PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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"Durch zweier Zeugen Mund wird alle Wahrheit kund" — August Fick
(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
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PIE



PIE √u- √ou- √eu- (vb.A.) ‘sehen’ (vb.MP.) ‘gesehen werden, sich zeigen, erscheinen’
(IEW 78)
(Pyysalo)
√u-
Hitt. u-
(vb.1.2.) ‘sehen’ (Sum. IGI), auch ‘lesen’
(HHand. 29, 184)
(Hitt. u-uḫ-ḫi, ú-me-ni, u-uḫ-ḫu-un)
Hitt. u-
(vb.2.M.) ‘gesehen werden; sich zeigen’
(HHand. 184)
(Hitt. u-ua-ru [ipvM3sg])
√ou-
Hitt. au-
(vb.1.2.) ‘sehen’ (Sum. IGI), auch ‘lesen’
(HHand. 29)
(Hitt. a-ú, a-ut-ti, a-ú-me-ni, a-ú-ma-ni, a-ut-te-ni)
1. PIE *ou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. au-
√uo
Hitt. uu̯a-
(vb.) ‘sehen, ansehen : to see, look’
(HIL. 270-1)
(Hitt. ú-ua-al-lu, ú-ua-an-du, u-ua-u-ua-aš-ta-ri, u-ua-an-zi)
1. PIE *uu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uu̯a-
CLu. au̯a-
(vb.) ‘look here, behold’
(HIL. 271)
(CLu. a-a-ua, a-ua)
1. PIE *ou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. au̯a-
Russ. avo-
(vb.) ‘sehen’
(REW 1:231-2)
(Russ. avo·s’ = ‘ec·ce, siehe da’)
1. PIE *ōu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ōu̯a-
2. ōu̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *āu̯a-
3. āu̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *āu̯o-
4. āu̯o-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *āvo-
5. āvo-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → Russ. avo-
Lith. và-
(vb.) ‘sehen’
(LiEtWb. 1208)
(Lith. vàt ‘siehe da, fürwahr, freilich’)
1. PIE *u̯ó-
ó → ò
Emergence of gravis PLith. ò
RLiAcc5 → *u̯ò-
2. u̯ò-
PIE *ò → à
Change of *ò into à
Rò›à → *u̯à-
3. u̯à-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. và-
ORuss. vo-
(vb.) ‘sehen’
(REW 1:231)
(ORuss. vo·se = ‘ec·ce : siehe da’)
1. PIE *u̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯a-
2. u̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *u̯o-
3. u̯o-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → ORuss. vo-
Russ. vo-
(vb.) ‘sehen’
(REW 1:232)
(Russ. vo·t ‘sieh da, hier’)
1. PIE *u̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯a-
2. u̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *u̯o-
3. u̯o-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Russ. vo-
√ui-
CLu. u̯i-
(vb.) ‘sehen, erscheinen (?), HHand. 202’
(DLL. 110)
(CLu. ú-i-it-ta-ri, ú-i-it-ta-ru, ú-i-in-tar)
Hitt. u̯i-
(vb.M.) ‘sehen’
(HHand. 191)
(in Hitt. uelut [ipv1sg])
Hitt. u̯iu̯i
(intj.) ‘he!’
(HHand. 203)
√uui-
CLu. uu̯i-
(vb.M.) ‘sehen’ (oder ‘erscheinen’ ?)
(HHand. 191)
(CLu. ú-ui-en-tar [3pl], DLL. 111)
Hitt. uu̯i-
(vb.) ‘to see, look’
(HIL. 271)
(Hitt. u-ui5-el-lu-ut)
√uuon-
Hitt. uu̯an-
(vb.sb.bs.) ‘gesehen werden, sichtbar sein’
(HIL. 271)
(Hitt. ú-ua-an-na-aš, ú-ua-an-na=ia [inf.])
1. PIE *uu̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uu̯an-
Hitt. uu̯ant-
(pt.) ‘gesehen, angesehen’
(HIL. 271)
1. PIE *uu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uu̯ant-
Hitt. para·uu̯ant-
(LÚc.) ‘Aufseher, Beobachter, Aufpasser’
(HHand. 121)
(Hitt. parauuant-)
1. PIE *Π·uu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·uu̯ant-
Hitt. uu̯antu-
(inf.bs.)
(HHand. 189)
(Hitt. uuantu=ia [inf.])
1. PIE *uu̯ontu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uu̯antu-
√us-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. uš-
(vb.) ‘sehen : see, look’
(HIL. 270)
(Hitt. uš-te-ni [2pl])
1. PIE *us-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. uš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. auš-
(vb.1.) ‘IGI; sehen, lesen’
(HHand. 29)
(Hitt. a-uš-zi, a-uš-te-ni [2pl], a-uš-ta, a-uš-du)
1. PIE *ous-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aus-
2. aus-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. auš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. auš-
(vb.2.) ‘sehen’
(HIL. 270)
(Hitt. a-uš-ta-at [3sg])
1. PIE *ous-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aus-
2. aus-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. auš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uskie/o-
Hitt. uške/a-
(.) ‘sehen’
(HIL. 271)
(Hitt. ú-uš-ke/a-, uš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *uski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *usḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. usḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *usḱe/a-
3. usḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *uske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. uske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. uške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uskiskie/o-
Hitt. uškiške/a-
(vb.) ‘sehen’
(HIL. 271)
(Hitt. uš-ki-iš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *uski̯iski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *usḱisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. usḱisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *usḱisḱe/a-
3. usḱisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *uskiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. uskiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. uškiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. uškiškadala-
(c.) ‘guard, watchman’
(HIL. 271)
(Hitt. uš-ki-iš-ga-tal-la-aš)
1. PIE *uski̯iski̯odɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uski̯iski̯odɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uski̯iski̯odɦolo-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *usḱisḱodɦolo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. usḱisḱodɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *usḱisḱadɦala-
4. usḱisḱadɦala-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *uskiskadɦala-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. uskiskadɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *uskiskadala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. uskiskadala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. uškiškadala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. uškiškatali-
(c.) ‘guard, watchman’
(HIL. 271)
(Hitt. uš-ki[š-kat]-tal-li-uš)
1. PIE *uski̯iski̯otoli-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *usḱisḱotoli-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. usḱisḱotoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *usḱisḱatali-
3. usḱisḱatali-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *uskiskatali-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. uskiskatali-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. uškiškatali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. uškiškedalan-
(n.) ‘guard duty’
(HIL. 271)
(Hitt. uš-ki-iš-ke-tal-la-ni)
1. PIE *uski̯iski̯edɑɦolon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uski̯iski̯edɦolon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uski̯iski̯edɦolon-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *usḱisḱedɦolon-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. usḱisḱedɦolon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *usḱisḱedɦalan-
4. usḱisḱedɦalan-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *uskiskedɦalan-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. uskiskedɦalan-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *uskiskedalan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. uskiskedalan-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. uškiškedalan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. uškiškatalan-
(n.) ‘guard duty’
(HIL. 271)
(Hitt. uš-ki-iš-ga-at-tal[-la-an-ni])
1. PIE *uski̯iski̯otɑholon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uski̯iski̯otholon-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uski̯iski̯otholon-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *usḱisḱotholon-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. usḱisḱotholon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *usḱisḱathalan-
4. usḱisḱathalan-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *uskiskathalan-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. uskiskathalan-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RTh›T → *uskiskatalan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. uskiskatalan-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. uškiškatalan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√usseio-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. μετ·ουσέο-
(pr.) ‘περιβλέπω, ἀφορῶ, ἀποβλέπω’ (Hes.)
(LSJ. 1121)
(Gr. μετ·ουσῶ [1sg])
1. PIE *Π·ousséi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *Π·ousséo-
2. Π·ousséo-
*ss → s
Degemination of *ss
Rss›s → *Π·ouséo-
3. Π·ouséo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·ουσέο-
√uodɑɦ-
Hitt. uu̯adala-
(c.) ‘Seer’
(HIL. 271)
(Hitt. ú-ua-tal-lu-uš [plA])
1. PIE *uu̯odɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uu̯odɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uu̯odɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *uu̯adɦala-
3. uu̯adɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. uu̯adala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. para·uu̯adala-
(c.) ‘Späher’ (?)
(HHand. 121)
1. PIE *Π·uu̯odɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·uu̯odɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·uu̯odɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·uu̯adɦala-
3. Π·uu̯adɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. Π·uu̯adala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. uu̯adar-
(vb.sb.) ‘to see, to look’
(HIL. 271)
(Hitt. ú-ua-a-tar, ú-ua-tar)
1. PIE *uu̯odɑɦor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uu̯odɦor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uu̯odɦor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *uu̯adɦar-
3. uu̯adɦar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. uu̯adar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √u- (vb.) ‘kommen, geschehen’ (sb.) ‘das Kommen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√u-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. u·u̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘kommen’
(HHand. 189)
(Hitt. ú-ua-ši [2sg], ú-ua-az-zi [3sg])
1. PIE *u·u̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u·u̯a-
√uo-
LAv. frā·va-
(vb.) ‘geschehen : happen, come’
(AIWb. 932)
(LAv. frāvōit [3sg], Bartholomae 1895 §268.37)
1. PIE *Π·u̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯a-
2. Π·u̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. Π·va-
HLu. au̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘come’
(CHLu. 2.45.3)
(HLu. a-wa/i-ti [3sg])
1. PIE *ou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. au̯a-
HLu. au̯a-
(vb.) ‘come’
(CHLu. 4.3.2)
(HLu. (“PES”)á-wa/i-tà [3pers], á-wa/i-?-ti)
1. PIE *ou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. au̯a-
Hitt. u·u̯a-
(vb.1.) ‘kommen’
(HHand. 189)
(Hitt. uuat [ipv2sg], uuadu [3sg])
1. PIE *u·u̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u·u̯a-
√uɑh-
LAv. ava·vā-
(vb.) = Pahl. apē āyet
(AIWb. 176)
(LAv. avavāite [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·u̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·u̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·u̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·u̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·u̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·u̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. Π·vā-
√uuont-
Hitt. uu̯ant-
(pt.) ‘kommend’
(HIL. 1147)
(Hitt. ú-ua-an-t-
1. PIE *uu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uu̯ant-
√uuou-
Hitt. uu̯au̯a-
(inf.) ‘to come’
(HIL. 1147)
(Hitt. ú-u̯a-u-an-zi)
1. PIE *uu̯ou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uu̯au̯a-
Hitt. uu̯au̯a-
(n.) ‘das (ein)Kommen’
(HHand. 191)
(Hitt. EGIR-pa uwawaš EZEN4)
1. PIE *uu̯ou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uu̯au̯a-
HLu. uu̯au̯a-
(PN.) ‘-(?)-’
(CHLu. 2.43.1.)
(HLu. u-wa/i-wa/i-sa)
1. PIE *uu̯ou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. uu̯au̯a-
Hitt. uu̯au̯ar
(N.act.) ‘das (ein)Kommen’
(HHand. 191)
(Hitt. uuauar [sgNA = inf.])
1. PIE *uu̯ou̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uu̯au̯ar-
√ui-
(HIL. 1147-)
Hitt. u̯i-
(vb.) ‘happen’
(XX:XX)
(“EGIR-pa-ma ú-it Iam-mu-na DUMU.LUGAL BA.ÚŠ)
Hitt. au̯i-
(vb.) ‘to come’
(DLL. 36)
(in ‘CLu.’ a-ú-i-mi)
1. PIE *ou̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. au̯i-
CLu. au̯i-
(vb.) ‘to come’
(DLL. 36)
(CLu. a-ú-i-ši [3sg], a-ú-i-ti, a-ú-i-ḫa)
1. PIE *ou̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. au̯i-
HLu. au̯i-
(vb.) ‘come’
(CHLu. 10.9.13)
(HLu. á-wa/i-i-tu [3pl])
1. PIE *ou̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. au̯i-
Pal. au̯i-
(vb.) wohl ‘kommen, (HHand. 30)’
(DPal. 53)
(Pal. a-ú-in-t[a [3pl])
1. PIE *ou̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. au̯i-
CLu. au̯ei̯a-
(vb.) ‘to come (?)’
(DLL. 36)
(CLu. a-ui-ia-aḫ-ḫa [1sg])
1. PIE *ou̯ei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. au̯ei̯a-
√uimo-
CLu. au̯ima-
(pt.) ‘gekommen’
(HHand. 30)
1. PIE *ou̯imo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. au̯ima-
√uomo-
HLu. u̯ama-
(vb.) ‘come (?)’
(CHLu. 10.48.2)
(HLu. “PES”(-)wa/i-ma-ta)
1. PIE *u̯omo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. u̯ama-


PIE √u- √ue- √uo- (vb.) ‘geben, mitteilen, opfern’
(IEW —)
√u-
Hitt. erḫa·u̯-
(n./c.) ‘Reihum-Beopfern’
(HHand. 62)
(Hitt. erḫa·uas [sgG])
1. PIE *erɑho·u̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *erho·u̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. erho·u̯-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *erha·u̯-
3. erha·u̯-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. erḫa·u̯-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
RV. v-
(ao.M.) ‘verschaffen, mitteilen, geben’
(WbRV. 1204-6)
(RV. vanta [3pl]; Grundr2 I:860)
1. PIE *u̯-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. v-
√uou-
TochA. waw-
(pret.) ‘dare’
(Poucha 37)
(in TochA. wawu ‘datum’)
1. PIE *u̯ou̯-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯au̯-
2. u̯au̯-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. waw-
TochA. wawu-
(pret.pt.) ‘datum’
(Poucha 37)
(TochA. wawu)
1. PIE *u̯ou̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯au̯u-
2. u̯au̯u-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. wawu-


PIE √u- (sb.) ‘Ochse; Kuh’
(IEW —)
√uo-
LAv. aēta·va-
(PN.m.) N. eines Gläubigen
(AIWb. 18)
1. PIE *Π·u̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯a-
2. Π·u̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. Π·va-
LAv. hvō·va-
(m.) ‘N. einer iranischen Familie, gAv. hvō.gva’
(AIWb. 1857)
(In theory a sound law gAv. gv –› LAv. v possible!)
1. PIE *Π·u̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯a-
2. Π·u̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. Π·va-
√uēɑh-
LAv. dugdō.vā·-
(f.) ‘Wife of Pourušaspa & Mother of Zarathuštra]
(AIWb. 748)
1. PIE *Π·u̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·u̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·u̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·u̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·u̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·u̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. Π·-
√uiɑh-
LAv. hvō·vī-
(f.) (EN. der dritten Frau Zarathuštras)
(AIWb. 1857)
(LAv. hvōvi, hvōuyå)
1. PIE *Π·u̯iɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *Π·u̯iíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. Π·u̯iíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·u̯ií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. Π·u̯ií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *Π·u̯ī́-
4. Π·u̯ī́-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *Π·vī́-
5. Π·vī́-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → LAv. Π·vī-
√uo/enēɑh-
Lith. siù·vana-
(f.) ‘Kuhlaus’
(LiEtWb. 790)
(Lith. siùvana)
1. PIE *Π·u̯onēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·u̯onāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·u̯onāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯onāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·u̯onāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·u̯onā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·u̯onā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯anā
5. Π·u̯anā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *Π·u̯anō
(XX:XX)
6. Π·u̯anō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *Π·u̯ana
7. Π·u̯ana
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. Π·vana
Lith. siù·vena-
(f.) ‘Kuhlaus’ ‹Lith. siù- ‘Spitze’›
(LiEtWb. 790)
(Lith. siùvena)
1. PIE *Π·u̯enēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·u̯enāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·u̯enāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯enāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·u̯enāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·u̯enā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·u̯enā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *Π·u̯enō
(XX:XX)
5. Π·u̯enō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *Π·u̯ena
6. Π·u̯ena
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. Π·vena
Lith. siu·venà-
(f.) ‘Kuh-, Rinderlaus’
(LiEtWb. 790)
1. PIE *Π·u̯enḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *Π·u̯enā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·u̯enā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯enā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·u̯enā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *Π·u̯enā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. Π·u̯enā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *Π·u̯enṓ
(XX:XX)
5. Π·u̯enṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → *Π·u̯enà
6. Π·u̯enà
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. Π·venà
√uouo-
HLu. u̯au̯a-
(BOS.ANIMAL.c.) ‘ox’
(CHLu. 4.6.5)
(HLu. (BOS.ANIMAL)wa/i-wa/i), Laroche BSL 62 [1987]:68f.)
1. PIE *u̯ou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. u̯au̯a-
HLu. u̯au̯a-
(BOS.) ‘ox’
(CHLu. 3.10.5)
(HLu. (‘BOS’)wa/i-wa/i-ti-i)
1. PIE *u̯ou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. u̯au̯a-
LycA. wawa-
(c./n.) ‘cow, HIL. 587’
(DLycLg. 78)
(Lyc. wawã [sgA], wawa [coll.pl.], KLuN 316)
1. PIE *u̯ou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯au̯a-
2. u̯au̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → LycA. wawa-
Hitt. u̯au̯a·ankuša-
(URU.) ‘In der weiteren Umgebung von ›Pala’
(OGH. 482)
(Hitt. ua-ua-an-ku-uš-ša-za [Abl])
1. PIE *u̯ou̯o·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯au̯a·Σ
Kpd. u̯au̯a·la-
() ((f)c.) ‹cow-herd(?)›
(NOMS. 1519)
(Kpd. ua-ua-lá)
1. PIE *u̯ou̯o·lo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Kpd. u̯au̯a·la-
Kpd. u̯au̯a·li-
(I.c.) ‹cow-herd(?)›
(NOMS. 1520)
(Kpd. ua-ua-li, ua-ua-lí)
1. PIE *u̯ou̯o·li-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Kpd. u̯au̯a·li-
HLu. u̯au̯a·ši-
(a.gen.*) ‘of ox’
(I.1.§ )
(HLu. BOS.ANIMAL-wa/i-si)
1. PIE *u̯ou̯o·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯au̯a·si-
2. u̯au̯a·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. u̯au̯a·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uoui-
CLu. u̯au̯i-
(c.) ‘Kuh, Rind’
(HHand. 200)
(in CLu. ua-a-u-i-[...], GU4-iš, GU4-in, GU4-in-za)
1. PIE *u̯ou̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. u̯au̯i-
Hitt. u̯au̯i-
(LÚ.c.) ‘ein Funktionär; ‹if ‘cowherd’ vel sim. (?)’›
(HHand. 200)
1. PIE *u̯ou̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯au̯i-
√uouu-
LycA. wawu-
(.) ‘cow’
(HIL. 587)
(Lyc. wawu [sgA])
1. PIE *u̯ou̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯au̯u-
2. u̯au̯u-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → LycA. wawu-
√uue/o-
LycA. uwa-
(c.) ‘cow, HIL. 587’
(DLycLg. 78)
(Lyc. uwa [pl], uwadi [AblInstr.])
1. PIE *uu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *uu̯a-
2. uu̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → LycA. uwa-
Hitt. uu̯a·x[...
(URU.)
(OGH. 470)
(Hitt. ú-ua-x[)
1. PIE *uu̯o·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uu̯a·Σ
Kpd. uu̯aa-
(m.c.)
(NOMS. 1461)
(Kpd. ú-ua-a [abs.])
1. PIE *uu̯oi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *uu̯ai̯a
2. uu̯ai̯a
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → Kpd. uu̯aa
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
Hitt. uu̯aa-
(f.c.)
(NOMS. 1461)
(Hitt. u-ua-a [abs.])
1. PIE *uu̯oi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *uu̯ai̯a-
2. uu̯ai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
Rai̯a›aa → Hitt. uu̯aa-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
LycA. uwehi-
(a.gen.) ‘who oversees a cattle sacrifice’ [epith. of ‘priest’]
(DLycLg. 78)
(Lyc. uwehi [sgN]; HIL. 587)
1. PIE *uu̯esi-
PIE *s → h
Change of fricative *s into h
Rs›h → *uu̯ehi-
2. uu̯ehi-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → LycA. uwehi-


PIE √uɑh- (vb.) ‘brennen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + LAv.)
√uēɑh-
LAv. fra·vā-
(pr.) ‘hervorscheinen, leuchten’
(AIWb. 952)
(LAv. fravāiti [3sg]; Thus not with Av. v (uu) for PIIr. *bh!)
1. PIE *pro·u̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *pro·u̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. pro·u̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pro·u̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pro·u̯āh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pra·u̯āh-
4. pra·u̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pra·u̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. pra·u̯ā-
*pR → fR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
RpR›fR → *fra·u̯ā-
6. fra·u̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. fra·vā-
Hitt. uāḫ·nu-
(pr.) ‘brennen’
(HEG W:305)
(Hitt. waḫnumanzi |inf.])
1. PIE *u̯ēɑh·nu-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯āɑh·nu-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯āɑh·nu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯āh·nu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯āh·nu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯āḫ·nu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √uɑhi- (a.) ‘gut, heilig’
(Pyysalo)
√uɑhi-
Hitt. u̯aḫai̯a-
(KUR URU.) ‘=URUuašḫaia- ‘heilig (?)’
(OGH. 477)
(Hitt. ua-ḫa-ia [All], ‘Auf dem Berg Ilurija (...) > Ilu[ (...) > Kapiruḫa’)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhoii̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhoii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhoii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahoii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahoii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ahaii̯a-
4. u̯ahaii̯a-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *u̯ahaia-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
5. u̯ahaia-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → *u̯ahai̯a-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
6. u̯ahai̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯aḫai̯a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
TochB. wey-
(sgL) “having placed it weyaṃ for seven days”
(DTochB. 609)
(TochB. weyaṃ [sgL])
1. PIE *u̯eɑhii̯-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhii̯-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhii̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahii̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahii̯-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯aii̯-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯aii̯-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *u̯ēi̯-
5. u̯ēi̯-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *u̯ei̯-
6. u̯ei̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *u̯ey-
7. u̯ey-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. wey-
TochA. weyem-
(a.indecl.) ‘mirificus, mirus’
(Poucha 305)
(TochA. weyeṃ)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhii̯oim-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhii̯oim-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhii̯oim-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahii̯oim-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahii̯oim-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ahii̯aim-
4. u̯ahii̯aim-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯aii̯aim-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. u̯aii̯aim-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *u̯ēi̯ēm-
6. u̯ēi̯ēm-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *u̯ei̯em-
7. u̯ei̯em-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *u̯eyem-
8. u̯eyem-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. weyem-
√ueɑhiel-
Arm. vayel-
(a.) ‘decent, worthy, proper’
(EtDiArm. 591-2)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhi̯el-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhi̯el-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhi̯el-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahi̯el-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahi̯el-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ai̯el-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯ai̯el-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *u̯ayel-
5. u̯ayel-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Arm. vayel-
Arm. vayel·k‘-
(sb.) ‘enjoyment, delight’
(EtDiArm. 591-2)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhi̯el·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhi̯el·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhi̯el·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahi̯el·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahi̯el·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ai̯el·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯ai̯el·Σ-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *u̯ayel·Σ-
5. u̯ayel·Σ-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Arm. vayel·Σ-
Arm. vayele-
(vb.) ‘enjoy’
(EtDiArm. 591-2)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhi̯ele-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhi̯ele-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhi̯ele-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahi̯ele-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahi̯ele-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ai̯ele-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯ai̯ele-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *u̯ayele-
5. u̯ayele-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Arm. vayele-
Arm. vayel·uch’
(a.) ‘decent, pleasant, delightful’
(EtDiArm. 591-2)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhi̯el·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhi̯el·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhi̯el·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahi̯el·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahi̯el·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ai̯el·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯ai̯el·Σ-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *u̯ayel·Σ-
5. u̯ayel·Σ-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Arm. vayel·Σ-


PIE √uɑhri- (a.) ‘link, schlecht’
(IEW 56 [diff.])
(+ Pyysalo: Pal.)
√ueɑhro-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. u̯aḫra-
(c.) ‘Weh, Leid, Pein’
(DLL. 23)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhro-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhro-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ahra-
4. u̯ahra-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. u̯aḫra-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. u̯aḫra-
(.) (magisches Formelwort)
(HHand. 192)
(Hitt. aḫran uaḫran)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhro-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhro-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ahra-
4. u̯ahra-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯aḫra-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OInd. var·āka-
(a.) ‘wretched, low, miserable, pitiable’
(MonWil. 921)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhr·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhr·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhr·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahr·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahr·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ar·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯ar·Σ-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OInd. var·Σ-
√uɑhri-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. u̯aḫri-
(vb.dn.) ‘wehklagen’
(DLL. 105)
(CLu. ua-aḫ-ri-it-ti [3sg])
1. PIE *u̯eɑhri-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhri-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhri-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahri-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahri-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. u̯aḫri-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Pal. u̯aḫari-
(vb.) ‘zum Schlechten hinwenden’
(HHand. 191)
(see DPal. 77)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhori-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhori-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhori-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahori-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ahari-
4. u̯ahari-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Pal. u̯aḫari-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Pal. u̯aḫari̯ant-
(pt.) ‘-(?)-’
(DPal. 77)
(Pal. ua-ḫa-ri-ia-an-za [sgN])
1. PIE *u̯eɑhori̯ont-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhori̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhori̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahori̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahori̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ahari̯ant-
4. u̯ahari̯ant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Pal. u̯aḫari̯ant-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Gr. ἀριστερό-
(a.) ‘der linke, links’
(GEW 1:139-40)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhristeró-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhristeró-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhristeró-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahristeró-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahristeró-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯aristeró-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯aristeró-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *aristeró-
5. aristeró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀριστερό-
LAv. vairyastara-
(a.) ‘link(en Seite)’
(AIWb. 1373)
(LAv. vairyastarǝm)
1. PIE *u̯eɑhri̯ostero-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯aɑhri̯ostero-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯aɑhri̯ostero-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ahri̯ostero-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ahri̯ostero-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ahri̯astera-
4. u̯ahri̯astera-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ari̯astera-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. u̯ari̯astera-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯ari̯astara-
6. u̯ari̯astara-
*ari → airi
Anaptyxis of *i
RarI›airI → *u̯airi̯astara-
7. u̯airi̯astara-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *u̯airyastara-
8. u̯airyastara-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. vairyastara-


PIE √uehɑ- √uohɑ- √uhɑ- (vb.) ‘wenden, drehen, bewegen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√uehɑ-
(Pyysalo 2013:130f.)
Hitt. u̯eḫ-
(vb.1.A.) ‘sich wenden, drehen, (hin und her)bewegen’
(HHand. 200)
(Hitt. ú-e-eḫ-zi [3sg], Kimball 1999:210, HIL. 1149f)
1. PIE *u̯ehɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯eh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯eḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Umbr. ue-
(vb.) ≈ ‘wenden’
(WbOU. 835-6)
(Umbr. uetu [3sg])
1. PIE *u̯ehɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯eh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯e-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. u̯e-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Umbr. ue-
√uehɑi-
(Pyysalo)
LinB. ϝει·εχεσ-
(a.) ‘describing wheels’
(DMycGr. 411)
(LinB. we-je-ke-a2 [plNA PY 286 = Sa787], DMycGr. 373)
1. PIE *u̯ehɑi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ehi·Σ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ehi·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ei·Σ-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. u̯ei·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. ϝει·Σ-
Hitt. u̯eḫiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘sich wenden, patroullieren’
(HHand. 200)
(Hitt. ú-e-ḫi-eš-ke/a-, Also ‘hin- und herbewegen, durchstreifen’)
1. PIE *u̯ehɑiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ehiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ehiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯ehisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯ehisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ehisḱe/a-
4. u̯ehisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯ehiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯ehiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *u̯ehiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. u̯ehiške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯eḫiške/a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. u̯eḫiška·dala-
(LÚc.) ‘Herumstreifer, Patrouille’
(HHand. 200)
1. PIE *u̯ehɑiski̯o·dɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ehiski̯o·dɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ehiski̯o·dɦolo-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯ehisḱo·dɦolo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯ehisḱo·dɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ehisḱa·dɦala-
4. u̯ehisḱa·dɦala-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯ehiska·dɦala-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯ehiska·dɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *u̯ehiska·dala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. u̯ehiska·dala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *u̯ehiška·dala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. u̯ehiška·dala-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯eḫiška·dala-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. u̯aḫišn-
(n.) ‘Schwenkung’
(HHand. 191)
(Hitt. uaḫišnaš [sgG])
1. PIE *u̯ohɑisn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ohisn-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ohisn-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ahisn-
3. u̯ahisn-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *u̯ahišn-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. u̯ahišn-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯aḫišn-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√uehɑn-
Hitt. u̯eḫan-
(n.) ‘Wenden, Wendung’
(HHand. 191)
(Hitt. ueḫanaš [sgG])
1. PIE *u̯ehɑen-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *u̯ehɑan-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. u̯ehɑan-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ehan-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ehan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯eḫan-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. u̯aḫan-
(n.) ‘Wenden, Wendung’
(HHand. 191)
(Hitt. uaḫanaš [sgG])
1. PIE *u̯ohɑen-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *u̯ohɑan-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. u̯ohɑan-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ohan-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ohan-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ahan-
4. u̯ahan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯aḫan-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√uohɑu-
Hitt. u̯eḫu-
(n.N.act.) ‘Drehung, Runde’
(HHand. 200)
(Hitt. ANŠE.KUR.RA.MEŠ ueḫuaš
1. PIE *u̯ehɑu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ehu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ehu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯eḫu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. u̯aḫu-
(vb.) ‘sich wenden, drehen, bewegen’
(HHand. 200)
(Hitt. ua-aḫ-ḫu-zi [KBo 3.25 iii 4])
1. PIE *u̯ohɑu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ohu-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ohu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ahu-
3. u̯ahu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. u̯aḫu-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√uhɑ-
(Goetze, Pedersen MS p. 74)
Hitt. uḫ-
(vb.) ‘sich wenden’
(Oettinger 1979:100)
(Hitt. ú-uḫ-zi [3sg]; ‹or to Hitt. √unḫ- (?!)›)
1. PIE *uhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. uḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
ODor. ϝᾱ́να-
(vb.) ‘winnow : worfeln’
(GEW 1:41)
(Hes. ϝᾶναι · περιπτίσαι)
1. PIE *uhɑénseɑh-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *uhɑánseɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. uhɑánseɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *uhɑánsaɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
3. uhɑánsaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uhánsah-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. uhánsah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *uánsa-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. uánsa-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr2 → *uánha-
6. uánha-
*ánh → ā́nh
Lengthening of *á before nh
Ránh›ā́nh → *uā́nha-
7. uā́nha-
*uA → u̯A
Desyllabification of uA into u̯A
RuA›u̯A → *u̯ā́nha-
8. u̯ā́nha-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
R-Th›0 → *u̯ā́na-
9. u̯ā́na-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → ODor. ϝᾱ́να-
Gr. ανο-
(vb.) winnow : worfeln’
(GEW 1:41)
1. PIE *uhɑéni̯o-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Møller's rule for PIE *aé
Rɑé›ɑá → *uhɑáni̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. uhɑáni̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uháni̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. uháni̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *uáni̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. uáni̯o-
*áni̯ → aín
Epenthesis of *i
Ráni̯›aín → *uaíno-
5. uaíno-
*uA → u̯A
Desyllabification of uA into u̯A
RuA›u̯A → *u̯aíno-
6. u̯aíno-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *aíno-
7. aíno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ανο-


PIE √ui- (sb.) ‘Geburt, Frau, Bruder, Sohn’
(IEW —)
√ui-
Hitt. gašulia·u̯i-
(f.c.) (fille de Ḫatušili III, femme de Bentešilna)
(NOMS. 539)
(in Akd. ga-aš-šu-li-ia-ú-i-e, gaš-šu-li-ia-ui)
√uio-
Hitt. gašulia·ui̯a-
(f.c.) (princesse hittite, femme de Muršili II (?))
(NOMS. 539)
(Hitt. gaš-šu-li-ia-ui(-aš) [All-(N)])
1. PIE *Π·ui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·ui̯a-
Hitt. arma·ui̯a-
(fdc.*) ‘Mond-XX’
(NOMS. 140)
(Hitt. fdMI-ui-ia-aš: fdSIN-ui-ia)
1. PIE *ormo·ui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. arma·ui̯a-
Hitt. ašpuna·ui̯a-
(f.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 177)
(Hitt. aš-pu-na-ui-ia)
1. PIE *Π·ui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·ui̯a-
Hitt. iara·ui̯a-
(f.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 432)
(Hitt. ia-ra-ui-aš [sgN/G?])
1. PIE *Π·ui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·ui̯a-
Hitt. maraša·ui̯a-
(f.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 759)
(Hitt. ma-ra-aš-ša-ui-ia-aš)
1. PIE *Π·ui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·ui̯a-
Hitt. šanda·ui̯a-
(f.c.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 1102)
(Hitt. ša-an-ta-ui-aš)
1. PIE *Π·ui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. Π·ui̯a-
AV. bhrātr̥·vya-
(m.) ‘Brudersohn, Vetter’
(WbRV. 967)
1. PIE *Π·u̯i̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯i̯a-
2. Π·u̯i̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *Π·vi̯a-
3. Π·vi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → AV. Π·vya-
RV. abhrātr̥·vyá-
(a.) ‘ohne Nebenbühler seiend’
(WbRV. 89)
1. PIE *Π·u̯i̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·u̯i̯á-
2. Π·u̯i̯á-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *Π·vi̯á-
3. Π·vi̯á-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·vyá-
LAv. brātr·uya-
(m.) ‘Bruderssohn’ (f.-ā) ‘Bruderstochter’
(AIWb. 972)
1. PIE *Π·ui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ui̯a-
2. Π·ui̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. Π·uya-
LAv. zāma·uya-
(m.) ‘Bruder des Schwiegersohns’
(AIWb. 1689)
(LAv. zāmaoya-)
1. PIE *Π·ui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·ui̯a-
2. Π·ui̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → LAv. Π·uya-
Lat. patruo·-
(m.) ‘Vatersbruder, Onkel väterlicherseits’
(WH. 2:263)
Lat. patruus [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·ui̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lat. Π·uio-
√uin-
TochA. wena-
(vb.) ‘agere, (e)nasci, (pro)germinare’
(Poucha 303)
(TochA. wena)
1. PIE *u̯oino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aina-
2. u̯aina-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *u̯ēna-
3. u̯ēna-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *u̯ena-
4. u̯ena-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. wena-
√uip-
OIcl. vīf-
(n.) ‘Frau, Gatte, usw.’
(ANEtWb. 661)
1. PIE *u̯eipo
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›fRestr → *u̯eifo
2. u̯eifo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯eifa
3. u̯eifa
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *u̯īfa
4. u̯īfa
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯īf
5. u̯īf
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OIcl. vīf


PIE √uois- √ueis- √uis- (vb.) ‘gedeihen, grünen, sich (ver)mehren’ (sb.) ‘Baum, Sproß, Frucht’
(IEW 1133)
(WP. 1:242)
√uois-
Lith. vaisà
(f.) ‘Fruchtbarkeit’
(LiEtWb. 1184)
1. PIE *u̯oisḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *u̯oisā́ɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯oisā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯oisā́h
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯oisā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯oisā́
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯oisā́
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aisā́
5. u̯aisā́
PIE *ā́ → ṓ
Change of *ā́ into ṓ
Rā́›ṓ → *u̯aisṓ
(XX:XX)
6. u̯aisṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
R=ṓ›=à → *u̯aisà
7. u̯aisà
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. vaisà
Lith. vaĩsiu-
(.) ‘Frucht, Ergebnis, Resultat’
(LiEtWb. 1184)
(Lith. vaĩsius [sgN])
1. PIE *u̯oísi̯u-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *u̯oìsi̯u-
2. u̯oìsi̯u-
oì → oĩ
Circumflex intonation for oì
RLiAcc13 → *u̯oĩsi̯u-
3. u̯oĩsi̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aĩsi̯u-
4. u̯aĩsi̯u-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›iRestr → *u̯aĩsiu-
5. u̯aĩsiu-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. vaĩsiu-
√ueis-
(Pyysalo)
Lith. vs-
(vb.) ‘durch Fortpflanzung sich vermehren, (er)zeugen’
(LiEtWb. 1214)
(Lith. veĩsti, veisiù)
1. PIE *u̯eís-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *u̯eìs-
2. u̯eìs-
eì → eĩ
Circumflex intonation for eì
RLiAcc14 → *u̯eĩs-
3. u̯eĩs-
eí -› iẽ
Change of eí to iẽ
Reĩ›iẽ → *u̯iẽs-
4. u̯iẽs-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. viẽs-
Latv. vies-
(vb.) ‘(auf-, er-)ziehen, verbreiten (ver)mehren’
(LiEtWb. 1214)
(Latv. viest [inf.])
1. PIE *u̯eis-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *veis-
2. veis-
*ei -> ie
Change of *ei into ie
Rei›ie → Latv. vies-
Latv. vies-
(vb.refl.) ‘gedeihen’
(LiEtWb. 1214)
(Latv. viesties [inf.])
1. PIE *u̯eis-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *veis-
2. veis-
*ei -> ie
Change of *ei into ie
Rei›ie → Latv. vies-
OPr. weisi-
(m.) ‘Frucht’
(APrS. 459)
(OPr. wēisi-)
1. PIE *u̯eisi-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *veisi-
2. veisi-
*v → w
Orthographic change of of *v into w
Rv›w → OPr. weisi-
OEng. wīsa·n-
(f.) ‘sprout, stalk’
(ASaxD. 1241)
(OEng. wíse, wísan)
1. PIE *u̯eiso·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯eisa·n-
2. u̯eisa·n-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *u̯īsa·n-
3. u̯īsa·n-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OEng. wīsa·n-
Hitt. u̯eišar-
(GIŠ) ‘ein Baum oder Holz’
(HHand. 184)
(Hitt. ú-i-eš-šar [KUB 7. 37, 12], HIL. 1171)
1. PIE *u̯eisor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯eisar-
2. u̯eisar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯eišar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uis-
Lith. vìs-
(vb.) ‘sich fortpflanzen, vermehren’
(LiEtWb. 1265)
(Lith. vìsti [inf.])
1. PIE *u̯ís-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis PLith. ì
RLiAcc2 → *u̯ìs-
2. u̯ìs-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. vìs-
Lat. uir·eo-
(pr.2.) ‘grün sein, grünen’
(Lat. uireō, uirēre)
1. PIE *u̯is·ei̯o-
*VsV → VrV
Rhotacism of *s between vowels
RVsV›VrV → *u̯ir·ei̯o-
2. u̯ir·ei̯o-
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
Rei̯o›eo → *u̯ir·eo-
3. u̯ir·eo-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. uir·eo-
Lith. vislù-
(a.) ‘fruchtbar’
(LiEtWb. 1265)
1. PIE *u̯islù-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. vislù-


PIE √uis- √uois- √ueis- (vb.) ‘bedrängen, drücken’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo: RV. + Anat.)
√uis-
RV. viṣ·pitá-
(n.) ‘Not, Gefahr, Bedrängnis [RV. ·pit- ‘food’]’
(WbRV. 1310)
1. PIE *u̯is·pitó-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RrukIOIA → *u̯iš·pitó-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
2. u̯iš·pitó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *u̯iš·pitá-
3. u̯iš·pitá-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *viš·pitá-
4. viš·pitá-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
Rš›ṣ → RV. viṣ·pitá-
(SPIE §4.9.2.2)
√uisi-
LycB. wisei-
(vb.) ‘(op)press’
(Melchert 1994:242,291)
(LycB. wisei)
1. PIE *u̯isei-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → LycB. wisei-
CLu. uišei-
(vb.) ‘(op)press’
(KLuN 1990:549f.)
(CLu. išiita)
1. PIE *u̯isei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. u̯išei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uisuri-
Hitt. uišurei̯a-
(vb.1.A.) ‘(op)press, constrict: drücken, bedrängen’
(HIL. 1171)
(Kimball 1999:439, Rieken 1999:355, Eichner 1973:77)
1. PIE *u̯isurei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯isurei̯a-
2. u̯isurei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯išurei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √uidɑɦ- √uoidɑɦ- √ueidɑɦ- (vb.) ‘stoßen, schießen, schädigen, versehren’
(IEW 1115 + 1127-8 [diff.])
(Pyysalo)
√uidɑɦ-
RV. ni (…) vividh·-
(pf.) ‘niederstoßen, niederschießen’
(WbRV. 1359)
(in RV. ni vividhvâns)
1. PIE *Π·u̯iu̯idɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯iu̯idɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·u̯iu̯idɦ-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *Π·vividɦ-
3. Π·vividɦ-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. Π·vividh-
√uidɑɦο-
(Pyysalo)
LAv. vaeδa-
(m.) ‘Wurfgeschoss’
(AIWb. 1320)
1. PIE *u̯oidɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯oidɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯oidɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aidɦa-
3. u̯aidɦa-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯aida-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. u̯aida-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai into ae
Rai›ae → *u̯aeda-
5. u̯aeda-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
Rd›δ → *u̯aeδa-
6. u̯aeδa-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. vaeδa-
CLu. u̯ida-
(vb.) ‘divide’
(Melchert 1983:158)
(No attestation or locus provided by M. !)
1. PIE *u̯idɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯idɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯idɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯idɦa-
3. u̯idɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. u̯ida-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯iu̯ida-
(vb.) ‘strike, urge’
(Melchert 1983:10)
(No attestation or locus provided by M. !)
1. PIE *u̯iu̯idɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯iu̯idɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯iu̯idɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯iu̯idɦa-
3. u̯iu̯idɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯iu̯ida-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uidɑɦi-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. u̯idai-
(vb.) ‘smash, strike’
(Melchert 1994:231)
(No attestation or locus provided by M. !)
1. PIE *u̯idɑɦoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯idɦoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯idɦoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯idɦai-
3. u̯idɦai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. u̯idai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. a·u̯idei-
(.) ‘Sphinx’
(HEG 1:99-100)
(Melchert 1994:168), Puhvel 1984: 247)
1. PIE *o·u̯idɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *o·u̯idɦei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. o·u̯idɦei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *a·u̯idɦei-
3. a·u̯idɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. a·u̯idei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯eiz-
(vb.) ‘strike, urge’
(Melchert 1983:10)
(No attestation or locus provided by M. !)
1. PIE *u̯eidɑɦi̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eidɦi̯-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯eidɦi̯-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *u̯eijɦ-
3. u̯eijɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *u̯eij-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. u̯eij-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. u̯eiz-
Hitt. arla·u̯izi-
(LÚ.c.) ‘‹= Hitt. LÚ.UR.MAḪ (?)›’
(NOMS. 130a)
(Hitt. ar-la-ui-iz-zi [All] = Hitt. LÚ.UR.MAḪ
1. PIE *orlo·u̯idɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orlo·u̯idɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orlo·u̯idɦi-
PIE *dɦi → jɦi
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi›jɦi → *orlo·u̯ijɦi-
3. orlo·u̯ijɦi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arla·u̯ijɦi-
4. arla·u̯ijɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *arla·u̯iji-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. arla·u̯iji-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. arla·u̯izi-
RV. vídhya-
(pr.) ‘verwunden, schädigen, versehren’
(WbRV. 1358)
(RV. vidhyat)
1. PIE *u̯ídɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ídɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ídɦi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ídɦi̯a-
3. u̯ídɦi̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vídɦi̯a-
4. vídɦi̯a-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *vídhi̯a-
5. vídhi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. vídhya-
RV. áva (…) vidhya·-
(pr.) ‘jemandem hinabstoßen’
(WbRV. 1358)
(RV. áva vidhyati)
1. PIE *Π·u̯idɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯idɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·u̯idɦi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯idɦi̯a-
3. Π·u̯idɦi̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *Π·vidɦi̯a-
4. Π·vidɦi̯a-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *Π·vidhi̯a-
5. Π·vidhi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·vidhya-
RV. áti (…) vidhya·-
(pr.) ‘durchbohren, (hin)durchbrechen’
(WbRV. 1358)
(RV. áti vidhyati)
1. PIE *Π·u̯idɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯idɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·u̯idɦi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯idɦi̯a-
3. Π·u̯idɦi̯a-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *Π·vidɦi̯a-
4. Π·vidɦi̯a-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *Π·vidhi̯a-
5. Π·vidhi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → RV. Π·vidhya-
√uidɑɦn-
Hitt. u̯eidna-
(c.) (ein Raubtier, ‘Hyäne’ ?)
(HHand. 202)
(Hitt. ú-e-it-na-aš ma-a-an pa-an-gur)
1. PIE *u̯eidɑɦno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eidɦno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯eidɦno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯eidɦna-
3. u̯eidɦna-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯eidna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uidɑɦri-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. ἴθρι-
(.) ‘σπάδων, τομίας, εὐνου̃χος’ (Hes.)
(GEW 1:449)
(Hes. ἴθρις ; IEW 1115 [diff.], Rieken 1999:216)
1. PIE *u̯ídɑɦri-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ídɦri-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ídɦri-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›th → *u̯íthri-
3. u̯íthri-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *íthri-
4. íthri-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἴθρι-
Hitt. u̯idriš-
(n.) ‘eine Krankheit, ein übler Zustand’
(HHand. 202)
(HIL. 1175; Tischler: ‘Auszehrung, Abmagerung?’)
1. PIE *u̯idɑɦris-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯idɦris-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯idɦris-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *u̯idris-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. u̯idris-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯idriš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √uidɑɦ- (sb.) ‘Mann, Hoden, Penis’
(IEW —)
(Pyysalo)
√uidɑɦ-
CLu. u̯id·pani-
(sb.) ‘testicles ‹for ·Σ see, Hitt. pani- = panku-(?)›’
(KUB ix 6+ Rs. iii 28)
(CLu. uitpanim-pa-an uidāindu)
1. PIE *u̯idɑɦ·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯idɦ·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯idɦ·Σ
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. u̯id·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OLFrank. chana·wid-
(a.) ‘männlich: male’
(ChWbdWs. 375)
(Pactus legis Salicae 7, 5 Si quis gallum furauerit mallobergo chanauuido)
1. PIE *Π·u̯idɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯idɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·u̯idɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·u̯ido
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. Π·u̯ido
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯ida
4. Π·u̯ida
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *Π·u̯id
5. Π·u̯id
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OLFrank. Π·wid
OLFrank. wiwid-
(a.) ‘männlich: male’
(ChWbdWs. 375)
(Pactus legis Salicae 7, 6 Si quis coccum aut gallina furauerit mallobergo cannas uiuido et solampinam)
1. PIE *u̯iu̯idɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯iu̯idɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯iu̯idɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯iu̯ido
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. u̯iu̯ido
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯iu̯ida
4. u̯iu̯ida
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯iu̯id
5. u̯iu̯id
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OLFrank. wiwid


PIE √uoGɑɦ- (vb.) ‘beißen’
(IEW 1171 + 1171f. [diff.])
(Pyysalo)
√uogɑɦ
Hitt. u̯ag-
(vb.2.) ‘(an)beißen, einen Imbiß genießen’
(HHand. 192)
(Hitt. ua-a-ki [3sg], ua-ak [2sg], ua-a-ku-e-en)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯agɦ-
3. u̯agɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯ag-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯aga-
(vb.) ‘anbeißen, einen Imbiß genießen’
(HIL. 1085)
(Hitt. ua-ka4-aš, ua-a-ga,
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯agɦa-
3. u̯agɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯aga-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
AV. vághā-
(f.) ‘ein bestimmes schädliches Tier’
(EWA 2:488)
1. PIE *u̯ógɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯ógɑɦāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯ógɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ógɦāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ógɦāh-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *u̯ágɦāh-
4. u̯ágɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ágɦā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. u̯ágɦā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vágɦā-
6. vágɦā-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → AV. vághā-
Hitt. u̯agai-
(c.) ‘Mehlwurm : grain weevil’
(HHand. 192)
(Hitt. ua-ga-a-iš, HIL. 1088
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯agɦai-
3. u̯agɦai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯agai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uogɑɦeso-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. u̯ageša-
(n.) ‘a kind of bread’
(HIL. 1085)
(Hitt. ua-ge-eš-ša)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦeso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦeso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦeso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯agɦesa-
3. u̯agɦesa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *u̯agesa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. u̯agesa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯ageša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OInd. vāhasá-
(.) ‘python’
(Burrow 1979:54)
1. PIE *u̯ōgɑɦesó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ōgɦesó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ōgɦesó-
PIE *gɦ → ǰɦ
2nd palatalization of *gɦ
Rgɦ›ǰɦ → *u̯ōǰɦesó-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. u̯ōǰɦesó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *u̯ōǰɦesá-
4. u̯ōǰɦesá-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *u̯āǰɦesá-
5. u̯āǰɦesá-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to ɦ
Rǰɦ›ɦ → *u̯āɦesá-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. u̯āɦesá-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯āɦasá-
7. u̯āɦasá-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vāɦasá-
8. vāɦasá-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → OInd. vāhasá-
√uogɑɦs-
(Pyysalo)
OEng. weaxa-
(vb.) ‘schmausen : feast (Beowulf)’
(GoEtD. W75.)
(Beowulf 2115 Hs. weaxan, not “wesan”)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦso-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦso-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *u̯ogso-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. u̯ogso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯agsa-
4. u̯agsa-
gs -› ks
Devoicing of gs to ks
Rgs›ks → *u̯aksa-
5. u̯aksa-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → *waksa-
6. waksa-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *wacsa-
7. wacsa-
*cs → x
Change of *cs into x
Rcs›x → OEng. waxa-
Hitt. u̯akšur-
(n.) ‘Abschnitt’ (Maßeinheit)
(HHand. 192)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦsur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦsur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦsur-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯agɦsur-
3. u̯agɦsur-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *u̯agsur-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. u̯agsur-
gs -› ks
Devoicing of gs to ks
Rgs›ks → *u̯aksur-
5. u̯aksur-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯akšur-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √ugɑɦ- √ougɑɦ- √eugɑɦ- (vb.) ‘trinken’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√eugɑɦ-
(Pedersen 1925: 40)
(HIL. 280ff., Oettinger 1979:87)
Hitt. eug-
(vb.) ‘trinken’
(HHand. 34)
(Hitt. e-uk-ši, e-uk-zi, e-ú-uk-zi, e-uk-ta, HIL. 280-1)
1. PIE *eugɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. eug-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
TochB. yok-
(vb.) ‘trinken, [VW. 601-2]’
(DTochB. 509-10)
(TochB. yoku [1sg], yoktsi [inf.])
1. PIE *eugɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦ-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦ-
3. i̯augɦ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯aug-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. i̯aug-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯auk-
5. i̯auk-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōk-
6. i̯ōk-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯ok-
7. i̯ok-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. yok-
TochA. yok-
(vb.) ‘bibere, potare’
(Poucha 246)
(TochA. yoktsi [inf.])
1. PIE *eugɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦ-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦ-
3. i̯augɦ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯aug-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. i̯aug-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯auk-
5. i̯auk-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōk-
6. i̯ōk-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯ok-
7. i̯ok-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochA. yok-
TochB. yokä-
(vb.) ‘trinken, (LÉDT 170)’
(DTochB. 509-10)
(TochB. yokäṃ [3sg])
1. PIE *eugɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eugɦa-
3. eugɦa-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦa-
4. i̯augɦa-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯auga-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. i̯auga-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯auka-
6. i̯auka-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōka-
7. i̯ōka-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯oka-
8. i̯oka-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. yoka-
TochB. yokalle
(ger.) ‘to be drunk’
(DTochB. 509)
1. PIE *eugɑɦolnoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦolnoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦolnoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eugɦalnai-
3. eugɦalnai-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦalnai-
4. i̯augɦalnai-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯augalnai-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. i̯augalnai-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯aukalnai-
6. i̯aukalnai-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
Rln›ll → *i̯aukallai-
7. i̯aukallai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *i̯aukallē-
8. i̯aukallē-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōkallē-
9. i̯ōkallē-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *i̯ōkalle-
10. i̯ōkalle-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯okalle-
11. i̯okalle-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. yokalle-
TochA. yoke
(sb.m.) ‘sitis’ (: ‘Durst’ = ‘thirst’)
(Poucha 246)
(TochA. yoke [sgN])
1. PIE *eugɑɦoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eugɦai-
3. eugɦai-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦai-
4. i̯augɦai-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯augai-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. i̯augai-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯aukai-
6. i̯aukai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *i̯aukē-
7. i̯aukē-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōkē-
8. i̯ōkē-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *i̯ōke-
9. i̯ōke-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯oke-
10. i̯oke-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochA. yoke-
TochA. yoke·yu-
(a.) ‘sitiens’
(Poucha 246)
1. PIE *eugɑɦoi·i̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦoi·i̯u-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦoi·i̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eugɦai·i̯u-
3. eugɦai·i̯u-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦai·i̯u-
4. i̯augɦai·i̯u-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯augai·i̯u-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. i̯augai·i̯u-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯aukai·i̯u-
6. i̯aukai·i̯u-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
Rai›ē → *i̯aukē·i̯u-
7. i̯aukē·i̯u-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōkē·i̯u-
8. i̯ōkē·i̯u-
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *i̯ōke·i̯u-
9. i̯ōke·i̯u-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯oke·i̯u-
10. i̯oke·i̯u-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochA. yoke·yu-
TochA. yok·tsi
(sb.inf.) ‘potio(n), potus’
(Poucha 247)
(TochA. yoktsi [sg], yoktsintu [pl])
1. PIE *eugɑɦ·dɑɦí
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦ·dɦí
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦ·dɦí
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦ·dɦí
3. i̯augɦ·dɦí
PIE *dɦí → jɦí
Assibilation of *dɦ before *í
Rdɦí›jɦí → *i̯augɦ·jɦí
4. i̯augɦ·jɦí
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯aug·jɦí
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. i̯aug·jɦí
*jɦ → j
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *jɦ
Rjɦ›j → *i̯aug·jí
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. i̯aug·jí
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯auk·jí
7. i̯auk·jí
*j → t s
Loss of voice of media *j
Rj›ts → *i̯auk·tsí
8. i̯auk·tsí
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōk·tsí
9. i̯ōk·tsí
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯ok·tsí
10. i̯ok·tsí
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *yok·tsí
11. yok·tsí
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → TochA. yok·tsi
TochA. yok·añi-
(a.) ‘sitiens’ (: ‘durstig’ = ‘thirsty’)
(Poucha 246)
1. PIE *eugɑɦ·oni̯í-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦ·oni̯í-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦ·oni̯í-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eugɦ·ani̯í-
3. eugɦ·ani̯í-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦ·ani̯í-
4. i̯augɦ·ani̯í-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯aug·ani̯í-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. i̯aug·ani̯í-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯auk·ani̯í-
6. i̯auk·ani̯í-
*ni̯ → ñ
Palatalization of *n before i̯
Rni̯›ñ → *i̯auk·añí-
7. i̯auk·añí-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōk·añí-
8. i̯ōk·añí-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯ok·añí-
9. i̯ok·añí-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *yok·añí-
10. yok·añí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → TochA. yok·añi-
TochB. yoko
(f.) ‘Durst’ (‘thirst’)
(DTochB. 509-10)
(TochB. yoko)
1. PIE *eugɑɦou-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦou-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eugɦau-
3. eugɦau-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦau-
4. i̯augɦau-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯augau-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. i̯augau-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯aukau-
6. i̯aukau-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōkō-
7. i̯ōkō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯oko-
8. i̯oko-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. yoko-
TochB. yok·u-
(pret.pt.) ‘(one who has) drunk’
(DTochB. 509)
1. PIE *eugɑɦ·ú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦ·ú-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦ·ú-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦ·ú-
3. i̯augɦ·ú-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯aug·ú-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. i̯aug·ú-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯auk·ú-
5. i̯auk·ú-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōk·ú-
6. i̯ōk·ú-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯ok·ú-
7. i̯ok·ú-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *yok·ú-
8. yok·ú-
*ú → u
Orthographic change of *ú into u
Rú›u → TochB. yok·u-
TochB. yok·īya-
(f.) ‘thirst, desire’
(DTochB. 510)
(TochB. yok·īye)
1. PIE *eugɑɦ·ɑ́hii̯o-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
Rɑ́Hi›íHi → *eugɑɦ·íhii̯o-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. eugɑɦ·íhii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦ·íhii̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. eugɦ·íhii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eugɦ·íhii̯a-
4. eugɦ·íhii̯a-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦ·íhii̯a-
5. i̯augɦ·íhii̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *i̯augɦ·íii̯a-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. i̯augɦ·íii̯a-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯aug·íii̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
7. i̯aug·íii̯a-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯auk·íii̯a-
8. i̯auk·íii̯a-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
Ríi›ī́ → *i̯auk·ī́i̯a-
9. i̯auk·ī́i̯a-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōk·ī́i̯a-
10. i̯ōk·ī́i̯a-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯ok·ī́i̯a-
11. i̯ok·ī́i̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *yok·ī́ya-
12. yok·ī́ya-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → TochB. yok·īya-
TochB. yokänta
(sb.) ‘drinker’
(DTochB. 510)
1. PIE *eugɑɦonto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦonto-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦonto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eugɦanta-
3. eugɦanta-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦanta-
4. i̯augɦanta-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯auganta-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. i̯auganta-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯aukanta-
6. i̯aukanta-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōkanta-
7. i̯ōkanta-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯okanta-
8. i̯okanta-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. yokanta-
TochB. yokasto
(sb.) ‘drink, nectar’
(DTochB. 510)
(TochB. yokastai [sgA])
1. PIE *eugɑɦostou-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *eugɦostou-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. eugɦostou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *eugɦastau-
3. eugɦastau-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
Re›i̯a → *i̯augɦastau-
4. i̯augɦastau-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *i̯augastau-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. i̯augastau-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *i̯aukastau-
6. i̯aukastau-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *i̯ōkastō-
7. i̯ōkastō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *i̯okasto-
8. i̯okasto-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → TochB. yokasto-
√ugɑɦo-
TochB. wkanmo-
(a.) ‘drinking’
(DTochB. 614)
1. PIE *ugɑɦonmou-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ugɦonmou-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ugɦonmou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ugɦanmau-
3. ugɦanmau-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *uganmau-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. uganmau-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *ukanmau-
5. ukanmau-
PIE *uC → u̯C
Change of PIE *u into u̯ in root-initial
Ru=›u̯= → *u̯kanmau-
6. u̯kanmau-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *u̯kanmō-
7. u̯kanmō-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → *u̯kanmo-
8. u̯kanmo-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. wkanmo-
√ugɑɦu-
OInd. ogha-
(m.) ‘Flut, Strömung’
(EWA 1:277)
1. PIE *ougɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ougɦu̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ougɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *augɦu̯a-
3. augɦu̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *augɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. augɦa-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōgɦa-
5. ōgɦa-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *ōgha-
6. ōgha-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → OInd. ogha-
OInd. aughá-
(m.) ‘Flut, Strömung’
(EWA 1:277)
1. PIE *ōugɑɦu̯ó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ōugɦu̯ó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ōugɦu̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *ōugɦu̯á-
3. ōugɦu̯á-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *āugɦu̯á-
4. āugɦu̯á-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *āugɦá-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. āugɦá-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *āughá-
6. āughá-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
Rāu›au → OInd. aughá-
OEng. eāgor-
(.) ‘Meer, Flut’
(XX:XX)
(IEW 23)
1. PIE *ougɑɦur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ougɦur-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ougɦur-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *ougur-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. ougur-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *augur-
4. augur-
*au → eā
Change of *au into eā
Rau›eā → OEng. eāgur-


PIE √uogɑɦi- √uegɑɦi- √ugɑɦi- (vb.) ‘fahren’
(IEW 1118-20)
(+ Pyysalo Hitt. & HLu.)
√uegɑɦi-
Lith. vèž-
(vb.) ‘fahren, befördern’
(LiEtWb. 1236)
(Lith. vèžti [inf.])
1. PIE *u̯égɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯égɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯égɦi-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *u̯éj́ɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯éj́ɦ-
é → è
Emergence of gravis PLith. è
RLiAcc4 → *u̯èj́ɦ-
4. u̯èj́ɦ-
*j́ɦ → žɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to žɦ
Rj́ɦ›žɦ → *u̯èžɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯èžɦ-
*žɦ → ž
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *žɦ
Ržɦ›ž → *u̯èž-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. u̯èž-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. vèž-
OCS. vez-
(vb.) ‘fahren’ (Lat. uehere)
(Sadnik √1063)
(OCS. vesti [inf.])
1. PIE *u̯egɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯egɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯egɦi-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *u̯ej́ɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯ej́ɦ-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *u̯ezɦ-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
4. u̯ezɦ-
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → *u̯ez-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. u̯ez-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OCS. vez-
√uogɑɦio-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. u̯aza-
(vb.) ‘carry’
(CHLu. 2.11.7)
(HLu. PES2(-)wa/i-za-ha [1sg])
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦi̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *u̯oj́ɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯oj́ɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aj́ɦa-
4. u̯aj́ɦa-
*j́ɦ → zɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to zɦ
Rj́ɦ›zɦ → *u̯azɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. u̯azɦa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → HLu. u̯aza-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
OIcl. vaga-
(vb.) ‘hin und her bewegen, schaukeln’
(ANEtWb. 638)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦi̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯oǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯oǵɦo-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *u̯ogɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. u̯ogɦo-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *u̯ogo-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. u̯ogo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aga-
6. u̯aga-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OIcl. vaga-
Gr. ὄχο-
(m.) ‘Wagen, Fuhrwerk, Fahrzeug’
(GEW 2:457)
(Gr. (ϝ)ὄχος [sgN])
1. PIE *u̯ógɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ógɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ógɦi̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯óǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯óǵɦo-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *u̯óḱho-
4. u̯óḱho-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯ókho-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯ókho-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *ókho-
6. ókho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄχο-
OCS. vozŭ-
(m.) ‘Wagen’
(Sadnik 1063)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦi̯o
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦi̯o
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *u̯oj́ɦo
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯oj́ɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aj́ɦa
4. u̯aj́ɦa
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *u̯azɦa
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. u̯azɦa
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → *u̯aza
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. u̯aza
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *u̯ozo
7. u̯ozo
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *u̯ozu
8. u̯ozu
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vozu
9. vozu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. vozŭ
√uegɑɦio-
RV. váha-
(pr.) ‘fahren, herbeifahren, bringen’
(WbRV. 1240)
(RV. váhati [3sg], váhadhyāi [inf.])
1. PIE *u̯ágɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ágɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ágɦi̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *u̯áj́ɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯áj́ɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯áj́ɦa-
4. u̯áj́ɦa-
*j́ɦ → ɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to ɦ
Rj́ɦ›ɦ → *u̯áɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯áɦa-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *váɦa-
6. váɦa-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. váha-
LAv. vaza-
(pr.A.) ‘führen, ziehen, fliegen’
(AIWb. 1386ff.)
(Av. vazaiti [3sg])
1. PIE *u̯egɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯egɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯egɦi̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *u̯ej́ɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯ej́ɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ej́ɦa-
4. u̯ej́ɦa-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to z
Rj́›z → *u̯ezɦa-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. u̯ezɦa-
*zɦ → z
 Loss of 'ɦ in media aspirata *zɦ
Rzɦ›z → *u̯eza-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
6. u̯eza-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯aza-
7. u̯aza-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. vaza-
Lat. ueho-
(pr.3.) ‘fahren, führen, tragen, bringen’
(Lat. uehō [1sg], uehĕre)
1. PIE *u̯egɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯egɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯egɦi̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯eǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯eǵɦo-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *u̯egɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. u̯egɦo-
*gɦ → ɦ
Loss of *g in *gɦ
Rgɦ›ɦ → *u̯eɦo-
5. u̯eɦo-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *u̯eho-
6. u̯eho-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. ueho-
Lat. ueho-
(pr.3.M.) ‘fahren, reiten, fliegen’
(Lat. uehor)
1. PIE *u̯egɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯egɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯egɦi̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯eǵɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯eǵɦo-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *u̯egɦo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. u̯egɦo-
*gɦ → ɦ
Loss of *g in *gɦ
Rgɦ›ɦ → *u̯eɦo-
5. u̯eɦo-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *u̯eho-
6. u̯eho-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. ueho-
√uegɑɦiement-
Lat. uehement-
(a.) ‘heftig, hitzig, stürmisch’
(WH. 2:741)
1. PIE *u̯egɑɦi̯ement-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯egɦi̯ement-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯egɦi̯ement-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯eǵɦement-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯eǵɦement-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *u̯egɦement-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. u̯egɦement-
*gɦ → ɦ
Loss of *g in *gɦ
Rgɦ›ɦ → *u̯eɦement-
5. u̯eɦement-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *u̯ehement-
6. u̯ehement-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. uehement-
Lat. uehementiā-
(f.) ‘Heftigkeit’
(WH. 2:741)
1. PIE *u̯egɑɦi̯ementi̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯egɑɦi̯ementi̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯egɑɦi̯ementi̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯egɦi̯ementi̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯egɦi̯ementi̯āh-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯eǵɦementi̯āh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. u̯eǵɦementi̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯eǵɦementi̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. u̯eǵɦementi̯ā-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *u̯egɦementi̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. u̯egɦementi̯ā-
*gɦ → ɦ
Loss of *g in *gɦ
Rgɦ›ɦ → *u̯eɦementi̯ā-
7. u̯eɦementi̯ā-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → *u̯ehementi̯ā-
8. u̯ehementi̯ā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → *u̯ehementiā-
9. u̯ehementiā-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. uehementiā-
√uogɑɦieio-
Gr. ὀχέο-
(vb.A.) ‘tragen, ertragen, aushalten, hegen’
(GEW 2:455)
(Gr. (ϝ)ὀχέω)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦi̯éi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦi̯éi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦi̯éi̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯oǵɦéi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯oǵɦéi̯o-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *u̯oḱhéi̯o-
4. u̯oḱhéi̯o-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯okhéi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯okhéi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *u̯okhéo-
6. u̯okhéo-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *okhéo-
7. okhéo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὀχέο-
Gr. ὀχέο-
(vb.M.) ‘fahren, reiten, schwimmen, vor Anker liegen’
(GEW 2:455)
(Gr. (ϝ)ὀχέομαι)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦi̯éi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦi̯éi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦi̯éi̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯oǵɦéi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯oǵɦéi̯o-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *u̯oḱhéi̯o-
4. u̯oḱhéi̯o-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯okhéi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯okhéi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *u̯okhéo-
6. u̯okhéo-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *okhéo-
7. okhéo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὀχέο-
Goth. in·wagja-
(vb.) ‘aufregen, aufwiegeln : agitare, unsetttle’
(GoEtD. W6.)
1. PIE *Π·u̯ogɑɦi̯ei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯ogɦi̯ei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·u̯ogɦi̯ei̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *Π·u̯oǵɦei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. Π·u̯oǵɦei̯o-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *Π·u̯ogɦei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. Π·u̯ogɦei̯o-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
Rgɦ›g → *Π·u̯ogei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. Π·u̯ogei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯agei̯a-
6. Π·u̯agei̯a-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *Π·u̯agii̯a-
7. Π·u̯agii̯a-
*ii̯a → ja
Loss of *i before i̯a
Rii̯a›i̯a → *Π·u̯agi̯a-
8. Π·u̯agi̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *Π·u̯agja-
9. Π·u̯agja-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. Π·wagja-
CLu. u̯azai·mi-
(pt.) ‘driven, carried (?); KUB xxxv 144 Vs. ii! 2’
(HHand. 200)
(CLu. wazzaimi-)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦi̯oi·mi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦi̯oi·mi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦi̯oi·mi-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *u̯oj́ɦoi·mi-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯oj́ɦoi·mi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aj́ɦai·mi-
4. u̯aj́ɦai·mi-
*j́ɦ → zɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to zɦ
Rj́ɦ›zɦ → *u̯azɦai·mi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
5. u̯azɦai·mi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. u̯azai·mi-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√uogɑɦilo-
Gr. ὄχλο-
(m.) ‘Beunruhigung, Störung, Belästigung’
(GEW 2:456)
1. PIE *u̯ógɑɦilo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ógɦilo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ógɦilo-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯óǵɦlo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯óǵɦlo-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *u̯óḱhlo-
4. u̯óḱhlo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯ókhlo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯ókhlo-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *ókhlo-
6. ókhlo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄχλο-
Gr. ὄχλο-
(m.) ‘Menschenmenge, große Masse, Gedrönge’
(GEW 2:456)
1. PIE *u̯ógɑɦilo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ógɦilo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ógɦilo-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯óǵɦlo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯óǵɦlo-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *u̯óḱhlo-
4. u̯óḱhlo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯ókhlo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯ókhlo-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *ókhlo-
6. ókhlo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄχλο-
Gr. ὀχλέο-
(vb.) ‘in (rollende) Bewegung setzen, wegwälzen’
(GEW 2:457)
(Gr. (ϝ)ὀχλέω)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦiléi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦiléi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦiléi̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯oǵɦléi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯oǵɦléi̯o-
*ǵɦ → ḱh
Loss of voice of media aspirata *ǵɦ
Rǵɦ›ḱh → *u̯oḱhléi̯o-
4. u̯oḱhléi̯o-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯okhléi̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯okhléi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *u̯okhléo-
6. u̯okhléo-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *okhléo-
7. okhléo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὀχλέο-
√ugɑɦioono-
(Pyysalo)
RV. úhāna-
(pt.) ‘strömend, dahinschießend’
(WbRV. 1244)
1. PIE *úgɑɦi̯ōno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *úgɦi̯ōno-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. úgɦi̯ōno-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RgɦI›j́ɦ → *új́ɦōno-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. új́ɦōno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *új́ɦōna-
4. új́ɦōna-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *új́ɦāna-
5. új́ɦāna-
*j́ɦ → ɦ
From Satem *j́ɦ to ɦ
Rj́ɦ›ɦ → *úɦāna-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. úɦāna-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. úhāna-
Hitt. ḫil·ugāni-
(.) ‘carriage’
(HIL. 322)
(Hitt. ḫi-lu-kà-ni-im [sgG])
1. PIE *hɑil·ugɑɦi̯ōni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hil·ugɦi̯ōni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hil·ugɦi̯ōni-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *hil·uǵɦōni-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. hil·uǵɦōni-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *hil·uǵɦāni-
4. hil·uǵɦāni-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *hil·ugɦāni-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. hil·ugɦāni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *hil·ugāni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. hil·ugāni-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫil·ugāni-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√uogɑɦiori-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. u̯agarei̯a-
(vb.) [mng.] ‘gegen jemandem rebellieren’
(HHand. 192)
(Cf. LAv. yaoza- ‘sich aufregen (vom Wasser, Ländern)’, AIWb. 1231f.)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦi̯orei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦi̯orei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦi̯orei̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯oǵɦorei̯o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯oǵɦorei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aǵɦarei̯a-
4. u̯aǵɦarei̯a-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *u̯agɦarei̯a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯agɦarei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯agarei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯agarišar-
(n.) ‘Aufruhr’
(HHand. 192)
1. PIE *u̯ogɑɦi̯orisor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ogɦi̯orisor-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ogɦi̯orisor-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Palatovelarization of *gɦi/i̯ into ǵ
RgɦI›ǵɦ → *u̯oǵɦorisor-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯oǵɦorisor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aǵɦarisar-
4. u̯aǵɦarisar-
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *u̯agɦarisar-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯agɦarisar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *u̯agarisar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. u̯agarisar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯agarišar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √uoki- (a.) ‘fett’
(IEW –)
√uokio-
(Pyysalo)
AV. váśa-
(n.) ‘Schmalz, flüßiges Fett’
(KEWA 3:168)
1. PIE *u̯óki̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *u̯óćo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯óćo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯óća-
3. u̯óća-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *u̯áća-
4. u̯áća-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *u̯áśa-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯áśa-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → AV. váśa-
Hitt. u̯akant-
(pt.a.) ‘fett = uargant-’
(HHand. 192)
1. PIE *u̯oki̯ont-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯oḱont-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯oḱont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aḱant-
3. u̯aḱant-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → Hitt. u̯akant-
(SPIE §4.8.4)


PIE √uki- √uoki- √ueki- (vb.) ‘wünschen, erbitten, verlangen, fordern’
(IEW 1135)
√ueki-
Hitt. u̯ek-
(vb.1.) ‘wünschen, erbitten, verlangen, fordern’
(HHand. 200)
1. PIE *u̯eki-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯eḱ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯eḱ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → Hitt. u̯ek-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
RV. váś-
(pr.2.) ‘wünschen, begehren, verlangen, wollen’
(WbRV. 1226-7)
(RV. vaśmi, vákṣi, váṣṭi)
1. PIE *u̯éki-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *u̯éć-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯éć-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *u̯éś-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯éś-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *u̯áś-
4. u̯áś-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. váś-
gAv. vas-
(pr.) ‘wollen, wünschen’
(AIWb. 1381-2)
(gAv. vasǝmī, vašī, vaštī, vasa)
1. PIE *u̯eki-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *u̯eć-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯eć-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *u̯es-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
3. u̯es-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯as-
4. u̯as-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → gAv. vas-
RV. vivaś-
(pr.) ‘wünschen, begehren, verlangen, wollen’
(WbRV. 1227)
(RV. vivaṣṭi, SV. vivaṣṭu)
1. PIE *u̯iu̯eki-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *u̯iu̯eć-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯iu̯eć-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *u̯iu̯eś-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯iu̯eś-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯iu̯aś-
4. u̯iu̯aś-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. vivaś-
√uoki-
Hitt. u̯eu̯ak-
(vb.1.&2.) ‘(wiederholt) fordern, verlangen’
(HHand. 200)
1. PIE *u̯eu̯oki-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯eu̯oḱ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯eu̯oḱ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯eu̯aḱ-
3. u̯eu̯aḱ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → Hitt. u̯eu̯ak-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
RV. vaváś-
(pr.) ‘wollen, wünschen’
(WbRV. 1228)
(RV. vavákṣi [2sg])
1. PIE *u̯eu̯óki-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *u̯eu̯óć-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯eu̯óć-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *u̯eu̯áć-
3. u̯eu̯áć-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *u̯eu̯áś-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. u̯eu̯áś-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯au̯áś-
5. u̯au̯áś-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. vaváś-
Hitt. uu̯ak-
(pr.) ‘(wiederholt) fordern, verlangen’
(HHand. 200)
1. PIE *uu̯oki-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *uu̯oḱ-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. uu̯oḱ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *uu̯aḱ-
3. uu̯aḱ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → Hitt. uu̯ak-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
√uēuoki-
RV. vāvaś-
(pf.A.) ‘wünschen, begehren, verlangen, wollen’
(WbRV. 1228)
(RV. vāvaśuṣ [3pl])
1. PIE *u̯ēu̯oki-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *u̯ēu̯oć-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯ēu̯oć-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ēu̯ać-
3. u̯ēu̯ać-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *u̯ēu̯aś-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. u̯ēu̯aś-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *u̯āu̯aś-
5. u̯āu̯aś-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. vāvaś-
RV. abhí (...) vāvaś-
(pf.M.) ‘(verlangend) zustreben auf [A]’ (or *ō?)
(WbRV. 1228)
(RV. abhí (...) vāvaśe [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·u̯ēu̯oki-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *Π·u̯ēu̯oć-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. Π·u̯ēu̯oć-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯ēu̯ać-
3. Π·u̯ēu̯ać-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *Π·u̯ēu̯aś-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. Π·u̯ēu̯aś-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *Π·u̯āu̯aś-
5. Π·u̯āu̯aś-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. Π·vāvaś-
√uokio-
RV. váśa-
(m.) ‘Wille, Wunsch, Begehren, Belieben’
(WbRV. 1229)
1. PIE *u̯óki̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *u̯óćo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯óćo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯óća-
3. u̯óća-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *u̯áća-
4. u̯áća-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *u̯áśa-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯áśa-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. váśa-
HLu. u̯aza-
(sb.) ‘request’
(CHLu. 11.1.fg18)
(HLu. (“*69)wa/i-za-na)
1. PIE *u̯oki̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *u̯oćo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯oćo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aća-
3. u̯aća-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *u̯asa-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
4. u̯asa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. u̯aša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uokii-
HLu. u̯azi-
(vb.) ‘request, demand’
(CHLu. 10.9.7)
(HLu. wa/i-zi-ti-i [3sg], (“*69”)wa/i-zi-ha-na [1pl])
1. PIE *u̯oki̯i-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *u̯oći-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯oći-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aći-
3. u̯aći-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *u̯asi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
4. u̯asi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. u̯aši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. vaśín-
(m.) ‘Gebieter, Bezwinger’ (f.) ‘Gebieterin’
(WbRV. 1229)
1. PIE *u̯oki̯ín-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *u̯oćín-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯oćín-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aćín-
3. u̯aćín-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to ś
R曜 → *u̯aśín-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. u̯aśín-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. vaśín-
√uekii-
Hitt. u̯ekiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘wiederholt fordern, verlangen’
(HHand. 200)
1. PIE *u̯eki̯iski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯eḱisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯eḱisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯eḱisḱe/a-
3. u̯eḱisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯ekiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. u̯ekiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯ekiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uekiu-
Hitt. u̯ekuar/n-
(n.) ‘Forderung, Bitte’
(HHand. 200)
1. PIE *u̯eki̯uor/n-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯eḱuor/n-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯eḱuor/n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯eḱuar/n-
3. u̯eḱuar/n-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → Hitt. u̯ekuar/n-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
Hitt. u̯ekiu̯i-
(vb.) ‘(wiederholt) fordern, verlangen’
(HIL. 1151)
(Hitt. ú-e-ku-e-u-en [1pl])
1. PIE *u̯ekiu̯i-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯eḱu̯i-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯eḱu̯i-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → Hitt. u̯eku̯i-
(SPIE §4.8.4)


PIE √ul- √oul- √eul- (sb.) ‘Nacken, Kehle, Hals, Halsschlagader’
(IEW —)
(Pyysalo)
√ul-
(HEG A:XX)
(HED 1/2: 229f., Kimball (1999:343): ‘windpipe, throat, carotid artery’)
CLu. aula-
(n./c.?) ‘Kehle?’ (ein Körperteil)’
(DLL. 35)
(CLu. a-u-la-ti [sgI])
1. PIE *oulo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. aula-
Arm. uln-
(sb.) ‘neck ‹stem?›’
(EtDiArm. 632)
1. PIE *ulnò-
*o → Ø
Loss of *ò
Rò›0 → Arm. uln-
√uli-
Hitt. auli-
(UZU.c.) ‘Kehle oder ‘Halsschlagader’
(HHand. 29)
(Hitt. a-ú-li-iš, a-ú-li-in, a-ú-li-ia [DL])
1. PIE *ouli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. auli-
Arm. ułn-
(sb.) ‘neck ‹stem?›’
(EtDiArm. 632)
1. PIE *ulinò-
*li → ł
Change of *li into ł
Rli›ł → *ułnò-
2. ułnò-
*o → Ø
Loss of *ò
Rò›0 → Arm. ułn-


PIE √ul- √uol- √uel- (vb.) ‘uehere, expedire’ (sb.) ‘Oberschenkel, Keule’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√ul-
Hitt. ula-
(UZUc.) ‘Oberschenkel’
(HHand. 185)
1. PIE *ulo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ula-
√uōl-
Hitt. u̯āla-
() ((UZU)c.) ‘Keule (Körperteil), (Ober)schenkel’
(HHand. 193)
1. PIE *u̯ōlo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ōla-
2. u̯ōla-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → Hitt. u̯āla-
CLu. u̯āli-
() ((UZU)c.) ‘Keule (Körperteil), (Ober)schenkel’
(HHand. 193)
1. PIE *u̯ōli-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → CLu. u̯āli-
TochA. wālyi-
(vb.a.) ‘vehere’
(Poucha 14)
1. PIE *u̯ōli̯i-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *u̯āli̯i-
2. u̯āli̯i-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
Ri̯›y → *u̯ālyi-
3. u̯ālyi-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. wālyi-
TochA. wālune-
(vb.sb.) ‘vehere’
(Poucha 14,292)
(TochA. wālune)
1. PIE *u̯ōlunoi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ōlunai̯a
2. u̯ōlunai̯a
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *u̯ālunai̯a
3. u̯ālunai̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯ālunai̯
4. u̯ālunai̯
*a y → ē
Change of ay into ē in root-final
R=ay›=ē → *u̯ālunē
5. u̯ālunē
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *u̯ālune
6. u̯ālune
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. wālune
Gr. ἀπ·ευλτέο-
(vb.) Gl. ‘expediō, explicō, explōrō’
(Gr. ἀπ·ευλῡτέω)
1. PIE *hɑep·eulɑ́hutéi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑap·eulɑ́hutéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑap·eulɑ́hutéi̯o-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
Rɑ́Hu›úHu → *hɑap·eulúhutéi̯o-
(SPIE §3.2.3)
3. hɑap·eulúhutéi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hap·eulúhutéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. hap·eulúhutéi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ap·eulúutéi̯o-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. ap·eulúutéi̯o-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
Rúu›ū́ → *ap·eulū́téi̯o-
6. ap·eulū́téi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RVi̯V›VV → *ap·eulū́téo-
7. ap·eulū́téo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀπ·ευλύ̄τέο-


PIE √ul- √uol- √uel- (sb.) ‘Geburt, Rang’
(IEW 842-843)
√uol-
(Pyysalo)
Lith. nuo·vala-
(m.pl) ‘Nachgeburt (beim Vieh)’
(LiEtWb. 1187)
(Lith. nuovalaĩ)
1. PIE *Π·u̯olo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯ala-
2. Π·u̯ala-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. Π·vala-
Hitt. ana·u̯ali-
(a.) ‘gleichrangig, ebenbürtig’
(HHand. 16)
(Hitt. an-na-ú-li-e-eš)
1. PIE *ono·u̯oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ana·u̯ali-
√ul-
(Pyysalo)
Arm. ul-
(sb.) ‘young of a goat/deer ‹no Arm. h-, not *pul-›’
(EtDiArm. 631-2)
(Arm. ul [sgN])
√uli-
Arm. ułi-
(a.) ‘schwanger’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *uli̯i-
*li̯ → ł
Change of *li̯ into ł
Rli̯›ł → Arm. ułi-
Arm. ułi-
(sb.) ‘Kind’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *uli̯i-
*li̯ → ł
Change of *li̯ into ł
Rli̯›ł → Arm. ułi-
Hitt. ana·uli-
(a.) ‘gleichrangig, ebenbürtig’
(HEG A:29)
(Hitt. an-na-ú-li-, EHS 212)
1. PIE *ono·uli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ana·uli-
Goth. mana·uli-
(n.) Gestalt : Human guise : σχήμα : habitus’
(GoEtD. M22.)
1. PIE *Π·uli̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·uli̯a
2. Π·uli̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *Π·uli̯
3. Π·uli̯
*-li̯ → -li
Change of root-final -li̯ into -li
R=li̯›=li → Goth. Π·uli
Hitt. ana·ulei̯a-
(URUa.) ‘Im Lande Tarḫuntaša.’
(OGHErg. 5)
(Hitt. an-na-ú-li-ia-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *ono·ulei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ana·ulei̯a-


PIE √ul- (vb.) ‘grünen, sproßen, wachsen’ (sb.) ‘Grün, Pflanze(nwuchs), Vegetation’
(IEW —)
√ul-
RV. úl·apa-
(m.) ‘Buschwerk’ ‹RV. √ap- ‘Werk’›
(WbRV. 266)
1. PIE *úL·hɑopo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *úL·hopo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. úL·hopo-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RL›l → *úl·hopo-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
3. úl·hopo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *úl·hapa-
4. úl·hapa-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. úl·apa-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Hitt. emi·ul-
(n.) Futter-mischung’
(HEG I: 356-7)
(For ·ul- as a ‘suffix’, see EHS 325)
√ulo-
Hitt. paḫur·ula-
() ((GIŠ)c.) ‘Schürhaken, zur Reinigung der Feuerstelle’
(HHand. 115)
(Hitt. [pa-a]ḫ-ḫu-ru-la-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *peɑhur·ulo-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *paɑhur·ulo-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. paɑhur·ulo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *pahur·ulo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. pahur·ulo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *pahur·ula-
4. pahur·ula-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. paḫur·ula-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Gr. ἔκ·υλο-
(m.) Hes. ‘εἶδος βοτάνης’
(LSJ. 524)
(Gr. ἔκυλος)
1. PIE *Π·ulo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·υλο-
√uloion-
Pal. ulaan-
(n.) ‘Wiese, Wald’, cf. HHand2.
(DPal. 76)
(Pal. ú-la-a-an-na [sgL/All.])
1. PIE *uloion-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ulaian-
2. ulaian-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → Pal. ulaan-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
√uli-
Hitt. ḫut·uli-
(SÍGn.) ‘Wollbüschel, Wollflocke, HIL. 40’
(HEG H:318)
1. PIE *hɑut·uli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *hut·uli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. hut·uli-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. ḫut·uli-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√ulili
Hitt. ulili-
(?.) ‘Grün, Pflanzenwuchs; Feld’
(HHand2. 208)
Hitt. ulili-
(vb.2.) ‘grünen, sproßen’
(HHand2. 208)
Hitt. uliliške/a-
(iter.) ‘grünen, sproßen’
(HHand2. 208)
1. PIE *uliliski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *ulilisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ulilisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ulilisḱe/a-
3. ulilisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *uliliske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. uliliske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. uliliške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Pal. ·ulilei̯antig-
(d.pl) ‘Vegetationsgottheit(en), PTGL 76’
(HHand2. 208)
(Pal. ú-li-li-an-ti-ga-aš [plD])
1. PIE *ulilei̯ont·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. ulilei̯ant·Σ-


PIE √ul- √uol- √uel- (a.) ‘tot, sterblich, schuldig’
(IEW 1144)
√uolo-
HLu. u̯ala-
(vb.) ‘to be ill, suffer’
(CHLu. 2.17.9)
(HLu. (CRUX)wa/i-la-ha [1sg])
1. PIE *u̯olo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. u̯ala-
HLu. ARHA·uala-
(vb.) ‘die’
(CHLu. 11.1.fg6)
(HLu. ARHA wa/i-la-mi-na-’)
1. PIE *Π·u̯olo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·u̯ala-
HLu. u̯ala-
(a.) ‘fatal, ill, sick’
(CHLu. 2.10.2)
(HLu. (“CRUX”)wa/i-la/i/u), HLu. uala aui- ‘come ill/fatally for’)
1. PIE *u̯olo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. u̯ala-
HLu. ARHA·ualau-
(.) ‘die’
(CHLu. 11.1.fg7)
(HLu. ARHA wa/i-la-u-ta)
1. PIE *Π·u̯olou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·u̯alau-
OIcl. val-
(m.) ‘der Tote auf dem Walplats’
(ANEtWb. 642)
(OIcl. valr [sgN])
1. PIE *u̯olo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ala
2. u̯ala
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯al
3. u̯al
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OIcl. val
OIcl. val-
(n.) ‘fleisch von Toten’ ; ‘blaues Muttermal’
(ANEtWb. 640)
(OIcl. valbrāð)
1. PIE *u̯olo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ala
2. u̯ala
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯al
3. u̯al
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OIcl. val
CLu. u̯alantei̯a-
(a.) ‘tödlich (?)’
(HHand. 190)
(CLu. ua-la-an-ti-[)
1. PIE *u̯olontei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. u̯alantei̯a-
CLu. u̯alantalei̯a-
(a.) ‘sterblich’
(DLL. 105)
1. PIE *u̯olontolei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. u̯alantalei̯a-
√uole/oi-
CLu. ni·u̯alei-
(GKL.a.) ‘innocent; unschudig, schwach’
(DLL. 75)
(CLu. ni-ua-al-li[-iš] [sgN], HHand. 113)
1. PIE *ni·u̯olei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ni·u̯alei-
CLu. u̯alei̯a-
(a.) ‘tödlich’
(HHand. 193)
(CLu. ualian [sgA])
1. PIE *u̯olei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. u̯alei̯a-
Hitt. ni·u̯alaa-
(m.c.) ‹‘Innocentius’›
(NOMS. 892)
(Hitt. ni-ua-al-la-a-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *ni·u̯oloo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ni·u̯alaa-
√uoluoiioli-
CLu. u̯alu̯ai̯ali-
(.) ‘Verumleudung, Anschuldigung’
(HHand. 194)
(CLu. ualuaiali)
1. PIE *u̯ol u̯oii̯oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯al u̯aii̯ali-
2. u̯al u̯aii̯ali-
*aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
Raii̯a›aia → *u̯al u̯aiali-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
3. u̯al u̯aiali-
* a i a → a i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i between *a and *a
Raia›ai̯a → CLu. u̯al u̯ai̯ali-
(SPIE §3.2.4.2)
√uolup-
Gr. ἀ·ώλυπο-
(a.) Hes. = ‘τὸ οὐκ ἀπολλύμενον’
(LSJ. 299)
(Gr. ἀώλυπον)
1. PIE *hɑe·u̯ṓlupo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑa·u̯ṓlupo-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑa·u̯ṓlupo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ha·u̯ṓlupo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ha·u̯ṓlupo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *a·u̯ṓlupo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. a·u̯ṓlupo-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *a·ṓlupo-
5. a·ṓlupo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ἀ·ώλυπο-


PIE √ul- √uol- √uel- (vb.) ‘erheben, rühmen, preisen, groß machen (logogr. BONUS!)’
(IEW 1138)
√uolo-
Hitt. u̯ala-
(vb.2.) ‘rühmen, preisen’ (√uala-)
(HHand. 193)
1. PIE *u̯olo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯ala-
√uoli-
Hitt. u̯ali-
(.) ‘Ruhm, Stolz’
(HHand. 193)
1. PIE *u̯oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯ali-
CLu. u̯ali-
(vb.) ‘erheben, preisen’
(HHand. 190)
1. PIE *u̯oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. u̯ali-
Hitt. u̯alei̯a-
(vb.2.) ‘rühmen, preisen’
(HHand. 193)
1. PIE *u̯olei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯alei̯a-
CLu. u̯alei̯a-
(vb.) ‘erheben, preisen’
(HHand. 190)
1. PIE *u̯olei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. u̯alei̯a-
HLu. u̯alei̯a-
(sb.) ‘honour’
(CHLu. 6.17.5)
(HLu. BONUS-li-ia-ti [sgI])
1. PIE *u̯olei̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. u̯alei̯a
HLu. anta u̯alei̯a·-
(BONUS.vb.) ‘to exalt’
(CHLu. 2.5.6.)
(HLu. a-tá (BONUS)wa/i-li-ia-ta)
1. PIE *Π·u̯olei̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·u̯alei̯a
CLu. u̯alei̯ama-
(pt.) ‘gepriesen ?; ‹uncertain›
(HHand. 193)
1. PIE *u̯olei̯omo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. u̯alei̯ama-
HLu. u̯alei̯anua-
(cs.) ‘cause to exalt’
(CHLu. 3.3.15)
(BONUS-li-ia-nu-wa/i-ha [1sg])
1. PIE *u̯olei̯onu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. u̯alei̯anu̯a-
Hitt. u̯alei̯atar/n-
(n.) ‘Ruhm, Preislied’
(HHand. 193)
1. PIE *u̯olei̯otor/n
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯alei̯atar/n
HLu. anta·u̯alei̯a·za-
(vb.) ‘make exalt(ed)’
(CHLu. 5.15.18)
(HLu. a-tá BONUS-li-ia-za-ta [3pers.])
1. PIE *Π·u̯olei̯o·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. Π·u̯alei̯a·Σ
HLu. u̯alei̯au̯antei-
(c.) ‘waliawanti-’
(CHLu. 10.10.9)
(HLu. wa/i-li?-ia-wa/i-ti-na [sgA])
1. PIE *u̯olei̯ou̯ontei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. u̯alei̯au̯antei-
Hitt. u̯ališke/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘rühmen, preisen’
(HHand. 193)
1. PIE *u̯oliske/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aliske/a-
2. u̯aliske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯ališke/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ueli-
OCS. velĭ-
(adv.bs.) ‘sehr’
(Sadnik √1055)
(in OCS. velĭmi (adv.) ‘sehr’)
1. PIE *u̯eli-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *veli-
2. veli-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → OCS. velĭ-
OCS. velĭ·moža
(m..) ‘Fürst, Herrscher’
(Sadnik √1055)
1. PIE *u̯eli·Σ
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *veli·Σ
2. veli·Σ
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
Ri›ĭ → OCS. velĭ·Σ
OCS. velikŭ-
(a.) ‘groß, stark, gewaltig’
(Sadnik √1055)
(OCS. velikŭ)
1. PIE *u̯eleiku̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯eleiku̯a
2. u̯eleiku̯a
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *u̯eleika
(SPIE §4.8.3)
3. u̯eleika
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *u̯eleiko
4. u̯eleiko
*-o → -u
Change of root-final o into u
R=o›=u → *u̯eleiku
5. u̯eleiku
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *u̯elīku
6. u̯elīku
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *velīku
7. velīku
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → *veliku
8. veliku
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
Ru›ŭ → OCS. velikŭ
OCS. veliča-
(vb.) ‘groß machen, rühmen, preisen’
(Sadnik √1055)
(OCS. veličati)
1. PIE *u̯eleikui̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯eleikui̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯eleikui̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eleikui̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯eleikui̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯eleikui̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯eleikui̯ā-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *u̯eleiki̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. u̯eleiki̯ā-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *u̯elīki̯ā-
6. u̯elīki̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *velīki̯ā-
7. velīki̯ā-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *velīkjā-
8. velīkjā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *velīkja-
9. velīkja-
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → OCS. velikja-
OCS. veliči-
(vb.) ‘erheben, preisen’
(Sadnik √1055)
(OCS. veličiti [inf.])
1. PIE *u̯eleiku̯iɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *u̯eleiku̯iíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. u̯eleiku̯iíh-
PIE *ku̯ → ču̯
2nd palatalization of *ku̯
Rku̯›ču̯ → *u̯eleiču̯iíh-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. u̯eleiču̯iíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯eleiču̯ií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯eleiču̯ií-
*ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RČU›Č → *u̯eleičií-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
5. u̯eleičií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *u̯eleičī́-
6. u̯eleičī́-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *u̯elīčī́-
7. u̯elīčī́-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *velīčī́-
8. velīčī́-
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → *veličī́-
9. veličī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *veličí-
10. veličí-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → OCS. veliči-
OCS. veličije
(n.) ‘Großes, Größe, Erhabenheit’
(Sadnik √1055)
(OCS. veličije)
1. PIE *u̯eleiku̯iɑ́hi̯os
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *u̯eleiku̯iíhi̯os
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. u̯eleiku̯iíhi̯os
PIE *ku̯ → ču̯
2nd palatalization of *ku̯
Rku̯›ču̯ → *u̯eleiču̯iíhi̯os
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. u̯eleiču̯iíhi̯os
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯eleiču̯iíhi̯as
4. u̯eleiču̯iíhi̯as
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯eleiču̯iíi̯as
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. u̯eleiču̯iíi̯as
*ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RČU›Č → *u̯eleičiíi̯as
(SPIE §4.8.3)
6. u̯eleičiíi̯as
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *u̯eleičī́i̯as
7. u̯eleičī́i̯as
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *u̯eleičī́i̯os
8. u̯eleičī́i̯os
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root-final)
Ros=›o= → *u̯eleičī́i̯o
9. u̯eleičī́i̯o
*-i̯o → -i̯e
Change of root-final -i̯o to -i̯e
Ri̯o=›i̯e= → *u̯eleičī́i̯e
10. u̯eleičī́i̯e
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
Rei›ī → *u̯elīčī́i̯e
11. u̯elīčī́i̯e
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *velīčī́i̯e
12. velīčī́i̯e
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
Ri̯›j → *velīčī́je
13. velīčī́je
*ī → i
Change of *ī into i
Rī›i → *veličī́je
14. veličī́je
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *veličíje
15. veličíje
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → OCS. veličije
√uli-
HLu. ulei̯a·mi-
(pt.) ‘exalted’
(CHLu. 2.28.8, 4.4.1)
(HLu. (BONUS)u-li-ia-mi, (BONUS)u-li-ia-mi-sà)
1. PIE *ulei̯o·mi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ulei̯a·mi-
HLu. ulei̯a·na(n?)ta-
(d.c.) ‘-(?)-; suffix!?›
(CHLu. 2.28.8)
(HLu. (DIES)[u]-li-ia-na-tà-sa)
1. PIE *ulei̯o·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. ulei̯a·Σ
√uolu-
Hitt. u̯alu-
(vb.M.) ‘rühmen, preisen’
(HHand. 194)
1. PIE *u̯olu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯alu-
CLu. u̯alu·naša-
(a.gen.) ‘auf das Heben bezüglich’ (DLL. 106)
(HHand. 194)
(CLu. ua-al-lu-na-ša-an [sgA])
1. PIE *u̯olunoso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯alunasa-
2. u̯alunasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. u̯alunaša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯aluške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘rühmen, preisen’
(HHand. 194)
1. PIE *u̯oluske/o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aluske/a
2. u̯aluske/a
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯aluške/a
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯aluškeuan
(sup.) ‘rühmen, preisen’
(HHand. 194)
1. PIE *u̯oluskeuon
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aluskeuan
2. u̯aluskeuan
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯aluškeuan
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √ulku- √uolku- √uelku- (vb.) ‘hauen, spalten’ (sb.) ‘Verderber, Wolf’
(IEW 1178-9)
(Lehrman 1987:16-17 apud HIL)
√uolku-
Hitt. u̯alku̯a-
(n.) ‘sth. negative; ‹Verderbung?›’
(HIL. 1098-1100)
(Hitt. ua-al-ku-an [sgN])
1. PIE *u̯olku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯alku̯a-
√ulku-
RV. ápi (...) vavr̥k-
(pf.) ‘zerspalten, abhauen’
(WbRV. 1364)
(RV. vavr̥ktam [2duImp])
1. PIE *Π·u̯eu̯l̥ku̯-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
Rl̥›r̥ → *Π·u̯eu̯r̥ku̯-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. Π·u̯eu̯r̥ku̯-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *Π·u̯eu̯r̥k-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
3. Π·u̯eu̯r̥k-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *Π·u̯au̯r̥k-
4. Π·u̯au̯r̥k-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. Π·vavr̥k-
RV. vŕ̥ka-
(m.) ‘Wolf’
(WbRV. 1325)
1. PIE *u̯ĺ̥ku̯o-
PIE *ĺ̥ → ŕ̥
Change of *ĺ̥ into ŕ̥
Rĺ̥›ŕ̥ → *u̯ŕ̥ku̯o-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. u̯ŕ̥ku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ŕ̥ku̯a-
3. u̯ŕ̥ku̯a-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *u̯ŕ̥ka-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. u̯ŕ̥ka-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. vŕ̥ka-
OInd. a·vr̥ká-
(a.) ‘safe’
(HIL. 1099)
1. PIE *hɑe·u̯l̥ku̯ó-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *hɑa·u̯l̥ku̯ó-
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. hɑa·u̯l̥ku̯ó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ha·u̯l̥ku̯ó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. ha·u̯l̥ku̯ó-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
Rl̥›r̥ → *ha·u̯r̥ku̯ó-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
4. ha·u̯r̥ku̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *ha·u̯r̥ku̯á-
5. ha·u̯r̥ku̯á-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *a·u̯r̥ku̯á-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. a·u̯r̥ku̯á-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *a·u̯r̥ká-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
7. a·u̯r̥ká-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OInd. a·vr̥ká-
RV. vr̥káti-
(m.) ‘Verderber, Räuber’
(WbRV. 1325)
1. PIE *u̯l̥ku̯óti-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
Rl̥›r̥ → *u̯r̥ku̯óti-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. u̯r̥ku̯óti-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *u̯r̥ku̯áti-
3. u̯r̥ku̯áti-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RKU›K → *u̯r̥káti-
(SPIE §4.8.3)
4. u̯r̥káti-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. vr̥káti-


PIE √uolu- √uelu- √ulu- (vb.) ‘rauben, mit Gewalt nehmen’ (sb.) ‘Löwe’
(IEW 1145)
√uolu-
CLu. u̯alu̯a-
(c.) ‘Löwe’ (Sum. UR.MAḪ)
(HHand. 194)
(Steinherr (1968): ‘UR.MAH = Lion, see HIL. 1099)
1. PIE *u̯olu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. u̯alu̯a-
CLu. u̯alu̯a·zidi-
(LÚ.c.) ‘homme de Šullamma-’
(NOMS. 1486)
(Steinherr, F. 1968. Das Wort für Löwe im Hieroglyphen-Hethitischen. Die Welt des Orients 4:320.325)
1. PIE *u̯olu̯o·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. u̯alu̯a·Σ-
Hitt. u̯alu̯a·la-
(LÚ.MESc.) ‘Löwenmenschen’
(HHand. 194)
1. PIE *u̯olu̯o·lo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯alu̯a·la-
Lyd. walwe-
(sb.) ‘lion’
(Melchert 1994:336)
(Lyd. walwel)
1. PIE *u̯olu̯e-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯alu̯e-
2. u̯alu̯e-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Lyd. walwe-
√uelu-
Goth. wilwa-
(pr.) ‘mit Gewalt nehmen, rauben’
(GoEtD. W67.)
(Grundr2 1:609)
1. PIE *u̯elu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯elu̯a-
2. u̯elu̯a-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *u̯ilu̯a-
3. u̯ilu̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. wilwa-
√ulu-
Goth. wulw-
(pret.) ‘mit Gewalt nehmen, rauben’
(GoEtD. W67.)
1. PIE *u̯ulu̯-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. wulw-


PIE √um- √uom- √uem- (vb.) ‘take, find’
(IEW –)
√um-
(Pyysalo)
(HIL. 1155)
Osc. pert·umo-
(vb.) ‘perimere; neben pert-emere’
(IEW 310)
(Osc. pertumum [inf.], Grundr2 I:836)
Hitt. umei̯a-
(vb.1.A.) ‘finden, (an)treffen’ (Sum. KAR)
(HHand. 201)
(Hitt. umijanzi [3pl], Oettinger 1979:433)
1. PIE *umei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. umei̯a-
√uomi-
HLu. u̯ami·Σ-
(vb.) ‘to find (?)’
(CHLu. 2.24.23)
(HLu. wa/i-mi-LITUUS-ha, Melchert (1994:66): “HLu. wa/i-mi-(ya)- ‘find’)
1. PIE *u̯omi·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. u̯ami·Σ-
HLu. u̯ami·Σ-
(.) ‘find’
(CHLu. 5.1.3)
(HLu. wa/i-mi-OCULUS(+?))
1. PIE *u̯omi·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. u̯ami·Σ-
Lyd. fa·kat·wãmi-
(.) ‘meet with’
(Melchert 1994:344)
(LydWb. 119, Lyd. fakatwãmid)
1. PIE *Π·Π·u̯omi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·Π·u̯ami-
2. Π·Π·u̯ami-
*am/n → ãm/n
Emergence of nasal vowel ã
RaN›ãN → *Π·Π·u̯ãmi-
3. Π·Π·u̯ãmi-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Lyd. Π·Π·wãmi-
√uemi-
Hitt. u̯emi̯a-
(vb.1.A.) ‘finden, (an)treffen’ (Sum. KAR)
(HHand. 201)
(Hitt. uemia-, uimia-)
1. PIE *u̯emi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯emi̯a-
Hitt. u̯emiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘w-holt (an)treffen’
(HHand. 201)
1. PIE *u̯emiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯emisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯emisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯emisḱe/a-
3. u̯emisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯emiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. u̯emiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯emiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √un- √uon- √uen- (vb.) ‘glänzen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√uon-
Hitt. u̯an·up·aštali-
(MULc.) ‘Sternschnuppe, Komet (?)’
(HHand. 194)
1. PIE *u̯on·up·ostoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯an·up·astali-
2. u̯an·up·astali-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯an·up·aštali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯an·upar·aštali-
(MULc.) ‘Sternschnuppe, Komet (?)’
(Weitenberg 1984:276)
1. PIE *u̯on·upor·ostoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯an·upar·astali-
2. u̯an·upar·astali-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯an·upar·aštali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uēn-
Ion. ἤν·οπ-
(a.) Beivort von χαλκός; λαμπρός, LSJ. 775)
(GEW 1:638)
(Hom. ἦνοπ)
1. PIE *u̯ḗn·Σ-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *ḗn·Σ-
2. ḗn·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Ion. ἤν·Σ-
√ueno-
LAv. vanant-
(m.) ‘N eines als Gottheit verehrten Fixsterns’
(AIWb. 1354)
1. PIE *u̯enont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯enant-
2. u̯enant-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯anant-
3. u̯anant-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. vanant-
Pahl. vanand-
(sb.) ‘the star ruling the Western celestial sphere’
(MPahl. 202)
1. PIE *u̯enondɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯enondɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯enondɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯enandɦa
3. u̯enandɦa
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯enanda
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
4. u̯enanda
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯ananda
5. u̯ananda
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Pahl. vananda
√uondɑɦ-
(HIL. 1103)
Hitt. u̯andai-
(vb.1.) ‘glühen, warm sein, zürnen’
(HHand. 194)
1. PIE *u̯ondɑɦoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ondɦoi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ondɦoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯andɦai-
3. u̯andɦai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯andai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯andei·u̯ant-
(.) ‘Blitz’
(HHand. 190)
1. PIE *u̯ondɑɦei·u̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ondɦei·u̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ondɦei·u̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯andɦei·u̯ant-
3. u̯andɦei·u̯ant-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯andei·u̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯andani-
(a.) ‘hell’
(HHand. 194)
1. PIE *u̯ondɑɦoni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ondɦoni-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ondɦoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯andɦani-
3. u̯andɦani-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯andani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. u̯andanei̯a-
(c.) ‘aufleuchtend (?)’
(HHand. 194)
1. PIE *u̯ondɑɦonei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ondɦonei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ondɦonei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯andɦanei̯a-
3. u̯andɦanei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. u̯andanei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. u̯andula·ši-
(a.gen) ‘of radiance ?’
(CHLu. 3.1.6)
(HLu. (‘FLAMMAE.SOL’)wa/i-tú-la-si-pa-wa/i)
1. PIE *u̯ondɑɦulo·si-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ondɦulo·si-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ondɦulo·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯andɦula·si-
3. u̯andɦula·si-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *u̯andula·si-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. u̯andula·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. u̯andula·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uno·dɑɦ-
CLu. una·dei·u̯ali-
(GKLa.) parallel zu ‘zornig’
(HHand. 186)
1. PIE *uno·dɑɦei·u̯oli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uno·dɦei·u̯oli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uno·dɦei·u̯oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *una·dɦei·u̯ali-
3. una·dɦei·u̯ali-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. una·dei·u̯ali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uonum-
OSax. wanum-
(a.) ‘strahlend’
(ANEtWb. 641)
1. PIE *u̯onumo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯anuma
2. u̯anuma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯anum
3. u̯anum
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OSax. wanum


PIE √un- √uon- √uen- (vb.) ‘sehen, wissen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo: OEng + HLu.)
√uno-
HLu. una·ša-
(a.gen.) ‘of knowing’
(CHLu. XX)
1. PIE *uno·so-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *una·sa-
2. una·sa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. una·ša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. una·nu-
(cs.) ‘cause to know, teach’
(CHLu. 2.24.22)
(HLu. (LITUUS)u-na-nu-ta)
1. PIE *uno·nu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. una·nu-
√uni-
HLu. uni-
(vb.) ‘know’
(CHLu. 11.1.e29, 2.24.20)
(HLu. (LITUUS)u-ni-ti, (LITUUS)u-ni-ha [1sg])
OEng. one-
(vb.) ‘sehen’ siehe! (ASaxD. XX)
(Hh 241)
1. PIE *uni
*-i → -e
Change of root-final -i into -e
R=i›=e → OEng. une
HLu. uni·mi-
(pt.) ‘known, recognized’
(CHLu. 4.4.1)
(HLu. u-ni-mi-sa, (LITUUS)u-ni-mi-sa)
√unu-
OEng. ono-
(vb.) ‘sehen’
(Hh 241)


PIE √un- √uon- √uen- (sb.) ‘Geburt, Familie, Frau’ (vb.) ‘geschlechtlich verkehren, beischlafen’
(IEW 1146)
√uon-
(Sturtevant 1930 [Lg. 6]:218-28)
CLu. u̯an-
(c.) ‘woman’
(HIL. 580)
(CLu. ua-a-ni [sgDL])
1. PIE *u̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. u̯an-
CLu. u̯anant-
(c.) ‘Frau’
(HIL. 580)
(CLu. ua-na-an-za [sgN])
1. PIE *u̯onont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. u̯anant-
CLu. u̯anaša-
(a.gen.) ‘of woman/wife’
(HHand. 194)
(CLu. [ua-a-]na-aš-ša-an, [ua-n]a-a-aš-ša-an])
1. PIE *u̯onoso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯anasa-
2. u̯anasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. u̯anaša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. u̯anaši-
(a.gen.) ‘of woman/wife’
(HHand. 194)
(CLu. ua-na-aš-ši-in-zi [plN])
1. PIE *u̯onosi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯anasi-
2. u̯anasi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → CLu. u̯anaši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. u̯anaši-
(a.gen.)
(CHLu. 2.25.13)
(HLu. *406(-)wa/i-na-si-na [Fr11])-
1. PIE *u̯onosi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯anasi-
2. u̯anasi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. u̯anaši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uen-
(Oettinger 1979:92)
Hitt. u̯en-
(vb.1.) ‘geschlechtlich verkehren, beischlafen’
(HHand. 201)
(Hitt. ú-en-zi [3sg], ú-e-en-ta [3sg], Weitenberg 1984:407/71)
OGaul. uen·opi-
(PN.c.) ‘Oeil-du-Clan’
(DLG. 313)
(DAG 419)
1. PIE *u̯en·hɑoku̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯en·hoku̯i-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯en·hoku̯i-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯en·oku̯i-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. u̯en·oku̯i-
*ku/u̯ → p
Bilabialization of labiovelar q into p
RkU›p → *u̯en·opi-
4. u̯en·opi-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. uen·opi-
Mess. uenā-
(f.) ‘Venus’
(SdIll. 86)
1. PIE *u̯enēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯enāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯enāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯enāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯enāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯enā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯enā-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Mess. uenā-
√ueni-
(Delamarre)
OGaul. ueni·caro-
(PN.m.) ‘Aimé du clan’
(DLG. 313)
(OGaul. uenicarus)
1. PIE *u̯eni·keɑhro-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯eni·kaɑhro-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯eni·kaɑhro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eni·kahro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯eni·kahro-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯eni·karo-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯eni·karo-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → *ueni·karo-
5. ueni·karo-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OGaul. ueni·caro-
OGaul. ueni·clutio-
(PN.m.) ‘Renommé par sa famille’
(DLG. 313)
(OGaul. ueni·clutius)
1. PIE *u̯eni·kilhɑutio-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eni·kilhutio-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯eni·kilhutio-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯eni·ḱlhutio-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯eni·ḱlhutio-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯eni·ḱlutio-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯eni·ḱlutio-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯eni·klutio-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯eni·klutio-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → *ueni·klutio-
6. ueni·klutio-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OGaul. ueni·clutio-
OGaul. ueni·coteni
(VN.m.) ‘[qui appartient] à une ancienne famille’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
OGaulG. ϝενί·κων-
(VN.m.) ‘Ptol. 2.3.9, les chiens du clan’
(DLG. 313)
(OGaulG. ουενίκωνες)
1. PIE *u̯ení·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → OGaulG. ϝενί·Σ-
OGaul. ueni·lati
(PN.m.) ‘Héros-du-clan’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
OGaul. ueni·mantii
(PN.m.) ‘la Bouche-du-Clan’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
OGaul. ueni·marus
(PN.m.) ‘Grand par la lignée’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
OGaul. ueni·reius
(PN.m.) ‘-(?)-’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
OGaulG. ϝενι·τοουτα
(PN.m.) ‘-(?)-’ (G-106)
(DLG. 313)
(OGaulG. ουενιτοουτα)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → OGaulG. ϝενι·Σ-
OGaul. ueni·uallia
(PN.f.) ‘-(?)-’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
OGaul. ueni·ala
(PN.f.) ‘-(?)-’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
OGaul. ueni·dius
(PN.m.) ‘-(?)-’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
OGaul. ueni·nia
(PN.f.) ‘-(?)-’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
OGaul. ueni·lla
(PN.f.) ‘-(?)-’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
OGaul. ueni·sa-
(PN.f.) ‘-(?)-’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
OGaul. ueni·samus
(PN.m.) ‘en Cisalpine’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni·Σ-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → OGaul. ueni·Σ-
√ueniɑh-
(Delamarre)
Lepont. ueniā-
(PN.f.) ‘chez les Lépontiens etc.’ ; ‘family (?)’
(DLG. 313)
(EtDiPC 413, ACSS 3:168-71, KGP 289-90, GPN 277-79, Jubainville (1892:294ff.))
1. PIE *u̯eni̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯eni̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯eni̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eni̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯eni̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯eni̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯eni̯ā-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → *ueni̯ā-
5. ueni̯ā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → Lepont. ueniā-
OBret. guen
(.) ‘race, famille’ ‘XX’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eni̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯eni̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯eni̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eni̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯eni̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯eni̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯eni̯ā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → *u̯eni̯a-
5. u̯eni̯a-
* u̯- → gu-
Change of root-initial u̯- into gu-
Ru̯=›gu= → *gueni̯a-
6. gueni̯a-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OBret. guenia-
√ueniki-
OGaulG. ϝενικο-
(PN.m.) ‘membre du clan’
(DLG. 313)
(OGaul. ουενικοι [plN])
1. PIE *u̯eniki̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯eniḱo-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. u̯eniḱo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯eniko-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. u̯eniko-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → OGaulG. ϝενικο-
OGaul. uenicā-
(PN.f.) ‘membre du clan’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯eniki̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯eniki̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯eniki̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eniki̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯eniki̯āh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯eniḱāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. u̯eniḱāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯eniḱā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. u̯eniḱā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯enikā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. u̯enikā-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → *uenikā-
7. uenikā-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → OGaul. uenicā-
OGaul. ueniciā-
(PN.f.) ‘GPN 278’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯enikii̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯enikii̯āɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯enikii̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯enikii̯āh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯enikii̯āh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯eniḱi̯āh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. u̯eniḱi̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯eniḱi̯ā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. u̯eniḱi̯ā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯eniki̯ā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. u̯eniki̯ā-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → *ueniki̯ā-
7. ueniki̯ā-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *uenici̯ā-
8. uenici̯ā-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OGaul. ueniciā-
OGaul. uenixamā-
(PN.f.) ‘-(?)-’
(DLG. 313)
1. PIE *u̯enikiseɑhmēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *u̯enikisaɑhmēɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. u̯enikisaɑhmēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯enikisaɑhmāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
3. u̯enikisaɑhmāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯enikisahmāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
4. u̯enikisahmāh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *u̯eniḱsahmāh-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. u̯eniḱsahmāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯eniḱsamā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
6. u̯eniḱsamā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *u̯eniksamā-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
7. u̯eniksamā-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → *ueniksamā-
8. ueniksamā-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
Rk›c → *uenicsamā-
9. uenicsamā-
*cs → x
Change of *cs into x
Rcs›x → OGaul. uenixamā-
√uenos-
Lat. uenos-
(f.) ‘Liebe(sgenuß), Liebreiz, Geliebte’
(Lat. uenus, ueneris)
1. PIE *u̯enos-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. uenos-
√uons-
Hitt. uu̯anšige/a-
(vb.iter.) (zu Hitt. uen- ‘futuere’)
(HHand. 190)
(Hitt. ú-ua-an-ši-kan-zi)
1. PIE *uu̯onsigɑɦe/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uu̯onsigɦe/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uu̯onsigɦe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *uu̯ansigɦe/a-
3. uu̯ansigɦe/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *uu̯ansige/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. uu̯ansige/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. uu̯anšige/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uonotei-
CLu. u̯anati-
(c.) ‘Frau’ (vgl. CLu. unati- ‘id.’) (DLL. 106-7)
(HHand. 194)
(CLu. u̯a-na-at-ti-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *u̯onoti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. u̯anati-
CLu. u̯anatei-
(c.) ‘Frau’ (vgl. CLu. unati- ‘id.’) (DLL. 106-7)
(HHand. 194)
(CLu. ua-na-at-ti-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *u̯onotei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. u̯anatei-
HLu. u̯anatei̯a·da-
(*a.) ‘female (part)’ ‹CHLu. ua-na-at-ti-iš ‘Frau’›
(CHLu. 2.11.17)
(in HLu. FEMINA-ti-ia-ta-za; For the cpd., see CLu. uanateia·deia-; HHand. 194)
1. PIE *u̯onotei̯o·dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯onotei̯o·dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯onotei̯o·dɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯anatei̯a·dɦa-
3. u̯anatei̯a·dɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. u̯anatei̯a·da-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯anatei̯a·da-
(PÚ.) ‘‹= HLu. ›; Kontext: QN ›Ḫarranašša’
(OGH. 556)
(Hitt. ua-na-at-ti-ia-ta-an [sgA])
1. PIE *u̯onotei̯o·dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯onotei̯o·dɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯onotei̯o·dɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯anatei̯a·dɦa-
3. u̯anatei̯a·dɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯anatei̯a·da-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. u̯anatei̯a·dei̯a-
(n.) ‘-(?)-’
(HHand. 194)
1. PIE *u̯onotei̯o·dɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯onotei̯o·dɦei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯onotei̯o·dɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯anatei̯a·dɦei̯a-
3. u̯anatei̯a·dɦei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. u̯anatei̯a·dei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uent-
Hitt. u̯ent-
(vb.) ‘beischlafen, geschlechtlich verkehren’
(HIL. 1156)
(Hitt. ú-e-en-ti-ir [pret3pl])
LAv. vantā-
(f.) ‘die Geliebte, Frau’
(AIWb. 1355)
1. PIE *u̯entēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯entāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯entāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯entāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯entāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯entā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯entā-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯antā-
5. u̯antā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. vantā-
LAv. vantu-
(m.) ‘Geliebte, Frau’
(AIWb. 1355)
1. PIE *u̯entu-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯antu-
2. u̯antu-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. vantu-
√unoti-
CLu. unati-
(c.) ‘Frau’
(HHand. 186)
(CLu. u-na-at-ti-iš, MUNUS-iš)
1. PIE *unoti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. unati-


PIE √un- √uon- √uen- (vb.) ‘schmücken, decken’
(IEW 346 [diff.])
(Pyysalo: Toch + Hitt + HLu.)
√uon-
TochB. wan-
(vb.) ‘cover’
(DTochB. 592)
(TochB. wantsi [inf.])
1. PIE *u̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯an-
2. u̯an-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. wan-
TochB. wän-
(vb.) ‘cover’
(DTochB. 592)
(TochB. wänträ [3sg])
1. PIE *u̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯an-
2. u̯an-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochB. wan-
√un-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. unašḫa-
(c.) ‘Schmuck’
(HIL. 1063)
(Hitt. ú-na-aš-ḫ-, KUB 12.31 ii 25; not a scribal error vs. Kloekhorst)
1. PIE *unosɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *unosho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. unosho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *unasha-
3. unasha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *unašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. unašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. unašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
TochB. on·kor yam-
(vb.) ‘cover (?)’
(DTochB. 112)
1. PIE *oun·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aun·Σ-
2. aun·Σ-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōn·Σ-
3. ōn·Σ-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. on·Σ-
TochB. on·kor mälk-
(vb.) ‘sheathe (?)’
(DTochB. 112)
1. PIE *oun·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aun·Σ-
2. aun·Σ-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōn·Σ-
3. ōn·Σ-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. on·Σ-
√unp-
TochA. wamp-
(vb.) ‘schmücken’
(Poucha 286)
(TochA. wamträ)
1. PIE *u̯omp-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯amp-
2. u̯amp-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. wamp-
TochA. wampe-
(sb.) ‘Schmück’
(Poucha 286)
1. PIE *u̯ompoi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ampai̯a
2. u̯ampai̯a
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯ampai̯
3. u̯ampai̯
*a y → ē
Change of ay into ē in root-final
R=ay›=ē → *u̯ampē
4. u̯ampē
*ē → e
Change of *ē into e
Rē›e → *u̯ampe
5. u̯ampe
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → TochA. wampe
√unu-
(Pyysalo: HLu. here (?))
Kimball (1999:225) to PIE *ues- ‘wear, have on’
Hitt. unu-
(vb.1.) ‘schmücken, putzen, herrichten, decken’
(HHand. 186)
LycA. unuẽ·mi-
(pt.) ‘geschmückt’
(BLyk 4:58)
1. PIE *unue·mi-
*en → ẽn
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
ReN›ẽN → LycA. unuẽ·mi-
Hitt. unu̯ašḫa-
(c.) ‘Schmuck’
(HHand. 186)
1. PIE *unu̯osɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *unu̯osho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. unu̯osho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *unu̯asha-
3. unu̯asha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *unu̯ašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. unu̯ašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. unu̯ašḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. unu·nu-
(cs.) ‘‹geschmückt machen (?) oder wissen (?)›’
(CHLu. 10.27.1)
(HLu. “[X]”(-)u-nú-nú-x)


PIE √un- √uon- √uen- (sb.) ‘Baum, Pflanze, Stange, Stab, Stütze’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo: IIr. + Hitt. + CLu.)
√uen-
RV. ván-
(n.) ‘Baum, Pflanze, Holz’
(WbRV. 1206)
(RV. váṅsu [plL])
1. PIE *u̯én-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *u̯án-
2. u̯án-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. ván-
√uenol-
Hitt. uenal-
(n.) ‘Stange, Stab, Stütze’
(HHand. 201)
(Hitt. ú-e-na-al)
1. PIE *u̯enol-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯enal-
CLu. uenal-
(n.) ‘Stange, Stab, Stütze’
(HHand. 201)
(CLu. uinal-)
1. PIE *u̯enol-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. u̯enal-
LAv. vanar-
(n.) ‘-(?)-’ (Pü. nddakada)
(AIWb. 1354)
(LAv. vanarǝ)
1. PIE *u̯enol-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *u̯enor-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. u̯enor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯enar-
3. u̯enar-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯anar-
4. u̯anar-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. vanar-
LAv. vanāra-
(m.) ‘EN eines Gläubigen’
(AIWb. 1354)
1. PIE *u̯enōlo-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
Rl›r → *u̯enōro-
(SPIE §3.3.3)
2. u̯enōro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯enōra-
3. u̯enōra-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *u̯enāra-
4. u̯enāra-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯anāra-
5. u̯anāra-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. vanāra-


PIE √un- √uon- √uen- (pref.) ‘un-, ohne-, nicht, -los, mangelnd’
(IEW 345 + 757-8)
(Pyysalo 2013:310,88)
√uon-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. au̯an
(adv.) ‘weg (?)’
(HEG I:98-9)
(Hitt. a-ua-an, a-u-ua-an, HIL. 275)
1. PIE *ou̯on
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. au̯an
Hitt. u̯an·umei̯a-
(a.) ‘kinder-, elternlos, alleinstehend’
(HHand. 194)
(Hitt. uanumia-, HIL. 1106)
1. PIE *u̯on·umei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯an·umei̯a-
Pal. u̯an·dangu̯ar-
(n.) ‘ohne Dunkel; ‹cf. Hitt. tankua- ‘dunkel’›’
(HHand. 194)
1. PIE *u̯on·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Pal. u̯an·Σ-
OIcl. van·
(pref.) ‘voran etwas zu fehlt, zu wenig’
(ANEtWb. 643)
1. PIE *u̯on·
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯an·
2. u̯an·
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OIcl. van·
Goth. wan-
(n.) ‘Mangel: lack’
(GoEtD. W32.)
(Goth. wan [sgN])
1. PIE *u̯ono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ana-
2. u̯ana-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. wana-
√un-
TochB. on·min-
(sb.) ‘remorse, repentance’
(DTochB. 115)
(TochB. on·miṃ-)
1. PIE *oun·min
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aun·min
2. aun·min
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōn·min
3. ōn·min
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. on·min
TochA. on·min-
(m.) ‘paenitentia’
(Poucha 46)
(TochA. on·miṃ-)
1. PIE *oun·min-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aun·min-
2. aun·min-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōn·min-
3. ōn·min-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochA. on·min-
TochB. on·mi·ṣa-
(a.) ‘prtng to remorse’
(DTochB. 115)
(TochB. on·miṣṣe-)
1. PIE *oun·mi·si̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aun·mi·si̯a-
2. aun·mi·si̯a-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
Rsi̯›ṣ → *aun·mi·ṣa-
3. aun·mi·ṣa-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōn·mi·ṣa-
4. ōn·mi·ṣa-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. on·mi·ṣa-
TochB. on·missu-
(a.) ‘remorseful’
(DTochB. 115)
1. PIE *oun·missu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aun·missu-
2. aun·missu-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōn·missu-
3. ōn·missu-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. on·missu-
TochB. on·krocce-
(a.) ‘immortal’
(DTochB. 113-4)
1. PIE *oun·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aun·Σ-
2. aun·Σ-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōn·Σ-
3. ōn·Σ-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. on·Σ-
TochB. on·waññe-
(a.) ‘immortal’
(DTochB. 114-5)
TochB. on·waññe-
1. PIE *oun·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aun·Σ-
2. aun·Σ-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōn·Σ-
3. ōn·Σ-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. on·Σ-
TochB. on·kipṣe-
(a.) ‘shameless’
(DTochB. 112)
TochB. on·kipṣe-
1. PIE *oun·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aun·Σ-
2. aun·Σ-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōn·Σ-
3. ōn·Σ-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. on·Σ-
TochB. ont·soyte-
(a.) ‘insatiable, unsatisfied’
(DTochB. 116)
1. PIE *ount·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *aunt·Σ-
2. aunt·Σ-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
Rau›ō → *ōnt·Σ-
3. ōnt·Σ-
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → TochB. ont·Σ-
Goth. un·airkn-
(a.) ‘unheilig, gottlos : ἀνόσιος’
(GoEtD. A84.)
1. PIE *un·ehɑrgino
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *un·ehrgino
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. un·ehrgino
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Palatovelarization of *gi/i̯ into ǵ
RgI›ǵ → *un·ehrǵno
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. un·ehrǵno
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *un·erǵno
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. un·erǵno
PIE *ǵ → g
Depalatalization of Centum *ǵ
Rǵ›g → *un·ergno
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. un·ergno
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
Rg›k → *un·erkno
6. un·erkno
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *un·erkna
7. un·erkna
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *un·irkna
8. un·irkna
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *un·irkn
9. un·irkn
i → ai
Opening of i into ai
Ri›ai → Goth. un·airkn
Goth. un·aiwiskan-
(a.) ‘ohne Schande : ἀνεπαίσχυντος’
(GoEtD. A97.)
1. PIE *un·hɑeiu̯iski̯ono
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Møller's rule for PIE *ɑe
Rɑe›ɑa → *un·hɑaiu̯iski̯ono
(SPIE §2.2.5.3)
2. un·hɑaiu̯iski̯ono
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *un·haiu̯iski̯ono
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. un·haiu̯iski̯ono
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *un·haiu̯isḱono
(SPIE §4.8.4)
4. un·haiu̯isḱono
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *un·aiu̯isḱono
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. un·aiu̯isḱono
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *un·aiu̯iskono
(SPIE §4.8.4)
6. un·aiu̯iskono
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *un·aiu̯iskana
7. un·aiu̯iskana
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *un·aiu̯iskan
8. un·aiu̯iskan
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. un·aiwiskan


PIE √un- √uon- √uen- (sb.) ‘Handel’ (vb.) ‘(ver)kaufen’ (a.) ‘spendend’
(IEW 1173 sub *u̯es-)
√un-
Hitt. una·tala-
(c.) ‘LÚDAM.GÀR = Kaufmann’
(HIL. 1060)
(HHand. 186, SHV 493n91, EHS: 176)
1. PIE *uno·tolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. una·tala-
√uēn-
Lat. uēno-
(m.) ‘Verkauf’
(WH. 2:753-4)
(Lat. uēnum dāre ‘sell’)
1. PIE *u̯ēno-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. uēno-
Lat. uēnāli-
(a.) ‘verkäuflich’
(WH. 2:754)
1. PIE *u̯ēnēɑhli-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯ēnāɑhli-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯ēnāɑhli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ēnāhli-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ēnāhli-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ēnāli-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯ēnāli-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. uēnāli-
OCS. vĕni-
(vb.) ‘Verkauft werden, Feil sein’
(Sadnik √1069)
(OCS. vĕniti [inf.], REW 1:179)
1. PIE *u̯ēniɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *u̯ēniíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. u̯ēniíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ēnií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. u̯ēnií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *u̯ēnī́-
4. u̯ēnī́-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vēnī́-
5. vēnī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
Rī́›í → *vēní-
6. vēní-
*í → i
Orthographic absence of accent
Rí›i → *vēni-
7. vēni-
*ē → ĕ
Change of *ē into ĕ
Rē›ĕ → OCS. vĕni-
Lat. uēnī-
(pf.) ‘verkauft werden’
(WH. 2:754)
(Lat. uēnīi [1sg])
1. PIE *u̯ēniɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *u̯ēniíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. u̯ēniíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ēnií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. u̯ēnií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *u̯ēnī́-
4. u̯ēnī́-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → *uēnī́-
5. uēnī́-
*ī́ → ī
Loss/Absence of accent
Rī́›ī → Lat. uēnī-
ORuss. vĕno-
(n.) ‘Mitgift’
(REW 1:182-3)
(KEWA 3:177)
1. PIE *u̯ēnos
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ēnas
2. u̯ēnas
*a → o
Change of *a into o
Ra›o → *u̯ēnos
3. u̯ēnos
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root-final)
Ros=›o= → *u̯ēno
4. u̯ēno
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vēno
5. vēno
*ē → ĕ
Change of *ē into ĕ
Rē›ĕ → ORuss. vĕno
Lat. uēnu-
(m.) ‘Verkauf’
(WH. 2:754)
(Lat. uēnui [sgD])
1. PIE *u̯ēnu-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. uēnu-
√uon-
RV. vanín-
(a.) ‘spendend, mitteilend, freigiebig’
(WbRV. 1209)
1. PIE *u̯onín-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯anín-
2. u̯anín-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. vanín-


PIE √unɑh- (vb.) ‘saugen, auspumpen’ (sb.) ‘Fluß’
(IEW —)
(Pyysalo; thus ‘saugen’ vs. HIL)
√unēɑh-
(SHV 183)
Hitt. unāḫ-
(vb.A.) ‘auspumpen, saugen’
(HHand2: 209)
(Hitt. u-un-aḫ-da [3sg])
1. PIE *unēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *unāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. unāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *unāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. unāh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. unāḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
RV. yam·únā-
(f.) ‘the twin ‹yam-› river ‹una-› of Ganges’
(WbRV. 1097)
(‘EN des der gángā parallelströmenden und als ihr Schwesterstrom aufgefassten Flusses’)
1. PIE *Π·únēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *Π·únāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. Π·únāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·únāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. Π·únāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → RV. Π·únā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
√unɑh-
Hitt. unḫ-
(vb.A.) ‘auspumpen, saugen’
(HHand2: 209)
(Hitt. u-un-ḫu-un, u-uh-ta, u-un-he-ir [3pl])
1. PIE *unɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *unh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. unh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. unḫ-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. arḫa·unḫ-
(vb.1.) ‘heraussaugen, ziehen’
(HHand2: 209)
(Hitt. arḫa unḫ-)
1. PIE *orɑho·unɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *orho·unh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. orho·unh
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *arha·unh
3. arha·unh
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. arḫa·unḫ
(SPIE §4.6.3)
√unɑho-
Hitt. unḫa-
(vb.1.) ‘saugen’
(HHand2: 209)
(Hitt. u-un-ha-zi, u-un-ha-an-zi, u-un-ha-an-du)
1. PIE *unɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *unho-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. unho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *unha-
3. unha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. unḫa-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. unḫant-
(pt.) ‘gesaugt’
(HHand2: 209)
1. PIE *unɑhont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *unhont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. unhont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *unhant-
3. unhant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. unḫant-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Hitt. unḫiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘auspumpen, saugen’
(HHand2: 209)
(Hitt. u-un-hi-es-ki-iz-zi)
1. PIE *unɑhiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *unhiski̯e/o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. unhiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Palatovelarization of *ki/i̯ into *ḱ
RkI›ḱ → *unhisḱe/o-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
3. unhisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *unhisḱe/a-
4. unhisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Depalatalization of Centum *ḱ
Rḱ›k → *unhiske/a-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
5. unhiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → *unhiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. unhiške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. unḫiške/a-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √up- √uop- √uep- (adv.) ‘auf, über, oben’
(IEW 1105)
√up-
Hitt. up-
(vb.1.) ‘aufgehen (von Gestirnen)’
(HHand. 186)
Hitt. u̯an·up·aštali-
(.) ‘XX’
(Weitenberg 1984:276)
1. PIE *u̯on·up·ostoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯an·up·astali-
2. u̯an·up·astali-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯an·up·aštali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√upi-
Hitt. upai-
(vb.2.) ‘hochheben’
(HHand. 186)
1. PIE *upoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. upai-
Hitt. upei̯a-
(vb.2.) ‘hochheben’
(HHand. 186)
1. PIE *upei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. upei̯a-
√upor
Goth. ufar-
(prep.) ‘über : over, above’
(GoEtD. U6.)
1. PIE *upor-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *ufor-
2. ufor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Goth. ufar-
Hitt. upar·mu̯a-
(LÚ.c.) (autres)
(NOMS. 1428)
(in Akd. up-pár-mu-ua, up-pár.A.A)
1. PIE *upor·mu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. upar·mu̯a-
Hitt. uan·upar·aštali-
(.) ‘XX’
(Weitenberg 1984:276)
1. PIE *u̯on·upor·ostoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯an·upar·astali-
2. u̯an·upar·astali-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. u̯an·upar·aštali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uporo
Hitt. upara·mu̯a-
(LÚ.c.) ‘prince Hittite’
(NOMS. 1428)
(in Hitt. up-pa-ra-A.A)
1. PIE *uporo·mu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. upara·mu̯a-
Goth. ufaro·n
(adv.prep.) ‘über etw., darüber; hinüber’
(GoEtD. U6.)
(Goth. ufaro [adv.prep.])
1. PIE *uporō·n
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
Rp›f → *uforō·n
2. uforō·n
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ufarō·n
3. ufarō·n
*ō → o
Change of ō into o
Rō›o → Goth. ufaro·n
√upu-
Hitt. upu̯ar-
(n.N.act) ‘Aufgang’
(HHand. 186)
1. PIE *upu̯or
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. upu̯ar


PIE √up- √uop- √uep- (sb.) ‘Fett, Fetthaut, Talg’ (a.) ‘fett(leibig)’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√uopo-
RV. vapódara-
(a.) ‘fettleibig’
(WbRV. 1214)
1. PIE *u̯opoúɦɑdero-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯opoúɦdero-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯opoúɦdero-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯apaúɦdera-
3. u̯apaúɦdera-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *u̯apaúdera-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯apaúdera-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯apaúdara-
5. u̯apaúdara-
aú → ṓ
Monophthongization of *aú
Raú›ṓ → *u̯apṓdara-
6. u̯apṓdara-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vapṓdara-
7. vapṓdara-
*ṓ → ó
Change of ṓ into ó
Rṓ›ó → RV. vapódara-
√uopēɑh-
OInd. vapā́-
(f.) ‘die Fetthaut’
(WbRV. 1213)
(KEWA 3:144, VS. vapā́-)
1. PIE *u̯opḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *u̯opā́ɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯opā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯opā́h-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯opā́h-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯apā́h-
4. u̯apā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯apā́-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. u̯apā́-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OInd. vapā́-
RV. vapā́vant-
(a.) ‘mit Fett versehen’
(WbRV. 1213)
(RV. 5.43.7.)
1. PIE *u̯opḗɑhu̯ont-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ḗɑ
Rḗɑ›ā́ɑ → *u̯opā́ɑhu̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯opā́ɑhu̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯opā́hu̯ont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯opā́hu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯apā́hu̯ant-
4. u̯apā́hu̯ant-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯apā́u̯ant-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. u̯apā́u̯ant-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. vapā́vant-
√uopu-
Hitt. u̯apuzei-
() ((UZU)n.) ‘Talg’
(HHand. 194)
(Hitt. ua-ap-pu-uz-zi-ia)
1. PIE *u̯opudɑɦi̯ei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯opudɦi̯ei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯opudɦi̯ei-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *u̯opujɦei-
3. u̯opujɦei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯apujɦei-
4. u̯apujɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *u̯apujei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. u̯apujei-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. u̯apuzei-
Hitt. u̯apuzei-
(ENc.) ‘heth. Würdenträger’
(HHand. 194)
1. PIE *u̯opudɑɦi̯ei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯opudɦi̯ei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯opudɦi̯ei-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *u̯opujɦei-
3. u̯opujɦei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯apujɦei-
4. u̯apujɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *u̯apujei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. u̯apujei-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → Hitt. u̯apuzei-


PIE √up- √uop- √uep- (sb.) ‘Strom, Fluß, See, Teich, Sumpf’
(IEW 1149)
(Pyysalo)
√uop-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. u̯apam-
(c.) ‘river bank’
(HIL. 1107)
(Hitt. ua-ap-pa-mu-uš [plA])
1. PIE *u̯opom-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯apam-
OCS. vapa-
(f.) ‘Sumpf, Teich, Gehölz’
(Sadnik 1046)
(REW 168)
1. PIE *u̯ōpēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯ōpāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯ōpāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ōpāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ōpāh-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *u̯āpāh-
4. u̯āpāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯āpā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
5. u̯āpā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vāpā-
6. vāpā-
*ā → a
Change of *ā into a
Rā›a → OCS. vapa-
OInd. vāpī́-
(f.) ‘kleiner See, großer Teich, Pfuhl, Zisterne’
(KEWA 3:188)
1. PIE *u̯ōpiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
Riɑ́›ií → *u̯ōpiíh-
(SPIE §3.2.6)
2. u̯ōpiíh-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
Rō›ā → *u̯āpiíh-
3. u̯āpiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯āpií-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯āpií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
Rií›ī́ → *u̯āpī́-
5. u̯āpī́-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OInd. vāpī́-
Hitt. u̯apu-
(n./c.) ‘Flußufer’
(HHand. 194)
(Weitenberg 1984: 52-4 for attestations’
1. PIE *u̯opu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯apu-
√up-
Lith. ùpė-
(f2.) ‘Strom, Fluß’
(LiEtWb. 1169)
1. PIE *úpēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *úpēh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. úpēh-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis PLith. ù
RLiAcc3 → *ùpēh-
3. ùpēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *ùpē-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. ùpē-
* ē -> ė
Change of *ē into ė
Rē›ė → Lith. ùpė-


PIE √ubɑɦ- √uebɑɦ- √uobɑɦ- (vb.) ‘weben, spinnen’
(IEW 1114-5)
√uebɑɦ-
(HEG W:494)
(HIL. 1158)
Hitt. u̯eb-
(vb.) ‘weben’
(HHand. 201)
(Hitt. ú-e-ep-ta [3sg])
1. PIE *u̯ebɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ebɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ebɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯eb-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯eb-
(c.) ‘Webstück, Gewebe’
(HHand. 201)
(Hitt. ú-e-pu-uš [plA])
1. PIE *u̯ebɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ebɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ebɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯eb-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. āurṇa·vābhá-
(a.) ‘von der Spinne stammend ‹or with *ō?›’
(WbRV. 307)
1. PIE *Π·u̯ēbɑɦó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯ēbɦó-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·u̯ēbɦó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *Π·u̯ēbɦá-
3. Π·u̯ēbɦá-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *Π·u̯ābɦá-
4. Π·u̯ābɦá-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *Π·vābɦá-
5. Π·vābɦá-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. Π·vābhá-


PIE √ubɑɦ- (vb.) ‘austatten, einrichten, gewähren’
(IEW 1106)
(Pyysalo: Lu + Goth.)
√ubɑɦ-
HLu. uba-
(vb.) ‘find’
(CHLu. 3.10.2)
(HLu. (“AEDIFICIUM”)u-pa-ha-‘, u-pa-ha)
1. PIE *ubɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ubɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ubɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ubɦa-
3. ubɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. uba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. au̯an uba-
(vb.) ‘establish, present (?); ‹cf. Hitt. auan›’
(CHLu. 10.14.4)
(HLu. a-wa/i-na u-pa-ha [1sg])
1. PIE *ou̯on ubɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ou̯on ubɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ou̯on ubɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *au̯an ubɦa-
3. au̯an ubɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. au̯an uba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. uba-
(vb.) ‘ausstatten, einrichten, gewähren’
(HHand. 186)
(CLu. uba-, KLuN. n. 1921)
1. PIE *ubɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ubɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ubɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ubɦa-
3. ubɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. uba-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LycA. ube-
(vb.) ‘dedicate, offer’
(DLycLg. 75)
(Lyc. ube [3sg], ubete [pret3sg])
1. PIE *ubɑɦe-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ubɦe-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ubɦe-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → LycA. ube-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ubɑɦo-
Hitt. uba·deid-
(n.) ‘Lehen, Landsgut, Lehensgut, Grundbesitz’
(HHand. 186)
1. PIE *ubɑɦo·dɑɦeidɑɦ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ubɦo·dɦeidɦ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ubɦo·dɦeidɦ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ubɦa·dɦeidɦ
3. ubɦa·dɦeidɦ
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. uba·deid
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. uba·deid-
(n.) ‘Lehen, Landsgut, Lehensgut’
(HHand. 186)
1. PIE *ubɑɦo·dɑɦeidɑɦ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ubɦo·dɦeidɦ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ubɦo·dɦeidɦ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ubɦa·dɦeidɦ
3. ubɦa·dɦeidɦ
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. uba·deid
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. uba·deida·ši-
(a.) ‘of upatiti-’
(CHLu. 4.2.2)
(HLu. (*274)u-pa-ti-tà-si-i-na [sgA])
1. PIE *ubɑɦo·dɑɦeidɑɦo·si-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ubɦo·dɦeidɦo·si-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ubɦo·dɦeidɦo·si-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ubɦa·dɦeidɦa·si-
3. ubɦa·dɦeidɦa·si-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *uba·deida·si-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. uba·deida·si-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → HLu. uba·deida·ši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. uba·deidala-
(n.) ‘das Lehen (upatit-) betreffend’
(HHand. 186)
1. PIE *ubɑɦo·dɑɦeidɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ubɦo·dɦeidɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ubɦo·dɦeidɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ubɦa·dɦeidɦala-
3. ubɦa·dɦeidɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. uba·deidala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. uba·deidala-
(LÚ.c.) ‘ein Funktionär, CLu. in Hitt.’
(HHand. 186)
1. PIE *ubɑɦo·dɑɦeidɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ubɦo·dɦeidɦolo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ubɦo·dɦeidɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ubɦa·dɦeidɦala-
3. ubɦa·dɦeidɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → CLu. uba·deidala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. uba·deidei-
(n.) ‘land attached to the manor of the lord’
(CHLu. 3.6.8, 20)
(HLu. (*274)u-pa-ti-ti, (* 274)u-pa-ti-ti-i)
1. PIE *ubɑɦo·dɑɦeidɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ubɦo·dɦeidɦei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ubɦo·dɦeidɦei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ubɦa·dɦeidɦei-
3. ubɦa·dɦeidɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → HLu. uba·deidei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ubɑɦi-
Goth. ubi·zwo-
(f.) ‘(Vor)Halle: colonnade: στοά; porticus’
(GoEtD. U3.)
(Goth. ubizwai [sgD] Joh 10,23 CA)
1. PIE *ubɑɦi· Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ubɦi· Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ubɦi· Σ
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → Goth. ubi· Σ
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
Hitt. ubi·ubei̯a-
(URU.) ‘Bei ›Kukuwawa; DKašk. 105’
(OGH. 457)
(Hitt. ú-pí-ú-pi-a)
1. PIE *ubɑɦi·ubɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ubɦi·ubɦei̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ubɦi·ubɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ubɦi·ubɦei̯a-
3. ubɦi·ubɦei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ubi·ubei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ubi·eux[-
(X.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGH. 457)
(Hitt. ú-pí-e-ú-x[)
1. PIE *ubɑɦi·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ubɦi·Σ
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ubɦi·Σ
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. ubi·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √ubɑɦ- (sb.) ‘Eile, Schnelligkeit, Zielstrebigkeit’ (vb.) ‘zur Eile treiben’
(IEW 1103)
(Pyysalo: Lith + CLu.)
√ubɑɦ-
Lith. ũbi-
(vb.) ‘jmdn. zur Eile treiben’
(LiEtWb. 1156)
(Lith. ũbiti [inf.], ũbju [pr.], ũbjau [pret.])
1. PIE *úbɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *úbɦi-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. úbɦi-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis PLith. ù
RLiAcc3 → *ùbɦi-
3. ùbɦi-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *bɦ
Rbɦ›b → Lith. ùbi-
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
CLu. uba·ḫili-
(GKL.c.) ‘Schnelligkeit, Zielstrebigkeit, Zuverlässigkeit’
(HHand. 186)
1. PIE *ubɑɦo·ɦɑili-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ubɦo·ɦili-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ubɦo·ɦili-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ubɦa·ɦili-
3. ubɦa·ɦili-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *uba·ɦili-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. uba·ɦili-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. uba·ḫili-
(SPIE §4.6.3)


PIE √ur- √uor- √uer- (vb.) ‘bewahren, scheuen, wachten’ (sb.) ‘Wächter, Warter’
(IEW 1160-4)
√uoro-
Hitt. a·u̯ara-
(ḪUR.SAG) ‘verehrt in › Šuruwa’
(OGH. 58)
(Hitt. a-u-ua-ra-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *o·u̯oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a·u̯ara-
ODor. ϝώρο-
(m.pl) ‘Auge(n)’
(GEW 1:280)
(in Hes. βῶροι · οφθαλμοί)
1. PIE *u̯ṓro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → ODor. ϝώρο-
Dor. πυλᾱ·ωρό-
(a.) ‘Torwart, Wächter’
(GEW 2:623)
(Ep. πυλα·ωρό-)
1. PIE *puhɑlēɑh·u̯ōró-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *puhɑlāɑh·u̯ōró-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. puhɑlāɑh·u̯ōró-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *puhlāh·u̯ōró-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. puhlāh·u̯ōró-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pulā·u̯ōró-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pulā·u̯ōró-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *pulā·ōró-
5. pulā·ōró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. πυλᾱ·ωρό-
Goth. war-
(a.) ‘sober’
(GoEtD. W37.)
1. PIE *u̯oro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ara
2. u̯ara
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯ar
3. u̯ar
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. war
OSax. war-
(a.) ‘wary, cautious, careful’
(GoEtD. W37.)
1. PIE *u̯oro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ara
2. u̯ara
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯ar
3. u̯ar
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OSax. war
Gr. ὄρο-
(pr.) ‘schauen, netrachten, sehen’
(Gr. ὄρομαι)
1. PIE *u̯óro-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *óro-
2. óro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄρο-
√uori-
Hitt. a·u̯ari-
(c.) ‘Ausgück, Warte, Turm’
(HHand. 30)
1. PIE *o·u̯ori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a·u̯ari-
MidHG. wer
(f.) ‘caution’
(GoEtD. W37.)
1. PIE *u̯ori
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ari
2. u̯ari
*ari → eri
Umlaut *ari to eri
Rari›eri → *u̯eri
3. u̯eri
*-i → -e
Change of root-final -i into -e
R=i›=e → *u̯ere
4. u̯ere
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → MidHG. were
OEng. waria-
(vb.) ‘bewahren, hüten’
(ANEtWb. 645)
(OEng. warian
1. PIE *u̯ori̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ari̯a-
2. u̯ari̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → *wari̯a-
3. wari̯a-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
Ri̯›i → OEng. waria-
Hitt. u̯arida-
(vb.) ‘sich ängstigen, scheuen’ (= Hitt. uerit-)
(HHand. 196)
1. PIE *u̯oridɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯oridɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯oridɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯aridɦa-
3. u̯aridɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯arida-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uort-
Lith. var̃ta-
(m.) ‘Wächter, Waldwart, Unterförster’
(LiEtWb. 1204)
1. PIE *u̯oŕto-
eŕ → or̃
Circumflex intonation for oŕ
RLiAcc11 → *u̯or̃to-
2. u̯or̃to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ar̃ta-
3. u̯ar̃ta-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → Lith. var̃ta-
OPr. wart-
(m.) ‘Warter, Waltwächter, Unterförster’
(LiEtWb. 1204)
1. PIE *u̯orto
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arta
2. u̯arta
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *varta
3. varta
*v → w
Orthographic change of of *v into w
Rv›w → OPr. warta
√uordɑɦ-
Goth. daura·ward-
(m.) ‘doorkeeper : θυρωρός’
(GoEtD. W33.)
1. PIE *Π·u̯ordɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *Π·u̯ordɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. Π·u̯ordɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *Π·u̯ordo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. Π·u̯ordo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *Π·u̯arda
4. Π·u̯arda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *Π·u̯ard
5. Π·u̯ard
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → Goth. Π·ward
OSax. ward-
(m.) ‘guard’
(GoEtD. W33.)
1. PIE *u̯ordɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ordɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ordɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯ordo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. u̯ordo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arda
4. u̯arda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯ard
5. u̯ard
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OSax. ward
OHG. wart-
(m.) ‘guard’
(GoEtD. W33.)
1. PIE *u̯ordɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ordɦo
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ordɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯ordo
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. u̯ordo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arda
4. u̯arda
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯ard
5. u̯ard
*d → t
OHG sound shift of *d
Rd›tHG → *u̯art
6. u̯art
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. wart
OIcl. vǫrð-
(m.) ‘Wächter, Hüter’
(ANEtWb. 675)
1. PIE *u̯ordɑɦu
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ordɦu
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯ordɦu
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯ordu
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
3. u̯ordu
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ardu
4. u̯ardu
*ardu → ǫrd
Umlaut *u for ardu
Rardu›ǫrd → *u̯ǫrd
5. u̯ǫrd
*d -› ð
Change of d into ð
Rd›ð → *u̯ǫrð
6. u̯ǫrð
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OIcl. vǫrð
OHG. warta-
(f.) ‘look-out’
(GoEtD. W33.)
1. PIE *u̯ordɑɦēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯ordɑɦāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯ordɑɦāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ordɦāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ordɦāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ordɦā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯ordɦā
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *dɦ
Rdɦ›d → *u̯ordā
(SPIE §4.8.1.5)
5. u̯ordā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ardā
6. u̯ardā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *u̯ardō
(XX:XX)
7. u̯ardō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *u̯arda
8. u̯arda
*d → t
OHG sound shift of *d
Rd›tHG → *u̯arta
9. u̯arta
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. warta
√uoru-
Gr. ὄρυ-
(pr.M.) ils visent
(GEW 2:XX)
(Hom. epi oruntai)
1. PIE *u̯óru-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *óru-
2. óru-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ὄρυ-
Gr. οὔρο-
(m.) ‘guard’
(GEW 2:448)
(Gr. οὖρος)
1. PIE *u̯óru̯o-
*óru̯ → oúr
Lengthening of óru̯ to oúr
Róru̯›oúr → *u̯oúro-
2. u̯oúro-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *oúro-
3. oúro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. οὔρο-
√uro-
Hitt. a·ura-
(n./c.) ‘Ausguck, Warte, Turm’
(HHand. 29)
1. PIE *o·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a·ura-
Hitt. a·ura-
(URU.) ‘‹cf. above›
(OGH. 57)
1. PIE *o·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a·ura-
Gr. βλοσ·υρό-
(a.) ‘mit fruchtbaren Augen, gräßlich blickend’
(GEW 1:245-6)
1. PIE *Π·uró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. Π·υρό-
Gr. πυλο·υρό-
(a.) ‘Torwart, Wächter’
(GEW 2:623)
1. PIE *puhɑlo·uró-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *puhlo·uró-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. puhlo·uró-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pulo·uró-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
3. pulo·uró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. πυλο·υρό-
Dor. πυλα·υρό-
(a.) ‘Torwart, Wächter’
(GEW 2:623)
1. PIE *puhɑlēɑh·uró-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *puhɑlāɑh·uró-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. puhɑlāɑh·uró-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *puhlāh·uró-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. puhlāh·uró-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *pulā·uró-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. pulā·uró-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
RāRC›aRC → *pula·uró-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. pula·uró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Dor. πυλα·υρό-
√uri-
Hitt. a·uri-
(n./c.) ‘Ausguck, Warte, Turm’
(HHand. 29)
1. PIE *o·uri-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a·uri-
Hitt. a·uri̯a
(ḪUR.SAG.) (in der Nähe von › Ḫaštira)
(OGH. 57-58)
1. PIE *o·uri̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a·uri̯a-
Hitt. a·uri̯ala-
(N.ag.) ‘Grenzwächter, Grenzschusoldat’
(HHand. 29)
1. PIE *o·uri̯olo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. a·uri̯ala-
Hitt. urideima-
(.) ‘Angst’
(HHand. 187)
1. PIE *uridɑɦeimo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *uridɦeimo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. uridɦeimo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *uridɦeima-
3. uridɦeima-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. urideima-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uru-
LinB. οὔρυ-
(vb.) ‘guard, protect’
(DMycGr. 402)
(LinB. o-u-ru-to o-pi-a2-ra e-pi-ko-u̯o, PYLOS An 657
1. PIE *oúru-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → LinB. οὔρυ-
Gr. ρύο-
(vb.) ‘abwehren, schützen, retten’ (GEW 1:568-9)
(LSJ. 694)
(Gr. ρύοντο)
1. PIE *u̯rúo-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *rúo-
2. rúo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ρύο-
Gr. ρύ-
(vb.) ‘abwehren, schützen, retten’ (GEW 1:568-9)
(LSJ. 694)
(Gr. ρύατο)
1. PIE *u̯rú-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
Ru̯›0 → *rú-
2. rú-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RLat›Gr → Gr. ρύ-
√ueri-
(Benveniste BSL 33, 138)
Lat. uereo-
(pr.) ‘ängstlich beobachten; verehren, fürchten’
(WH. 2:757-6)
(Lat. uereō)
1. PIE *u̯erei̯o-
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
Rei̯o›eo → *u̯ereo-
2. u̯ereo-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. uereo-
Hitt. u̯erid-
(vb.2.) ‘sich ängstigen, scheuen’
(HHand. 201)
1. PIE *u̯eridɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eridɦ-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯eridɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯erid-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯eridei-
(vb.1.) ‘sich ängstigen, scheuen’
(HHand. 201
1. PIE *u̯eridɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eridɦei-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯eridɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯eridei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. u̯erideima-
(.) ‘Angst’
(HHand. 187)
1. PIE *u̯eridɑɦeimo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯eridɦeimo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯eridɦeimo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯eridɦeima-
3. u̯eridɦeima-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → Hitt. u̯erideima-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √ur- √uor- √uer- (vb.) ‘warm werden, brennen’ (sb.) ‘Wärme, Hitze, Frühling’
(IEW 1161 + 1166 + 1174)
(Pyysalo)
√uēr-
(Persson, Beitr. 615!)
(Not *u̯ēsr- !)
Lat. uēr-
(f.) ‘Frühling’
(Lat. uēr, uēris)
1. PIE *u̯ēr
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. uēr
OIcl. vār-
(n.) ‘Frühling’
(ANEtWb. 644)
(OIcl. vār)
1. PIE *u̯ēro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ēra
2. u̯ēra
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *u̯āra
3. u̯āra
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯ār
4. u̯ār
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OIcl. vār
ModSwed. vår-
(sb.) ‘Frühling’
(ANEtWb. 644)
1. PIE *u̯ēro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ēra
2. u̯ēra
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯ēr
3. u̯ēr
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *u̯ār
4. u̯ār
ā -› å
Change of ā into å
Rā›å → *u̯år
5. u̯år
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → ModSwed. vår
√uēro-
OIcl. vāra-
(vb.) ‘frühling werden’
(ANEtWb. 645)
1. PIE *u̯ēro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ēra-
2. u̯ēra-
*ē → ā
Change of *ē into ā
Rē›ā → *u̯āra-
3. u̯āra-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OIcl. vāra-
√uoro-
Hitt. u̯ara-
(vb.2.) ‘start a fire’
(HIL. 1067)
(Hitt. ua-a-ra-i ‘start a fire’)
1. PIE *u̯oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯ara-
Hitt. uri·u̯ara-
(.) ‘brennend, lodernd’
(HHand. 196)
1. PIE *uri·u̯oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uri·u̯ara-
√uori-
Hitt. u̯ari·u̯arant-
(pt.) ‘brennend, lodernd’
(HHand. 196)
1. PIE *u̯ori·u̯oront-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯ari·u̯arant-
√uormo-
OIcl. varm-
(a.) ‘warm’
(ANEtWb. 646)
(OIcl. varmr [sgN])
1. PIE *u̯ormo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arma
2. u̯arma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯arm
3. u̯arm
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → OIcl. varm
OEng. wearm-
(a.) ‘warm’
(ASaxD. 1177)
1. PIE *u̯ormo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arma
2. u̯arma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯arm
3. u̯arm
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OEng. warm
OHG. warm-
(a.) ‘calidus, apricus’
(ASaxD. 1177)
1. PIE *u̯ormo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arma
2. u̯arma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯arm
3. u̯arm
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. warm
OSax. warm-
(a.) ‘warm’
(ASaxD. 1177)
1. PIE *u̯ormo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arma
2. u̯arma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯arm
3. u̯arm
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OSax. warm
OFr. warm-
(a.) ‘warm’
(ASaxD. 1177)
(OFr. warm)
1. PIE *u̯ormo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯arma
2. u̯arma
*-a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
R=a›=0 → *u̯arm
3. u̯arm
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OFr. warm
√uērmēɑh-
OHG. wirma-
(f.) ‘Wärme, Hitze, Wärmen : warmth, heat’
(IEW 1166)
1. PIE *u̯ērmēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯ērmāɑh
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯ērmāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ērmāh
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ērmāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ērmā
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯ērmā
*ēRC → eRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ēRC
RēRC›eRC → *u̯ermā
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. u̯ermā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *u̯ermō
(XX:XX)
6. u̯ermō
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *u̯irmō
7. u̯irmō
*-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a → *u̯irma
8. u̯irma
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OHG. wirma
OEng. wirma-
(vb.) ‘make warm’
(ASaxD. 1238)
1. PIE *u̯ērmēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *u̯ērmāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. u̯ērmāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯ērmāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. u̯ērmāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *u̯ērmā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯ērmā-
*ēRC → eRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ēRC
RēRC›eRC → *u̯ermā-
(SPIE §2.5.8)
5. u̯ermā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
Rā›ō → *u̯ermō-
(XX:XX)
6. u̯ermō-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
Re›i → *u̯irmō-
7. u̯irmō-
-ō → -a
Change of stem-final -ō into -a
R=ō›=a= → *u̯irma-
8. u̯irma-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
Ru̯›w → OEng. wirma-
√uorno-
Lat. uerno-
(a.) ‘auf den Frühling bezüglich’
(WH. 2:755)
1. PIE *u̯erno-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
Ru̯›u → Lat. uerno-
RV. várṇa-
(m.) ‘Farbe, Glanz(escheinung)’ (schwarz, rot)
(WbRV. 1222)
1. PIE *u̯órno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯órna-
2. u̯órna-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *u̯árna-
3. u̯árna-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *várna-
4. várna-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. várṇa-
RV. su·várṇa-
(a.) ‘schönfarbig’
(WbRV. 1551)
1. PIE *su·u̯órno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *su·u̯órna-
2. su·u̯órna-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
Ró›á → *su·u̯árna-
3. su·u̯árna-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *su·várna-
4. su·várna-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
Rn›ṇ → RV. su·várṇa-
LAv. varǝnah-
(n.) ‘Farbe’ (als Zeichen blühender Gesundheit)
(WbRV. 1372)
1. PIE *u̯ernos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ernas-
2. u̯ernas-
*r → rǝ
Anaptyxis of ǝ (Schwa)
Rr›rǝ → *u̯erǝnas-
3. u̯erǝnas-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *u̯erǝnah-
4. u̯erǝnah-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *u̯arǝnah-
5. u̯arǝnah-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. varǝnah-
LAv. spita·varǝnah-
(m.) ‘Name eines Bergs oder Gebirgs’
(AIWb. 1625)
(LAv. spita- ‘weiss+farbig’)
1. PIE *kiu̯ito·u̯ernos-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RkI›ć → *ću̯ito·u̯ernos-
(SPIE §4.8.4)
2. ću̯ito·u̯ernos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ću̯ita·u̯ernas-
3. ću̯ita·u̯ernas-
*r → rǝ
Anaptyxis of ǝ (Schwa)
Rr›rǝ → *ću̯ita·u̯erǝnas-
4. ću̯ita·u̯erǝnas-
*s → h
Change *s into h
Rs›hRestr → *ću̯ita·u̯erǝnah-
5. ću̯ita·u̯erǝnah-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to s
Rć›s → *su̯ita·u̯erǝnah-
(SPIE §4.8.1.9)
6. su̯ita·u̯erǝnah-
*e → a
Change of *e into a
Re›a → *su̯ita·u̯arǝnah-
7. su̯ita·u̯arǝnah-
*su̯ → sp
Bilabialization of *u̯ after s
Rsu̯›sp → *spita·u̯arǝnah-
8. spita·u̯arǝnah-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → LAv. spita·varǝnah-
√urēɑh-
Alb. urë-
(f.) ‘Scheit, Feuerbrand’
(AlbEtD. 488-9)
1. PIE *urēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Pyysalo's rule for PIE *ēɑ
Rēɑ›āɑ → *urāɑh-
(SPIE §2.2.10)
2. urāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *urāh-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. urāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
Rh›0 → *urā-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. urā-
*ā → ë
Change of *ā into Alb. ë
Rā›ë → Alb. urë-
(XX:XX)
√uri-
Hitt. uri·u̯ara-
(.) ‘brennend, lodernd’
(HHand. 196)
1. PIE *uri·u̯oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uri·u̯ara-
√uron-
Hitt. uran-
(vb.1.M.?) ‘brennen’
(HHand. 194)
(Hitt. urani [3sg])
1. PIE *uron-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uran-
Hitt. uranai-
(vb.) ‘als Brandopfer darbringen’ (√uran-)
(HHand. 187)
1. PIE *uronoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. uranai-
CLu. uranai-
(vb.) ‘als Brandopfer darbringen’
(HHand. 187)
(GKL. uranaizi)
1. PIE *uronoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. uranai-
CLu. uranau̯ar-
(N.act.) ‘das Brandopferdarbringen’
(HHand. 187)
(GKL. uranauar)
1. PIE *uronou̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. uranau̯ar-
√urno-
OIcl. orna-
(vb.) ‘warm werden, wärmen’
(IEW 1166)
1. PIE *urno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → OIcl. urna-


PIE √ur- √uor- √uer- (a.) ‘hervorstehend, weit, groß’ (sb.) ‘Tisch, Platte’
(IEW 1167)
(+ Rieken + Pyysalo)
√uoro-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. u̯ara-
(sb.) ‘plain’
(CHLu. 1.1.5)
(HLu. “TERRA X”(-)wá/í+ra/i-za)
1. PIE *u̯oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. u̯ara-
RV. vara·sád-
(a.) ‘im weiten Raume sich aufhaltend’
(WbRV. 1218)
1. PIE *u̯oro·séɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯oro·séɦd-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯oro·séɦd-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯ara·séɦd-
3. u̯ara·séɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → *u̯ara·séd-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
4. u̯ara·séd-
*é → á
Change of *é into á
Ré›á → *u̯ara·sád-
5. u̯ara·sád-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → RV. vara·sád-
√uero-
Hitt. u̯era-
() ((GIŠ)c.) ‘Platte, Tablett’ ?
(HHand. 187)
(HIL. 1158)
1. PIE *u̯ero-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. u̯era-
√uro-
(Rieken + Pyysalo)
Hitt. ura-
(a.) ‘GAL : groß’
(HHand. 187)
1. PIE *uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ura-
CLu. ura-
(a.) ‘groß’
(HHand. 187)
1. PIE *uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. ura-
OInd. dant·ura-
(a.) ‘mit hervorstehende Zähnen’
(Rieken 1999:354)
1. PIE *ɦɑdont·uro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *ɦdont·uro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. ɦdont·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *ɦdant·ura-
3. ɦdant·ura-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
Rɦ›0 → OInd. dant·ura-
(SPIE §2.1.4)
Hitt. ura-
(GIŠ.c.) ‘Platte, Tablett’ (?)
(HHand. 187)
(HIL. 1069)
1. PIE *uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. ura-
Lith. aũk·ura-
(m.) ‘Opfertisch, Altar’
(LiEtWb. 24-25)
(Lith. aũkuras [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Lith. Π·ura-
Hitt. laḫ·ura-
() ((GIŠ).) ‘Opfer·tisch’
(HEG 2:5)
1. PIE *leɑh·uro-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
De Saussure's rule for PIE *eɑ
Reɑ›aɑ → *laɑh·uro-
(SPIE §2.2.7)
2. laɑh·uro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *lah·uro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
3. lah·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *lah·ura-
4. lah·ura-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → Hitt. laḫ·ura-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
Pal. daš·ura-
(.) ‘Opfer·tisch’
(XX)
1. PIE *dɑɦos·uro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *dɦos·uro-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. dɦos·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *dɦas·ura-
3. dɦas·ura-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *das·ura-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. das·ura-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Pal. daš·ura-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. išn·ura-
(c.) ‘Gefäß zur Teigbereitung, Backtrog’
(HHand. 66)
(Kimball 1999:XX):
1. PIE *isn·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *isn·ura-
2. isn·ura-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
Rs›š → Hitt. išn·ura-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√uroni-
Kpd. urani-
(I.c.)
(NOMS. 1433)
(Kpd. ú-ra-ni)
1. PIE *uroni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Kpd. urani-
CLu. urani-
(a.) ‘gross, grand’ (HHand. 187)
(DLL. 102)
(CLu. u-ra-an-ni-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *uroni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. urani-
Hitt. urani·[
(URU.)
(OGH. 459)
(Hitt. u-ra-ni-x[)
1. PIE *uroni·Σ
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → Hitt. urani·Σ
√uronu-
HLu. uranu-
(vb.) ‘magnify’
(CHLu. 5.2.4)
(HLu. MAGNUS-nu-ta [3pl])
1. PIE *uronu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. uranu-
CLu. uranu-
(cs.) ‘groß machen’
(HHand. 187)
(CLu. kummaya-tta urannundu [… KBo xxix 6 Vs. 31)
1. PIE *uronu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → CLu. uranu-
HLu. uranu-
(a.) ‘great’
(CLu. 2.31.2)
(HLu. MAGNUS-nu-na)
1. PIE *uronu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. uranu-
HLu. uranu̯a-
(cs.) ‘promote’
(CHLu. 1.1.1)
(HLu. MAGNUS+ra/i-nu-wa/i-ta)
1. PIE *uronu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → HLu. uranu̯a-
√urḗdɑɦo-
RV. vrādha-
(pr.M.) ‘groß, stark, gewaltig sein; ‹or *ṓ?›
(WbRV. 1364)
(RV. vrādhanta [3pl])
1. PIE *u̯rḗdɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯rḗdɦo-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯rḗdɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯rḗdɦa-
3. u̯rḗdɦa-
*ḗ → ā́
Change of *ḗ into ā́
Rḗ›ā́ → *u̯rā́dɦa-
4. u̯rā́dɦa-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vrā́dɦa-
5. vrā́dɦa-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. vrā́dha-
RV. vrā́dhant-
(pt.A.) ‘groß, stark, gewaltig’
(WbRV. 1364)
(RV. vrā́dhantam [sgA])
1. PIE *u̯rḗdɑɦont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *u̯rḗdɦont-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. u̯rḗdɦont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *u̯rḗdɦant-
3. u̯rḗdɦant-
*ḗ → ā́
Change of *ḗ into ā́
Rḗ›ā́ → *u̯rā́dɦant-
4. u̯rā́dɦant-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
Ru̯›v → *vrā́dɦant-
5. vrā́dɦant-
ɦ → h
Change of ɦ into h
Rɦ›h → RV. vrā́dhant-
√urodɑɦio-
CLu. uraza-
(a.) ‘groß, HHand. 187, ‹or *urodɑɦ-? -›
(DLL. 102)
(CLu. u-ra-az‹za-aš› [sgN])
1. PIE *urodɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *urodɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. urodɦi̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *urojɦo-
3. urojɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *urajɦa-
4. urajɦa-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → *urazɦa-
5. urazɦa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
RH›ḫ → CLu. uraza-
(SPIE §4.6.3)
HLu. uraza-
(a.) ‘great’
(CHLu. 3.6.16)
(HLu. MAGNUS+ra/i-za-na [sgA])
1. PIE *urodɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *urodɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
2. urodɦi̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
Rdɦi̯›jɦ → *urojɦo-
3. urojɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
Ro›a → *urajɦa-
4. urajɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDɦ›D → *uraja-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. uraja-
j → z
Change of j into z
Rj›z → HLu. uraza-
HLu. uraza
(c.) ‘a great man’
(CHLu. 10.20.7)
(HLu. MAGNUS+ra/i-[za?]-sá)
1. PIE *urodɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
Rɑ›0 → *urodɦi̯o-
(SPIE §2.2.4)
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