la-ui-iz-zi [All] = Hitt. LÚ.UR.MAḪ
1. PIE *orlo·u̯idɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orlo·u̯idɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orlo·u̯idɦi-
PIE *dɦi → jɦi
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi›jɦi → *orlo·u̯ijɦi-
3. orlo·u̯ijɦi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arla·u̯ijɦi-
4. arla·u̯ijɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *arla·u̯iji-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arla·u̯iji-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. arla·u̯izi-
RV. vídhya-
(pr.) ‘verwunden, schädigen, versehren’
(WbRV. 1358)
(RV. vidhyat)
1. PIE *u̯ídɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ídɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ídɦi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ídɦi̯a-
3. u̯ídɦi̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vídɦi̯a-
4. vídɦi̯a-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *vídhi̯a-
5. vídhi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. vídhya-
RV. áva (…) vidhya·-
(pr.) ‘jemandem hinabstoßen’
(WbRV. 1358)
(RV. áva vidhyati)
1. PIE *Π·u̯idɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯idɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·u̯idɦi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯idɦi̯a-
3. Π·u̯idɦi̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *Π·vidɦi̯a-
4. Π·vidɦi̯a-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *Π·vidhi̯a-
5. Π·vidhi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·vidhya-
RV. áti (…) vidhya·-
(pr.) ‘durchbohren, (hin)durchbrechen’
(WbRV. 1358)
(RV. áti vidhyati)
1. PIE *Π·u̯idɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯idɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·u̯idɦi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯idɦi̯a-
3. Π·u̯idɦi̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *Π·vidɦi̯a-
4. Π·vidɦi̯a-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *Π·vidhi̯a-
5. Π·vidhi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·vidhya-
√uidɑɦn-
Hitt. u̯eidna-
(c.) (ein Raubtier, ‘Hyäne’ ?)
(HHand. 202)
(Hitt. ú-e-it-na-aš ma-a-an pa-an-gur)
1. PIE *u̯eidɑɦno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eidɦno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯eidɦno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯eidɦna-
3. u̯eidɦna-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯eidna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uidɑɦri-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. ἴθρι-
(.) ‘spádvn, tomías, eunoûxos’
(GEW 1:449)
(Hes. ἴθρις ; IEW 11XX [diff.], Rieken 1999:216)
1. PIE *u̯ídɑɦri-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ídɦri-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ídɦri-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *u̯íthri-
3. u̯íthri-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *íthri-
4. íthri-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἴθρι-
Hitt. u̯idriš-
(n.) ‘eine Krankheit, ein übler Zustand’
(HHand. 202)
(HIL. 1175; Tischler: ‘Auszehrung, Abmagerung?’)
1. PIE *u̯idɑɦris-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯idɦris-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯idɦris-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *u̯idris-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. u̯idris-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯idriš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √uoGɑɦ- ‘bite’
(IEW 1171 + 1171f. [diff.])
(Pyysalo)
√uogɑɦ
Hitt. u̯ag-
(vb.2.) ‘(an)beißen, einen Imbiß genießen’
(HHand. 192)
(Hitt. ua-a-ki [3sg], ua-ak [2sg], ua-a-ku-e-en)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯agɦ-
3. u̯agɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯ag-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯aga-
(vb.) ‘anbeißen, einen Imbiß genießen’
(HIL. 1085)
(Hitt. ua-ka4-aš, ua-a-ga,
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯agɦa-
3. u̯agɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯aga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
AV. vághā-
(f.) ‘ein bestimmes schädliches Tier’
(EWA 2:488)
1. PIE *u̯ógɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯ógɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯ógɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ógɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ógɦāh-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *u̯ágɦāh-
4. u̯ágɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ágɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. u̯ágɦā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vágɦā-
6. vágɦā-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → AV. vághā-
Hitt. u̯agai-
(c.) ‘Mehlwurm : grain weevil’
(HHand. 192)
(Hitt. ua-ga-a-iš, HIL. 1088
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯agɦai-
3. u̯agɦai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯agai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uogɑɦeso-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. u̯ageša-
(n.) ‘a kind of bread’
(HIL. 1085)
(Hitt. ua-ge-eš-ša)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦeso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦeso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦeso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯agɦesa-
3. u̯agɦesa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *u̯agesa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. u̯agesa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯ageša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OInd. vāhasá-
(.) ‘python’
(Burrow 1979:54)
1. PIE *u̯ōgɑɦesó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ōgɦesó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ōgɦesó-
PIE *gɦ → ǰɦ
2nd palatalization of *gɦ
Rgɦ›ǰɦ → *u̯ōǰɦesó-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. u̯ōǰɦesó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *u̯ōǰɦesá-
4. u̯ōǰɦesá-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *u̯āǰɦesá-
5. u̯āǰɦesá-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to ɦ
Rǰɦ›ɦ → *u̯āɦesá-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. u̯āɦesá-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯āɦasá-
7. u̯āɦasá-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vāɦasá-
8. vāɦasá-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → OInd. vāhasá-
√uogɑɦs-
(Pyysalo)
OEng. weaxa-
(vb.) ‘schmausen : feast (Beowulf)’
(GoEtD. 406)
(Beowulf 2115 Hs. weaxan, not “wesan”)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦso-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *u̯ogso-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. u̯ogso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯agsa-
4. u̯agsa-
gs -› ks
Devoicing of gs to ks
Rgs›ks → *u̯aksa-
5. u̯aksa-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → *waksa-
6. waksa-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *wacsa-
7. wacsa-
*cs → x
Change of *cs into x
Rcs›x → OEng. waxa-
Hitt. u̯akšur-
(n.) ‘Abschnitt’ (Maßeinheit)
(HHand. 192)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦsur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦsur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦsur-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯agɦsur-
3. u̯agɦsur-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *u̯agsur-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. u̯agsur-
gs -› ks
Devoicing of gs to ks
Rgs›ks → *u̯aksur-
5. u̯aksur-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯akšur-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √uoki- ‘fett’
(IEW –)
√uokio-
(Pyysalo)
AV. váśa-
(n.) ‘Schmalz, flüßiges Fett’
(KEWA 3:168)
1. PIE *u̯óki̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *u̯óćo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯óćo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯óća-
3. u̯óća-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *u̯áća-
4. u̯áća-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *u̯áśa-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯áśa-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → AV. váśa-
Hitt. u̯akant-
(pt.a.) ‘fett = uargant-’
(HHand. 192)
1. PIE *u̯oki̯ont-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯oḱont-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯oḱont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aḱant-
3. u̯aḱant-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → Hitt. u̯akant-
(SPIE §4.8.4)


PIE √ugɑɦ- √ougɑɦ- √eugɑɦ- ‘trinken’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√eugɑɦ-
(Pedersen 1925: 40)
(HIL. 280ff., Oettinger 1979:87)
Hitt. eug-
(vb.) ‘trinken’
(HHand. 34)
(Hitt. e-uk-ši, e-uk-zi, e-ú-uk-zi, e-uk-ta, HIL. 280-1)
1. PIE *eugɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. eug-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
TochB. yok-
(vb.) ‘trinken, [VW. 601-2]’
(DTochB. 509-10)
(TochB. yoku [1sg], yoktsi [inf.])
1. PIE *eugɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦ-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦ-
3. i̯augɦ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯aug-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. i̯aug-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯auk-
5. i̯auk-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōk-
6. i̯ōk-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯ok-
7. i̯ok-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. yok-
TochA. yok-
(vb.) ‘bibere, potare’
(Poucha 246)
(TochA. yoktsi [inf.])
1. PIE *eugɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦ-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦ-
3. i̯augɦ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯aug-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. i̯aug-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯auk-
5. i̯auk-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōk-
6. i̯ōk-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯ok-
7. i̯ok-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochA. yok-
TochB. yokä-
(vb.) ‘trinken, (LÉDT 170)’
(DTochB. 509-10)
(TochB. yokäṃ [3sg])
1. PIE *eugɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eugɦa-
3. eugɦa-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦa-
4. i̯augɦa-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯auga-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. i̯auga-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯auka-
6. i̯auka-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōka-
7. i̯ōka-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯oka-
8. i̯oka-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. yoka-
TochB. yokalle
(ger.) ‘to be drunk’
(DTochB. 509)
1. PIE *eugɑɦolnoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦolnoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦolnoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eugɦalnai-
3. eugɦalnai-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦalnai-
4. i̯augɦalnai-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯augalnai-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. i̯augalnai-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯aukalnai-
6. i̯aukalnai-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *i̯aukallai-
7. i̯aukallai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *i̯aukallē-
8. i̯aukallē-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōkallē-
9. i̯ōkallē-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *i̯ōkalle-
10. i̯ōkalle-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯okalle-
11. i̯okalle-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. yokalle-
TochA. yoke
(sb.m.) ‘sitis’ (: ‘Durst’ = ‘thirst’)
(Poucha 246)
(TochA. yoke [sgN])
1. PIE *eugɑɦoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eugɦai-
3. eugɦai-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦai-
4. i̯augɦai-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯augai-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. i̯augai-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯aukai-
6. i̯aukai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *i̯aukē-
7. i̯aukē-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōkē-
8. i̯ōkē-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *i̯ōke-
9. i̯ōke-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯oke-
10. i̯oke-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochA. yoke-
TochA. yoke·yu-
(a.) ‘sitiens’
(Poucha 246)
1. PIE *eugɑɦoi·i̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦoi·i̯u-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦoi·i̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eugɦai·i̯u-
3. eugɦai·i̯u-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦai·i̯u-
4. i̯augɦai·i̯u-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯augai·i̯u-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. i̯augai·i̯u-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯aukai·i̯u-
6. i̯aukai·i̯u-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *i̯aukē·i̯u-
7. i̯aukē·i̯u-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōkē·i̯u-
8. i̯ōkē·i̯u-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *i̯ōke·i̯u-
9. i̯ōke·i̯u-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯oke·i̯u-
10. i̯oke·i̯u-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochA. yoke·yu-
TochA. yok·tsi
(sb.inf.) ‘potio(n), potus’
(Poucha 247)
(TochA. yoktsi [sg], yoktsintu [pl])
1. PIE *eugɑɦ·dɑɦí
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦ·dɦí
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦ·dɦí
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦ·dɦí
3. i̯augɦ·dɦí
PIE *dɦí → jɦí
Assibilation of *dɦ before *í
Rdɦí›jɦí → *i̯augɦ·jɦí
4. i̯augɦ·jɦí
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯aug·jɦí
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. i̯aug·jɦí
*jɦ → j
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *jɦ
Rjɦ›j → *i̯aug·jí
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. i̯aug·jí
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯auk·jí
7. i̯auk·jí
*j → t s
Loss of voice of media *j
Rj›ts → *i̯auk·tsí
8. i̯auk·tsí
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōk·tsí
9. i̯ōk·tsí
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯ok·tsí
10. i̯ok·tsí
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *yok·tsí
11. yok·tsí
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → TochA. yok·tsi
TochA. yok·añi-
(a.) ‘sitiens’ (: ‘durstig’ = ‘thirsty’)
(Poucha 246)
1. PIE *eugɑɦ·oni̯í-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦ·oni̯í-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦ·oni̯í-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eugɦ·ani̯í-
3. eugɦ·ani̯í-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦ·ani̯í-
4. i̯augɦ·ani̯í-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯aug·ani̯í-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. i̯aug·ani̯í-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯auk·ani̯í-
6. i̯auk·ani̯í-
*ni̯ → ñ
Palatalization of *n before i̯
Rni̯›ñ → *i̯auk·añí-
7. i̯auk·añí-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōk·añí-
8. i̯ōk·añí-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯ok·añí-
9. i̯ok·añí-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *yok·añí-
10. yok·añí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → TochA. yok·añi-
TochB. yoko
(f.) ‘Durst’ (‘thirst’)
(DTochB. 509-10)
(TochB. yoko)
1. PIE *eugɑɦou-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦou-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eugɦau-
3. eugɦau-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦau-
4. i̯augɦau-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯augau-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. i̯augau-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯aukau-
6. i̯aukau-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōkō-
7. i̯ōkō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯oko-
8. i̯oko-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. yoko-
TochB. yok·u-
(pret.pt.) ‘(one who has) drunk’
(DTochB. 509)
1. PIE *eugɑɦ·ú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦ·ú-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦ·ú-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦ·ú-
3. i̯augɦ·ú-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯aug·ú-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. i̯aug·ú-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯auk·ú-
5. i̯auk·ú-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōk·ú-
6. i̯ōk·ú-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯ok·ú-
7. i̯ok·ú-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *yok·ú-
8. yok·ú-
*ú → u
Orthographic change of *ú into u
Rú›u → TochB. yok·u-
TochB. yok·īya-
(f.) ‘thirst, desire’
(DTochB. 510)
(TochB. yok·īye)
1. PIE *eugɑɦ·ɑ́hii̯o-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *eugɑɦ·íhii̯o-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. eugɑɦ·íhii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦ·íhii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. eugɦ·íhii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eugɦ·íhii̯a-
4. eugɦ·íhii̯a-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦ·íhii̯a-
5. i̯augɦ·íhii̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *i̯augɦ·íii̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. i̯augɦ·íii̯a-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯aug·íii̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. i̯aug·íii̯a-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯auk·íii̯a-
8. i̯auk·íii̯a-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *i̯auk·ī́i̯a-
9. i̯auk·ī́i̯a-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōk·ī́i̯a-
10. i̯ōk·ī́i̯a-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯ok·ī́i̯a-
11. i̯ok·ī́i̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *yok·ī́ya-
12. yok·ī́ya-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → TochB. yok·īya-
TochB. yokänta
(sb.) ‘drinker’
(DTochB. 510)
1. PIE *eugɑɦonto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦonto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦonto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eugɦanta-
3. eugɦanta-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦanta-
4. i̯augɦanta-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯auganta-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. i̯auganta-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯aukanta-
6. i̯aukanta-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōkanta-
7. i̯ōkanta-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯okanta-
8. i̯okanta-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. yokanta-
TochB. yokasto
(sb.) ‘drink, nectar’
(DTochB. 510)
(TochB. yokastai [sgA])
1. PIE *eugɑɦostou-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦostou-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦostou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eugɦastau-
3. eugɦastau-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦastau-
4. i̯augɦastau-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯augastau-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. i̯augastau-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯aukastau-
6. i̯aukastau-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōkastō-
7. i̯ōkastō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯okasto-
8. i̯okasto-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. yokasto-
√ugɑɦo-
TochB. wkanmo-
(a.) ‘drinking’
(DTochB. 614)
1. PIE *ugɑɦonmou-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ugɦonmou-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ugɦonmou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ugɦanmau-
3. ugɦanmau-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *uganmau-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. uganmau-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *ukanmau-
5. ukanmau-
PIE *uC → u̯C
Change of PIE *u into u̯ in root-initial
Ru=›u̯= → *u̯kanmau-
6. u̯kanmau-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *u̯kanmō-
7. u̯kanmō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *u̯kanmo-
8. u̯kanmo-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. wkanmo-
√ugɑɦu-
OInd. ogha-
(m.) ‘Flut, Strömung’
(EWA 1:277)
1. PIE *ougɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ougɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ougɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *augɦu̯a-
3. augɦu̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *augɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. augɦa-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōgɦa-
5. ōgɦa-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *ōgha-
6. ōgha-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → OInd. ogha-
OInd. aughá-
(m.) ‘Flut, Strömung’
(EWA 1:277)
1. PIE *ōugɑɦu̯ó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ōugɦu̯ó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ōugɦu̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *ōugɦu̯á-
3. ōugɦu̯á-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *āugɦu̯á-
4. āugɦu̯á-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *āugɦá-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. āugɦá-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *āughá-
6. āughá-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → OInd. aughá-
OEng. eāgor-
(.) ‘Meer, Flut’
(XX:XX)
(IEW. 23)
1. PIE *ougɑɦur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ougɦur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ougɦur-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *ougur-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. ougur-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *augur-
4. augur-
*au → eā
Change of *au into eā
Rau›eā → OEng. eāgur-


PIE √uogɑɦi- √uegɑɦi- √ugɑɦi- ‘fahren’
(IEW. 1118-20)
(+ Pyysalo Hitt. & HLu.)
√uegɑɦi-
Lith. vèž-
(vb.) ‘fahren, befördern’
(LiEtWb. 1236)
(Lith. vèžti [inf.])
1. PIE *u̯égɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯égɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯égɦi-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *u̯éj́ɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯éj́ɦ-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → *u̯èj́ɦ-
4. u̯èj́ɦ-
*j́ɦ → žɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to žɦ
Rj́ɦ›žɦ → *u̯èžɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯èžɦ-
*žɦ → ž
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *žɦ
Ržɦ›ž → *u̯èž-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. u̯èž-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. vèž-
OCS. vez-
(vb.) ‘fahren’ (Lat. uehere)
(Sadnik √1063)
(OCS. vesti [inf.])
1. PIE *u̯egɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯egɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯egɦi-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *u̯ej́ɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯ej́ɦ-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *u̯ezɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
4. u̯ezɦ-
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → *u̯ez-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. u̯ez-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OCS. vez-
√uogɑɦio-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. u̯aza-
(vb.) ‘carry’
(CHLu. 2.11.7)
(HLu. PES2(-)wa/i-za-ha [1sg])
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦi̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *u̯oj́ɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯oj́ɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aj́ɦa-
4. u̯aj́ɦa-
*j́ɦ → zɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to zɦ
Rj́ɦ›zɦ → *u̯azɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. u̯azɦa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. u̯aza-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OIcl. vaga-
(vb.) ‘hin und her bewegen, schaukeln’
(ANEtWb. 638)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦi̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯oǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯oǵɦo-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *u̯ogɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. u̯ogɦo-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *u̯ogo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. u̯ogo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aga-
6. u̯aga-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OIcl. vaga-
Gr. ὄχο-
(m.) ‘Wagen, Fuhrwerk, Fahrzeug’
(GEW 2:457)
(Gr. (ϝ)ὄχος [sgN])
1. PIE *u̯ógɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ógɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ógɦi̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯óǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯óǵɦo-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *u̯óḱho-
4. u̯óḱho-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯ókho-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯ókho-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *ókho-
6. ókho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄχο-
OCS. vozŭ-
(m.) ‘Wagen’
(Sadnik 1063)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦi̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦi̯o
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *u̯oj́ɦo
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯oj́ɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aj́ɦa
4. u̯aj́ɦa
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *u̯azɦa
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. u̯azɦa
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → *u̯aza
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. u̯aza
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *u̯ozo
7. u̯ozo
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *u̯ozu
8. u̯ozu
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vozu
9. vozu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. vozŭ
√uegɑɦio-
RV. váha-
(pr.) ‘fahren, herbeifahren, bringen’
(WbRV. 1240)
(RV. váhati [3sg], váhadhyāi [inf.])
1. PIE *u̯ágɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ágɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ágɦi̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *u̯áj́ɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯áj́ɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯áj́ɦa-
4. u̯áj́ɦa-
*j́ɦ → ɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to ɦ
Rj́ɦ›ɦ → *u̯áɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯áɦa-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *váɦa-
6. váɦa-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. váha-
LAv. vaza-
(pr.A.) ‘führen, ziehen, fliegen’
(AIWb. XX)
(Av. vazaiti [3sg])
1. PIE *u̯egɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯egɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯egɦi̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *u̯ej́ɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯ej́ɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ej́ɦa-
4. u̯ej́ɦa-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *u̯ezɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. u̯ezɦa-
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → *u̯eza-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. u̯eza-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯aza-
7. u̯aza-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. vaza-
Lat. ueho-
(pr.3.) ‘fahren, führen, tragen, bringen’
(Lat. uehō [1sg], uehĕre)
1. PIE *u̯egɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯egɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯egɦi̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯eǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯eǵɦo-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *u̯egɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. u̯egɦo-
*gɦ → ɦ
Loss of *g in *gɦ
Rgɦ›ɦ → *u̯eɦo-
5. u̯eɦo-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *u̯eho-
6. u̯eho-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. ueho-
Lat. ueho-
(pr.3.M.) ‘fahren, reiten, fliegen’
(Lat. uehor)
1. PIE *u̯egɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯egɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯egɦi̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯eǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯eǵɦo-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *u̯egɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. u̯egɦo-
*gɦ → ɦ
Loss of *g in *gɦ
Rgɦ›ɦ → *u̯eɦo-
5. u̯eɦo-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *u̯eho-
6. u̯eho-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. ueho-
√uegɑɦi̯ement-
Lat. uehement-
(a.) ‘heftig, hitzig, stürmisch’
(WH. 2:741)
1. PIE *u̯egɑɦi̯ement-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯egɦi̯ement-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯egɦi̯ement-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯eǵɦement-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯eǵɦement-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *u̯egɦement-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. u̯egɦement-
*gɦ → ɦ
Loss of *g in *gɦ
Rgɦ›ɦ → *u̯eɦement-
5. u̯eɦement-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *u̯ehement-
6. u̯ehement-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. uehement-
Lat. uehementiā-
(f.) ‘Heftigkeit’
(WH. 2:741)
1. PIE *u̯egɑɦi̯ementi̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯egɑɦi̯ementi̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯egɑɦi̯ementi̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯egɦi̯ementi̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯egɦi̯ementi̯āh-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯eǵɦementi̯āh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. u̯eǵɦementi̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯eǵɦementi̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. u̯eǵɦementi̯ā-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *u̯egɦementi̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. u̯egɦementi̯ā-
*gɦ → ɦ
Loss of *g in *gɦ
Rgɦ›ɦ → *u̯eɦementi̯ā-
7. u̯eɦementi̯ā-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *u̯ehementi̯ā-
8. u̯ehementi̯ā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → *u̯ehementiā-
9. u̯ehementiā-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. uehementiā-
√uogɑɦi̯eio-
Gr. ὀχέο-
(vb.A.) ‘tragen, ertragen, aushalten, hegen’
(GEW 2:455)
(Gr. (ϝ)ὀχέω)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦi̯éi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦi̯éi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦi̯éi̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯oǵɦéi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯oǵɦéi̯o-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *u̯oḱhéi̯o-
4. u̯oḱhéi̯o-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯okhéi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯okhéi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *u̯okhéo-
6. u̯okhéo-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *okhéo-
7. okhéo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὀχέο-
Gr. ὀχέο-
(vb.M.) ‘fahren, reiten, schwimmen, vor Anker liegen’
(GEW 2:455)
(Gr. (ϝ)ὀχέομαι)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦi̯éi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦi̯éi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦi̯éi̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯oǵɦéi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯oǵɦéi̯o-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *u̯oḱhéi̯o-
4. u̯oḱhéi̯o-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯okhéi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯okhéi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *u̯okhéo-
6. u̯okhéo-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *okhéo-
7. okhéo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὀχέο-
Goth. in·wagja-
(vb.) ‘aufregen, aufwiegeln : agitare, unsetttle’
(GoEtD. XX)
1. PIE *Π·u̯ogɑɦi̯ei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯ogɦi̯ei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·u̯ogɦi̯ei̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *Π·u̯oǵɦei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·u̯oǵɦei̯o-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *Π·u̯ogɦei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. Π·u̯ogɦei̯o-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *Π·u̯ogei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. Π·u̯ogei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯agei̯a-
6. Π·u̯agei̯a-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *Π·u̯agii̯a-
7. Π·u̯agii̯a-
*ii̯a → ja
Loss of *i before i̯a
Rii̯a›i̯a → *Π·u̯agi̯a-
8. Π·u̯agi̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *Π·u̯agja-
9. Π·u̯agja-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. Π·wagja-
√uogɑɦilo-
Gr. ὄχλο-
(m.) ‘Beunruhigung, Störung, Belästigung’
(GEW 2:456)
1. PIE *u̯ógɑɦilo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ógɦilo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ógɦilo-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯óǵɦlo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯óǵɦlo-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *u̯óḱhlo-
4. u̯óḱhlo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯ókhlo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯ókhlo-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *ókhlo-
6. ókhlo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄχλο-
Gr. ὄχλο-
(m.) ‘Menschenmenge, große Masse, Gedrönge’
(GEW 2:456)
1. PIE *u̯ógɑɦilo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ógɦilo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ógɦilo-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯óǵɦlo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯óǵɦlo-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *u̯óḱhlo-
4. u̯óḱhlo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯ókhlo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯ókhlo-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *ókhlo-
6. ókhlo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄχλο-
Gr. ὀχλέο-
(vb.) ‘in (rollende) Bewegung setzen, wegwälzen’
(GEW 2:457)
(Gr. (ϝ)ὀχλέω)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦiléi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦiléi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦiléi̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯oǵɦléi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯oǵɦléi̯o-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *u̯oḱhléi̯o-
4. u̯oḱhléi̯o-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯okhléi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯okhléi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *u̯okhléo-
6. u̯okhléo-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *okhléo-
7. okhléo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὀχλέο-
√ugɑɦi̯oono-
(Pyysalo)
RV. úhāna-
(pt.) ‘strömend, dahinschießend’
(WbRV. 1244)
1. PIE *úgɑɦi̯ōno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *úgɦi̯ōno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. úgɦi̯ōno-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *új́ɦōno-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. új́ɦōno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *új́ɦōna-
4. új́ɦōna-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *új́ɦāna-
5. új́ɦāna-
*j́ɦ → ɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to ɦ
Rj́ɦ›ɦ → *úɦāna-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. úɦāna-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. úhāna-
Hitt. ḫil·ugāni-
(.) ‘carriage’
(HIL. 322)
(Hitt. ḫi-lu-kà-ni-im [sgG])
1. PIE *hɑil·ugɑɦi̯ōni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hil·ugɦi̯ōni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hil·ugɦi̯ōni-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *hil·uǵɦōni-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. hil·uǵɦōni-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *hil·uǵɦāni-
4. hil·uǵɦāni-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *hil·ugɦāni-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. hil·ugɦāni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *hil·ugāni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. hil·ugāni-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫil·ugāni-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√uogɑɦi̯ori-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. u̯agarei̯a-
(vb.) [mng.] ‘gegen jemandem rebellieren’
(HHand. 192)
(Cf. LAv. yaoza- ‘sich aufregen (vom Wasser, Ländern)’, AIWb. 1231f.)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦi̯orei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦi̯orei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦi̯orei̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯oǵɦorei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯oǵɦorei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aǵɦarei̯a-
4. u̯aǵɦarei̯a-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *u̯agɦarei̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯agɦarei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯agarei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯agarišar-
(n.) ‘Aufruhr’
(HHand. 192)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦi̯orisor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦi̯orisor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦi̯orisor-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯oǵɦorisor-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯oǵɦorisor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aǵɦarisar-
4. u̯aǵɦarisar-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *u̯agɦarisar-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯agɦarisar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *u̯agarisar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. u̯agarisar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯agarišar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √ul- √uol- √uel- (vb.) ‘uehere, expedire’ (sb.) ‘Oberschenkel, Keule’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√ul-
Hitt. ula-
(UZUc.) ‘Oberschenkel’
(HHand. 185)
1. PIE *ulo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ula-
√uōl-
Hitt. u̯āla-
() ((UZU)c.) ‘Keule (Körperteil), (Ober)schenkel’
(HHand. 193)
1. PIE *u̯ōlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ōla-
2. u̯ōla-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → Hitt. u̯āla-
CLu. u̯āli-
() ((UZU)c.) ‘Keule (Körperteil), (Ober)schenkel’
(HHand. 193)
1. PIE *u̯ōli-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → CLu. u̯āli-
TochA. wālyi-
(vb.a.) ‘vehere’
(Poucha 14)
1. PIE *u̯ōli̯i-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *u̯āli̯i-
2. u̯āli̯i-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *u̯ālyi-
3. u̯ālyi-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. wālyi-
TochA. wālune-
(vb.sb.) ‘vehere’
(Poucha 14,292)
(TochA. wālune)
1. PIE *u̯ōlunoi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ōlunai̯a
2. u̯ōlunai̯a
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *u̯ālunai̯a
3. u̯ālunai̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯ālunai̯
4. u̯ālunai̯
*a y → ē
Change of ay into ē in root-final
R=ay›=ē → *u̯ālunē
5. u̯ālunē
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *u̯ālune
6. u̯ālune
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. wālune
Gr. ἀπ·ευλτέο-
(vb.) Gl. ‘expediō, explicō, explōrō’
(Gr. ἀπ·ευλῡτέω)
1. PIE *hɑep·eulɑ́hutéi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑap·eulɑ́hutéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑap·eulɑ́hutéi̯o-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *hɑap·eulúhutéi̯o-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
3. hɑap·eulúhutéi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hap·eulúhutéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. hap·eulúhutéi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ap·eulúutéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ap·eulúutéi̯o-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *ap·eulū́téi̯o-
6. ap·eulū́téi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *ap·eulū́téo-
7. ap·eulū́téo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀπ·ευλύ̄τέο-


PIE √ul- √uol- √uel- (sb.) ‘Geburt, Rang’
(IEW –)
√uol-
Lith. nuo·vala-
(m.pl) ‘Nachgeburt (beim Vieh)’
(LiEtWb. 1187)
(Lith. nuovalaĩ)
1. PIE *Π·u̯olo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯ala-
2. Π·u̯ala-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. Π·vala-
Hitt. ana·u̯ali-
(a.) ‘gleichrangig, ebenbürtig’
(HHand. 16)
(Hitt. an-na-ú-li-e-eš)
1. PIE *ono·u̯oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ana·u̯ali-
√uli-
Hitt. ana·uli-
(a.) ‘gleichrangig, ebenbürtig’
(HEG II:29)
(Hitt. an-na-ú-li-, EHS 212)
1. PIE *ono·uli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ana·uli-
Goth. mana·uli-
(n.) Gestalt : Human guise : σχήμα : habitus’
(GoEtDi. M-22)
1. PIE *Π·uli̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·uli̯a
2. Π·uli̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *Π·uli̯
3. Π·uli̯
*-li̯ → -li
Change of root-final -li̯ into -li
R=li̯›=li → Goth. Π·uli
Hitt. ana·ulei̯a-
(URUa.) ‘Im Lande Tarḫuntaša.’
(OGHErg. 5)
(Hitt. an-na-ú-li-ia-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *ono·ulei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ana·ulei̯a-
Arm. ułi-
(a.) ‘schwanger’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *uli̯i-
*li̯ → ł
Change of *li̯ into ł
Rli̯›ł → Arm. ułi-
Arm. ułi-
(sb.) ‘Kind’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *uli̯i-
*li̯ → ł
Change of *li̯ into ł
Rli̯›ł → Arm. ułi-


PIE √uolu-, √uelu-, √ulu- (vb.) ‘rauben, mit Gewalt nehmen’ (sb.) ‘Löwe’
(IEW. 1145)
√uolu-
CLu. u̯alu̯a-
(c.) ‘Löwe’ (Sum. UR.MAḪ)
(HHand. 194)
(Steinherr (1968): ‘UR.MAH = Lion, see HIL. 1099)
1. PIE *u̯olu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. u̯alu̯a-
CLu. u̯alu̯a·zidi-
(LÚ.c.) ‘homme de Šullamma-’
(NOMS. 1486)
(Steinherr, F. 1968. Das Wort für Löwe im Hieroglyphen-Hethitischen. Die Welt des Orients 4:320.325)
1. PIE *u̯olu̯o·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. u̯alu̯a·Σ-
Hitt. u̯alu̯a·la-
(LÚ.MESc.) ‘Löwenmenschen’
(HHand. 194)
1. PIE *u̯olu̯o·lo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯alu̯a·la-
Lyd. walwe-
(sb.) ‘lion’
(Melchert 1994:336)
(Lyd. walwel)
1. PIE *u̯olu̯e-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯alu̯e-
2. u̯alu̯e-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Lyd. walwe-
√uelu-
Goth. wilwa-
(pr.) ‘mit Gewalt nehmen, rauben’
(GoEtD. W-67)
(Grundr2 1:609)
1. PIE *u̯elu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯elu̯a-
2. u̯elu̯a-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *u̯ilu̯a-
3. u̯ilu̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. wilwa-
√ulu-
Goth. wulw-
(pret.) ‘mit Gewalt nehmen, rauben’
(GoEtD. W-67)
1. PIE *u̯ulu̯-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. wulw-


PIE √um- √uom- √uem- ‘take, find’
(IEW –)
√um-
(Pyysalo)
(HIL. 1155)
Osc. pert·umo-
(vb.) ‘perimere; neben pert-emere’
(IEW. 310)
(Osc. pertumum [inf.], Grundr2 I:836)
Hitt. umei̯a-
(vb.1.A.) ‘finden, (an)treffen’ (Sum. KAR)
(HHand. 201)
(Hitt. umijanzi [3pl], Oettinger 1979:433)
1. PIE *umei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. umei̯a-
√uomi-
HLu. u̯ami·Σ-
(vb.) ‘to find (?)’
(CHLu. 2.24.23)
(HLu. wa/i-mi-LITUUS-ha, Melchert (1994:66): “HLu. wa/i-mi-(ya)- ‘find’)
1. PIE *u̯omi·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. u̯ami·Σ-
HLu. u̯ami·Σ-
(.) ‘find’
(CHLu. 5.1.3)
(HLu. wa/i-mi-OCULUS(+?))
1. PIE *u̯omi·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. u̯ami·Σ-
Lyd. fa·kat·wãmi-
(.) ‘meet with’
(Melchert 1994:344)
(LydWb. 119, Lyd. fakatwãmid)
1. PIE *Π·Π·u̯omi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·Π·u̯ami-
2. Π·Π·u̯ami-
*am/n → ãm/n
Emergence of nasal vowel ã
RaN›ãN → *Π·Π·u̯ãmi-
3. Π·Π·u̯ãmi-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Lyd. Π·Π·wãmi-
√uemi-
Hitt. u̯emi̯a-
(vb.1.A.) ‘finden, (an)treffen’ (Sum. KAR)
(HHand. 201)
(Hitt. uemia-, uimia-)
1. PIE *u̯emi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯emi̯a-
Hitt. u̯emiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘w-holt (an)treffen’
(HHand. 201)
1. PIE *u̯emiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯emisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯emisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯emisḱe/a-
3. u̯emisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯emiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. u̯emiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯emiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √un- √uon- √uen- ‘glänzen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√uon-
Hitt. u̯an·up·aštali-
(MULc.) ‘Sternschnuppe, Komet (?)’
(HHand. 194)
1. PIE *u̯on·up·ostoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯an·up·astali-
2. u̯an·up·astali-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯an·up·aštali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯an·upar·aštali-
(MULc.) ‘Sternschnuppe, Komet (?)’
(Weitenberg 1984:276)
1. PIE *u̯on·upor·ostoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯an·upar·astali-
2. u̯an·upar·astali-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯an·upar·aštali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uēn-
Ion. ἤν·οπ-
(a.) Beivort von χαλκός; λαμπρός, LSJ. 775)
’(GEW1:638)
(Hom. ἦνοπ)
1. PIE *u̯ḗn·Σ-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *ḗn·Σ-
2. ḗn·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion. ἤν·Σ-
√ueno-
LAv. vanant-
(m.) ‘N eines als Gottheit verehrten Fixsterns’
(AIWb. 1354)
1. PIE *u̯enont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯enant-
2. u̯enant-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯anant-
3. u̯anant-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. vanant-
Pahl. vanand-
(sb.) ‘the star ruling the Western celestial sphere’
(MPahl. 202)
1. PIE *u̯enondɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯enondɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯enondɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯enandɦa
3. u̯enandɦa
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯enanda
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. u̯enanda
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯ananda
5. u̯ananda
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Pahl. vananda
√uondɑɦ-
(HIL. 1103)
Hitt. u̯andai-
(vb.1.) ‘glühen, warm sein, zürnen’
(HHand. 194)
1. PIE *u̯ondɑɦoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ondɦoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ondɦoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯andɦai-
3. u̯andɦai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯andai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯andei·u̯ant-
(.) ‘Blitz’
(HHand. 190)
1. PIE *u̯ondɑɦei·u̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ondɦei·u̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ondɦei·u̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯andɦei·u̯ant-
3. u̯andɦei·u̯ant-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯andei·u̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯andani-
(a.) ‘hell’ (HHand. 194)
1. PIE *u̯ondɑɦoni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ondɦoni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ondɦoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯andɦani-
3. u̯andɦani-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯andani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. u̯andanei̯a-
(c.) ‘aufleuchtend (?)’
(HHand. 194)
1. PIE *u̯ondɑɦonei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ondɦonei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ondɦonei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯andɦanei̯a-
3. u̯andɦanei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. u̯andanei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. u̯andula·ši-
(a.gen) ‘of radiance ?’
1. PIE *u̯ondɑɦulo·si-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ondɦulo·si-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ondɦulo·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯andɦula·si-
3. u̯andɦula·si-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *u̯andula·si-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. u̯andula·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. u̯andula·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
uno·dɑɦ-
CLu. una·dei·u̯ali-
(GKLa.) parallel zu ‘zornig’
(HHand. 186)
1. PIE *uno·dɑɦei·u̯oli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uno·dɦei·u̯oli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uno·dɦei·u̯oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *una·dɦei·u̯ali-
3. una·dɦei·u̯ali-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. una·dei·u̯ali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uonum-
OSax. wanum-
(a.) ‘strahlend’
(ANEtWb. 641)
1. PIE *u̯onumo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯anuma
2. u̯anuma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯anum
3. u̯anum
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OSax. wanum


PIE √un- √uon- √uen- ‘sehen, wissen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo: OEng + HLu.)
√uno-
HLu. una·ša-
(a.gen.) ‘of knowing’
(CHLu. XX)
1. PIE *uno·so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *una·sa-
2. una·sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. una·ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. una·nu-
(cs.) ‘cause to know, teach’
(CHLu. 133)
1. PIE *uno·nu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. una·nu-
√uni-
HLu. uni-
(vb.) ‘know’
(CHLu. 133)
(HLu. (LITUUS)u-ni-ti, (LITUUS)u-ni-ha [1sg])
OEng. one-
(vb.) ‘sehen’ siehe! (ASaxD. XX)
(Hh 241)
1. PIE *uni
*-i → -e
Change of root-final -i into -e
R=i›=e → OEng. une
HLu. uni·mi-
(pt.) ‘known, recognized’
(CHLu. 133)
(HLu. u-ni-mi-sa, (LITUUS)u-ni-mi-sa)
√unu-
OEng. ono-
(vb.) ‘sehen’
(Hh 241)


PIE √un- √uon- √uen- ‘Geburt, Familie, Frau’ (vb.) ‘geschlechtlich verkehren, beischlafen’
√uon-
(Sturtevant 1930 [Lg. 6]:218-28)
CLu. u̯an-
(c.) ‘woman’
(HIL. 580)
(CLu. ua-a-ni [sgDL])
1. PIE *u̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. u̯an-
CLu. u̯anant-
(c.) ‘Frau’
(HIL. 580)
(CLu. ua-na-an-za [sgN])
1. PIE *u̯onont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. u̯anant-
CLu. u̯anaša-
(a.gen.) ‘of woman/wife’
(HHand. 194)
(CLu. [ua-a-]na-aš-ša-an, [ua-n]a-a-aš-ša-an])
1. PIE *u̯onoso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯anasa-
2. u̯anasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. u̯anaša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. u̯anaši-
(a.gen.) ‘of woman/wife’
(HHand. 194)
(CLu. ua-na-aš-ši-in-zi [plN])
1. PIE *u̯onosi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯anasi-
2. u̯anasi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. u̯anaši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. u̯anaši-
(a.gen.)
(CHLu. 2.25.13)
(HLu. *406(-)wa/i-na-si-na [Fr11])-
1. PIE *u̯onosi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯anasi-
2. u̯anasi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. u̯anaši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. u̯anati-
(c.) ‘Frau’ (vgl. CLu. unati- ‘id.’) (DLL. 106-7)
(HHand. 194)
(CLu. u̯a-na-at-ti-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *u̯onoti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. u̯anati-
Hitt. uu̯anšige/a-
(vb.iter.) (zu Hitt. uen- ‘futuere’)
(HHand. 190)
(Hitt. ú-ua-an-ši-kan-zi)
1. PIE *uu̯onsigɑɦe/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uu̯onsigɦe/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uu̯onsigɦe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *uu̯ansigɦe/a-
3. uu̯ansigɦe/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *uu̯ansige/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. uu̯ansige/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. uu̯anšige/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uen-
(Oettinger 1979:92)
Hitt. u̯en-
(vb.1.) ‘geschlechtlich verkehren, beischlafen’
(HHand. 201)
(Hitt. ú-en-zi [3sg], ú-e-en-ta [3sg], Weitenberg 1984:407/71)
OGaul. uen·opi-
(PN.c.) ‘Oeil-du-Clan’
(DLG. 313)
(DAG 419)
1. PIE *u̯en·hɑoku̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯en·hoku̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯en·hoku̯i-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯en·oku̯i-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. u̯en·oku̯i-
*ku/u̯ → p
Bilabialization of labiovelar q into p
RkU›p → *u̯en·opi-
4. u̯en·opi-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. uen·opi-
Mess. uenā-
(f.) ‘Venus’
(SdIll. 86)
1. PIE *u̯enēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯enāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯enāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯enāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯enāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯enā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯enā-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Mess. uenā-
√ueni-
(Delamarre)
OGaul. ueni·caro-
(PN.m.) ‘Aimé du clan’
(DLG. 313)
(OGaul. uenicarus)
1. PIE *u̯eni·keɑhro-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯eni·kaɑhro-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯eni·kaɑhro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eni·kahro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯eni·kahro-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯eni·karo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯eni·karo-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → *ueni·karo-
5. ueni·karo-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OGaul. ueni·caro-
OGaul. ueni·clutio-
(PN.m.) ‘Renommé par sa famille’
(DLG. 313)
(OGaul. ueni·clutius)
1. PIE *u̯eni·kilhɑutio-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eni·kilhutio-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯eni·kilhutio-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯eni·ḱlhutio-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯eni·ḱlhutio-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯eni·ḱlutio-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯eni·ḱlutio-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯eni·klutio-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯eni·klutio-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → *ueni·klutio-
6. ueni·klutio-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OGaul. ueni·clutio-
OGaul. ueni·coteni
(VN.m.) ‘[qui appartient] à une ancienne famille’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
OGaulG. ϝενί·κων-
(VN.m.) ‘Ptol. 2.3.9, les chiens du clan’
(DLG. 313)
(OGaulG. ουενίκωνες)
1. PIE *u̯ení·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → OGaulG. ϝενί·Σ-
OGaul. ueni·lati
(PN.m.) ‘Héros-du-clan’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
OGaul. ueni·mantii
(PN.m.) ‘la Bouche-du-Clan’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
OGaul. ueni·marus
(PN.m.) ‘Grand par la lignée’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
OGaul. ueni·reius,
(PN.m.) ‘XX’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
OGaulG. ϝενι·τοουτα
(PN.m.) ‘XX’ (G-106)
(DLG. 313)
(OGaulG. ουενιτοουτα)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → OGaulG. ϝενι·Σ-
OGaul. ueni·uallia
(PN.f.) ‘XX’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
OGaul. ueni·ala
(PN.f.) ‘XX’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
OGaul. ueni·dius
(PN.m.) ‘XX’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
OGaul. ueni·nia
(PN.f.) ‘XX’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
OGaul. ueni·lla
(PN.f.) ‘XX’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
OGaul. ueni·sa-
(PN.f.) ‘XX’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
OGaul. ueni·samus
(PN.m.) ‘en Cisalpine’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
√ueniɑh-
(Delamarre)
Lepont. ueniā-
(PN.f.) ‘chez les Lépontiens etc.’ ; ‘family (?)’
(DLG. 313)
(EtDiPC 413, ACSS 3:168-71, KGP 289-90, GPN 277-79, Jubainville (1892:294ff.))
1. PIE *u̯eni̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯eni̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯eni̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eni̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯eni̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯eni̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯eni̯ā-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → *ueni̯ā-
5. ueni̯ā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lepont. ueniā-
OBret. guen
(.) ‘race, famille’ ‘XX’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯eni̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯eni̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eni̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯eni̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯eni̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯eni̯ā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *u̯eni̯a-
5. u̯eni̯a-
* u̯- → gu-
Change of root-initial u̯- into gu-
Ru̯=›gu= → *gueni̯a-
6. gueni̯a-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OBret. guenia-
√ueniki-
OGaulG. ϝενικο-
(PN.m.) ‘membre du clan’
(DLG. 313)
(OGaul. ουενικοι [plN])
1. PIE *u̯eniki̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯eniḱo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯eniḱo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯eniko-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯eniko-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → OGaulG. ϝενικο-
OGaul. uenicā-
(PN.f.) ‘membre du clan’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eniki̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯eniki̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯eniki̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eniki̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯eniki̯āh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯eniḱāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. u̯eniḱāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯eniḱā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. u̯eniḱā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯enikā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. u̯enikā-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → *uenikā-
7. uenikā-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OGaul. uenicā-
OGaul. ueniciā-
(PN.f.) ‘GPN 278’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯enikii̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯enikii̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯enikii̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯enikii̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯enikii̯āh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯eniḱi̯āh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. u̯eniḱi̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯eniḱi̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. u̯eniḱi̯ā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯eniki̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. u̯eniki̯ā-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → *ueniki̯ā-
7. ueniki̯ā-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *uenici̯ā-
8. uenici̯ā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OGaul. ueniciā-
OGaul. uenixamā-
(PN.f.) ‘XX’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯enikiseɑhmēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯enikisaɑhmēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯enikisaɑhmēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯enikisaɑhmāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. u̯enikisaɑhmāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯enikisahmāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. u̯enikisahmāh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯eniḱsahmāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯eniḱsahmāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯eniḱsamā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. u̯eniḱsamā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯eniksamā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. u̯eniksamā-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → *ueniksamā-
8. ueniksamā-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *uenicsamā-
9. uenicsamā-
*cs → x
Change of *cs into x
Rcs›x → OGaul. uenixamā-
√uenos-
Lat. uenos-
(f.) ‘Liebe(sgenuß), Liebreiz, Geliebte’
(Lat. uenus, ueneris)
1. PIE *u̯enos-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. uenos-
√uent-
Hitt. u̯ent-
(vb.) ‘beischlafen, geschlechtlich verkehren’
(HIL. 1156)
(Hitt. ú-e-en-ti-ir [pret3pl])
LAv. vantā-
(f.) ‘die Geliebte, Frau’
(AIWb. 1355)
1. PIE *u̯entēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯entāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯entāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯entāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯entāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯entā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯entā-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯antā-
5. u̯antā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. vantā-
LAv. vantu-
(m.) ‘Geliebte, Frau’
(AIWb. 1355)
1. PIE *u̯entu-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯antu-
2. u̯antu-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. vantu-
√unoti-
CLu. unati-
(c.) ‘Frau’
(HHand. 186)
(CLu. u-na-at-ti-iš, MUNUS-iš)
1. PIE *unoti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. unati-


PIE √un- √uon- √uen- ‘schmücken, decken’
(IEW 346 [diff.])
(Pyysalo: Toch + Hitt + HLu.)
√uon-
TochB. wan-
(vb.) ‘cover’
(DTochB. 592)
(TochB. wantsi [inf.])
1. PIE *u̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯an-
2. u̯an-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. wan-
TochB. wän-
(vb.) ‘cover’
(DTochB. 592)
(TochB. wänträ [3sg])
1. PIE *u̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯an-
2. u̯an-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. wan-
√un-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. unašḫa-
(c.) ‘Schmuck’
(HIL. 1063)
(Hitt. ú-na-aš-ḫ-, KUB 12.31 ii 25; not a scribal error vs. Kloekhorst)
1. PIE *unosɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *unosho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. unosho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *unasha-
3. unasha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *unašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. unašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. unašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
TochB. on·kor yam-
(vb.) ‘cover’
(DTochB. 112)
1. PIE *oun·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aun·Σ-
2. aun·Σ-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōn·Σ-
3. ōn·Σ-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. on·Σ-
TochB. on·kor mälk-
(vb.) ‘sheathe (?)
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *oun·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aun·Σ-
2. aun·Σ-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōn·Σ-
3. ōn·Σ-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. on·Σ-
TochB. on·kor yam-
(vb.) ‘cover (?)’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *oun·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aun·Σ-
2. aun·Σ-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōn·Σ-
3. ōn·Σ-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. on·Σ-
√unp-
TochA. wamp-
(vb.) ‘schmücken’
(Poucha 286)
(TochA. wamträ)
1. PIE *u̯omp-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯amp-
2. u̯amp-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. wamp-
TochA. wampe-
(sb.) ‘Schmück’
(Poucha 286)
1. PIE *u̯ompoi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ampai̯a
2. u̯ampai̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯ampai̯
3. u̯ampai̯
*a y → ē
Change of ay into ē in root-final
R=ay›=ē → *u̯ampē
4. u̯ampē
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *u̯ampe
5. u̯ampe
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. wampe
√unu-
(Pyysalo: HLu. here (?))
Kimball (1999:225) to PIE *ues- ‘wear, have on’
Hitt. unu-
(vb.1.) ‘schmücken, putzen, herrichten, decken’
(HHand. 186)
LycA. unuẽ·mi-
(pt.) ‘geschmückt’
(BLyk 4:58)
1. PIE *unue·mi-
*en → ẽn
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
ReN›ẽN → LycA. unuẽ·mi-
Hitt. unu̯ašḫa-
(c.) ‘Schmuck’
(HHand. 186)
1. PIE *unu̯osɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *unu̯osho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. unu̯osho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *unu̯asha-
3. unu̯asha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *unu̯ašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. unu̯ašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. unu̯ašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. unu·nu-
(cs.) ‘‹geschmückt machen (?) oder wissen (?)›’
(CHLu. XX)


PIE √un- √uon- √uen- (sb.) ‘Baum, Pflanze, Stange, Stab, Stütze’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo: IIr. + Hitt. + CLu.)
√uen-
RV. ván-
(n.) ‘Baum, Pflanze, Holz’
(WbRV. 1206)
(RV. váṅsu [plL])
1. PIE *u̯én-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *u̯án-
2. u̯án-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. ván-
√uenol-
Hitt. uenal-
(n.) ‘Stange, Stab, Stütze’
(HHand. 201)
(Hitt. ú-e-na-al)
1. PIE *u̯enol-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯enal-
CLu. uenal-
(n.) ‘Stange, Stab, Stütze’
(HHand. 201)
(CLu. uinal-)
1. PIE *u̯enol-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. u̯enal-
LAv. vanar-
(n.) ‘-(?)-’ (Pü. nddakada)
(AIWb. 1354)
(LAv. vanarǝ)
1. PIE *u̯enol-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *u̯enor-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. u̯enor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯enar-
3. u̯enar-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯anar-
4. u̯anar-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. vanar-
LAv. vanāra-
(m.) ‘EN eines Gläubigen’
(AIWb. 1354)
1. PIE *u̯enōlo-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *u̯enōro-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. u̯enōro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯enōra-
3. u̯enōra-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *u̯enāra-
4. u̯enāra-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯anāra-
5. u̯anāra-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. vanāra-


PIE √un- √uon- √uen- (pref.) ‘un-, ohne-, nicht, -los, mangelnd’
(IEW 345 + 757-8)
(Pyysalo 2013:310,88)
√uon-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. au̯an
(adv.) ‘weg (?)’
(HEG I:98-9)
(Hitt. a-ua-an, a-u-ua-an, HIL. 275)
1. PIE *ou̯on
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. au̯an
Hitt. u̯an·umei̯a-
(a.) ‘kinder-, elternlos, alleinstehend’
(HHand. 194)
(Hitt. uanumia-, HIL. 1106)
1. PIE *u̯on·umei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯an·umei̯a-
Pal. u̯an·dangu̯ar-
(n.) ‘ohne Dunkel; ‹cf. Hitt. tankua- ‘dunkel’›’
(HHand. 194)
1. PIE *u̯on·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. u̯an·Σ-
OIcl. van·
(pref.) ‘voran etwas zu fehlt, zu wenig’
(ANEtWb. 643)
1. PIE *u̯on·
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯an·
2. u̯an·
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OIcl. van·
Goth. wan-
(n.) ‘Mangel’ ,
(GoEtD. 394)
(Goth. wan [sgN])
1. PIE *u̯ono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ana-
2. u̯ana-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. wana-
√un-
TochB. on·min-
(sb.) ‘remorse, repentance’
(DTochB. 115)
(TochB. on·miṃ-)
1. PIE *oun·min
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aun·min
2. aun·min
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōn·min
3. ōn·min
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. on·min
TochA. on·min-
(m.) ‘paenitentia’
(Poucha 46)
(TochA. on·miṃ-)
1. PIE *oun·min-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aun·min-
2. aun·min-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōn·min-
3. ōn·min-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. on·min-
TochB. on·mi·ṣa-
(a.) ‘prtng to remorse’
(DTochB. 115)
(TochB. on·miṣṣe-)
1. PIE *oun·mi·si̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aun·mi·si̯a-
2. aun·mi·si̯a-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
Rsi̯›ṣ → *aun·mi·ṣa-
3. aun·mi·ṣa-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōn·mi·ṣa-
4. ōn·mi·ṣa-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. on·mi·ṣa-
TochB. on·missu-
(a.) ‘remorseful’
(DTochB. 115)
1. PIE *oun·missu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aun·missu-
2. aun·missu-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōn·missu-
3. ōn·missu-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. on·missu-
TochB. on·krocce-
(a.) ‘immortal’
(DTochB. 113-4)
1. PIE *oun·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aun·Σ-
2. aun·Σ-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōn·Σ-
3. ōn·Σ-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. on·Σ-
TochB. on·waññe-
(a.) ‘immortal’
(DTochB. 114-5)
TochB. on·waññe-
1. PIE *oun·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aun·Σ-
2. aun·Σ-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōn·Σ-
3. ōn·Σ-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. on·Σ-
TochB. on·kipṣe-
(a.) ‘shameless’
(DTochB. 112)
TochB. on·kipṣe-
1. PIE *oun·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aun·Σ-
2. aun·Σ-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōn·Σ-
3. ōn·Σ-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. on·Σ-
TochB. ont·soyte-
(a.) ‘insatiable, unsatisfied’
(DTochB. 116)
1. PIE *ount·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aunt·Σ-
2. aunt·Σ-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōnt·Σ-
3. ōnt·Σ-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. ont·Σ-
Goth. un·airkn-
(a.) ‘unheilig, gottlos : ἀνόσιος’
(GoEtD. 18)
1. PIE *un·ehɑrgino
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *un·ehrgino
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. un·ehrgino
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *un·ehrǵno
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. un·ehrǵno
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *un·erǵno
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. un·erǵno
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *un·ergno
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. un·ergno
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *un·erkno
6. un·erkno
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *un·erkna
7. un·erkna
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *un·irkna
8. un·irkna
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *un·irkn
9. un·irkn
i → ai
Opening of i into ai
Ri›ai → Goth. un·airkn
Goth. un·aiwiskan-
(a.) ‘ohne Schande : ἀνεπαίσχυντος’
(GoEtD. 21)
1. PIE *un·hɑeiu̯iski̯ono
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *un·hɑaiu̯iski̯ono
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. un·hɑaiu̯iski̯ono
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *un·haiu̯iski̯ono
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. un·haiu̯iski̯ono
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *un·haiu̯isḱono
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. un·haiu̯isḱono
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *un·aiu̯isḱono
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. un·aiu̯isḱono
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *un·aiu̯iskono
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. un·aiu̯iskono
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *un·aiu̯iskana
7. un·aiu̯iskana
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *un·aiu̯iskan
8. un·aiu̯iskan
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. un·aiwiskan


PIE √up- √uop- √uep- ‘auf, über, oben’
(IEW 1105)
√up-
Hitt. up-
(vb.1.) ‘aufgehen (von Gestirnen)’
(HHand. 186)
Hitt. u̯an·up·aštali-
(.) ‘XX’
(Weitenberg 1984:276)
1. PIE *u̯on·up·ostoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯an·up·astali-
2. u̯an·up·astali-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯an·up·aštali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√upi-
Hitt. upai-
(vb.2.) ‘hochheben’
(HHand. 186)
1. PIE *upoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. upai-
Hitt. upei̯a-
(vb.2.) ‘hochheben’
(HHand. 186)
1. PIE *upei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. upei̯a-
√upor
Goth. ufar-
(prep.) ‘über : over, above’
(GoEtD. U-6)
1. PIE *upor-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *ufor-
2. ufor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. ufar-
Hitt. upar·mu̯a-
(LÚ.c.) (autres)
(NOMS. 1428)
(in Akd. up-pár-mu-ua, up-pár.A.A)
1. PIE *upor·mu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. upar·mu̯a-
Hitt. uan·upar·aštali-
(.) ‘XX’
(Weitenberg 1984:276)
1. PIE *u̯on·upor·ostoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯an·upar·astali-
2. u̯an·upar·astali-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯an·upar·aštali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uporo
Hitt. upara·mu̯a-
(LÚ.c.) ‘prince Hittite’
(NOMS. 1428)
(in Hitt. up-pa-ra-A.A)
1. PIE *uporo·mu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. upara·mu̯a-
Goth. ufaro·n
(adv.prep.) ‘darüber, über etwas, über X’
(Goth. ufaro [adv.prep.])
1. PIE *uporō·n
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *uforō·n
2. uforō·n
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ufarō·n
3. ufarō·n
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → Goth. ufaro·n
√upu-
Hitt. upu̯ar-
(n.N.act) ‘Aufgang’
(HHand. 186)
1. PIE *upu̯or
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. upu̯ar


PIE √up- √uop- √uep- ‘Fett, Fetthaut, Talg’ (a.) ‘fett(leibig)’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√uopo-
RV. vapódara-
(a.) ‘fettleibig’
(WbRV. 1214)
1. PIE *u̯opoúɦɑdero-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯opoúɦdero-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯opoúɦdero-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯apaúɦdera-
3. u̯apaúɦdera-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *u̯apaúdera-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯apaúdera-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯apaúdara-
5. u̯apaúdara-
aú → ṓ
Monophthongization of *aú
Raú›ṓ → *u̯apṓdara-
6. u̯apṓdara-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vapṓdara-
7. vapṓdara-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → RV. vapódara-
√uopēɑh-
OInd. vapā́-
(f.) ‘die Fetthaut’
(WbRV. 1213)
(KEWA 3:144, VS. vapā́-)
1. PIE *u̯opḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *u̯opā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯opā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯opā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯opā́h-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯apā́h-
4. u̯apā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯apā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. u̯apā́-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OInd. vapā́-
RV. vapā́vant-
(a.) ‘mit Fett versehen’
(WbRV. 1213)
(RV. 5.43.7.)
1. PIE *u̯opḗɑhu̯ont-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *u̯opā́ɑhu̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯opā́ɑhu̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯opā́hu̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯opā́hu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯apā́hu̯ant-
4. u̯apā́hu̯ant-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯apā́u̯ant-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. u̯apā́u̯ant-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. vapā́vant-
√uopu-
Hitt. u̯apuzei-
() ((UZU)n.) ‘Talg’
(HHand. 194)
(Hitt. ua-ap-pu-uz-zi-ia)
1. PIE *u̯opudɑɦi̯ei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯opudɦi̯ei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯opudɦi̯ei-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *u̯opujɦei-
3. u̯opujɦei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯apujɦei-
4. u̯apujɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *u̯apujei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. u̯apujei-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. u̯apuzei-
Hitt. u̯apuzei-
(ENc.) ‘heth. Würdenträger’
(HHand. 194)
1. PIE *u̯opudɑɦi̯ei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯opudɦi̯ei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯opudɦi̯ei-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *u̯opujɦei-
3. u̯opujɦei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯apujɦei-
4. u̯apujɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *u̯apujei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. u̯apujei-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. u̯apuzei-


PIE √up- √uop- √uep- (sb.) ‘Strom, Fluß, See, Teich, Sumpf’
(IEW 1149)
(Pyysalo)
√uop-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. u̯apam-
(c.) ‘river bank’
(HIL. 1107)
(Hitt. ua-ap-pa-mu-uš [plA])
1. PIE *u̯opom-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯apam-
OCS. vapa-
(f.) ‘Sumpf, Teich, Gehölz’
(Sadnik 1046)
(REW 168)
1. PIE *u̯ōpēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯ōpāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯ōpāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ōpāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ōpāh-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *u̯āpāh-
4. u̯āpāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯āpā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. u̯āpā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vāpā-
6. vāpā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OCS. vapa-
OInd. vāpī́-
(f.) ‘kleiner See, großer Teich, Pfuhl, Zisterne’
(KEWA 3:188)
1. PIE *u̯ōpiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *u̯ōpiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. u̯ōpiíh-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *u̯āpiíh-
3. u̯āpiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯āpií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯āpií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *u̯āpī́-
5. u̯āpī́-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OInd. vāpī́-
Hitt. u̯apu-
(n./c.) ‘Flußufer’
(HHand. 194)
(Weitenberg 1984: 52-4 for attestations’
1. PIE *u̯opu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯apu-
√up-
Lith. ùpė-
(f2.) ‘Strom, Fluß’
(LiEtWb. 1169)
1. PIE *úpēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *úpēh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. úpēh-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis PLith. ù
RLiAcc3 → *ùpēh-
3. ùpēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ùpē-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ùpē-
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → Lith. ùpė-


PIE √ur- √uor- √uer- (vb.) ‘bewahren, scheuen, wachten’ (sb.) ‘Wächter, Warter’
(IEW 1160-4)
√uoro-
Hitt. a·u̯ara-
(ḪUR.SAG) ‘verehrt in › Šuruwa’
(OGH. 58)
(Hitt. a-u-ua-ra-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *o·u̯oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a·u̯ara-
ODor. ϝώρο-
(m.pl) ‘Auge(n)’
(GEW 1:280)
(in Hes. βῶροι · οφθαλμοί)
1. PIE *u̯ṓro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → ODor. ϝώρο-
Dor. πυλᾱ·ωρό-
(a.) ‘Torwart, Wächter’
(GEW 2:623)
(Ep. πυλα·ωρό-)
1. PIE *puhɑlēɑh·u̯ōró-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *puhɑlāɑh·u̯ōró-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. puhɑlāɑh·u̯ōró-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *puhlāh·u̯ōró-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. puhlāh·u̯ōró-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pulā·u̯ōró-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pulā·u̯ōró-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *pulā·ōró-
5. pulā·ōró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. πυλᾱ·ωρό-
Goth. war-
(a.) ‘sober’
(GoEtD. 395)
1. PIE *u̯oro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ara
2. u̯ara
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯ar
3. u̯ar
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. war
OSax. war-
(a.) ‘wary, cautious, careful’
(GoEtD. 395)
1. PIE *u̯oro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ara
2. u̯ara
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯ar
3. u̯ar
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OSax. war
Gr. ὄρο-
(pr.) ‘schauen, netrachten, sehen’
(Gr. ὄρομαι)
1. PIE *u̯óro-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *óro-
2. óro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄρο-
√uori-
Hitt. a·u̯ari-
(c.) ‘Ausgück, Warte, Turm’
(HHand. 30)
1. PIE *o·u̯ori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a·u̯ari-
MidHG. wer
(f.) ‘caution’
(GoEtD. 395)
1. PIE *u̯ori
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ari
2. u̯ari
*ari → eri
Umlaut *ari to eri
Rari›eri → *u̯eri
3. u̯eri
*-i → -e
Change of root-final -i into -e
R=i›=e → *u̯ere
4. u̯ere
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → MidHG. were
OEng. waria-
(vb.) ‘bewahren, hüten’
(ANEtWb. 645)
(OEng. warian
1. PIE *u̯ori̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ari̯a-
2. u̯ari̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → *wari̯a-
3. wari̯a-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OEng. waria-
Hitt. u̯arida-
(vb.) ‘sich ängstigen, scheuen’ (= Hitt. uerit-)
(HHand. 196)
1. PIE *u̯oridɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯oridɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯oridɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aridɦa-
3. u̯aridɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯arida-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uort-
Lith. var̃ta-
(m.) ‘Wächter, Waldwart, Unterförster’
(LiEtWb. 1204)
1. PIE *u̯oŕto-
eŕ → or̃
Circumflex intonation for oŕ
RLiAcc11 → *u̯or̃to-
2. u̯or̃to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ar̃ta-
3. u̯ar̃ta-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. var̃ta-
OPr. wart-
(m.) ‘Warter, Waltwächter, Unterförster’
(LiEtWb. 1204)
1. PIE *u̯orto
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arta
2. u̯arta
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *varta
3. varta
*v → w
Orthographic change of of *v into w
Rv›w → OPr. warta
√uordɑɦ-
Goth. daura·ward-
(m.) ‘doorkeeper : θυρωρός’
(GoEtD. 394)
1. PIE *Π·u̯ordɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯ordɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·u̯ordɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·u̯ordo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. Π·u̯ordo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯arda
4. Π·u̯arda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *Π·u̯ard
5. Π·u̯ard
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. Π·ward
OSax. ward-
(m.) ‘guard’
(GoEtD. 394)
1. PIE *u̯ordɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ordɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ordɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯ordo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. u̯ordo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arda
4. u̯arda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯ard
5. u̯ard
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OSax. ward
OHG. wart-
(m.) ‘guard’
(GoEtD. 394)
1. PIE *u̯ordɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ordɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ordɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯ordo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. u̯ordo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arda
4. u̯arda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯ard
5. u̯ard
*d → t
OHG sound shift of *d
Rd›tHG → *u̯art
6. u̯art
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. wart
OIcl. vǫrð-
(m.) ‘Wächter, Hüter’
(ANEtWb. 675)
1. PIE *u̯ordɑɦu
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ordɦu
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ordɦu
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯ordu
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. u̯ordu
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ardu
4. u̯ardu
*ardu → ǫrd
Umlaut *u for ardu
Rardu›ǫrd → *u̯ǫrd
5. u̯ǫrd
*d -› ð
Change of d into ð
Rd›ð → *u̯ǫrð
6. u̯ǫrð
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OIcl. vǫrð
OHG. warta-
(f.) ‘look-out’
(GoEtD. 394)
1. PIE *u̯ordɑɦēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯ordɑɦāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯ordɑɦāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ordɦāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ordɦāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ordɦā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯ordɦā
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯ordā
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. u̯ordā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ardā
6. u̯ardā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *u̯ardō
(XX:XX)
7. u̯ardō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *u̯arda
8. u̯arda
*d → t
OHG sound shift of *d
Rd›tHG → *u̯arta
9. u̯arta
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. warta
√uoru-
Gr. ὄρυ-
(pr.M.) ils visent
(GEW 2:XX)
(Hom. epi oruntai)
1. PIE *u̯óru-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *óru-
2. óru-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄρυ-
LinB. ϝορϝο-
(m.) ‘guard’
(GEW 2:XX)
(LinB. wo-wo)
1. PIE *u̯oru̯o-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. ϝορϝο-
Gr. οὔρο-
(m.) ‘guard’
(GEW 2:448)
(Gr. οὖρος)
1. PIE *u̯óru̯o-
*óru̯ → oúr
Lengthening of óru̯ to oúr
Róru̯›oúr → *u̯oúro-
2. u̯oúro-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *oúro-
3. oúro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. οὔρο-
√uro-
Hitt. a·ura-
(n./c.) ‘Ausguck, Warte, Turm’
(HHand. 29)
1. PIE *o·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a·ura-
Hitt. a·ura-
(URU.) ‘‹cf. above›
(OGH. 57)
1. PIE *o·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a·ura-
Gr. βλοσ·υρό-
(a.) ‘mit fruchtbaren Augen, gräßlich blickend’
(GEW 2:XX)
1. PIE *Π·uró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·υρό-
Gr. πυλο·υρό-
(a.) ‘Torwart, Wächter’
(GEW 2:623)
1. PIE *puhɑlo·uró-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *puhlo·uró-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. puhlo·uró-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pulo·uró-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. pulo·uró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πυλο·υρό-
Dor. πυλα·υρό-
(a.) ‘Torwart, Wächter’
(GEW 2:623)
1. PIE *puhɑlēɑh·uró-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *puhɑlāɑh·uró-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. puhɑlāɑh·uró-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *puhlāh·uró-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. puhlāh·uró-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pulā·uró-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pulā·uró-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *pula·uró-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. pula·uró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. πυλα·υρό-
√uri-
Hitt. a·uri-
(n./c.) ‘Ausguck, Warte, Turm’
(HHand. 29)
1. PIE *o·uri-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a·uri-
Hitt. a·uri̯a
(ḪUR.SAG.) (in der Nähe von › Ḫaštira)
(OGH. 57-58)
1. PIE *o·uri̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a·uri̯a-
Hitt. a·uri̯ala-
(N.ag.) ‘Grenzwächter, Grenzschusoldat’
(HHand. 29)
1. PIE *o·uri̯olo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a·uri̯ala-
Hitt. urideima-
(.) ‘Angst’
(HHand. 187)
1. PIE *uridɑɦeimo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uridɦeimo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uridɦeimo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *uridɦeima-
3. uridɦeima-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. urideima-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uru-
LinB. οὔρυ-
(vb.) ‘guard, protect’
(GEW 2:XX)
(LinB. o-u-ru-to o-pi-a2-ra e-pi-ko-u̯o, PYLOS An 657
1. PIE *oúru-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. οὔρυ-
Gr. ρύο-
(.) ‘XX’
(GEW 2:XX)
(Gr. ρύοντο)
1. PIE *u̯rúo-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *rúo-
2. rúo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ρύο-
Gr. ρύ-
(.) ‘XX’
(GEW 2:XX)
(Gr. ρύατο)
1. PIE *u̯rú-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *rú-
2. rú-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ρύ-
√ueri-
(Benveniste BSL 33, 138)
Lat. uereo-
(pr.) ‘ängstlich beobachten; verehren, fürchten’
(WH. 2:757-6)
(Lat. uereō)
1. PIE *u̯erei̯o-
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
Rei̯o›eo → *u̯ereo-
2. u̯ereo-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. uereo-
Hitt. u̯erid-
(vb.2.) ‘sich ängstigen, scheuen’
(HHand. 201)
1. PIE *u̯eridɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eridɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯eridɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯erid-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯eridei-
(vb.1.) ‘sich ängstigen, scheuen’
(HHand. 201
1. PIE *u̯eridɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eridɦei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯eridɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯eridei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯erideima-
(.) ‘Angst’
(HHand. 187)
1. PIE *u̯eridɑɦeimo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eridɦeimo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯eridɦeimo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯eridɦeima-
3. u̯eridɦeima-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯erideima-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √ur- √uor- √uer- (vb.) ‘warm werden, brennen’ (sb.) ‘Wärme, Hitze, Frühling’
(IEW 1161 + 1166 + 1174)
(Pyysalo)
√uēr-
(Persson, Beitr. 615!)
(Not *u̯ēsr- !)
Lat. uēr-
(f.) ‘Frühling’
(Lat. uēr, uēris)
1. PIE *u̯ēr
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. uēr
OIcl. vār-
(n.) ‘Frühling’
(ANEtWb. 644)
(OIcl. vār)
1. PIE *u̯ēro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ēra
2. u̯ēra
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *u̯āra
3. u̯āra
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯ār
4. u̯ār
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OIcl. vār
ModSwed. vår-
(sb.) ‘Frühling’
(ANEtWb. 644)
1. PIE *u̯ēro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ēra
2. u̯ēra
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯ēr
3. u̯ēr
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *u̯ār
4. u̯ār
ā -› å
Change of ā into å
Rā›å → *u̯år
5. u̯år
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → ModSwed. vår
√uēro-
OIcl. vāra-
(vb.) ‘frühling werden’
(ANEtWb. 645)
1. PIE *u̯ēro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ēra-
2. u̯ēra-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *u̯āra-
3. u̯āra-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OIcl. vāra-
√uoro-
Hitt. u̯ara-
(vb.2.) ‘start a fire’
(HIL. 1067)
(Hitt. ua-a-ra-i ‘start a fire’)
1. PIE *u̯oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯ara-
Hitt. uri·u̯ara-
(.) ‘brennend, lodernd’
(HHand. 196)
1. PIE *uri·u̯oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uri·u̯ara-
√uori-
Hitt. u̯ari·u̯arant-
(pt.) ‘brennend, lodernd’
(HHand. 196)
1. PIE *u̯ori·u̯oront-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯ari·u̯arant-
√uormo-
OIcl. varm-
(a.) ‘warm’
(ANEtWb. 646)
(OIcl. varmr [sgN])
1. PIE *u̯ormo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arma
2. u̯arma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯arm
3. u̯arm
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OIcl. varm
OEng. wearm-
(a.) ‘warm’
(ASaxD. 1177)
1. PIE *u̯ormo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arma
2. u̯arma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯arm
3. u̯arm
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OEng. warm
OHG. warm-
(a.) ‘calidus, apricus’
(ASaxD. 1177)
1. PIE *u̯ormo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arma
2. u̯arma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯arm
3. u̯arm
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. warm
OSax. warm-
(a.) ‘warm’
(ASaxD. 1177)
1. PIE *u̯ormo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arma
2. u̯arma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯arm
3. u̯arm
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OSax. warm
OFr. warm-
(a.) ‘warm’
(ASaxD. 1177)
(OFr. warm)
1. PIE *u̯ormo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arma
2. u̯arma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯arm
3. u̯arm
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OFr. warm
√uērmēɑh-
OHG. wirma-
(f.) ‘Wärme, Hitze, Wärmen : warmth, heat’
(IEW. 1166)
1. PIE *u̯ērmēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯ērmāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯ērmāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ērmāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ērmāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ērmā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯ērmā
*ēRC → eRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ēRC
RēRC›eRC → *u̯ermā
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. u̯ermā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *u̯ermō
(XX:XX)
6. u̯ermō
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *u̯irmō
7. u̯irmō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *u̯irma
8. u̯irma
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. wirma
OEng. wirma-
(vb.) ‘make warm’
(ASaxD. 1238)
1. PIE *u̯ērmēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯ērmāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯ērmāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ērmāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ērmāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ērmā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯ērmā-
*ēRC → eRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ēRC
RēRC›eRC → *u̯ermā-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. u̯ermā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *u̯ermō-
(XX:XX)
6. u̯ermō-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *u̯irmō-
7. u̯irmō-
-ō → -a
Change of stem-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a= → *u̯irma-
8. u̯irma-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OEng. wirma-
√uorno-
Lat. uerno-
(a.) ‘auf den Frühling bezüglich’
(WH. 2:755)
1. PIE *u̯erno-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. uerno-
RV. várṇa-
(m.) ‘Farbe, Glanz(escheinung)’ (schwarz, rot)
(WbRV. 1222)
1. PIE *u̯órno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯órna-
2. u̯órna-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *u̯árna-
3. u̯árna-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *várna-
4. várna-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. várṇa-
RV. su·várṇa-
(a.) ‘schönfarbig’
(WbRV. 1551)
1. PIE *su·u̯órno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su·u̯órna-
2. su·u̯órna-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *su·u̯árna-
3. su·u̯árna-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *su·várna-
4. su·várna-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. su·várṇa-
LAv. varǝnah-
(n.) ‘Farbe’ (als Zeichen blühender Gesundheit)
(WbRV. 1372)
1. PIE *u̯ernos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ernas-
2. u̯ernas-
*r → rǝ
Anaptyxis of ǝ (Schwa)
Rr›rǝ → *u̯erǝnas-
3. u̯erǝnas-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *u̯erǝnah-
4. u̯erǝnah-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯arǝnah-
5. u̯arǝnah-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. varǝnah-
LAv. spita·varǝnah-
(m.) ‘Name eines Bergs oder Gebirgs’
(AIWb. 1625)
(LAv. spita- ‘weiss+farbig’)
1. PIE *kiu̯ito·u̯ernos-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *ću̯ito·u̯ernos-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ću̯ito·u̯ernos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ću̯ita·u̯ernas-
3. ću̯ita·u̯ernas-
*r → rǝ
Anaptyxis of ǝ (Schwa)
Rr›rǝ → *ću̯ita·u̯erǝnas-
4. ću̯ita·u̯erǝnas-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *ću̯ita·u̯erǝnah-
5. ću̯ita·u̯erǝnah-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *su̯ita·u̯erǝnah-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
6. su̯ita·u̯erǝnah-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *su̯ita·u̯arǝnah-
7. su̯ita·u̯arǝnah-
*su̯ → sp
Bilabialization of *u̯ after s
Rsu̯›sp → *spita·u̯arǝnah-
8. spita·u̯arǝnah-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. spita·varǝnah-
√urēɑh-
Alb. urë-
(f.) ‘Scheit, Feuerbrand’
(AlbEtD. 488-9)
1. PIE *urēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *urāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. urāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *urāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. urāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *urā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. urā-
*ā → ë
Change of *ā into Alb. ë
Rā›ë → Alb. urë-
(XX:XX)
√uri-
Hitt. uri·u̯ara-
(.) ‘brennend, lodernd’
(HHand. 196)
1. PIE *uri·u̯oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uri·u̯ara-
√urno-
OIcl. orna-
(vb.) ‘warm werden, wärmen’
(IEW. 1166)
1. PIE *urno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. urna-


PIE √ur- √uor- √uer- (a.) ‘hervorstehend, weit, groß’ (sb.) ‘Tisch, Platte’
(IEW XX)
(+ Rieken + Pyysalo)
√uoro-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. u̯ara-
(sb.) ‘plain’
(CHLu. 1.1.5)
(HLu. “TERRA X”(-)wá/í+ra/i-za)
1. PIE *u̯oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. u̯ara-
RV. vara·sád-
(a.) ‘im weiten Raume sich aufhaltend’
(WbRV. 1218)
1. PIE *u̯oro·séɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯oro·séɦd-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯oro·séɦd-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ara·séɦd-
3. u̯ara·séɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *u̯ara·séd-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯ara·séd-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *u̯ara·sád-
5. u̯ara·sád-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. vara·sád-
√uero-
Hitt. u̯era-
() ((GIŠ)c.) ‘Platte, Tablett’ ?
(HHand. 187)
(HIL. 1158)
1. PIE *u̯ero-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯era-
√uro-
(Rieken + Pyysalo)
Hitt. ura-
(a.) ‘GAL : groß’
(HHand. 187)
1. PIE *uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ura-
CLu. ura-
(a.) ‘groß’
(HHand. 187)
1. PIE *uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ura-
OInd. dant·ura-
(a.) ‘mit hervorstehende Zähnen’
(Rieken 1999:354)
1. PIE *ɦɑdont·uro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦdont·uro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦdont·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦdant·ura-
3. ɦdant·ura-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → OInd. dant·ura-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Hitt. ura-
(GIŠc.) ‘Platte, Tablett’ (?)
(HHand. 187)
(HIL. 1069)
1. PIE *uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ura-
Lith. aũk·ura-
(m.) ‘Opfertisch, Altar’
(LiEtWb. 24-25)
(Lith. aũkuras [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lith. Π·ura-
Hitt. laḫ·ura-
() ((GIŠ).) ‘Opfer·tisch’
(HEG 2:5)
1. PIE *leɑh·uro-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑh·uro-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑh·uro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lah·uro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lah·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lah·ura-
4. lah·ura-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. laḫ·ura-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Pal. daš·ura-
(.) ‘Opfer·tisch’
(XX)
1. PIE *dɑɦos·uro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦos·uro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦos·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦas·ura-
3. dɦas·ura-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *das·ura-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. das·ura-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Pal. daš·ura-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. išn·ura-
(c.) ‘Gefäß zur Teigbereitung, Backtrog’
(HHand. 66)
(Kimball 1999:XX):
1. PIE *isn·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *isn·ura-
2. isn·ura-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. išn·ura-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √ur- √uor- √uer- (sb.) ‘Hilfe, Mittel’ (vb.) ‘helfen’
(IEW XX)
(Gusmani 1968:17f.)
√uro-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ura-
(vb.) ‘zu Hilfe kommen, helfen’
(HHand. 187)
(Hitt. urra-)
1. PIE *uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ura-
Hitt. šin·ura-
(a.) ‘mittellos, arm’
(HEG 2:1053-4)
(For Hitt. šin- cf. Lat. sine ‘ohne’)
1. PIE *sin·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *sin·ura-
2. sin·ura-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. šin·ura-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uoro-
Hitt. uu̯ara-
(c/n.?) ‘Hilfe’
(HHand. 190)
(Hitt. uuarra ḫalzai-).
1. PIE *uu̯oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uu̯ara-
√uēr-
Gr. ἥρ-
(f.) ‘service, gratification’
(LSJ. 1:777)
(GEW 1:641, Gr. ἧρα [sgA], Kimball 1999:247)
1. PIE *u̯ḗr
*u̯E -› hE
Change of u̯ into h before e,é,ē,ḗ
Ru̯E›hE → *hḗr
2. hḗr
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἥρ


PIE √ur- √uor- √uer- ‘Geruch’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√uor-
TochB. war-
(pr.M.tr.) ‘smell’
(DTochB. 596)
(TochB. warträ [3sg])
1. PIE *u̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ar-
2. u̯ar-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. war-
TochA. war-
(m.) ‘Geruch : odeur’
(Poucha 286)
(TochA. war [sgN])
1. PIE *u̯oro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ara
2. u̯ara
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯ar
3. u̯ar
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. war
TochB. wera-
(m.sg) ‘gandha-, gandharva- : smell’
(DTochB. 609)
(TochB. were [sgN])
1. PIE *u̯oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ara-
2. u̯ara-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. wara-
√uors-
(CHD Š: 176)
(HIL. 1126, 1129)
TochB. wars-
(vb.) ‘smell’
(DTochB. 596)
(TochB. warstsi [inf.])
1. PIE *u̯ors-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ars-
2. u̯ars-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. wars-
TochA. wärsä-
(pr.A.) ‘spirare, respirare’
(Poucha 297)
(TochA. wärsäṣ [3sg])
1. PIE *u̯orso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arsa-
2. u̯arsa-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. warsa-
TochB. warṣ-
(vb.) ‘smell’
(DTochB. 596)
(TochB. warṣäṃ [3sg])
1. PIE *u̯orsi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arsi-
2. u̯arsi-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
Rsi›ṣ → *u̯arṣ-
3. u̯arṣ-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. warṣ-
Hitt. uaršei̯a-
(vb.) ‘smell’
(HIL. 1126)
1. PIE *u̯orsei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arsei̯a-
2. u̯arsei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯aršei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯aršul-
(n.) ‘angenehmer Gerucht, Duft’ (Sum. ŠIM)
(HHand. 197)
(Cf. Hitt. a·šul- (n.) ‘Güte, Heil, Grüß, Wohlergehen’)
1. PIE *u̯orsul-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arsul-
2. u̯arsul-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯aršul-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√urs-
TochA. urs-
(vb.M.) ‘olfacere, olere’
(Poucha 294)
(TochA. pursār [ipv], LÉDT 160)


PIE √urgiɑɦ- √uorgiɑɦ- √uergiɑɦ- (vb.) ‘rollen’ (sb.) ‘Wagen, Türangel’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo)
√urgiɑɦ-
RV. prá (…) vr̥ha·-
(pr.) ‘vorwärtz rollen (das Rad)’
(WbRV. 900)
1. PIE *Π·u̯r̥gi̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯r̥gi̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·u̯r̥gi̯ɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *Π·u̯r̥j́ɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·u̯r̥j́ɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯r̥j́ɦa-
4. Π·u̯r̥j́ɦa-
*j́ɦ → ɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to ɦ
Rj́ɦ›ɦ → *Π·u̯r̥ɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. Π·u̯r̥ɦa-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *Π·vr̥ɦa-
6. Π·vr̥ɦa-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. Π·vr̥ha-
RV. úd (…) vr̥ha·-
(pr.) ‘herumrollen’
(WbRV. 900)
1. PIE *Π·u̯r̥gi̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯r̥gi̯ɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·u̯r̥gi̯ɦo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *Π·u̯r̥j́ɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·u̯r̥j́ɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯r̥j́ɦa-
4. Π·u̯r̥j́ɦa-
*j́ɦ → ɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to ɦ
Rj́ɦ›ɦ → *Π·u̯r̥ɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. Π·u̯r̥ɦa-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *Π·vr̥ɦa-
6. Π·vr̥ɦa-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. Π·vr̥ha-
Hitt. u̯au̯argima-
(c.) ‘Türangel : door-hinge’
(HEG 2:302-3)
(Puhvel HED 3: 399f.)
1. PIE *u̯ou̯orgi̯ɑɦimo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ou̯orgi̯ɦimo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ou̯orgi̯ɦimo-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *u̯ou̯orǵɦimo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯ou̯orǵɦimo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯au̯arǵɦima-
4. u̯au̯arǵɦima-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *u̯au̯argɦima-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯au̯argɦima-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯au̯argima-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. u̯arzani-
(CURRUSc.) ‘chariot : Wagen’
(CHLu. 2.11.7)
(HLu. wa/i+ra/i-za-ni-ná)
1. PIE *u̯orgi̯ɑɦoni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯orgi̯ɦoni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯orgi̯ɦoni-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RgI›j́ → *u̯orj́ɦoni-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯orj́ɦoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arj́ɦani-
4. u̯arj́ɦani-
*j́ɦ → zɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to zɦ
Rj́ɦ›zɦ → *u̯arzɦani-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. u̯arzɦani-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. u̯arzani-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √ur- √uor- √uer- (vb.) ‘vernichten, sterben’ (sb.) ‘Schwert’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo: Av. + HLu.)
√uor-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. ARHA uar·-
(vb.) ‘die away’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. (“MORI”)wa/i+ra/i-ha’ [1sg])
1. PIE *Π·u̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·u̯ar-
HLu. uauar-
(vb.) ‘die’
(CHLu. 386, 547)
(HLu. ...w]a/i-wa/i+ra/i-tá)
1. PIE *u̯ou̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. u̯au̯ar-
LAv. paiti (...) vāraya-
(csA.) ‘zu Grunde richten, vernichten’
(AIWb. 1363)
1. PIE *Π·u̯ōrei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯ōrei̯a-
2. Π·u̯ōrei̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·u̯ārei̯a-
3. Π·u̯ārei̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *Π·u̯ārai̯a-
4. Π·u̯ārai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *Π·u̯āraya-
5. Π·u̯āraya-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. Π·vāraya-
√uori-
(Pyysalo)
OIcl. ver-
(m.) ‘Schwert’ (þula)
(ANEtWb. 657)
(OIcl. verr [sgN])
1. PIE *u̯ori
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ari
2. u̯ari
*ari → eri
Umlaut *ari to eri
Rari›eri → *u̯eri
3. u̯eri
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OIcl. veri
HLu. ARHA uauarita·-
(vb.) ‘die away’
(CHLu. XX)
(Not from */l/ > HLu. /r/ vs. Melchert 1994:238)
1. PIE *Π·u̯ou̯orito-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·u̯au̯arita-
√u̯ordɑɦ-
(Pyysalo)
Goth. fra·wardja-
(vb.) ‘verderben’ (vb.tr.) ‘entstellen’
(Mat 6,19 CA)
1. PIE *pro·u̯ordɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pro·u̯ordɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pro·u̯ordɦi̯o-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *fro·u̯ordɦi̯o-
3. fro·u̯ordɦi̯o-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *fro·u̯ordi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. fro·u̯ordi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *fra·u̯ardi̯a-
5. fra·u̯ardi̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *fra·u̯ardja-
6. fra·u̯ardja-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. fra·wardja-
OIcl. verða-
(pr.) ‘vernichten’
(ANEtWb. 655)
1. PIE *u̯ordɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ordɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ordɦi̯o-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯ordi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. u̯ordi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ardi̯a-
4. u̯ardi̯a-
*a – i → e – Ø
Umlaut for *a – i
Rardi̯›erd → *u̯erda-
5. u̯erda-
*d -› ð
Change of d into ð
Rd›ð → *u̯erða-
6. u̯erða-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OIcl. verða-
OHG. far·werte-
(pr.) ‘violare, corrumpere : violate’
(GoEtDi. F-88)
(OHG. farwerten [inf.])
1. PIE *por·u̯ordɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *por·u̯ordɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. por·u̯ordɦi̯o-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *for·u̯ordɦi̯o-
3. for·u̯ordɦi̯o-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *for·u̯ordi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. for·u̯ordi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *far·u̯ardi̯a-
5. far·u̯ardi̯a-
*ardi̯a → arde
Umlaut for ardi̯a → arde
Rardi̯a›erde → *far·u̯erde-
6. far·u̯erde-
*d → t
OHG sound shift of *d
Rd›tHG → *far·u̯erte-
7. far·u̯erte-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. far·werte-
Goth. fra·wardein-
(f.) ‘Verderben : ólethros : interitus’
(1Tm 6,9 A B)
(Goth. frawardein [sgA])
1. PIE *pro·u̯ordɑɦeini-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pro·u̯ordɦeini-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. pro·u̯ordɦeini-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *fro·u̯ordɦeini-
3. fro·u̯ordɦeini-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *fro·u̯ordeini-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. fro·u̯ordeini-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *fra·u̯ardeini-
5. fra·u̯ardeini-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *fra·u̯ardīni-
6. fra·u̯ardīni-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → *fra·wardīni-
7. fra·wardīni-
*ī → ei
Orthographic change of *ī into ei
Rī›ei → Goth. fra·wardeini-
CLu. uarda·la-
(a.pt.) ‘gewunden ?, HHand. 197’
(DLL. 108)
(CLu. ua-ar-da-la-an-za)
1. PIE *u̯ordɑɦo·lo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ordɦo·lo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ordɦo·lo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ardɦa·la-
3. u̯ardɦa·la-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. u̯arda·la-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OInd. vardha·ka-
(m.) ‘Zimmermann’
(KEWA 3:157)
1. PIE *u̯ordɑɦo·ku̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ordɦo·ku̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ordɦo·ku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ardɦa·ku̯a-
3. u̯ardɦa·ku̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *u̯ardɦa·ka-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. u̯ardɦa·ka-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vardɦa·ka-
5. vardɦa·ka-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → OInd. vardha·ka-
OInd. nābhi·vardhana-
(n.) ‘das Abschneiden der Nabelschnur’
(KEWA 3:157)
1. PIE *Π·u̯ordɑɦono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯ordɦono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·u̯ordɦono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯ardɦana-
3. Π·u̯ardɦana-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *Π·vardɦana-
4. Π·vardɦana-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → OInd. Π·vardhana-
√u̯erdɑɦ-
(Pyysalo)
OHG. wirt-
(a.) ‘tortus’
(Gl. 13. Jh)
1. PIE *u̯erdɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯erdɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯erdɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯erdo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. u̯erdo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯erda
4. u̯erda
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *u̯irda
5. u̯irda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯ird
6. u̯ird
*d → t
OHG sound shift of *d
Rd›tHG → *u̯irt
7. u̯irt
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. wirt
OCS. vrĕdŭ-
(m.) ‘Schaden, Leibesschaden’
(Sadnik √1108)
1. PIE *u̯erdɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯erdɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯erdɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯erdɦa
3. u̯erdɦa
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯erda
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. u̯erda
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *u̯erdo
5. u̯erdo
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *u̯erdu
6. u̯erdu
*erd → rēd
Slavic metathesis of erd
Rerd›rēd → *u̯rēdu
7. u̯rēdu
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vrēdu
8. vrēdu
*ē → ĕ
Change of *ē into ĕ
Rē›ĕ → *vrĕdu
9. vrĕdu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. vrĕdŭ
Russ. vered
(m.) ‘Geschwür, Eiterbeule’
(REW 1:186)
1. PIE *u̯erdɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯erdɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯erdɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯erdɦa
3. u̯erdɦa
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯erda
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. u̯erda
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *u̯erdo
5. u̯erdo
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *u̯erdu
6. u̯erdu
*erd → e r e d
Russian anaptyxis of VRC
Rerd›ered → *u̯eredu
7. u̯eredu
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *veredu
8. veredu
*-u → Ø
Loss of -u in root-final position
R=u›=0 → Russ. vered
OCS. vrĕdi-
(vb.) ‘verletzen, beschädigen, schaden’
(Sadnik √1108)
1. PIE *u̯erdɑɦiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *u̯erdɑɦiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. u̯erdɑɦiíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯erdɦiíh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯erdɦiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯erdɦií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯erdɦií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *u̯erdɦī́-
5. u̯erdɦī́-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯erdī́-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. u̯erdī́-
*erd → rēd
Slavic metathesis of erd
Rerd›rēd → *u̯rēdī́-
7. u̯rēdī́-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vrēdī́-
8. vrēdī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *vrēdí-
9. vrēdí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → *vrēdi-
10. vrēdi-
*ē → ĕ
Change of *ē into ĕ
Rē›ĕ → OCS. vrĕdi-
OCS. vrĕdĭnŭ-
(a.) ‘schädlich’
(Sadnik √1108)
1. PIE *u̯erdɑɦino
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯erdɦino
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯erdɦino
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯erdɦina
3. u̯erdɦina
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯erdina
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. u̯erdina
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *u̯erdino
5. u̯erdino
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *u̯erdinu
6. u̯erdinu
*erd → rēd
Slavic metathesis of erd
Rerd›rēd → *u̯rēdinu
7. u̯rēdinu
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vrēdinu
8. vrēdinu
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → *vrēdĭnu
9. vrēdĭnu
*ē → ĕ
Change of *ē into ĕ
Rē›ĕ → *vrĕdĭnu
10. vrĕdĭnu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. vrĕdĭnŭ
√urdɑɦ-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. urda-
(c.) ‘ein übler Zustand, Art Krankheit, ‹Wund›’
(HHand. 187)
(HIL. 1072-3)
1. PIE *urdɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *urdɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. urdɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *urdɦa-
3. urdɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. urda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OIcl. urð-
(m.) ‘Unglück, Ereignis, Tod (poet.)’
(ANEtWb. 635)
1. PIE *u̯urdɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯urdɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯urdɦo-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯urdo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. u̯urdo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯urda-
4. u̯urda-
*d -› ð
Change of d into ð
Rd›ð → *u̯urða-
5. u̯urða-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OIcl. vurða-
OInd. vr̥ddha-
(pt.) ‘abgeschnitten’
(KEWA 3:157)
1. PIE *u̯r̥dɑɦto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯r̥dɦto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯r̥dɦto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯r̥dɦta-
3. u̯r̥dɦta-
*Dɦt → Ddɦ
Bartholomae’s Law
RDɦt›Ddɦ → *u̯r̥ddɦa-
(SPIE §4.6.5.)
4. u̯r̥ddɦa-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vr̥ddɦa-
5. vr̥ddɦa-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → OInd. vr̥ddha-


PIE √ur- √uor- √uer- ‘laufen, eilen’
(IEW XX)
√uer-
Latv. ver-
(vb.) ‘laufen’
(LiEtWb. 1200)
(Latv. vert [inf.], verˆu [pr.], vēru [pret.])
1. PIE *u̯er-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Latv. ver-
√uor
(Pyysalo)
TochA. wark-
(sb.) ‘venatio : hunt’ (DTochB. 609)
(Poucha 286)
1. PIE *u̯orko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arka-
2. u̯arka-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. warka-
TochB. werka-
(sb.) ‘chase, hunt, hunting’
(DTochB. 609)
(TochB. werke)
1. PIE *u̯orko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arka-
2. u̯arka-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. warka-
Hitt. urkei-
(c.) ‘Spur, Weg, Bohrgang’
(HHand. 187)
Hitt. urkei̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘aufspüren, verfolgen’
(HHand. 187)
1. PIE *urkei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. urkei̯a-


PIE √ur- (sb.) ‘Pferd, Hengst’
(IEW 81)
(Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√uro-
(Pyysalo)
OHG. reino·n
(wk.m.) ‘Hengst, Zuchthengst, gl. ad-, e-missarius’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *u̯roini̯u·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯raini̯u·n-
2. u̯raini̯u·n-
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
Rai›ei → *u̯reini̯u·n-
3. u̯reini̯u·n-
R=un-›=on- → *u̯reini̯o·n-
4. u̯reini̯o·n-
u̯r → r
Loss of u̯ in *u̯r-
Ru̯r›r → *reini̯o·n-
5. reini̯o·n-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → OHG. reinjo·n-
OSax. wrēnio·n
(m.) ‘Hengst’
(ASächsWb. 90)
1. PIE *u̯roini̯u·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯raini̯u·n-
2. u̯raini̯u·n-
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
Rai›ei → *u̯reini̯u·n-
3. u̯reini̯u·n-
R=un-›=on- → *u̯reini̯o·n-
4. u̯reini̯o·n-
*ei → ē
Monophthongization of *ei into ē
Rei›ē → *u̯rēni̯o·n-
5. u̯rēni̯o·n-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → *wrēni̯o·n-
6. wrēni̯o·n-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OSax. wrēnio·n-
Hitt. urala-
(LÚc.N.ag.) ‘Angestellter beim Pferdetraining’
(HHand. 187)
1. PIE *urolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. urala-
Hitt. urala·dar-
(LÚn.) ‘Amt des Pferdetrainers’
(HHand. 187)
1. PIE *urolo·dɑɦor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *urolo·dɦor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. urolo·dɦor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *urala·dɦar-
3. urala·dɦar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. urala·dar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √urgɑɦ- √uorgɑɦ- √uergɑɦ- ‘verurteilen : condemnare’
(IEW 1154-5 [diff.])
(Pyysalo : Anat.)
√uorgɑɦi-
Goth. launa·warg-
(a.) ‘undankbar: unthankful: ἀχάριστος: ingratus’
(GoEtD. L22)
(Goth. launawargos [plN] 2Tm 3,2 A B, HbGo. 154,1)
1. PIE *Π·u̯orgɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯orgɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·u̯orgɦi̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *Π·u̯orǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·u̯orǵɦo-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *Π·u̯orgɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. Π·u̯orgɦo-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *Π·u̯orgo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. Π·u̯orgo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯arga-
6. Π·u̯arga-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. Π·warga-
Goth. ga·wargi-
(pret.) ‘κατακρίνειν: condemnare damnare’
(GoEtD. G77)
(Goth. gawargida Rom 8,3 A)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·u̯orgɑɦi̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·u̯orgɦi̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦo·u̯orgɦi̯i-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *gɦo·u̯orǵɦi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. gɦo·u̯orǵɦi-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *gɦo·u̯orgɦi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. gɦo·u̯orgɦi-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *go·u̯orgi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. go·u̯orgi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ga·u̯argi-
6. ga·u̯argi-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. ga·wargi-
Goth. ga·wargja-
(vb.) einen verurteilen zu, ächten, verdammen’
(GoElB. 294ff.)
(Goth. gawargjand Mrk 10,33 CA, HbGo. 154,1)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·u̯orgɑɦii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·u̯orgɦii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦo·u̯orgɦii̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *gɦo·u̯orǵɦi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. gɦo·u̯orǵɦi̯o-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *gɦo·u̯orgɦi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. gɦo·u̯orgɦi̯o-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *go·u̯orgi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. go·u̯orgi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ga·u̯argi̯a-
6. ga·u̯argi̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *ga·u̯argja-
7. ga·u̯argja-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. ga·wargja-
Goth. wargiþo-
(f.) ‘κατάκριμα, -κρισις, κρίμα: damnatio, iudicium’
(GoEtD. W34)
(Goth. wargiþa [A] Rom 13,2 A CC, wargiþos [G] Rom 8,1 A)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·u̯orgɑɦi̯itēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gɑɦo·u̯orgɑɦi̯itāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gɑɦo·u̯orgɑɦi̯itāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·u̯orgɦi̯itāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦo·u̯orgɦi̯itāh-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *gɦo·u̯orǵɦitāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. gɦo·u̯orǵɦitāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦo·u̯orǵɦitā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gɦo·u̯orǵɦitā-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *gɦo·u̯orgɦitā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. gɦo·u̯orgɦitā-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
Rt›þ → *gɦo·u̯orgɦiþā-
7. gɦo·u̯orgɦiþā-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *go·u̯orgiþā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
8. go·u̯orgiþā-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ga·u̯argiþā-
9. ga·u̯argiþā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *ga·u̯argiþō-
(XX:XX)
10. ga·u̯argiþō-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → *ga·wargiþō-
11. ga·wargiþō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → Goth. ga·wargiþo-
Goth. ga·wargeino-
(f.) Verurteilung, κατάκρισις: condemnatio’
(GoEtD. G77)
(Goth. gawargeinai [sgD] 2Kr 7,3 A B, GoElB. 152n6)
1. PIE *gɑɦo·u̯orgɑɦi̯einēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *gɑɦo·u̯orgɑɦi̯eināɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. gɑɦo·u̯orgɑɦi̯eināɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·u̯orgɦi̯eināh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. gɦo·u̯orgɦi̯eināh-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *gɦo·u̯orǵɦeināh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. gɦo·u̯orǵɦeināh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *gɦo·u̯orǵɦeinā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. gɦo·u̯orǵɦeinā-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *gɦo·u̯orgɦeinā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. gɦo·u̯orgɦeinā-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *go·u̯orgeinā-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. go·u̯orgeinā-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ga·u̯argeinā-
8. ga·u̯argeinā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *ga·u̯argeinō-
(XX:XX)
9. ga·u̯argeinō-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *ga·u̯argīnō-
10. ga·u̯argīnō-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → *ga·wargīnō-
11. ga·wargīnō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *ga·wargīno-
12. ga·wargīno-
*ī → ei
Orthographic change of *ī into ei
Rī›ei → Goth. ga·wargeino-
√uorgɑɦu-
Hitt. u̯argu-
(.) ≈ ‘Zorn, übel Nachrede, Verumleudung’ (o.ä.)
(HHand. 196)
1. PIE *u̯orgɑɦu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯orgɦu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯orgɦu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯argɦu-
3. u̯argɦu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯argu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. u̯argu̯i-
(.) ≈ ‘Zorn, übel Nachrede, Verumleudung’ (o.ä.)
(HHand. 196)
1. PIE *u̯orgɑɦu̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯orgɦu̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯orgɦu̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯argɦu̯i-
3. u̯argɦu̯i-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. u̯argu̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √ues-, √uos-, √us- ‘sein, bleiben’
(IEW 1170-1)
(+ Pyysalo)
√uos-
Goth. was-
(pret.) ‘war’
(GoEtD. 405)
(Goth. was [1sg])
1. PIE *u̯os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯as-
2. u̯as-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. was-
Goth. ga·was-
(pret.) ‘bleiben’
(GoEtD. 405)
(Goth. gawas [3sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦo·u̯os-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦo·u̯os-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦo·u̯os-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *go·u̯os-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. go·u̯os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ga·u̯as-
4. ga·u̯as-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. ga·was-
√ues-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ueš-
(pret.) ‘war’
(Alalah 454 II 18)
(Hitt. ú-eš-ta [3sg], Thus not e!-eš-ta vs. Eichner XX:XX)
1. PIE *u̯es-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯eš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Goth. wisa-
(vb.) ‘sein, bleiben’
(GoEtD. 405)
(Goth. wisan [inf.])
1. PIE *u̯eso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯esa-
2. u̯esa-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *u̯isa-
3. u̯isa-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. wisa-
√usio-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. antár·uṣya-
(vb.) ‘drinnen stecken’
(WbRv. 1232)
(Br. antáruṣya-)
1. PIE *entér·usi̯o-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RrUkiOIA → *entér·uši̯o-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. entér·uši̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *entér·uši̯a-
3. entér·uši̯a-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *antér·uši̯a-
4. antér·uši̯a-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *antár·uši̯a-
5. antár·uši̯a-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → *antár·uṣi̯a-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
6. antár·uṣi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → OInd. antár·uṣya-
CLu. taḫ·uši̯a-
(vb.) ‘keep silent/quiet’
(DLL. 89)
(CLu. da-ḫu-ši-i̯a-aḫ-ḫa [1sg])
1. PIE *teɑh·usi̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *taɑh·usi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. taɑh·usi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *tah·usi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. tah·usi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *tah·usi̯a-
4. tah·usi̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *tah·uši̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. tah·uši̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. taḫ·uši̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√uēsu-
Goth. wesu-
(pret.) ‘war’
(GoEtD. 405)
(Goth. wesum [1pl])
1. PIE *u̯ēsu-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → *wēsu-
2. wēsu-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → Goth. wesu-


PIE √us- √uos- √ues- (a.) ‘gut, heilig’ (vb.) ‘lieben; angenehm sein, gefallen’
(IEW 1174)
√uos-
Hitt. u̯aš-
(vb.1.2.M.) ‘angenehm sein, gefallen’
(HHand. 197)
1. PIE *u̯os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯as-
2. u̯as-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯aš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. u̯aš-
(a.) ‘good’ OR (adv.) ‘well (?)’
(CHLu. 5.1.10)
(HLu. wa/i-sa)
1. PIE *u̯os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯as-
2. u̯as-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. u̯aš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. u̯aš-
(vb.) ‘to be good to’
(CHLu. 10.16b)
(HLu. wa/i-sà-tá)
1. PIE *u̯os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯as-
2. u̯as-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. u̯aš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. u̯aš-
(BONUS2vb.) ‘love’ (KLuN. § 224)
(CHLu. 10.5.2)
(HLu. (BONUS2)wa/i-sa-ti [3pl])
1. PIE *u̯os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯as-
2. u̯as-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. u̯aš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uosɑh-
CLu. u̯ašḫa-
(n.) ‘ein Kultobjekt ?’
(HHand. 198)
1. PIE *u̯osɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯osho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯osho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯asha-
3. u̯asha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *u̯ašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. u̯ašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. u̯ašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. u̯ašḫa-
(.) ‘XX’
(CHLu. 153)
1. PIE *u̯osɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯osho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯osho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯asha-
3. u̯asha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *u̯ašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. u̯ašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. u̯ašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
CLu. u̯ašḫaia-
(a.) ‘heilig (?), KLuN §317, GLBL 43n95)
(DLL. 109),
1. PIE *u̯osɑhoii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯oshoii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯oshoii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ashaii̯a-
3. u̯ashaii̯a-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *u̯ashaia-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
4. u̯ashaia-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → *u̯ashai̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
5. u̯ashai̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *u̯ašhai̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. u̯ašhai̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. u̯ašḫai̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. ·u̯asḫaiza
(sb.) ‘compensation ?’
(CHLu. 396)
1. PIE *u̯osɑhoi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯oshoi·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯oshoi·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ashai·Σ-
3. u̯ashai·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *u̯ašhai·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. u̯ašhai·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. u̯ašḫai·Σ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√uosu-
HLu. u̯ašu-
(vb.) ‘do well, succeed’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. wa/i5-sú-ha [1sg])
1. PIE *u̯osu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯asu-
2. u̯asu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. u̯ašu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. vásu-
(a.) ‘licht, herrlich, gut, fromm, gut, heilsam’
(WbRV. 1234)
1. PIE *u̯ósu-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *u̯ásu-
2. u̯ásu-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. vásu-
RV. vásu-
(m.) ‘die Lichten, Herrlichen, Guten’ (n.) ‘das Gut’
(WbRV. 1234)
1. PIE *u̯ósu-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *u̯ásu-
2. u̯ásu-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. vásu-
HLu. u̯ašu-
(a.) ‘good’ (adv.) good, well!’
(CHLu. 184)
(HLu. wa/i-su [adv.])
1. PIE *u̯osu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯asu-
2. u̯asu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. u̯ašu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Pal. u̯ašu-
(a.) ‘gut’
(DPal. 78)
(Pal. ua-a-šu)
1. PIE *u̯osu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯asu-
2. u̯asu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Pal. u̯ašu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √uos- √ues- √us- ‘laufen, eilen, zielen, treiben’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo)
√uos-
RV. ánu (…) vāvas·-
(vb.) ‘im Laufe hinzielen/streben nach’
(WbRV. 1233)
1. PIE *Π·u̯ōu̯es-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *Π·u̯āu̯es-
2. Π·u̯āu̯es-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *Π·u̯āu̯as-
3. Π·u̯āu̯as-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. Π·vāvas-
Latv. vasê-
(vb.) ‘hin und hertreiben’
(LiEtWb. 1206)
(Latv. vasêt [inf.])
1. PIE *u̯osḗhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯osḗh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯osḗh-
*ḗH → êH
Latvian tone rule for ḗH
RAccLatv6 → *u̯osêh-
3. u̯osêh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯osê-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯osê-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯asê-
5. u̯asê-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Latv. vasê-
√uosi-
HLu. u̯aši-
(vb.) ‘come (for)’
(CHLu. 3.3.17)
(HLu. PES2(-)wa/i-si-ti)
1. PIE *u̯osi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯asi-
2. u̯asi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. u̯aši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. vasi-
(vb.) ‘zielen auf [L]’
(WbRV. 1233)
(RV. vasiṣva [2sg])
1. PIE *u̯esi-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯asi-
2. u̯asi-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. vasi-
√uoson-
Hitt. u̯ašana-
(n.) ‘Stadion, Rennbahn oder Fahrspur’
(HHand. 198)
1. PIE *u̯osono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯asana-
2. u̯asana-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯ašana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
TochA. wāsä·ṅkā-
(pr.M.) ‘se mouvoir’
(Poucha 292)
(TochA. wāsäṅkātär ‹suffix unclear›)
1. PIE *u̯ōso·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ōsa·Σ-
2. u̯ōsa·Σ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *u̯āsa·Σ-
3. u̯āsa·Σ-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. wāsa·Σ-
Lith. vasnó-
(.) ‘mit den Flügeln schlagen, wedeln’
(LiEtWb. 1206)
1. PIE *u̯osnḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *u̯osnā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯osnā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯osnā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯osnā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯osnā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯osnā́-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯asnā́-
5. u̯asnā́-
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *u̯asnṓ-
(XX:XX)
6. u̯asnṓ-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → *u̯asnó-
7. u̯asnó-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. vasnó-


PIE √uos- √ues- √us- (sb.) ‘Feuchtigkeit, Saft, Fett, Arznei, Gift’
(IEW 1171-2)
(Pyysalo)
√uos-
Hitt. u̯aš-
(n.) ‘Ingredienz’ ([pl] von uaši- (n.) ‘id.’)
(HHand. 197)
(Hitt. uašaHI.A, Rieken (1999:46): Hitt. uaš(i)- (n.) ‘Heilkraut’)
1. PIE *u̯os-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯as-
2. u̯as-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯aš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
TochA. wäs-
(sb.) ‘venemum : poison’
(Poucha 301)
(TochA. wäs
1. PIE *u̯oso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯asa-
2. u̯asa-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. wasa-
TochB. wasa-
(m.sg) ‘poison’
(DTochB. 584)
(TochB. wase)
1. PIE *u̯oso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯asa-
2. u̯asa-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. wasa-
OEng. wōs-
(n.) ‘Feuchtigkeit, Saft, ModEng. ooze’
(ASaxD. 1268)
1. PIE *u̯ōso
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ōsa
2. u̯ōsa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯ōs
3. u̯ōs
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OEng. wōs
OInd. vásā-
(f.) ‘Speck, Fett, Schmalz’
(KEWA 3:168)
(LÉDT 153)
1. PIE *u̯ósēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯ósāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯ósāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ósāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ósāh-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *u̯ásāh-
4. u̯ásāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ásā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. u̯ásā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OInd. vásā-
Latv. vasa-
(f.) ‘feuchtigkeit des Bodens’
(LiEtWb. 23)
(Latv. vasa)
1. PIE *u̯osēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯osāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯osāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯osāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯osāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯osā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯osā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯asā
5. u̯asā
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vasā
6. vasā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R=ā›=a → Latv. vasa
Hitt. u̯aši-
(n.) [mng.] ‘(Ingredienz, Bestand)Teil’
(HHand. 198)
1. PIE *u̯osi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯asi-
2. u̯asi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯aši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OHG. wasal
(.) ‘Regen’
(ANEWb. 647)
1. PIE *u̯osolo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯asala
2. u̯asala
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯asal
3. u̯asal
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. wasal
√ues-
Umbr. ues·ticā-
(vb.) ~ ‘Trankopfer darbringen, libare’
(WbOU. 847-8)
(Umbr. vestikatu, uesticatu)
1. PIE *u̯es·tikēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯es·tikāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯es·tikāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯es·tikāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯es·tikāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯es·tikā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯es·tikā-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *u̯es·ticā-
5. u̯es·ticā-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Umbr. ues·ticā-
Gr. ἑαρο-
(n.pl) (cf. below)
(GEW1:433)
(OTher. hεαρα)
1. PIE *u̯eseɑhro-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯esaɑhro-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯esaɑhro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯esahro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯esahro-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯esaro-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯esaro-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *u̯eharo-
5. u̯eharo-
*u̯E -› hE
Change of u̯ into h before e,é,ē,ḗ
Ru̯E›hE → *heharo-
6. heharo-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *hearo-
7. hearo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἑαρο-
Lith. at·si·vėsín-
(vb.) ‘seinen Durst stillen : quench one's thirst’
(Senn 2:187)
(Lith. atsivēsìnti [inf.], LiEtWb. –)
1. PIE *Π·Π·u̯ēsɑ́hin-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *Π·Π·u̯ēsíhin-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·Π·u̯ēsíhin-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·Π·u̯ēsíin-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·Π·u̯ēsíin-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *Π·Π·u̯ēsī́n-
4. Π·Π·u̯ēsī́n-
*ī́RC → íRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ī́RC
Rī́RC›íRC → *Π·Π·u̯ēsín-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. Π·Π·u̯ēsín-
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → *Π·Π·u̯ėsín-
6. Π·Π·u̯ėsín-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. Π·Π·vėsín-


PIE √us- ‘ex’
(IEW 1101-2)
(Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√us-
(Pyysalo)
Goth. us
(prep.) ‘ἐκ, out of’
(GoEtD. 380)
(Goth. us)
Hitt. uš·ei-
(vb.) ‘draw open (curtains); ‹Hitt. ei- ‘machen’›’
(HIL. 1075)
(Hitt. ú-uš-ši-an-zi [3pl], uš-ši-ia-an-zi)
1. PIE *us·ei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. uš·ei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. uš·ii̯a-
(vb.) ‘draw open (curtains); ‹Hitt. ii̯a- ‘machen’›’
(HIL. 1075)
(Hitt. uš-še-it-tén [2pl]; Kimball 1987:165f. unlikely)
1. PIE *us·ii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *us·ii̯a-
2. us·ii̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. uš·ii̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √ut- √uot- √uet- ‘eilen, fliegen, fallen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo; or PIE *utah- (?))
√ueto-
(Nikolaev MSS 69:257-267)
MidIr. fethi-
(vb.) ‘make one's way, walk’
(MidIr. fethid)
1. PIE *u̯ete-
*u̯- → f-
Change of *u̯- into f-
Ru̯=›f= → *fete-
2. fete-
VtV → VthV
Lenition of voiceless stop *t
Rt›th → *fethe-
3. fethe-
R=e-›=i- → MidIr. fethi-
Hitt. u̯atai-
(c.) ‘Vogel, Sum. MUŠEN ?’
(HHand. 199)
(Hitt. ua-at-ta-i-e-es [plN])
1. PIE *u̯otoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯atai-
√uotK-
Hitt. u̯atka-
(vb.1.M.) ‘springen, entspringen, fliehen’
(HIL. 1144)
(Hitt. uatkaḫḫut [ipv2sg])
1. PIE *u̯otko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯atka-
TochB. wetke
(adv.) ‘weg, ab’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *u̯otkoi
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯atkai
2. u̯atkai
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *u̯atkē
3. u̯atkē
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *u̯atke
4. u̯atke
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. watke
√uotKu-
Hitt. u̯atku-
(vb.1.A.M.) ‘springen, entspringen, fliehen’
(HHand. 200)
1. PIE *u̯otku-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯atku-


PIE √utɑh-, √udɑɦ- (sb.) ‘Rede, Sache, Ding, usw.’ (vb.) ‘sprechen, befehlen, bitten, mitteilen’
(IEW 978 [diff.])
(Pedersen: Celt. + Pyysalo)
√utɑh-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. ν·υθό-
(a.) [in mng.] ‘ἄ·φωνον’ (Hes., Gr. ŭ)
(Gr. νυθόν)
1. PIE *n·utɑhó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *n·uthó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. n·uthó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ν·υθό-
Gr. ὑθλέο-
(vb.) ‘Nonsens sprechen’, plappern’
(GEW 2:950)
(Gr. ὑθλέω)
1. PIE *utɑhléi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uthléi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uthléi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *uthléo-
3. uthléo-
u- -> hu
Crescence of h before u-
Ru=›hu= → *huthléo-
4. huthléo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὑθλέο-
Hitt. utan-
(n.obl.) ‘Wort, (Ge)Rede, Sache, Ding’
(HHand. 189)
1. PIE *utɑhon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uthon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uthon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *uthan-
3. uthan-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. utan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. utar-
(n.) ‘Wort, (Ge)Rede, Sache, Ding, Orakel’
(HHand. 189)
1. PIE *utɑhor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uthor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uthor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *uthar-
3. uthar-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. utar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uotɑh-
Hitt. u̯atarei-
(vb.) [mng.] ‘Nonsens sprechen’, plappern (?)
(HIL. 1142-3)
(Hitt. URU ua-at-ta-ar-ua (…) ua-at-ta-ri-et-ta-ru)
1. PIE *u̯otɑhorei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯othorei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯othorei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯atharei-
3. u̯atharei-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. u̯atarei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯ataru̯a-
(URU.) ‘XX’
(HIL. 1142-3)
(Hitt. URU ua-at-ta-ar-ua (…) ua-at-ta-ri-et-ta-ru)
1. PIE *u̯otɑhoru̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯othoru̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯othoru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯atharu̯a-
3. u̯atharu̯a-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → Hitt. u̯ataru̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uetɑhi-
(HiuA:29fn1)
OIr. fethi-
(vb.) ‘say’
(WH. 2:776)
1. PIE *u̯etɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ethi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ethi-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *u̯eti-
3. u̯eti-
*u̯- → f-
Change of *u̯- into f-
Ru̯=›f= → *feti-
4. feti-
VtV → VthV
Lenition of voiceless stop *t
Rt›th → OIr. fethi-
OCymr. gueti-
(vb.) ‘say’
(XX:XX)
(OCymr. guetid [3sg]
1. PIE *u̯etɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ethi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ethi-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *u̯eti-
3. u̯eti-
* u̯- → gu-
Change of root-initial u̯- into gu-
Ru̯=›gu= → OCymr. gueti-
MidCymr. di·wed-
(vb.) ‘say’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *Π·u̯etɑhi
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯ethi
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·u̯ethi
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → *Π·u̯eti
3. Π·u̯eti
*eti → edi
Voicing of t between vowels
Reti›edi → *Π·u̯edi
4. Π·u̯edi
*-i → Ø
Loss of root-final -i
R=i›=0 → *Π·u̯ed
5. Π·u̯ed
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → MidCymr. Π·wed
√uodɑɦ-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. u̯adarnāḫ-
(vb.1.) ‘befehlen, beauftragen, bitten, mitteilen’
(HHand. 199)
(Oettinger 1979:458)
1. PIE *u̯odɑɦornēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯odɑɦornāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯odɑɦornāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯odɦornāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯odɦornāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯adɦarnāh-
4. u̯adɦarnāh-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *u̯adarnāh-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. u̯adarnāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯adarnāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. u̯adarnāḫat-
(n.) ‘Befehl, Mitteilung,’
(HHand. 199)
1. PIE *u̯odɑɦornēɑhot-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯odɑɦornāɑhot-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯odɑɦornāɑhot-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯odɦornāhot-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯odɦornāhot-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯adɦarnāhat-
4. u̯adɦarnāhat-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *u̯adarnāhat-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. u̯adarnāhat-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯adarnāḫat-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
TochA. watku-
(sb.m.) ‘Befehl : iussum’
(Poucha 285)
(TochA. watku)
1. PIE *u̯odɑɦkú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯odɦkú-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯odɦkú-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯adɦkú-
3. u̯adɦkú-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯adkú-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. u̯adkú-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *u̯atkú-
5. u̯atkú-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → *watkú-
6. watkú-
*ú → u
Orthographic change of *ú into u
Rú›u → TochA. watku-
√udɑɦ·K
TochA. utäk-
(vb.) ‘iubere, imperare’
(Poucha 294)
(TochA. putäk [ipv])
1. PIE *udɑɦok-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *udɦok-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. udɦok-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *udɦak-
3. udɦak-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *udak-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. udak-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → TochA. utak-
TochA. wotäk-
(pret.A.) ‘iubere, imperare’
(Poucha 293)
(TochA. wotäk [3sg])
1. PIE *u̯oudɑɦok-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯oudɦok-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯oudɦok-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯audɦak-
3. u̯audɦak-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯audak-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. u̯audak-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *u̯autak-
5. u̯autak-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *u̯ōtak-
6. u̯ōtak-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *u̯otak-
7. u̯otak-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. wotak-
TochA. wotk-
(pret.A.) ‘iubere, imperare’
(Poucha 293)
(TochA. wotkāṃ [1sg+encl.], wotkaṣt [2sg], wotkar [3pl])
1. PIE *u̯oudɑɦk-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯oudɦk-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯oudɦk-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯audɦk-
3. u̯audɦk-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯audk-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. u̯audk-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
Rd›t → *u̯autk-
5. u̯autk-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *u̯ōtk-
6. u̯ōtk-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *u̯otk-
7. u̯otk-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. wotk-


PIE √utah-, √udaɦ- (sb.) ‘Wasser, Trank, Welle’
(IEW 79-80)
(+ Vries + Pyysalo)
√utɑh-
(Pyysalo)
OIcl. uð-
(f.) ‘Welle’
(ANEtWb. 635)
(“Die idg. Wz. *uet steht neben *ued-”)
1. PIE *utɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uth-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uth-
*t h → þ
Affricativization of *th
Rth›þ → *uþ-
3. uþ-
*þ → ð
Change of þ into ð
R=þ›=ð → OIcl. uð-
Umbr. utur-
(n.) ‘Wasser’
(WbOU. 815-6)
(Umbr. utur [sgA])
1. PIE *utɑhur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uthur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uthur-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
Rth›t → Umbr. utur-
√udɑɦ-
(Pyysalo)
RV. śur·údh-
(f.) ‘stärkender Trank’
(WbRV. 1407)
1. PIE *kiɑhur·údɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *kihur·údɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. kihur·údɦ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *ćhur·údɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. ćhur·údɦ-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *śhur·údɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. śhur·údɦ-
*śh → ś
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *śh
Rśh›ś → *śur·údɦ-
5. śur·údɦ-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. śur·údh-
CLu. udi-
(sb.) ‘Trank’
(HHand. 189)
(CLu. utiš [sgN])
1. PIE *udɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *udɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. udɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. udi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √udɑɦn- √uodɑɦn- √uedɑɦn- ‘Volk, Land’
(IEW 883)
(Pyysalo)
√uedɑɦnos-
Gr. ἔθνοσ-
(.) ‘Volk : people ‹see OIr. tūath ‘idem’›’
(Frisk 1:448-9)
(Bonfante (IF 52:223), Hom. (w)ἔθνος)
1. PIE *u̯édɑɦnos-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯édɦnos-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯édɦnos-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *u̯éthnos-
3. u̯éthnos-
*u̯E -› hE
Change of u̯ into h before e,é,ē,ḗ
Ru̯E›hE → *héthnos-
4. héthnos-
*h-Th -› Ø-Th
Grassmann’s Law
Rhéth›éth → *éthnos-
(SPIE §4.6.4.)
5. éthnos-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἔθνοσ-
√gɑɦedi·uu̯odɑɦno-
Hitt. gaz·uadna-
(URU.) ‘= Kizuwatna’
(OGHErg. 81)
(Hitt. GAZ-zu-ua-a[t-n]a)
1. PIE *gɑɦodi·uu̯odɑɦno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦodi·uu̯odɦno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦodi·uu̯odɦno-
PIE *di → ji
Assibilation of *d before *i
Rdi›ji → *gɦoji·uu̯odɦno-
3. gɦoji·uu̯odɦno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦaji·uu̯adɦna-
4. gɦaji·uu̯adɦna-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *gaji·uu̯adna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. gaji·uu̯adna-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. gazi·uadna-
Hitt. gez·uadana-
(KUR URU.) ‘Kizuwatnean Land’
(OGH. 211-5)
(Hitt. ki-iz-zu-ua-ta-naKI)
1. PIE *gɑɦedi·uu̯odɑɦono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦedi·uu̯odɦono-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦedi·uu̯odɦono-
PIE *di → ji
Assibilation of *d before *i
Rdi›ji → *gɦeji·uu̯odɦono-
3. gɦeji·uu̯odɦono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦeji·uu̯adɦana-
4. gɦeji·uu̯adɦana-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *geji·uu̯adana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. geji·uu̯adana-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. gezi·uadana-
Hitt. gez·uadna-
(URU.) ‘Kizuwatna- = Hur. gumani ‘Erde, Feld’
(OGH. 211-5)
(Hitt. ki-iz-zu-ua-at-na-an)
1. PIE *gɑɦedi·uu̯odɑɦno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *gɦedi·uu̯odɦno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. gɦedi·uu̯odɦno-
PIE *di → ji
Assibilation of *d before *i
Rdi›ji → *gɦeji·uu̯odɦno-
3. gɦeji·uu̯odɦno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *gɦeji·uu̯adɦna-
4. gɦeji·uu̯adɦna-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *geji·uu̯adna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. geji·uu̯adna-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. gezi·uadna-
√udɑɦni-
Hitt. udni-
(n.) ‘KUR : Land ‹see OIr. tūath ‘idem’›’
(HHand. 189)
1. PIE *udɑɦni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *udɦni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. udɦni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. udni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. udnia-
(.) ‘XX’
(HHand. XX)
1. PIE *udɑɦni̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *udɦni̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. udɦni̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *udɦni̯a-
3. udɦni̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. udni̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Kpd. udnia·ḫšu-
(LÚ.c.) ‘Land·König’
(NOMS. 1458)
(Kpd. ud-ni-aḫ-šu)
1. PIE *udɑɦni̯o·hɑsu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *udɦni̯o·hsu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. udɦni̯o·hsu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *udɦni̯a·hsu-
3. udɦni̯a·hsu-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *udni̯a·hsu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. udni̯a·hsu-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *udni̯a·hšu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. udni̯a·hšu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Kpd. udni̯a·ḫšu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. udnia·ši-
(a.gen.)
(2.13.16)
(if in HLu. REGIO-ni-ia-si)
1. PIE *udɑɦnio·si-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *udɦnio·si-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. udɦnio·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *udɦnia·si-
3. udɦnia·si-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *udnia·si-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. udnia·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. udnia·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. udniant-
(c.) ‘Land’
(HHand. 189)
1. PIE *udɑɦni̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *udɦni̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. udɦni̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *udɦni̯ant-
3. udɦni̯ant-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. udni̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. udniant-
(d.) ‘XX’
(OHP. 1:544)
(Hitt. ut-ni-ia-an-ta-aš [plD])
1. PIE *udɑɦni̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *udɦni̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. udɦni̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *udɦni̯ant-
3. udɦni̯ant-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. udni̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. udni̯·ašḫa-
(c.) ‘Bürgermeister’
(HHand. 189)
1. PIE *udɑɦni̯·osɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *udɦni̯·osho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. udɦni̯·osho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *udɦni̯·asha-
3. udɦni̯·asha-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *udni̯·asha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. udni̯·asha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *udni̯·ašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. udni̯·ašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. udni̯·ašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. udni·ši-
(.) ‘country’
(CHLu. 2.24.21)
(if in HLu. REGIO-ni-si-i-na-‘)
1. PIE *udɑɦni·si-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *udɦni·si-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. udɦni·si-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *udni·si-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. udni·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. udni·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uodɑɦni-
Kpd. uadništuan-
(LÚ.c.)
(NOMS. 1519)
(Kpd. ua-at-ni-iš-du-a-an)
1. PIE *u̯odɑɦnistuon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯odɦnistuon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯odɦnistuon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯adɦnistuan-
3. u̯adɦnistuan-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *u̯adnistuan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. u̯adnistuan-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Kpd. u̯adništuan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. ὀθνείο-