PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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© 2014-2015 University of Helsinki

"Durch zweier Zeugen Mund wird alle Wahrheit kund" — August Fick
(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
Contact PIE Lexicon Project

PIE



PIE √o- (pron.) ‘dieser’
(IEW 281-2)
(+ Pyysalo; compare PIE *e ‘idem’)
√o-
Hitt. a·
(pers/dem.pron.) ‘er, sie, es’
(HEG 1:1-3)
(Hitt. ·aš, ·an, etc,)
1. PIE *o·
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. a·
(XX:XX)
Pal. a·
(pers/dem.pron.) ‘er, sie, es’
(DPal. 48-9)
(Hitt. -aš, -an, -at)
1. PIE *o·
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Pal. a·
(XX:XX)
√oni-
(HEG I:29)
(HW2 A: 81, HIL. 209-10)
Hitt. a·ni-
(dem.pron.) ‘jener, [IŠ-TU AN-NI-I]Š, GÚ.R[I.TA]’
(HEG 1:29-30)
(Hitt. an-ni-iš KBo 1.42 iii 33)
1. PIE *o·ni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. a·ni-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. a·ni·šan
(adv.) ‘einst, früher’
(HEG 1:31)
1. PIE *o·ni·son
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *a·ni·san
(XX:XX)
2. a·ni·san
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. a·ni·šan
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √o- (pref.) ‘zu’ (end.) ‘allativum’
(IEW 280-1)
(Pedersen + Pyysalo)
√o·
(Pyysalo)
Gr. ὄ·ψο-
(n.) ‘Zu·kost, Zu·brot, bes. Fleisch’
(GEW 2:459)
1. PIE *ó·bɑɦso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ó·bɦso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ó·bɦso-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
RDevoicebh → *ó·phso-
3. ó·phso-
*phs → ps
Loss of *h between *p and *s
RChangephs2ps → *ó·pso-
4. ó·pso-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ὄ·ψο-
gAv. a·idyu-
(a.) ‘tüchtig zu [D], brauchbar, nützlich’
(AIWb. 65-6)
1. PIE *o·dɑɦi̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *o·dɦi̯u-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. o·dɦi̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *a·dɦi̯u-
3. a·dɦi̯u-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → *a·di̯u-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. a·di̯u-
*adi → aidi
Anaptyxis of *i
RAnaptyxADI → *a·idi̯u-
5. a·idi̯u-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R41a → gAv. a·idyu-
TochA. a·kälyme
(postpG.) ‘versus’
(Poucha 1)
(TochA. kälyme = ‘Gegend, Richtung’)
1. PIE *o·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → TochA. a·Σ-
(XX:XX)
LAv. a·sah-
(n.) ‘Gegend, Landstrich, Platz’
(AIWb. 209)
1. PIE *o·ki̯os-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RSatem1 → *o·ćos-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. o·ćos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *a·ćas-
3. a·ćas-
*s → h
Change *s into h
RChanges2h → *a·ćah-
4. a·ćah-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to Avestan
RSatem2Av1 → LAv. a·sah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
√·o
(Pedersen 1938:29)
Hitt. ·a
(end.) ‘allative singular, in, to, “to where”’
(HIL. 195)
(The allative case is also called ‘directive’ and ‘absolutive’)
1. PIE *·o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. ·a
(XX:XX)
Gr. .ο
(end.) ‘allative singular; in, to’
(HIL. 195)
(Gr. aπο, υπο, πρ·ό, etc.)
1. PIE *.o
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. .ο
RV. ·a
(end.) ‘allative singular; in, to’
(HIL. 195)
(RV. ápa, úpa, prá, etc.; also RV. aṅgá)
1. PIE *·o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → RV. ·a
LAv. ·a
(end.) ‘allative singular; in, to’
(HIL. 195)
(LAv. apa, upa, fra, etc.)
1. PIE *·o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → LAv. ·a


PIE √o- ‘horse, bird, eagle’ (as OLith. ešva- (f.) ‘Stute’ and Lith. ded·ešvà- (f.) ‘Vogelwicke’)
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√o-
HLu. a
(n?.) ‘horse’
(CHLu. 1.1.8)
(HIL. 282: EQUUS.ANIMALá=pa= wá/í=ta, KARATEPE 1 §8 Ho.)
1. PIE *o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → HLu. a
(XX:XX)
Hitt. a·u̯idei-
(.) ‘Sphinx (?) ‹Lit. “Adler·Löwe”›’
(HEG 1:99-100)
(Compare Hitt. wizi- ‘lion’(?))
1. PIE *o·u̯idɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *o·u̯idɦei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. o·u̯idɦei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *a·u̯idɦei-
(XX:XX)
3. a·u̯idɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. a·u̯idei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OHG. a-
(vb.) ‘festinare, vadere’
(EWAhd. 1)
(OHG. a [2sg] îla du!, bura dih!)
1. PIE *o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → OHG. a-
(XX:XX)


PIE √e- (pron.) ‘dieser’
(IEW 281-2)
(+ Pyysalo; compare PIE *o ‘idem’)
√e-
Hitt. e·
(pers/dem.pron.) ‘er, sie, es’
(HEG 1:1-3)
(Hitt. ·ei [plN])
Pal. e·
(pers/dem.pron.) ‘er, sie, es’
(DPal. 48-9)
(Pal. ·ei [plN])
Hitt. e·ḫu-
(vbA.) ‘kommen ‹with Hitt. hu- ‘eilen’›’
(HHand. 30)
(Hitt. e-ḫu [ipv2sg])
1. PIE *e·hɑu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *e·hu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. e·hu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. e·ḫu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. e·ni-
(dem.pron.) ‘that one’
(ḪEG I:106-7)
(ḪudA §54, e-ni-iš, e-ni, e-ni-uš)
Hitt. e·ni·šan
(adv.) ‘thus, as stated’
(HIL. 260-1)
(Hitt. e-ni-iš-ša-an)
1. PIE *e·ni·son
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *e·ni·san
(XX:XX)
2. e·ni·san
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. e·ni·šan
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. a·diá
(adv.) ‘an diesem Tage, heute’
(WbRV. 39)
(RV. a·diá)
1. PIE *e·diɑHó
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *e·diHó
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. e·diHó
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *e·diHá
3. e·diHá
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RVedicHiatus → *e·di.á
4. e·di.á
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → RV. a·di.á


√ɑɦgu- √ɑɦogu- √ɑɦegu- ‘Spitze, Gipfel, Kopf, Felsgipfel’ (a.) ‘erste, oberste’ (adv.) ‘vor(an), zuerst’
(IEW. 8-9)
(Pedersen 1938:183)
√ɑɦogu-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. ága-
(m.) ‘mountain, tree’
(KEWA I:17)
1. PIE *ɑɦógu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦógu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦógu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦógu̯a-
3. ɦógu̯a-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *ɦágu̯a-
4. ɦágu̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *águ̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. águ̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → OInd. ága-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
OSax. aku-
(.) ‘head, Kopf : caput’
(ASächsWb. –)
(OSax. acu,
1. PIE *ɑɦogu̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦogu̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦogu̯o
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *ogu̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. ogu̯o
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
RDevoiceg → *oku̯o
4. oku̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *aku̯a
(XX:XX)
5. aku̯a
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *aku̯
6. aku̯
*-ku̯ → -ku̯
Change of root-final -ku̯ into -ku
RChangeFinalKW2KU → OSax. aku
√ɑɦegur-
(HEG 1:235-6)
(HED 3: 287, Weitenberg 1984: 154, HIL. 395, Melchert 1994:144)
Hitt. ḫegur-
(NA4n.) ‘Felsgipfel, Felsheiligtum, Fels’
(HEG 2:235)
(Hitt. ḫé-kur, ḫé-gur, HHand. 49, EḪS 276-7)
1. PIE *ɑɦegur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦegur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦegur-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫegur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
RV. ágra-
(n.) ‘Spitze, äußerstes ende, Gipfel, Anfang’
(WbRV. 10)
(EWA1:45-, KEWA1:18)
1. PIE *ɑɦéguro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦéguro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦéguro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦégura-
3. ɦégura-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *égura-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. égura-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *égra-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. égra-
PIE *é → á
Aryan change of *é into á
RAryanE2A2 → RV. ágra-
LAv. aγra-
(a.) ‘der erste, oberste’
(AIWb. 48)
1. PIE *ɑɦeguro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦeguro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦeguro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦegura-
3. ɦegura-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *egura-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. egura-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *egra-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. egra-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *agra-
6. agra-
g → γ
Change of *g into γ
R40a → LAv. aγra-
√ɑɦegurei-
RV. agre·gá-
(a.) ‘voran-gehend’
(WbRV. 11)
1. PIE *ɑɦegurei·gu̯óɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦegurei·gu̯óh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦegurei·gu̯óh-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *ɦegurei·gu̯áh-
3. ɦegurei·gu̯áh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *egurei·gu̯áh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. egurei·gu̯áh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *egurei·gu̯á-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. egurei·gu̯á-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *egrei·gá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. egrei·gá-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *agrai·gá-
7. agrai·gá-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
RChangeAI2E1 → *agrē·gá-
8. agrē·gá-
ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
ROrthOIA4 → RV. agre·gá-
RV. agre·pā́-
(a.) ‘zuerst drinkend’
(WbRV. 12)
1. PIE *ɑɦegurei·pḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *ɑɦegurei·pā́ɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. ɑɦegurei·pā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦegurei·pā́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦegurei·pā́h-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *egurei·pā́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. egurei·pā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *egurei·pā́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. egurei·pā́-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *egrei·pā́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. egrei·pā́-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *agrai·pā́-
7. agrai·pā́-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
RChangeAI2E1 → *agrē·pā́-
8. agrē·pā́-
ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
ROrthOIA4 → RV. agre·pā́-
Lat. agrippā-
(I.) ‘agrippa’ ‹ if PItal. *agrīpā-, cf. above (?) ›
(OxLatD. 91)
(Lat. agrippa)
1. PIE *eɑɦgurei·pēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *aɑɦgurei·pēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. aɑɦgurei·pēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *aɑɦgurei·pāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. aɑɦgurei·pāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *aɦgurei·pāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. aɦgurei·pāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *agurei·pāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. agurei·pāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *agurei·pā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. agurei·pā-
*gu/u̯r → gr
Delabialization of u/u̯ between *g and *r
R19 → *agrei·pā-
7. agrei·pā-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
RMonophthei2i → *agrī·pā-
8. agrī·pā-
*īp → ipp
Change of īp into ipp
RChangeIp2ipp → Lat. agri·ppā-
LAv. aγrae·raϑa-
(Im.) ‘EN. eines Gläubigen’
(AIWb 49)
(LAv. aγraeraϑahe)
1. PIE *ɑɦegurei·rotɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦegurei·rotho-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦegurei·rotho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦegurei·ratha-
3. ɦegurei·ratha-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *egurei·ratha-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. egurei·ratha-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *egrei·ratha-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. egrei·ratha-
*t h → ϑ
Affricativization of *th
RAffricateTH → *egrei·raϑa-
6. egrei·raϑa-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *agrai·raϑa-
7. agrai·raϑa-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai
ROpeningAI → *agrae·raϑa-
8. agrae·raϑa-
g → γ
Change of *g into γ
R40a → LAv. aγrae·raϑa-


PIE √hɑ- √ɦɑ- ‘acceptieren, vertrauen, glauben, erlauben’
(IEW 512)
(Pyysalo: Hitt.+Alb.)
√hɑe-
(HEG 1:120-1)
(HW2 H:1, Oettinger 1979: 67, 360f., HED 3:9, Melchert 1994:176-7)
Hitt. ḫa-
(vb.) ‘acceptieren, vertrauen, glauben’
(Oettinger 1979:360f.)
(Hitt. ḫa-ad-du)
1. PIE *hɑe-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑa-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ha-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑio-
(HEG 1:120)
Hitt. ḫaa-
(vb.) ‘vertrauen, jemandes etwas glauben’
(HHand. 34)
(Hitt. ḫa-a, ḫa-a-mi [1sg], ḫa-a-ši, ḫa-a-ir)
1. PIE *hɑei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑai̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑai̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hai̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hai̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hai̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. hai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
RAnatGlide1 → *haa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.4.2)
5. haa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑioi-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ḫaai-
(prA.) ‘to believe, trust, to be convinced’
(HIL. 313)
(Hitt. ḫa-a-iš [3sg])
1. PIE *hɑei̯oi-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑai̯oi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑai̯oi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hai̯oi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hai̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hai̯ai-
(XX:XX)
4. hai̯ai-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
RAnatGlide1 → *haai-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.4.2)
5. haai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaai-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Alb. je
(.) ‘Erlaubnis’ ‹cf. Goth. us·laubja- ‘erlauben’›
(WP I:203)
1. PIE *hɑi̯oi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hi̯oi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hi̯oi̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *i̯oi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. i̯oi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *i̯ai̯a
(XX:XX)
4. i̯ai̯a
*a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *i̯ai̯
5. i̯ai̯
*ai/i̯ → e
Monophthongization of *ai/i̯ into e
R24 → *i̯e
(XX:XX)
6. i̯e
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
ROrthogrY2j → Alb. je


PIE √hɑ (pref.) ‘cum’ (conj.) ‘-que’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo)
√hɑe
Gr. ἀ·
(pref.) ‘α copulativum’
(LSJ. 1)
1. PIE *hɑe·
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑa·
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑa·
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ha·
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ha·
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *a·
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. a·
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἀ·
Gr. ἀ·μέλδω
(vb.pref.) ‘cf. Gr. μέλδω’
(GEW 2:199)
(Hes. ἀμέλδειν : τήκειν)
1. PIE *hɑe·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑa·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑa·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ha·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ha·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *a·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. a·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἀ·Σ-
CLu. ·ḫa
(encl.conj.) ‘et’
(DLL. 37)
(CLu. ·ḫa)
1. PIE *·hɑe
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *·hɑa
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ·hɑa
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *·ha
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ·ha
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. ·ḫa
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
Pal. ·ḫa
(encl.conj.) ‘et’
(HHand. 34)
1. PIE *·hɑe
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *·hɑa
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ·hɑa
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *·ha
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ·ha
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Pal. ·ḫa
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)


PIE √hɑ (pref.) ‘gleich’ (ptcl.) ‘id’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo)
√hɑo
CLu. ·ḫa
(marque l’ emphase) ‘aussi, meme’
(DLL. 37)
1. PIE *·hɑo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *·ho
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ·ho
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *·ha
(XX:XX)
3. ·ha
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. ·ḫa
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
Gr. ὀ·γάστωρ
(.) ‘ὁμογαστωρ’
(LSJ. 1196)
1. PIE *hɑo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ho·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ho·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *o·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. o·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ὀ·Σ-
Gr. ὄ·πατρο-
(a.) ‘by the same father’
(LSJ. 1237)
1. PIE *hɑó·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hó·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hó·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ó·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. ó·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ὄ·Σ-
LAv. a·vånt-
(pt.) ‘gleich erscheinen wie –’
(AIWb. 952)
1. PIE *hɑo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ho·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ho·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ha·Σ-
3. ha·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → LAv. a·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Gr. ·ὄτριχες
(a.) ‘with like hair’ (LSJ. 1266)
(Gr. ὄθριξ)
1. PIE *hɑo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ho·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ho·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *o·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. o·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ·Σ-


PIE √hɑi- ‘glänzen, brennen’
(IEW 11-12 *ai-)
√hɑi-
Pal. ḫaa-
(vb.) ‘heiß, warm sein’
(DPal. 53)
(Pal. ḫa-a-ri [3sg], ḫa-a-an-ta, ḫa-an-ta)
1. PIE *hɑoi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hoi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hoi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hai̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. hai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
RAnatGlide1 → *haa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.4.2)
4. haa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Pal. ḫaa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑin-
Pal. ḫaan-
(pt.n.) ‘warm, heiß’
(DPal. 53)
(Pal. ḫa-a-an[(-)?)
1. PIE *hɑoi̯on-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hoi̯on-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hoi̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hai̯an-
(XX:XX)
3. hai̯an-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
RAnatGlide1 → *haan-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.4.2)
4. haan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Pal. ḫaan-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
gAv. ayān-
(n.) ‘Tag’
(AIWb. 157)
(LAv. ayą [sgL], gAv. ayąn [sgG])
1. PIE *hɑoi̯ōn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hoi̯ōn-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hoi̯ōn-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hai̯ōn-
3. hai̯ōn-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *hai̯ān-
4. hai̯ān-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ai̯ān-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ai̯ān-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R41a → gAv. ayān-
√hɑir-
(IEW 12)
(Pyysalo 2013:217)
gAv. ayar-
(n.) ‘Tag’
(AIWb. 157)
(gAv. ayarǝ̄ [sgNA])
1. PIE *hɑei̯or-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑai̯or-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑai̯or-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hai̯or-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hai̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hai̯ar-
4. hai̯ar-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ai̯ar-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ai̯ar-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R41a → gAv. ayar-
Arm. aire-
(vb.) ‘verbrennen, anzünden’
(ArmGr. 418-9)
(Arm. airel [inf.])
1. PIE *hɑeire-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaire-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaire-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haire-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. haire-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Arm. aire-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Hitt. ḫir·ina-
(UDUNm.) ‘Schmeltzofen’
(HEG 2:237)
(Hitt. ḫi-ri-na-aš)
1. PIE *hɑir·ino-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hir·ino-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hir·ino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hir·ina-
(XX:XX)
3. hir·ina-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫir·ina-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
LAv. uz·īrah-
(n.) ‘Nachmittag’
(AIWb 410)
1. PIE *Π·hɑ́iros-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1a → *Π·híiros-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. Π·híiros-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·híiras-
3. Π·híiras-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·íiras-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·íiras-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *Π·ī́ras-
5. Π·ī́ras-
*s → h
Change *s into h
RChanges2h → *Π·ī́rah-
6. Π·ī́rah-
* ī̯́ → ī
Absence of accentuation
R41c → LAv. Π·īrah-


PIE √hɑi- √ɦɑi- ‘Stein, Bein, Ei, Hode’
(IEW 783-4+)
(Pyysalo)
√hɑi-
(Pyysalo)
TochA. āy-
(m.) ‘os’
(Poucha 22)
1. PIE *hɑōi̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hōi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hōi̯-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *hāi̯-
(XX:XX)
3. hāi̯-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *āi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. āi̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthY2y → TochA. āy-
TochB. āy-
(sb.) ‘Bein : bone’
(DTochB. 45-6)
(LÉDT 15, āy)
1. PIE *hɑōi̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hōi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hōi̯-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *hāi̯-
(XX:XX)
3. hāi̯-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *āi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. āi̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → TochB. āy-
√hɑoiɑh-
TochB. ayā·ṣa-
(a.gen.) ‘prtng to bone’
(DTochB. 45-6)
(TochB. ayāṣṣe)
1. PIE *ɦɑoi̯ēɑh·si̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *ɦɑoi̯āɑh·si̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. ɦɑoi̯āɑh·si̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦoi̯āh·si̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦoi̯āh·si̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦai̯āh·si̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. ɦai̯āh·si̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *ai̯āh·si̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ai̯āh·si̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ai̯ā·si̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. ai̯ā·si̯a-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
R18a → *ai̯ā·ṣa-
7. ai̯ā·ṣa-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → TochB. ayā·ṣa-
√hɑoii-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ḫai̯a·ḫai̯a-
(NA4.) ‘‹Stein (?)›’
(HHand. 35)
(Hitt. ḫaia(-)ḫaia)
1. PIE *hɑoii̯o·ɦɑoii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hoii̯o·ɦoii̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hoii̯o·ɦoii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *haii̯a·ɦaii̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. haii̯a·ɦaii̯a-
* aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
RAnatGlide2 → *haia·ɦaia-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.4.2)
4. haia·ɦaia-
* a i a → a i i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i̯ between *a and *a
RAnatGlide3 → *hai̯a·ɦai̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.4.2)
5. hai̯a·ɦai̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫai̯a·ḫai̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
HLu. ḫai̯a-
(I.) ‘-(?)-’
(CHLu. 10.36.53)
(HLu. Iha-ia)
1. PIE *hɑoii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hoii̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hoii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *haii̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. haii̯a-
* aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
RAnatGlide2 → *haia-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.4.2)
4. haia-
* a i a → a i i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i̯ between *a and *a
RAnatGlide3 → *hai̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.4.2)
5. hai̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R18 → HLu. ḫai̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
OHG. ei-
(n.) ‘Ei : egg’
(IEW 784)
1. PIE *hɑoii̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hoii̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hoii̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *oii̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. oii̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *aii̯a
(XX:XX)
4. aii̯a
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *aii̯
5. aii̯
*aii̯ → ei
Umlaut *aii̯ → ei
RUmlautAIJ → OHG. ei
OSax. ei-
(n.) ‘Ei : egg’
(ASächsWb. 15)
1. PIE *hɑoii̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hoii̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hoii̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *oii̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. oii̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *aii̯a
(XX:XX)
4. aii̯a
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *aii̯
5. aii̯
*aii̯ → ei
Umlaut *aii̯ → ei
RUmlautAIJ → OSax. ei
√hɑisto-
OCS. isto
(n.) ‘Hode’
(Sadnik √314)
1. PIE *hɑ́isto-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1a → *híisto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. híisto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *híista-
3. híista-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *íista-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. íista-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *ī́sta-
5. ī́sta-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *ī́sto-
6. ī́sto-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
ROrthogrI2i2 → OCS. isto-
OIcl. eista·n-
(sw.f.) ‘Hode : testicle’
(ANEtWb. 98)
1. PIE *hɑoisdo·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hoisdo·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hoisdo·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *oisdo·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. oisdo·n-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
RDevoiced → *oisto·n-
4. oisto·n-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *aista·n-
(XX:XX)
5. aista·n-
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
RChangeai2ei → OIcl. eista·n-
√ɦɑisdo-
(HEG 1:237-8)
Hitt. ḫišdaa-
(É.) ‘Mausoleum = É.NA4 = ‘Steinhaus’
(HHand. 49)
(Hitt. ḫé-eš-ta-a [sgNA], ḫi-iš-ta-a-aš [G], ḫe-eš-ti-i
1. PIE *ɦɑisdoi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦisdoi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦisdoi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦisdai̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. ɦisdai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
RAnatGlide1 → *ɦisdaa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.4.2)
4. ɦisdaa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *ɦišdaa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ɦišdaa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫišdaa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
CLu. ḫišdaa-
(GKLc.) ‘-(?)-’
(HHand. 51)
(CLu. ḫi-iš-da-a, HIL. 404)
1. PIE *ɦɑisdoi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦisdoi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦisdoi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦisdai̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. ɦisdai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
RAnatGlide1 → *ɦisdaa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.4.2)
4. ɦisdaa-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → *ḫisdaa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
5. ḫisdaa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R18 → CLu. ḫišdaa-
Hitt. ḫišdaa-
(d.) ‘Histaa-; RDH. 74, REL. 55’
OHP. 1:148)
(Hitt. ḫi-iš-ta-a, Hitt. ḫé-eš-ta-a-aš)
1. PIE *ɦɑisdoi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦisdoi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦisdoi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦisdai̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. ɦisdai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
RAnatGlide1 → *ɦisdaa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.4.2)
4. ɦisdaa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *ɦišdaa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ɦišdaa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫišdaa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Kpd. ḫišdaa·ḫšu-
(Ic.)
(NOMS. 374A)
(Kpd. ḫi-iš-ta-aḫ-šu)
1. PIE *ɦɑisdoi̯o·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦisdoi̯o·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦisdoi̯o·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦisdai̯a·Σ-
(XX:XX)
3. ɦisdai̯a·Σ-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
RAnatGlide1 → *ɦisdaa·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.4.2)
4. ɦisdaa·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *ɦišdaa·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ɦišdaa·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Kpd. ḫišdaa·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Kpd. ḫišdaa·ḫšušar-
(Ic.)
(NOMS. 375A)
(Kpd. ḫi-iš-ta-aḫ-šu-šar)
1. PIE *ɦɑisdoi̯o·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦisdoi̯o·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦisdoi̯o·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦisdai̯a·Σ-
(XX:XX)
3. ɦisdai̯a·Σ-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
RAnatGlide1 → *ɦisdaa·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.4.2)
4. ɦisdaa·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *ɦišdaa·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ɦišdaa·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Kpd. ḫišdaa·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫišdaša-
(LÚc.) ‘Vorsteher des Éḫešta’
(HHand. 51)
1. PIE *ɦɑisdoso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦisdoso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦisdoso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦisdasa-
(XX:XX)
3. ɦisdasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *ɦišdaša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ɦišdaša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫišdaša-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
OInd. eḍ·ūka-
(m.) ‘charnel-house, reliquary’
(KEWA1:127)
1. PIE *ɦɑoisd·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦoisd·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦoisd·Σ-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RRukiI → *ɦoišd·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. ɦoišd·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦaišd·Σ-
4. ɦaišd·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *aišd·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. aišd·Σ-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
RChangeAI2E1 → *ēšd·Σ-
6. ēšd·Σ-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *ēṣd·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
7. ēṣd·Σ-
*ṣd → ṣḍ
Assimilation of retroflex
RRetrofl4 → *ēṣḍ·Σ-
8. ēṣḍ·Σ-
PIE *ṣḍ → ẓḍ
Voicing of ṣ into ẓ before ḍ
R32b → *ēẓḍ·Σ-
9. ēẓḍ·Σ-
PIE *ẓ → Ø
Loss of ẓ
R32c → *ēḍ·Σ-
10. ēḍ·Σ-
ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
ROrthOIA4 → OInd. eḍ·Σ-
√ɦɑisdei-
Hitt. ḫišdei-
(Én.) ‘ein Kultgebäude, Mausoleum (?)’
(HHand. 49)
(Hitt. ḫé-eš-ti-i [sgNA?])
1. PIE *ɦɑisdei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦisdei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦisdei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *ɦišdei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. ɦišdei-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫišdei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√ɦɑisdum-
Hitt. ḫišduma-
(LÚc.) ‘am ḫešta- Beschäftigter’
(HHand. 49)
(Hitt. ḫi-iš-tu-um-ma-aš, ḫé-eš-tu-u-ma-aš)
1. PIE *ɦɑisdumo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦisdumo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦisdumo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦisduma-
(XX:XX)
3. ɦisduma-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *ɦišduma-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ɦišduma-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫišduma-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Kpd. ḫišduman
(Ic.)
(NOMS. 377)
(Kpd. ḫi-iš-du-ma-an)
1. PIE *ɦɑisdumon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦisdumon-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦisdumon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦisduman-
(XX:XX)
3. ɦisduman-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *ɦišduman-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ɦišduman-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Kpd. ḫišduman-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫišdumna-
(c.) ‘am ḫešta- Beschäftigter’
(HHand. 49)
(Hitt. ḫé-eš-tu-um-na-aš, ḫé-eš-tu-u-um-ni, ḫé-eš-tu-u-um-ni-eš)
1. PIE *ɦɑisdumno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦisdumno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦisdumno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦisdumna-
(XX:XX)
3. ɦisdumna-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *ɦišdumna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ɦišdumna-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫišdumna-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√ɦɑiou-
TochB. āyo-
(sb.) ‘bone’
(DTochB. 45)
(TochB. āyo)
1. PIE *ɦɑōi̯ou-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦōi̯ou-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦōi̯ou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦōi̯au-
(XX:XX)
3. ɦōi̯au-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *ɦāi̯au-
(XX:XX)
4. ɦāi̯au-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *āi̯au-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. āi̯au-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RChangeAU2O1 → *āi̯ō-
6. āi̯ō-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthOIA6 → *āi̯o-
7. āi̯o-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → TochB. āyo-


PIE √hɑi-, √ɦɑi- ‘verneigen, Reverenz erweisen, verbeugen, geben, opfern’
(IEW –)
(HEG I:250: Hitt. ḫink1/2- ‘zuteilen’ + Pyysalo)
√ɦɑining-
(Rieken 1999:336, Melchert 1994:176)
Hitt. ḫining-
(vb.) ‘sich verneigen, Reverenz erweisen’
(HIL. 315)
(Hitt. ḫi-ni-i[k], ḫi-ni-ik-zi, ḫi-in-ik-zi, ḫi-en-ik-ta)
1. PIE *ɦɑining-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦining-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦining-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫining-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√ɦɑing-
(HEG 1:246-51)
(HED 3:295, (HIL. 314-, Puhvel HED 3: 289f., 292f.)
Hitt. ḫaing-
(vb.intr.) ‘sich verneigen, Reverenz erweisen’
(HHand. 35)
(Hitt. ḫa-ik-t[a-ri], [ḫa-i]k-ta-ri, ḫa-ik-ta)
1. PIE *ɦɑeing-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *ɦɑaing-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑaing-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦaing-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦaing-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaing-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫing-
(vb.) ‘sich verneigen, Reverenz erweisen’
(HHand. 35)
(Hitt. ḫé-ik-ta, ḫi-in-ga-ri, ḫi-ik-ta)
1. PIE *ɦɑing-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦing-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦing-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫing-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫing-
(vb1.) ‘übergeben, überlassen, opfern’
(HHand. 50)
(Oettinger 1979:93)
1. PIE *ɦɑing-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦing-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦing-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫing-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√ɦɑingo-
Hitt. ḫainga-
(vb.) ‘sich verneigen, Reverenz erweisen’
(HIL. 314)
(Hitt. ḫa-in-kán-ta)
1. PIE *ɦɑeingo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *ɦɑaingo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑaingo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦaingo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦaingo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦainga-
(XX:XX)
4. ɦainga-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫainga-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫinga-
(vb.) ‘sich verneigen, Reverenz erweisen’
(HIL. 314)
(Hitt. ḫi-in-ga, ḫi-in-ga-zi ḫi-in-kat-ta, ḫi-i-in-kán-ta)
1. PIE *ɦɑingo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦingo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦingo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦinga-
(XX:XX)
3. ɦinga-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫinga-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫingan-
(*n.) ‘gift’
(HIL. 315)
(Hitt. IGI.DU8.A-an-ni)
1. PIE *ɦɑingon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦingon-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦingon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦingan-
(XX:XX)
3. ɦingan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫingan-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫinganu-
(cs1.) ‘zur Verbeugung (ver)anlassen’
(HHand. 50)
(Hitt. ḫi-in-ga-nu-zi)
1. PIE *ɦɑingonu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦingonu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦingonu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦinganu-
(XX:XX)
3. ɦinganu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫinganu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫingaške/a-
(vb.iter.)
(HIL. 315)
(Hitt. ḫi-in-ga-aš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *ɦɑingoski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦingoski̯e/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦingoski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *ɦingosḱe/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ɦingosḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦingasḱe/a-
(XX:XX)
4. ɦingasḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *ɦingaske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. ɦingaske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *ɦingaške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. ɦingaške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫingaške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√ɦɑingei-
Hitt. ḫingei-
(vb.) ‘sich verneigen, Reverenz erweisen’
(HIL. 315)
(Hitt. ḫi-in-ki-ez-zi)
1. PIE *ɦɑingei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦingei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦingei-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫingei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫingeiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘sich verneigen, Reverenz erweisen’
(EḪS 445)
(Hitt. ḫi-in-ki-iš-ke/a-, ḫi-in-ki-eš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *ɦɑingeiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦingeiski̯e/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦingeiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *ɦingeisḱe/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ɦingeisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦingeisḱe/a-
(XX:XX)
4. ɦingeisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *ɦingeiske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. ɦingeiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *ɦingeiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. ɦingeiške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫingeiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√ɦɑingu-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ḫingula-
(a.) ‘offerant’
(HIL. 315)
(Hitt. ḫi-in-ku-la-aš)
1. PIE *ɦɑingulo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦingulo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦingulo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦingula-
(XX:XX)
3. ɦingula-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫingula-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫingum-
(vs.) ‘Geschenk, Ehrengabe’
(HEG I:249)
(Hitt. ḫingum[uš] [plA], Rieken (1999:336))
1. PIE *ɦɑingum-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦingum-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦingum-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫingum-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Gr. ἄεμμα-
(n.) ‘bow, bow-string’
(GEW 1:53)
(Gr. ἄεμμα)
1. PIE *ɦɑéi̯engumeɑh-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Colouring rule for *aé
RColouring1b → *ɦɑái̯engumeɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑái̯engumeɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *ɦɑái̯engumaɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
3. ɦɑái̯engumaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦái̯engumah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. ɦái̯engumah-
*gu/u̯ → b
Bilabialization of labiovelar *gu/u̯
RBilabializationGW → *ɦái̯enbmah-
5. ɦái̯enbmah-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *ái̯enbmah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. ái̯enbmah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ái̯enbma-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. ái̯enbma-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RLossyinVyV → *áenbma-
8. áenbma-
*nP → mP
Change of nP into mP
RChangenP2mP → *áembma-
9. áembma-
*bm → mm
Assimilation of b and m
RChangebm2mm → *áemmma-
10. áemmma-
*si̯ → s
Simplification of *mmm
RChangemmm2mm → *áemma-
11. áemma-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἄεμμα-
Hitt. ḫingun-
(n.obl.) ‘gift, offering’
(HIL. 315)
(Hitt. ḫé-en-ku-ni)
1. PIE *ɦɑingun-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦingun-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦingun-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫingun-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫingur-
(n.) ‘Darreichung, Geschenk, Ehrengabe’
(HHand. 50)
1. PIE *ɦɑingur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦingur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦingur-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫingur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫingu̯ar-
(n.) [Mg.] ‘Verbeugung’
(HHand. 50)
(Hitt. ḫi-in-ku-ua-ar, ḫé-en-ku-ua-aš, ḫi-in-ku-ua-an-zi)
1. PIE *ɦɑingu̯or-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦingu̯or-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦingu̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦingu̯ar-
(XX:XX)
3. ɦingu̯ar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫingu̯ar-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫingu̯ar-
(n.) [Mg.] ‘Darreichung, Geschenk, Ehrengabe’
(HHand. 50)
(Hitt. ḫinkuar [sgNA], ḫinkuaš [sgG], ḫinkumuš [plA])
1. PIE *ɦɑingu̯or-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦingu̯or-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦingu̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦingu̯ar-
(XX:XX)
3. ɦingu̯ar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫingu̯ar-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫingur-
(n.) ‘gift, offering’
(HIL. 315)
(Hitt. ḫé-en-gur, ḫi-in-ku-ua-ri [plN])
1. PIE *ɦɑingur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦingur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦingur-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫingur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√ɦɑinu-
(Melchert 1994:166)
Hitt. ḫinu-
(vb.) ‘make bow’
(Melchert 1994:166)
(Hitt. ḫinuzi [3sg])
1. PIE *ɦɑinu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦinu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦinu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫinu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)


PIE √hɑl- (a.) SIG7 = ‘gelb, grün’ (sb.) ‘Grünzeug’
(IEW. 302)
(Pyysalo)
√hɑehɑel-
(Pyysalo)
(HW2 Ḫ: 3)
Hitt. ḫaḫal-
(n.) ‘Grünzeug, Strauch, Busch, Gestrüpp, Unkraut’
(HEG 1:121-6)
(Hitt. ḫa-aḫ-ḫal, ḫa-a-aḫ-ḫa-aḫ)
1. PIE *hɑehɑel-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑahɑal-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑahɑal-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hahal-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hahal-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaḫal-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Lith. at·óla-
(m.) ‘(junger) Gras, Öhmd, Grummet’
(LiEtWb. 22)
1. PIE *Π·hɑéhɑelo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *Π·hɑéhɑalo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. Π·hɑéhɑalo-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Colouring rule for *aé
RColouring1b → *Π·hɑáhɑalo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
3. Π·hɑáhɑalo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·háhalo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. Π·háhalo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·áalo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·áalo-
*áa → ā́
Contraction of áa into ā́
RContractaa2A2 → *Π·ā́lo-
6. Π·ā́lo-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·ā́la-
7. Π·ā́la-
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
RChangeA202 → *Π·ṓla-
8. Π·ṓla-
ṓ → ó
Orthographic change of ṓ into ó
R27b → Lith. Π·óla-
Latv. at·ãl-
(.) ‘(junger) Gras, Öhmd, Grummet’
(LiEtWb. 22)
1. PIE *Π·hɑehɑelo
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *Π·hɑahɑalo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. Π·hɑahɑalo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·hahalo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·hahalo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·aalo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·aalo
*aa → ā
Contraction of aa into ā
R16a → *Π·ālo
5. Π·ālo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·āla
6. Π·āla
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final a
RLossFinala → Latv. Π·āl
Hitt. ḫaḫala·la-
(MUNUSc.) ‘Funktionärin; luw. in heth. Kontext’
(HHand. 34)
(Hitt. ḫa-aḫ-ḫa-la-al-e-eš [plN], HIL. 314)
1. PIE *hɑehɑelo·lo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑahɑalo·lo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑahɑalo·lo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hahalo·lo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hahalo·lo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hahala·la-
(XX:XX)
4. hahala·la-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaḫala·la-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫaḫalant-
(a.) ‘qualifiziert Gemüsepflanzen, Küchenkrauter’
(HHand. 34)
(Hitt. ḫa-aḫ-ḫa-al-la-an-za [sgN], ḫa-aḫ-ḫal-la-an-te-eš [plN))
1. PIE *hɑehɑelont-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑahɑalont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑahɑalont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hahalont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hahalont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hahalant-
(XX:XX)
4. hahalant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaḫalant-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫaḫalau̯ant-
(pt.) ‘grün, gelb’
(HHand. 34-5)
1. PIE *hɑehɑelou̯ont-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑahɑalou̯ont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑahɑalou̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hahalou̯ont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hahalou̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hahalau̯ant-
(XX:XX)
4. hahalau̯ant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaḫalau̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑehɑeli-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ḫaḫali-
(n.) ’ Grünzeug, Strauch, Busch, Gestrüpp, Unkraut’
(HHand. 34)
(Hitt. ḫa-aḫ-ḫal-li, ḫa-aḫ-ḫa-li)
1. PIE *hɑehɑeli-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑahɑali-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑahɑali-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hahali-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hahali-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaḫali-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
OPr. at·oli-
(.) ‘Grummet’
(LiEtWb. 22)
(Voc. 284)
1. PIE *Π·hɑehɑeli-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *Π·hɑahɑali-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. Π·hɑahɑali-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·hahali-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·hahali-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·aali-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·aali-
*aa → ā
Contraction of aa into ā
RContractaa2A1 → *Π·āli-
5. Π·āli-
*ā → ō
Change of ā into ō
RChangeA2O1 → *Π·ōli-
6. Π·ōli-
*ō → o
Orthographic absence of quantity
ROrthogro2o → OPr. Π·oli-
Hitt. ḫaḫalei̯a-
(URU.) (Im Bezirk von Paršananḫila)
(OGH. 62)
(Hitt. ḫa-ḫa-li-ia [Stf.])
1. PIE *hɑehɑelei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑahɑalei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑahɑalei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hahalei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hahalei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hahalei̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. hahalei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaḫalei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫaḫaleiške/a-
(vb.) ‘gelb werden’
(HHand. 34)
(Hitt. ḫa-aḫ-ḫa-li-eš-ke-et [3sg])
1. PIE *hɑohɑeleiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑohɑaleiski̯e/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑohɑaleiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hohaleiski̯e/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hohaleiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *hohaleisḱe/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. hohaleisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hahaleisḱe/a-
(XX:XX)
5. hahaleisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *hahaleiske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. hahaleiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hahaleiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. hahaleiške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaḫaleiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫaḫaleiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘gelb werden’
(HHand. 35)
1. PIE *hɑohɑeleiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑohɑaleiski̯e/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑohɑaleiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hohaleiski̯e/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hohaleiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *hohaleisḱe/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. hohaleisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hahaleisḱe/a-
(XX:XX)
5. hahaleisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *hahaleiske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. hahaleiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hahaleiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. hahaleiške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaḫaleiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑehɑelu-
Kpd. ḫaḫalu̯an-
(Ic.) ‘-(?)-’
(NOMS. 239)
(Kpd. ḫa-ḫa-lu-(u)a-an)
1. PIE *hɑehɑelu̯on-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑahɑalu̯on-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑahɑalu̯on-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hahalu̯on-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hahalu̯on-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hahalu̯an-
(XX:XX)
4. hahalu̯an-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Kpd. ḫaḫalu̯an-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
CLu. ḫaḫalu̯ant-
(a.) ‘-(?)-, HHand. 34, HIL. 314’
(DLL 37-8)
(CLu. ḫa-aḫ-ḫa-lu-ua-an-ti [sgD])
1. PIE *hɑehɑelu̯ont-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑahɑalu̯ont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑahɑalu̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hahalu̯ont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hahalu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hahalu̯ant-
(XX:XX)
4. hahalu̯ant-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. ḫaḫalu̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
√hɑehɑl-
Hitt. ḫaḫla·tarupašani-
(mc.) ‘‹with Hitt. dtarupašani-›’
(NOMS. 241)
(Hitt. ḫa-aḫ-la-ta-ru-up-pa-ša-ni [abs.])
1. PIE *hɑehɑlo·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑahɑlo·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑahɑlo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hahlo·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hahlo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hahla·Σ-
(XX:XX)
4. hahla·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaḫla·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫaḫlaḫiške/a-
(vb.fakt.) ‘gelb machen’
(HIL. 314)
(Hitt. ḫa-aḫ-la-aḫ-ḫi-iš-k[e-et])
1. PIE *hɑehɑlohɑiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑahɑlohɑiski̯e/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑahɑlohɑiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hahlohiski̯e/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hahlohiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *hahlohisḱe/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. hahlohisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hahlahisḱe/a-
(XX:XX)
5. hahlahisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *hahlahiske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. hahlahiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hahlahiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. hahlahiške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaḫlaḫiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫaḫlaniške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘gelb machen’
(HHand. 35)
(Hitt. ḫa-aḫ-la-n[i-eš-k]er)
1. PIE *hɑehɑloniski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑahɑloniski̯e/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑahɑloniski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hahloniski̯e/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hahloniski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *hahlonisḱe/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. hahlonisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hahlanisḱe/a-
(XX:XX)
5. hahlanisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *hahlaniske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. hahlaniske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hahlaniške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. hahlaniške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaḫlaniške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫaḫlau̯ant-
(.) ‘grün, gelb’ (Sum. SIG7)
(HHand. 34-5)
(Hitt. ḫa-aḫ-la-u-ua-an-da [plNA])
1. PIE *hɑehɑlou̯ont-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑahɑlou̯ont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑahɑlou̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hahlou̯ont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hahlou̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hahlau̯ant-
(XX:XX)
4. hahlau̯ant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaḫlau̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑehɑli-
Hitt. ḫaḫlei̯a-
(vb.fient.) ‘gelb machen’
(HHand. 34)
1. PIE *hɑehɑlei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑahɑlei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑahɑlei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hahlei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hahlei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hahlei̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. hahlei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaḫlei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫaḫlima-
(c.) ‘gelbe Farbe’
(HHand. 34-5)
(Hitt. ḫa-aḫ-li-im-ma-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑehɑlimo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑahɑlimo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑahɑlimo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hahlimo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hahlimo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hahlima-
(XX:XX)
4. hahlima-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaḫlima-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫaḫlišna-
(n.) ‘eine Droge (?)’
(HHand. 34-5)
1. PIE *hɑehɑlisno-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑahɑlisno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑahɑlisno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hahlisno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hahlisno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hahlisna-
(XX:XX)
4. hahlisna-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hahlišna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. hahlišna-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaḫlišna-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫaḫliu̯ant-
(a.) ‘grün, gelb’; (ein Kraut)
(HHand. 34-5)
(Hitt. ḫa-aḫ-li-u-ua-an-za [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑehɑliu̯ont-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑahɑliu̯ont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑahɑliu̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hahliu̯ont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hahliu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hahliu̯ant-
(XX:XX)
4. hahliu̯ant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaḫliu̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑehɑlu-
CLu. ḫaḫlu̯ant-
(GKLa.) ‘grün, gelb : jaune, gelb, DLL 37-’
(HHand. 34-5)
(CLu. ḫa-aḫ-la-lu-ua-an-ti [sgD])
1. PIE *hɑehɑlu̯ont-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑahɑlu̯ont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑahɑlu̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hahlu̯ont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hahlu̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hahlu̯ant-
(XX:XX)
4. hahlu̯ant-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. ḫaḫlu̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)


PIE √hɑiki-, √ɦaigi- ‘aus, von (– her), ver- ; in, an, bei, nach’
(IEW 1044 [diff.])
(Pyysalo: Anat. + BSL)
√hɑiki-
(Pyysalo)
Lith. ìš
(prepG.) ‘aus, von, von — her’
(ALiEtWb. I:19-20)
1. PIE *hɑíki-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *híki-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. híki-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RSatem1 → *híć-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. híć-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis Li. ì
RAcc2 → *hìć-
4. hìć-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ìć-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ìć-
*ć → š
From Satem *ć to Lithuanian
RSatem2Lith1 → Lith. ìš-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
OPr. is
(prepD.) ‘aus’
(ALiEtWb. I:19)
1. PIE *hɑiki-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hiki-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hiki-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RSatem1 → *hić-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. hić-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ić-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ić-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to Old Prussian
RSatem2OPr1 → OPr. is-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
Russ. ís
(prepG.) ‘aus, von’
(REW 1:473)
(ALiEtWb. 19)
1. PIE *hɑ́iki-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1a → *híiki-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. híiki-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RSatem1 → *híić-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. híić-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *íić-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. íić-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *ī́ć-
5. ī́ć-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to Slavic
RSatem2Slav1 → *ī́s-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. ī́s-
*ī́ → í
Orthographic change of *ī́ into í
ROrthogrI2i2 → Russ. ís-
Lyd. is·qasãn-
(vb.) ‘besitzen’ (?)
(LydWb. 135)
1. PIE *hɑiki·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hiki·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hiki·Σ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RSatem1 → *hić·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. hić·Σ-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to Lyd.
RSatem2Lyd1 → *his·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.9)
4. his·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Lyd. is·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Lyd. is·l-
(a.) ‘angefangen’ (?)
(LydWb. 135)
(Lyd. islλ [sgDL])
1. PIE *hɑiki·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hiki·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hiki·Σ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RSatem1 → *hić·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. hić·Σ-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to Lyd.
RSatem2Lyd1 → *his·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.9)
4. his·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Lyd. is·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Lyd. is·kubto-
(sb.) ‘nachkommenschaft’
(LydWb. 135)
(Lyd. iskubto)
1. PIE *hɑiki·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hiki·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hiki·Σ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RSatem1 → *hić·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. hić·Σ-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to Lyd.
RSatem2Lyd1 → *his·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.9)
4. his·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Lyd. is·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Lyd. is·t
(prep.) ‘in, an, bei’ (?) (= Aram. ‘l)
(LydWb. 135)
(Lyd. ist)
1. PIE *hɑiki·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hiki·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hiki·Σ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RSatem1 → *hić·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. hić·Σ-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to Lyd.
RSatem2Lyd1 → *his·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.9)
4. his·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Lyd. is·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
√ɦɑigi-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. ḫiz·ai-
(vb.) ‘aushändigen, anvertrauen (?)’
(HHand. 51)
(CLu. ḫi-iz-za-in-du [3pl], Laroche DLL. 46)
1. PIE *ɦɑigi·oi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦigi·oi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦigi·oi-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RSatem4 → *ɦij́·oi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ɦij́·oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦij́·ai-
(XX:XX)
4. ɦij́·ai-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to CLu.
RSatem2CLu4 → *ɦiz·ai-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.9)
5. ɦiz·ai-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. ḫiz·ai-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
CLu. ḫiz·au-
(vb.) ‘aushändigen, anvertrauen (?)’
(HHand. 51)
(Laroche DLL. 46, ḫi-iz-za-ú-un-du [3pl])
1. PIE *ɦɑigi·oi̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦigi·oi̯u-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦigi·oi̯u-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RSatem4 → *ɦij́·oi̯u-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ɦij́·oi̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦij́·ai̯u-
(XX:XX)
4. ɦij́·ai̯u-
* ai̯u → au
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *u
RAnatGlide4 → *ɦij́·au-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.4.2)
5. ɦij́·au-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to CLu.
RSatem2CLu4 → *ɦiz·au-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.9)
6. ɦiz·au-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. ḫiz·au-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
Lith. iž·noumo-
(vb.) ‘verpachten, in Pacht haben’
(LiEtWb. 512)
(Žem. ižnoumoti)
1. PIE *ɦɑigi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦigi·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦigi·Σ-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RSatem4 → *ɦij́·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ɦij́·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *ij́·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ij́·Σ-
*j́ → ž
From Satem *j́ to Lithuanian
RSatem2Lith4 → Lith. iž·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
OLith. ìž·da-
(m.) ‘Schatz, Reichtum’
(ALiEtWb. I-23-24)
(Sadnik 317)
1. PIE *ɦɑígi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦígi·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦígi·Σ-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RSatem4 → *ɦíj́·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ɦíj́·Σ-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis Li. ì
RAcc2 → *ɦìj́·Σ-
4. ɦìj́·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *ìj́·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ìj́·Σ-
*j́ → ž
From Satem *j́ to Lithuanian
RSatem2Lith4 → OLith. ìž·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
Latv. iz
(prepG.) ‘aus’
(ALiEtWb. I-19)
1. PIE *ɦɑigi
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦigi
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦigi
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RSatem4 → *ɦij́
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ɦij́
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *ij́
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ij́
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to Latvian
RSatem2Latv4 → Latv. iz
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
OCS. iz
(prepG.) ‘aus, von’
(Sadnik 317)
1. PIE *ɦɑ́igi
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1a → *ɦíigi
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. ɦíigi
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RSatem4 → *ɦíij́
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ɦíij́
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *íij́
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. íij́
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *ī́j́
5. ī́j́
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to Slavic
RSatem2Slav3 → *ī́z
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. ī́z
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
ROrthogrI2i2 → OCS. iz
Russ. ízo
(prepG.) ‘aus, von’
(REW 1:473)
(ALiEtWb. I-19)
1. PIE *ɦɑ́igios
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1a → *ɦíigios
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. ɦíigios
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RSatem4 → *ɦíij́os
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ɦíij́os
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦíij́as
4. ɦíij́as
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *íij́as
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. íij́as
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *ī́j́as
6. ī́j́as
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to Slavic
RSatem2Slav3 → *ī́zas
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
7. ī́zas
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *ī́zos
8. ī́zos
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root final)
RLossFinaloS → *ī́zo
9. ī́zo
*ī́ → í
Orthographic change of *ī́ into í
ROrthogrI2i2 → Russ. ízo
Russ. íz
(prepG.) ‘aus, von’
(REW 1:473)
(ALiEtWb. I-19)
1. PIE *ɦɑ́igi
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1a → *ɦíigi
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. ɦíigi
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RSatem4 → *ɦíij́
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ɦíij́
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *íij́
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. íij́
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *ī́j́
5. ī́j́
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to Slavic
RSatem2Slav3 → *ī́z
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. ī́z
*ī́ → í
Orthographic change of *ī́ into í
ROrthogrI2i2 → Russ. íz
SCr. iz
(prepG.) ‘aus, von’
(REW 1:473)
(ALiEtWb. I:19)
1. PIE *ɦɑ́igi
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1a → *ɦíigi
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. ɦíigi
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RSatem4 → *ɦíij́
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ɦíij́
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *íij́
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. íij́
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *ī́j́
5. ī́j́
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to Slavic
RSatem2Slav3 → *ī́z
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. ī́z
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
ROrthogrI2i2 → SCr. iz
SCr. iza
(prepG.) ‘hinter, nach’
(REW 1:473)
(ALiEtWb. I:19)
1. PIE *ɦɑ́igiōɑɦd
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1a → *ɦíigiōɑɦd
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. ɦíigiōɑɦd
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦíigiōɦd
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦíigiōɦd
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RSatem4 → *ɦíij́ōɦd
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. ɦíij́ōɦd
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *ɦíij́āɦd
5. ɦíij́āɦd
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *íij́ād
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. íij́ād
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *ī́j́ād
7. ī́j́ād
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to Slavic
RSatem2Slav3 → *ī́zād
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
8. ī́zād
*-d → Ø
Loss of root-final -d
RLossFinald → *ī́zā
9. ī́zā
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → *ī́za
10. ī́za
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
ROrthogrI2i2 → SCr. iza
Lat. īg·nōscō
(vb.) ‘verzeihen, ein Einsehen haben, Nachsicht üben’
(WH 1:677)
1. PIE *ɦɑ́igi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1a → *ɦíigi·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. ɦíigi·Σ-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Centum neutralization of *gi/i̯
RCentum4 → *ɦíiǵ·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ɦíiǵ·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *íiǵ·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. íiǵ·Σ-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractíi → *ī́ǵ·Σ-
5. ī́ǵ·Σ-
PIE *ǵ → g
Neutralization of Centum *ǵ
RCentumNeut2 → *ī́g·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. ī́g·Σ-
*ī́ → ī
Orthographic absence of accent
R42 → Lat. īg·Σ-
Lat. ig·itur
(adv.) ‘dann, demnacht, folglich, also; Lit. *‘ausgehend von’’
(WH 1:675)
1. PIE *ɦɑigi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦigi·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦigi·Σ-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Centum neutralization of *gi/i̯
RCentum4 → *ɦiǵ·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ɦiǵ·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *iǵ·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. iǵ·Σ-
PIE *ǵ → g
Neutralization of Centum *ǵ
RCentumNeut2 → Lat. ig·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
Lat. īg·nōminia
(f.) ‘Schimpf, Schande’
(WH 1:676)
1. PIE *ɦɑ́igi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1a → *ɦíigi·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. ɦíigi·Σ-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Centum neutralization of *gi/i̯
RCentum4 → *ɦíiǵ·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ɦíiǵ·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *íiǵ·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. íiǵ·Σ-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractíi → *ī́ǵ·Σ-
5. ī́ǵ·Σ-
PIE *ǵ → g
Neutralization of Centum *ǵ
RCentumNeut2 → *ī́g·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. ī́g·Σ-
*ī́ → ī
Orthographic absence of accent
R42 → Lat. īg·Σ-
Latv. aiz
(.) ‘hinter, jenseits’
(IEW 452)
1. PIE *ɦɑoigi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦoigi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦoigi-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RSatem4 → *ɦoij́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ɦoij́-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *oij́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. oij́-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *aij́-
5. aij́-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to Latvian
RSatem2Latv4 → Latv. aiz-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
Latv. aiz·mìrs-
(vb.) ‘vergessen’
(IEW. 738)
(Latv. aizmìrst)
1. PIE *ɦɑoigi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦoigi·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦoigi·Σ-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RSatem4 → *ɦoij́·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ɦoij́·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *oij́·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. oij́·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *aij́·Σ-
5. aij́·Σ-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to Latvian
RSatem2Latv4 → Latv. aiz·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)


PIE √hɑil-, √ɦɑil- (vb.) ‘treiben’ (sb.) ‘Einzäunung, Stall, Hof’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√hɑilo-
Hitt. ḫila-
() ((É).) ‘Hof, Einzäunung, Viehhof’ (Sum. TÙR)
(ḪEG 2:241-)
(Hitt. ḫi-i-la-aš, ḫi-la-aš, ḫi-i-la-an, ḫi-e-la-aš [G], ḫi-li [DL])
1. PIE *hɑilo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hila-
(XX:XX)
3. hila-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫila-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫila-
(PÚ.) (Im Kontext der ON › Lawata)
(OGH. 528)
(Hitt. ḫi-la-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑilo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hila-
(XX:XX)
3. hila-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫila-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
CLu. ḫila·madu-
(mc.) ‹ of honey-sweet mouth ›
(NOMS. 352a)
(Hitt. ḫi-la-ma-ad-du(-un) [abs.]-[A])
1. PIE *hɑilo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilo·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hila·Σ-
(XX:XX)
3. hila·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. ḫila·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
CLu. ḫila·ru̯ada-
(mc.) (prince de Malatya-)
(NOMS. 355)
(in Urar. ḫi-la-ru-a-da)
1. PIE *hɑilo·ru̯odɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilo·ru̯odɦo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilo·ru̯odɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hila·ru̯adɦa-
(XX:XX)
3. hila·ru̯adɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *hila·ru̯ada-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hila·ru̯ada-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. ḫila·ru̯ada-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
Hitt. ḫila·dKAL-
(mc.) ‘‹yard-protector›’
(NOMS. 356)
(Hitt. ḫe-el-la-dKAL)
1. PIE *hɑilo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilo·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hila·Σ-
(XX:XX)
3. hila·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫila·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫila·ziba-
(d.) ‘‹genius of yard›
(OHP. 1:150)
(Hitt. ḫe-el-la-zi-pa [Abs], G hR. 281, 299, 611, A. Kammenhuber (1959 [RIA XVII/64]:53), RDH. 67)
1. PIE *hɑilo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilo·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hila·Σ-
(XX:XX)
3. hila·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫila·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑiloi-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ḫilai-
(vb.dn.) ‘Einen Hof (= ḫila-) haben’
(HHand. 49)
(Hitt. ḫi-la-iz-zi (Von Mond oder Sonne))
1. PIE *hɑiloi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hiloi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hiloi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilai-
(XX:XX)
3. hilai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫilai-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
OInd. īlaya-
(cs.) ‘in Bewegung setzen’
(KEWA III:96)
1. PIE *hɑ́iLei̯o-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1a → *híiLei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. híiLei̯o-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RChangelr4 → *híilei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
3. híilei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *híilei̯a-
4. híilei̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *íilei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. íilei̯a-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *ī́lei̯a-
6. ī́lei̯a-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *ī́lai̯a-
7. ī́lai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → OInd. ī́laya-
√hɑili-
(Pyysalo)
Lat. agn·īli-
(n.) ‘Schaf·stall’
(WH 1:23)
1. PIE *Π·hɑ́ili-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1a → *Π·híili-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. Π·híili-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·íili-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. Π·íili-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractíi → *Π·ī́li-
4. Π·ī́li-
*ī́ → ī
Orthographic absence of accent
R42 → Lat. Π·īli-
Lat. ou·īli-
(n.) ‘Schaf·stall’
(WH 2:229)
1. PIE *Π·hɑ́ili-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1a → *Π·híili-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. Π·híili-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·íili-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. Π·íili-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractíi → *Π·ī́li-
4. Π·ī́li-
*ī́ → ī
Orthographic absence of accent
R42 → Lat. Π·īli-
Lat. equ·īli-
(n.) ‘Pferde·stall’
(WH 1:412)
1. PIE *Π·hɑ́ili-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1a → *Π·híili-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. Π·híili-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·íili-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. Π·íili-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractíi → *Π·ī́li-
4. Π·ī́li-
*ī́ → ī
Orthographic absence of accent
R42 → Lat. Π·īli-
Hitt. ḫilei̯a-
(mc.) (scribe)
(NOMS. 357)
(Hitt. ḫi-li-ia-aš)
1. PIE *hɑilei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilei̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. hilei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫilei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑilik-
Hitt. ḫilika-
(URU.) ‘› Naḫita’
(OGH. 108)
(Hitt. ḫi-li-iq-qa-za [Abl])
1. PIE *hɑiliko-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hiliko-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hiliko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilika-
(XX:XX)
3. hilika-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫilika-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
HLu. ḫilikei-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(CHLu. 2.15/2.5)
(HLu. hi?-li-ki-zi(URBS) [pl])
1. PIE *hɑilikei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilikei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilikei-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R18 → HLu. ḫilikei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
√hɑilomo-
Hitt. ḫilama-
(URU.) ‘= URUKI.LAM = Torbau’
(HEG 1:243-4)
(Hitt. ḫi-lam-ma-a [Stf.])
1. PIE *hɑilomo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilomo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilomo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilama-
(XX:XX)
3. hilama-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫilama-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫilamar-
(n.) ‘Torbau, Säulenhalle, Portikus’ (KI.LAM)
(HHand. 49)
(Hitt. ḫi-lam-mar
1. PIE *hɑilomor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilomor-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilomor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilamar-
(XX:XX)
3. hilamar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫilamar-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫilama·tei̯a-
(URU.) ‘Torbau+treten (?)’
(OGH. 108)
(Hitt. ḫi-lam-ma-at-ti-ia [Stf.])
1. PIE *hɑilomo·tei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilomo·tei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilomo·tei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilama·tei̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. hilama·tei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫilama·tei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫilamad-
(LÚc.) ‘Tempelangestellter, Pförtner’
(HHand. 49)
(Hitt. ḫi-lam-ma-ti-eš [plN], ḫi-lam-ma-at-ta-aš)
1. PIE *hɑilomodɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilomodɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilomodɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilamadɦ-
(XX:XX)
3. hilamadɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *hilamad-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hilamad-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫilamad-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑilomn-
Hitt. ḫilamn-
(n.) ‘Torbau, Säulenhalle, Portikus’
(HIL. 399)
(Hitt. ḫi-lam-na-aš, ḫi-lam-ni, ḫi-lam-na)
1. PIE *hɑilomn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilomn-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilomn-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilamn-
(XX:XX)
3. hilamn-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫilamn-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫilamnant-
(c.) ‘Torbau, Säulenhalle, Portikus’ (KI.LAM)
(HHand. 49)
(Hitt. ḫi-lam-na-an-za [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑilomnont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilomnont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilomnont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilamnant-
(XX:XX)
3. hilamnant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫilamnant-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫilamni-
(c.) ‘courtier (?)’
(HIL. 399)
(Hitt. ḫi-lam-ni-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑilomni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilomni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilomni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilamni-
(XX:XX)
3. hilamni-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫilamni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑilomi-
Hitt. ḫilami-
(LÚc.) ‘Tempelangestellter, Pförtner’
(HHand. 49)
(Hitt. ḫi-lam-mi-iš [sgN], ḫi-lam-mi-e-eš [plN])
1. PIE *hɑilomi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilomi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilomi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilami-
(XX:XX)
3. hilami-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫilami-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫilamili
(adv.) ‘in der Art eines Pförtners’ (?)
(HHand. 49)
(Hitt. ḫi-lam-mi-li)
1. PIE *hɑilomili-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilomili-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilomili-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilamili-
(XX:XX)
3. hilamili-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫilamili-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫilamini-
(c.) ‘courtier (?)’
(HIL. 399)
(Hitt. ḫi-lam-mi-in-ni-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑilomini-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilomini-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilomini-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilamini-
(XX:XX)
3. hilamini-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫilamini-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑilon-
Hitt. ḫilan-
(n.obl.) ‘yard’
(HIL. 399)
(Hitt. ḫi-l[a-a]n-na-aš [sgG])
1. PIE *hɑilon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilon-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilan-
(XX:XX)
3. hilan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫilan-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Pal. ḫilan·ziba-
(d.) ‘‹genie of yard›’
(OHP. 1:150)
(Pal. ḫi-la-an-z[i-p]a-aš, ḫi-la-an-zi-pí, HHand. 49); (Pal. 32,53,75, DPal. 55)
1. PIE *hɑilon·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilon·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilon·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilan·Σ-
(XX:XX)
3. hilan·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Pal. ḫilan·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
CLu. ḫilana·[…
(.) ‘yard·[…’
(HHand. 49)
1. PIE *hɑilono·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilono·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilono·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilana·Σ-
(XX:XX)
3. hilana·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. ḫilana·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
HLu. ḫilana-
(*.) ‘yard’
(CHLu. 1.1.63)
(in Hlu. PORTA-la-na)
1. PIE *hɑilono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilono-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilana-
(XX:XX)
3. hilana-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R18 → HLu. ḫilana-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
√hɑiloni-
Hitt. ḫilani-
(mc.) (divers)
(NOMS. 353)
(Hitt. ḫi-la-ni-iš, ḫe-el-la-ni)
1. PIE *hɑiloni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hiloni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hiloni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilani-
(XX:XX)
3. hilani-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫilani-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫilani-
(mc.) (autre)
(NOMS. 353)
(Hitt. ḫi-il-la-an-ni-iš)
1. PIE *hɑiloni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hiloni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hiloni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilani-
(XX:XX)
3. hilani-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫilani-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑilos-
(Pyysalo)
CS. jagn·ilo-
(n.) ‘locus ubi oves ‹ jagn-› parturiunt’
(IEW 9)
1. PIE *Π·hɑ́ilos
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1a → *Π·híilos
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. Π·híilos
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·híilas
3. Π·híilas
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·íilas
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·íilas
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *Π·ī́las
5. Π·ī́las
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *Π·ī́los
6. Π·ī́los
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root final)
RLossFinalS → *Π·ī́lo
7. Π·ī́lo
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
ROrthogrI2i2 → CS. Π·ilo
CLu. ḫilaša-
(d.) ‘god of Hila-’
(OHP. 1:150-52)
(CLu. ḫi-la-aš-ša-an [D])
1. PIE *hɑiloso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hiloso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hiloso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilasa-
(XX:XX)
3. hilasa-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → *ḫilasa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
4. ḫilasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R18 → CLu. ḫilaša-
Hitt. ḫilaši-
(d.) ‘god of Hila-’
(OHP. 1:150-52)
(Hitt. ḫi-i-la-aš-ši, GhR. 133, 281-2, 613-4, V. Haas (1972-5 [RIA 4]:409-410), RDH. 69, REL 73, 1143-4)
1. PIE *hɑilosi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilosi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilosi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilasi-
(XX:XX)
3. hilasi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hilaši-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hilaši-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫilaši-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
CLu. ḫilašid-
(d.) ‘(CLuLex. 68)’
(OHP. 1:150-52)
(CLu. ḫi-la-aš-ši-ti [D], Laroche : Recherches 67f.; RHA XV (1957) 15ff.)
1. PIE *hɑilosidɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilosidɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilosidɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilasidɦ-
(XX:XX)
3. hilasidɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *hilasid-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hilasid-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → *ḫilasid-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
5. ḫilasid-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R18 → CLu. ḫilašid-
√hɑilosumi-
Hitt. ḫilašumei̯a-
(GIŠ.) ‘eine Pflanze mit verwertbarem Samen’
(HHand. 49)
1. PIE *hɑilosumei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilosumei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilosumei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilasumei̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. hilasumei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hilašumei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hilašumei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫilašumei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫilašumei̯a-
(GIŠ.) ‘- (?) -’
(HHand. 49)
1. PIE *hɑilosumei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilosumei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilosumei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hilasumei̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. hilasumei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hilašumei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hilašumei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫilašumei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑilodɑɦor-
Hitt. ḫiladar-
(n.) ‘Wirtschafshof (?)’
(HHand. 50)
1. PIE *hɑilodɑɦor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hilodɦor-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hilodɦor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hiladɦar-
(XX:XX)
3. hiladɦar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *hiladar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hiladar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫiladar-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑil·ugɑɦi̯oni-
Hitt. ḫil·ugani-
(.) ‘carriage’
(HIL. 322)
(Hitt. ḫi-lu-kà-ni-im [sgG])
1. PIE *hɑil·ugɑɦi̯oni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hil·ugɦi̯oni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hil·ugɦi̯oni-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Centum neutralization of *gɦi/i̯
RCentum5 → *hil·uǵɦoni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. hil·uǵɦoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hil·uǵɦani-
(XX:XX)
4. hil·uǵɦani-
PIE *ǵ → g
Neutralization of Centum *ǵ
RCentumNeut2 → *hil·ugɦani-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. hil·ugɦani-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *hil·ugani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. hil·ugani-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫil·ugani-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)


PIE √hɑim-, √ɦɑim- ‘Feuer, Hitze, Rauch, Dampf, Starrheit, Fieber’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√hɑimo-
(HEG 1:123)
(HED H:8, HIL. –)
Hitt. ḫaḫima-
(c.) ‘eine Krankheit: Erstarrung, Starrheit (?)’
(HEG 1:123)
(HHand. 34, Hitt. ḫaḫima-)
1. PIE *hɑehɑimo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑahɑimo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑahɑimo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hahimo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hahimo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hahima-
(XX:XX)
4. hahima-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaḫima-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
OIcl. eim-
(m.) ‘Feuer, Rauch, Dampf’
(ANEtWb. 96)
(OIcl. eimr [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑeimo
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaimo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaimo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haimo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. haimo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *aimo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. aimo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *aima
(XX:XX)
5. aima
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
RChangeai2ei → *eima
6. eima
-a → Ø
Loss of -a in root-final position
RLossFinala1 → OIcl. eim
OIcl. īm-
(n.) ‘Staub’
(ANEtWb. 285)
(cf. ModNorw. īm ‘Geruch’)
1. PIE *hɑ́imo-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1a → *híimo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. híimo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *íimo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. íimo-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractíi → *ī́mo-
4. ī́mo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *ī́ma-
(XX:XX)
5. ī́ma-
ī́ → ī
Orthographic absence of accent
R27 → OIcl. īma-
Far. īm-
(.) ‘Russ auf einer Kessel’
(ANEtWb. 285)
1. PIE *hɑ́imo
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1a → *híimo
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. híimo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *íimo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. íimo
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractíi → *ī́mo
4. ī́mo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *ī́ma
(XX:XX)
5. ī́ma
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *ī́m
6. ī́m
ī́ → ī
Orthographic absence of accent
R27 → Far. īm
ModIcl. īma-
(.) ‘Hitze’
(ANEtWb. 285)
1. PIE *hɑ́imo-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1a → *híimo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. híimo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *íimo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. íimo-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractíi → *ī́mo-
4. ī́mo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *ī́ma-
(XX:XX)
5. ī́ma-
ī́ → ī
Orthographic absence of accent
R27 → ModIcl. īma-
OIcl. īma-
(vb.) ‘heftig werden’
(ANEtWb. 285)
(OIcl. īmast [inf.])
1. PIE *hɑ́imo-
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1a → *híimo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. híimo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *íimo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. íimo-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractíi → *ī́mo-
4. ī́mo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *ī́ma-
(XX:XX)
5. ī́ma-
ī́ → ī
Orthographic absence of accent
R27 → OIcl. īma-
OIcl. eimi·n-
(m.) ‘Rauch, Dampf, Feuer’
(ANEtWb. 96)
1. PIE *hɑeime·n-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaime·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaime·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haime·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. haime·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *aime·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. aime·n-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
RChangee2i → *aimi·n-
5. aimi·n-
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
RChangeai2ei → OIcl. eimi·n-
Norw. īmen
(pt.) ‘erzürnt’
(ANEtWb. 96)
1. PIE *hɑ́imono
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1a → *híimono
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. híimono
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *íimono
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. íimono
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractíi → *ī́mono
4. ī́mono
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *ī́mana
(XX:XX)
5. ī́mana
-a → Ø
Loss of -a in root-final position
RLossFinala1 → *ī́man
6. ī́man
*an → en
Rising of a into e before n-
RRisingan2en → *ī́men
7. ī́men
ī́ → ī
Orthographic absence of accent
R27 → Norw. īmen
OIcl. eim·yrja·n-
(sw.f.) ‘glühende Asche’
(ANEtWb. 96)
1. PIE *hɑeim·hɑusii̯ó·n-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaim·hɑusii̯ó·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaim·hɑusii̯ó·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haim·husii̯ó·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. haim·husii̯ó·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *aim·usii̯ó·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. aim·usii̯ó·n-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeo2a2 → *aim·usii̯á·n-
(XX:XX)
5. aim·usii̯á·n-
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
RChangeai2ei → *eim·usii̯á·n-
6. eim·usii̯á·n-
*i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
R26 → OIcl. eim·usijá·n-
OHG. eim·uria·n-
(sw.f.) ‘Aschenglut, Glut, heiße/glühende Asche’
(EWAdh 2:988, IEW. 347)
1. PIE *hɑeim·hɑusii̯ó·n-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaim·hɑusii̯ó·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaim·hɑusii̯ó·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haim·husii̯ó·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. haim·husii̯ó·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *aim·usii̯ó·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. aim·usii̯ó·n-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeo2a2 → *aim·usii̯á·n-
(XX:XX)
5. aim·usii̯á·n-
*ai → ei
Umlaut *ai → ei
RUmlautAI → *eim·usii̯á·n-
6. eim·usii̯á·n-
*i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
ROrthogrY2j → *eim·usijá·n-
7. eim·usijá·n-
*á → a
Absence of accent in OHG
R32 → OHG. eim·usija·n-


PIE √hɑin- ‘Wasser, Gewässer, Tropf’ (vb.) ‘schöpfen, nässen, abwaschen’
(IEW. 774)
(+ Pyysalo: Hitt. & CLu.)
√hɑin-
Hitt. ḫin-
(vb.) ‘schöpfen ‹see Hitt. hani- ‘id.’›’
(HIL. 329)
(Hitt. ḫi-e-ni-ir, ḫi-ni-ir)
1. PIE *hɑin-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hin-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑining-
Hitt. ḫining-
(vbM.) ‘nässen, abwaschen (?)’
(HHand. 50)
(Hitt. ḫé-u-uš ḫi-ni-ik-ta; ḫé-e-a-u-it ḫi-ni-ik-ta)
1. PIE *hɑiningɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hiningh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hiningh-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RDeaspTh → *hining-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. hining-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫining-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑinori-
Hitt. ḫinarei̯a-
(URU.) ‘Dorf im Land Kinara’
(OGH. 109)
(Hitt. ḫi-na-ri-ia-aš, [DUGUD-Eid])
1. PIE *hɑinorei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hinorei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hinorei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hinarei̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. hinarei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫinarei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫinari-
(.) ‘eine Gartenpflanze’
(HHand. 50)
(Hitt. ḫinari[(-))
1. PIE *hɑinori-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hinori-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hinori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hinari-
(XX:XX)
3. hinari-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫinari-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫinari-
(d.) ‘Hinari ‹cf. above and below›’
(OHP. 1:152)
(Hitt. ḫi-na-a-ri-iš [N])
1. PIE *hɑinori-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hinori-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hinori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hinari-
(XX:XX)
3. hinari-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫinari-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫinari·u̯anta-
() ((KUR)URU) “In kaškäischem Gebiet, › Tumana.”
(OGH. 109-10)
(Hitt. ḫi-na-ri-ua-an-da [Stf.], DKašg. 42, 95)
1. PIE *hɑinori·u̯onto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hinori·u̯onto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hinori·u̯onto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hinari·u̯anta-
(XX:XX)
3. hinari·u̯anta-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫinari·u̯anta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑinoru-
CLu. ḫinaru-
(ua-a-tar.) ‘e. hydronymischer Begriff = (?)’
(OGH. 529)
(CLu. ḫi-in-na-ru-u-ua-aš [N])
1. PIE *hɑinoru-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hinoru-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hinoru-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hinaru-
(XX:XX)
3. hinaru-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. ḫinaru-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
√ɦɑind-
(IEW. 774)
(Pyysalo: Tocharian)
TochB. intra-
(.) ‘in a list of medical ingredients’
(DTochB. 64)
(TochB. intra(-))
1. PIE *ɦɑindreɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *ɦɑindraɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. ɦɑindraɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦindrah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦindrah-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *indrah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. indrah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *indra-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. indra-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
RDevoiced → TochB. intra-
OLatv. indra-
(ÍDf.) ‘Indra’
(IEW 774)
(LiEtWb. –)
1. PIE *ɦɑindrēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *ɦɑindrāɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. ɦɑindrāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦindrāh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦindrāh
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *indrāh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. indrāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *indrā
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. indrā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R28 → OLatv. indra
OLatv. indrica-
(ÍDf.) ‘Indrica’
(IEW 774)
(LiEtWb. –)
1. PIE *ɦɑindrikui̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *ɦɑindrikui̯āɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. ɦɑindrikui̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦindrikui̯āh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦindrikui̯āh
PIE *kui̯ → čui̯
2nd palatalization of *ku̯
R2ndPalatKU → *ɦindričui̯āh
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. ɦindričui̯āh
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *indričui̯āh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. indričui̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *indričui̯ā
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. indričui̯ā
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *indriči̯ā
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
7. indriči̯ā
*č → c
From 2nd palatalization *č to Latvian
R2ndPalat2Latv1 → *indrici̯ā
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
8. indrici̯ā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R28 → *indrici̯a
9. indrici̯a
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
R30 → OLatv. indricja
RV. índu-
(m.) ‘lichter Tropfen, im RV. = Soma-’
(WbRV. 212)
1. PIE *ɦɑíndu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦíndu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦíndu-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → RV. índu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Lith. indu-
(ÍDm.) ‘Indu’
(IEW 774)
(LiEtWb. –)
1. PIE *ɦɑindu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦindu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦindu-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → Lith. indu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)


PIE √hɑiru- (sb.) ‘Bote, Schwur, Eid’
(IEW XX)
√hɑeiru-
Goth. airu-
(m.) ‘Bote’
(GoEtD. 19)
(Goth. airus [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑeiru-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑairu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑairu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hairu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hairu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Goth. airu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
RV. mitra·éru-
(m.pl.) ‘Verschworene’
(WbRV. 1041)
(RV. mitraírun [plA])
1. PIE *mitro·hɑeíru-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *mitro·hɑaíru-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. mitro·hɑaíru-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *mitro·haíru-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. mitro·haíru-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *mitra·haíru-
4. mitra·haíru-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *mitra·aíru-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. mitra·aíru-
aí → ḗ
Monophthongization of *aí
RChangeAI2E2 → *mitra·ḗru-
6. mitra·ḗru-
ḗ → é
Orthographic change of ḗ into é
ROrthOIA5 → RV. mitra·éru-
√hɑirun-
CLu. ḫirun-
(n.) ‘Schwur, Eid : serment, HHand. 50’
(DLL 45)
(CLu. ḫi(-i)-ru(-ú)-un [sgNA])
1. PIE *hɑirun-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hirun-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hirun-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. ḫirun-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
√hɑirudɑɦ
CLu. ḫiruda-
(n.) ‘Schwur, Eid, HHand. 50’
(DLL. 45)
(CLu. ḫi-i-ru-ú-ta)
1. PIE *hɑirudɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hirudɦo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hirudɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hirudɦa
(XX:XX)
3. hirudɦa
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *hiruda
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hiruda
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. ḫiruda
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
Hitt. ḫiruda-
(n.) ‘Schwur, Eid’
(DLL. 45)
(Hitt. ḫi-ru-ta-za [Abl.])
1. PIE *hɑirudɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hirudɦo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hirudɦo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hirudɦa
(XX:XX)
3. hirudɦa
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *hiruda
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hiruda
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫiruda
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)


PIE √hɑis- √ɦɑis- (sb.) ‘Gott, Herr’ (vb.) ehren’ (a.) ‘beachtenswert, sacer, divinus’
(IEW 16)
(+ Pyysalo)
√hɑis-
(Pyysalo)
Marruc. ais-
(m.) ‘Gott’
(WbOU. 69)
(Marruc. aisos ‘dis’ [plD])
1. PIE *hɑeis-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑais-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑais-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hais-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hais-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Marruc. ais-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Lyd. iśa-
(c.) ‘Herr, Gusmani Sprache 17 (1971): 6’
(LydWb. 138)
(Lyd. iśa-)
1. PIE *hɑiso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hiso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hiso-
PIE * s → ś
Orthographic change of *s into ś
R10 → *hiśo-
3. hiśo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hiśa-
(XX:XX)
4. hiśa-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Lyd. iśa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Umbr. ēs·ono-
(a.) ‘sacer, divinus’
(WbOU. 238)
(Umbr. esonu)
1. PIE *hɑeis·ono-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑais·ono-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑais·ono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hais·ono-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hais·ono-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ais·ono-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ais·ono-
*ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai into ē
RMonophtai2E → Umbr. ēs·ono-
Uolsc. ēs·aristo-
(n.) ‘sacri·ficium’
(WbOU. 233)
(Volsc. esaristom)
1. PIE *hɑeis·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑais·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑais·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hais·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hais·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ais·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ais·Σ-
*ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai into ē
RMonophthai2E → Uolsc. ēs·Σ-
√hɑisolo-
Hitt. ḫišala-
(a.) viell. ‘beachtenswert, wichtig, erwähnenswert’
(HHand. 49)
1. PIE *hɑisolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hisolo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hisolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hisala-
(XX:XX)
3. hisala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hišala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hišala-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫišala-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
CLu. ḫišala-
(a.) viell. ‘beachtenswert, wichtig, erwähnenswert’
(DLL. 45)
(CLu. ḫi-iš-ša-al-la)
1. PIE *hɑisolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hisolo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hisolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hisala-
(XX:XX)
3. hisala-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → *ḫisala-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
4. ḫisala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R18 → CLu. ḫišala-
Hitt. ḫišalant-
(a.) [Mg.] ‘beachtet, berücksichtig’
(HHand. 49)
1. PIE *hɑisolont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hisolont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hisolont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hisalant-
(XX:XX)
3. hisalant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hišalant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hišalant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫišalant-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫišalant-
(d.) ‘preceded by dirḫant-’
(OHP. 1:153-4)
(Hitt. ḫe-eš-ša-la-an-te-eš [plN], ḫi-iš-ša-al-la-an-du-uš [plA], G. McMahon (AS:247-8), REL. 93)
1. PIE *hɑisolont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hisolont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hisolont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hisalant-
(XX:XX)
3. hisalant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hišalant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hišalant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫišalant-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑisu-
OGaul. aisu-
(m.) ‘G. des Kriegs’
(ACSS 1:54)
(OGaul. AESV)
1. PIE *hɑeisu-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaisu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaisu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haisu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. haisu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → OGaul. aisu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
OGaul. ēsu-
(m.) ‘Hauptgott der Gallier’
(WH 1:419)
(OGaul. esus, Lucan. 1,455 ē-)
1. PIE *ehɑisu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ehisu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ehisu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → OGaul. eisu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
OGaul. ēsu·uio-
(PNm.) ‘‹Cf. OGaul. ·uio-›’
(ACSS. 1:1478)
(OGaul. esu·uius [sgN])
1. PIE *ehɑisu·u̯io-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ehisu·u̯io-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ehisu·u̯io-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *eisu·u̯io-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. eisu·u̯io-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
ROrthogrW2u → OGaul. eisu·uio-
OGaul. ēsu·nerto-
(PN.) ‘Kraft der Esus’
(LEIA N-10)
(OGaul. esunertus)
1. PIE *ehɑisu·nerto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ehisu·nerto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ehisu·nerto-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → OGaul. eisu·nerto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Osc. aisuso-
(sb.) ‘sacrificiis’
(WbOU. 68-70)
(Osc. aisusis [plAbl.])
1. PIE *hɑeisuso-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaisuso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaisuso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haisuso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. haisuso-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Osc. aisuso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)


PIE √hɑis- (sb.) ‘Deichsel’
(IEW XX)
√hɑiso-
Hitt. ḫiša-
(GIŠc.) ‘Deichsel : carriage pole’
(HEG I:252)
(Hitt. ḫi-iš-ša-an, HHand. 50)
1. PIE *hɑiso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hiso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hiso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hisa-
(XX:XX)
3. hisa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hiša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hiša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫiša-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
RV. ékeṣa-
(a.) ‘eine [éka] Deichsel habend’
(WbRV. 297)
(RV. ékeṣam rátham)
1. PIE *hɑeíku̯ohɑiso-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaíku̯ohɑiso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaíku̯ohɑiso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haíku̯ohiso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. haíku̯ohiso-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RRukiI → *haíku̯ohišo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. haíku̯ohišo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *haíku̯ahiša-
5. haíku̯ahiša-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *aíku̯aiša-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. aíku̯aiša-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *aíkaiša-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
7. aíkaiša-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
RChangeAI2E1 → *aíkēša-
8. aíkēša-
aí → ḗ
Monophthongization of *aí
RChangeAI2E2 → *ḗkēša-
9. ḗkēša-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *ḗkēṣa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
10. ḗkēṣa-
ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
ROrthOIA4 → *ḗkeṣa-
11. ḗkeṣa-
ḗ → é
Orthographic change of ḗ into é
ROrthOIA5 → RV. ékeṣa-
√hɑisɑh-
RV. īṣā́-
(f.) ‘die Deichsel’
(WbRV. 238)
1. PIE *hɑ́isḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *hɑ́isā́ɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. hɑ́isā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ́i → íi
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1a → *híisā́ɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. híisā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *híisā́h
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. híisā́h
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RRukiI → *híišā́h
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
5. híišā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *íišā́
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. íišā́
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *ī́šā́
7. ī́šā́
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → RV. ī́ṣā́
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)


PIE √hɑiu- (sb.) ‘Gewässer’ (vb.) ‘befeuchten’
(IEW –)
(Čop 1971a:141f.: Gr.; Pyysalo: OLith.)
√hɑeiu-
(Čop 1971)
Gr. αἰο·νάο-
(pr.) ‘befeuchten, bähen’
(GEW1:42-3)
(Gr. αἰο·νάω, Melchert 1994:102)
1. PIE *hɑeiu̯o·néɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaiu̯o·néɑhi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaiu̯o·néɑhi̯o-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
RColouring1d → *hɑaiu̯o·náɑhi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
3. hɑaiu̯o·náɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haiu̯o·náhi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. haiu̯o·náhi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *aiu̯o·nái̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. aiu̯o·nái̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RLossyinVyV → *aiu̯o·náo-
6. aiu̯o·náo-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
RLossofw → *aio·náo-
7. aio·náo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἀιο·νάο-
√hɑiou-
Hitt. ḫi̯au-
(c.) ‘Regen’
(HHand. 49)
(Hitt. ḫé-e-ia-ua-a, hé-e-ia-ue-es [plN])
1. PIE *hɑi̯ou-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hi̯ou-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hi̯ou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hi̯au-
(XX:XX)
3. hi̯au-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫi̯au-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. a·ḫi̯au̯a-
(URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGH. 1-2)
(Hitt. aḫ-ḫi-ia-ua)
1. PIE *o·hɑi̯ou̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *o·hi̯ou̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. o·hi̯ou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *a·hi̯au̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. a·hi̯au̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. a·ḫi̯au̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. a·ḫi̯au̯aa-
(KUR.URU.) ‘-(?)-’
(OGH. 1-2)
(Hitt. aḫ-ḫi-ia-ua-a)
1. PIE *o·hɑi̯ou̯oi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *o·hi̯ou̯oi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. o·hi̯ou̯oi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *a·hi̯au̯ai̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. a·hi̯au̯ai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
RAnatGlide1 → *a·hi̯au̯aa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.4.2)
4. a·hi̯au̯aa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. a·ḫi̯au̯aa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑiuo-
Hitt. ḫiu-
(c.) ‘Regen’
(HEG 1:238-)
(Hitt. ḫé-e-uš [sgN], ḫé-i-ú-un [A])
1. PIE *hɑiu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hiu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hiu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫiu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. a·ḫiua-
(KUR.) ‘cf. above & below’
(OHG. 1-2)
(Hitt. aḫ-ḫi-ú-u[a])
1. PIE *o·hɑiu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *o·hiu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. o·hiu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *a·hiu̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. a·hiu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. a·ḫiu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫiua·nei̯a-
(vb.) ‘to rain’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *hɑiu̯o·nei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hiu̯o·nei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hiu̯o·nei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hiu̯a·nei̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. hiu̯a·nei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫiu̯a·nei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
OLith. iva-
(f.) ‘Insel’
(ALiEtWb. I-22)
1. PIE *hɑiu̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *hɑiu̯āɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. hɑiu̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hiu̯āh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hiu̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *iu̯ā
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. iu̯ā
*ā → ō
Change of ā into ō
RChangeA2O1 → *iu̯ō
5. iu̯ō
*-ō → -a
Change of ō into a in root-final
RFinalO2a1 → *iu̯a
6. iu̯a
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → OLith. iva


PIE √hɑku- √ɦɑgu- (sb.) ‘Wasser, Fluß, Öl, Salbe, usw.’
(IEW. 23 + IEW XX)
(Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√hɑku-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ḫaku-
(?) ‹Ic.› ‘dignitaire de Šaiztawa-; ‹if ‘Aquarius’ ’
(NOMS. 248)
(Hitt. ḫa-ak-ku)
1. PIE *hɑeku-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaku-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaku-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haku-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. haku-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaku-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫaku·nai-
(DUG?.) ‘Gefäß für Öl, ‹Ölgefäß›’
(HEG I:124-5)
(EHS 207)
1. PIE *hɑeku·noi-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaku·noi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaku·noi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haku·noi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. haku·noi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *haku·nai-
(XX:XX)
4. haku·nai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaku·nai-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Lith. ak·elė-
(EN.dim.) ‘XX’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *hɑeku̯·elēha-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaku̯·elēha-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaku̯·elēha-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haku̯·elēha-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. haku̯·elēha-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *aku̯·elēa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. aku̯·elēa-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *ak·elēa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. ak·elēa-
* ē -> ė
Orthographic change of *ē into ė
R28a → Lith. ak·elėa-
√hɑku̯ēah-
Lat. aquā-
(f.) ‘Wasser, Wasserleitung’
(WH 1:60)
1. PIE *hɑeku̯ēɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaku̯ēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaku̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *hɑaku̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. hɑaku̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haku̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. haku̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *aku̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. aku̯ā-
* ku/u̯ → q
Emergence of labiovelar q
RLabiovelarizationq → Lat. aqā-
Goth. aƕa-
(f.) ‘Fluß, Gewässer’
(GoEtD.XX)
1. PIE *hɑeku̯ēɑh
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaku̯ēɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaku̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *hɑaku̯āɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. hɑaku̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haku̯āh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. haku̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *aku̯ā
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. aku̯ā
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *axu̯ā
6. axu̯ā
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
RChangeA2O1 → *axu̯ō
(XX:XX)
7. axu̯ō
-ō → -a
Change of root-final -ō into -a
RChangeFinalo2a → *axu̯a
8. axu̯a
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *ahu̯a
9. ahu̯a
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
ROrthogrW2w → Goth. ahwa
Russ. oká-
(ID.) ‘Wasserleitung, Fluß, Gewässer’
(REW X:XX)
1. PIE *hɑeku̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaku̯ḗɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaku̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *hɑaku̯ā́ɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. hɑaku̯ā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haku̯ā́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. haku̯ā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *aku̯ā́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. aku̯ā́-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *akā́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. akā́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *okā́-
7. okā́-
*ā́ → a
Orthographic change of *ā́ into a
ROrthogrA2a2 → Russ. oka-
√ɦɑgu-
RV. ā́jia-
(n.) ‘Opferschmalz, die geschmolzene Butter’
(WbRV. 173)
1. PIE *hɑḗgu̯iɑHo-
PIE *ɑḗ → ɑā́
Colouring rule for *ɑḗ
RColouring2c → *hɑā́gu̯iɑHo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. hɑā́gu̯iɑHo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hā́gu̯iHo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hā́gu̯iHo-
PIE *gu̯ → ǰu̯
2nd palatalization of *gu̯
R2ndPalatGW → *hā́ǰu̯iHo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. hā́ǰu̯iHo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hā́ǰu̯iHa-
5. hā́ǰu̯iHa-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RVedicHiatus → *hā́ǰu̯i.a-
6. hā́ǰu̯i.a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ā́ǰu̯i.a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. ā́ǰu̯i.a-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *ā́ǰi.a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
8. ā́ǰi.a-
*ǰ → j
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to OIA
R2ndPalat2OIA4 → RV. ā́ji.a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
RV. aktú-
(m.) [in Mg.] ‘Salbe’
(WbRV. 5)
1. PIE *hɑegutú-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑagutú-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑagutú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hagutú-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hagutú-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *agutú-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. agutú-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → RV. agtú-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)


PIE √hɑl-, √ɦɑl- ‘Hürde, Hof, Umrahmung’ (vb.) ‘eifassen, ausstatten’
(IEW 672)
(+ Pyysalo)
√hɑl-
(HEG 1:128-9)
Hitt. ḫal-
(n.) ‘Hürde für Großvieh, Viehhof, Mauer’
(HIL. 319)
(Hitt. ḫa-a-li [DL])
1. PIE *hɑel-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑal-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑal-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hal-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hal-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫal-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑli-
Hitt. ḫali-
(n.) ‘Hürde für Großvieh, Viehhof, Mauer’
(HHand. 36)
(Hitt. ḫa-a-li [NA], ḫa-a-li-ia-aš, ḫa-al-li-ia)
1. PIE *hɑeli-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑali-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑali-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hali-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hali-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫali-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑlis-
(HEG 1:132)
Hitt. ḫališa-
(.) ‘Einfassung, Umrahmung’ ?
(HHand. 36)
(Hitt. ḫališaz [sgAbl.], EHS 328)
1. PIE *hɑeliso-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaliso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaliso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haliso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. haliso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *halisa-
(XX:XX)
4. halisa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hališa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. hališa-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫališa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫališei̯a-
(vb.) ‘einfassen, ausstatten, schmücken’
(HEG 1:132)
(in Hitt. ḫališei̯auar, cf. below)
1. PIE *hɑelisei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalisei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalisei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halisei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halisei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *halisei̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. halisei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hališei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. hališei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫališei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫališei̯au̯ar-
(vn.) ‘= Akd. uḫḫuzzu ‘überzogen’
(EḪS 492n1.)
1. PIE *hɑelisei̯ou̯or-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalisei̯ou̯or-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalisei̯ou̯or-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halisei̯ou̯or-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halisei̯ou̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *halisei̯au̯ar-
(XX:XX)
4. halisei̯au̯ar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hališei̯au̯ar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. hališei̯au̯ar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫališei̯au̯ar-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑlisso-
IllyrG. λισσο-
(URU.m.) ‘cour, palais, forum’
(DLG. 204)
(Ill. λισσος)
1. PIE *hɑlisso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hlisso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hlisso-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *lisso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. lisso-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → IllyrG. λισσο-
Illyr. lisso-
(URU.n.) ‘cour, palais, forum’
(DLG. 204)
(Ill. lissum)
1. PIE *hɑlisso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hlisso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hlisso-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Illyr. lisso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
OBret. liss-
(.) ‘cour’
(DLG. 204)
1. PIE *hɑlisso
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hlisso
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hlisso
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *lisso
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. lisso
*o- → Ø
Loss of root-final *o
RLossFinalo → OBret. liss
Cymr. llys-
(.) ‘cour, palais, forum’
(DLG. 204)
1. PIE *hɑlisso
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hlisso
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hlisso
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *lisso
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. lisso
*o- → Ø
Loss of root-final *o
RLossFinalo → *liss
4. liss
*l- → ll-
Gemination of root-initial *l-
RInitiall2ll → *lliss
5. lliss
*i → y
Orthographic change of *i into y
RChangei2y → Cymr. llyss
Bret. less-
(.) ‘cour, tribunal’
(DLG. 204)
(Bret. les)
1. PIE *hɑlisso
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hlisso
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hlisso
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *lisso
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. lisso
*iCo → eCo
Lowering of *i into e
RLoweeisso2esso → *lesso
4. lesso
*o- → Ø
Loss of root-final *o
RLossFinalo → Bret. less
OIr. less-
(.) ‘court yard’
(DLG. 204)
1. PIE *hɑlisso
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hlisso
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hlisso
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *lisso
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. lisso
*iCo → eCo
Lowering of *i into e
RLoweeisso2esso → *lesso
4. lesso
*-o → Ø
Loss of root-final *o
RLossFinalo → OIr. less
√hɑlist-
(IEW. 672-3)
[WP. 2:405]
OEng. līsta·n-
(f.) ‘list, hem, border, selvage’
(ASaxD. 643)
(OEng. líste, lístane)
1. PIE *hɑleistēɑh·n-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *hɑleistāɑh·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. hɑleistāɑh·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hleistāh·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hleistāh·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *leistā·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. leistā·n-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → *leista·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
5. leista·n-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
RMonophthei2i → OEng. līsta·n-
OIcl. lista·n-
(f.) ‘Rand, Leiste’
(ANEtWb. 358)
(Spät erzeugt, ‹OIcl. i !›)
1. PIE *hɑlistēɑh·n-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *hɑlistāɑh·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. hɑlistāɑh·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hlistāh·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hlistāh·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *listā·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. listā·n-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → OIcl. lista·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
OHG. līsta·n-
(f.) ‘bandförmiger Streifen, Saum, Borte, Leiste, limbus, fimbria’
(ASaxD. 643)
1. PIE *hɑleistēɑh·n-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *hɑleistāɑh·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. hɑleistāɑh·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hleistāh·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hleistāh·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *leistā·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. leistā·n-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → *leista·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
5. leista·n-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
RMonophthei2i → OHG. līsta·n-
OGaul. listinā-
(URU.) ‘en Belgique’
(DLG. 204)
(OGaul. listinas, Lit. H2 240-42, US 247, DGVB 244, LEB 185, VKG 1, 367)
1. PIE *hɑlistinēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *hɑlistināɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. hɑlistināɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hlistināh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hlistināh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → OGaul. listinā
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)


PIE √hɑl- √ɦal- (vb.) ‘wachen, sehen’ (sb.) ‘Wachter, Hüter’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√hɑele/o-
(Pyysalo)
(HEG 1:129)
Gr. ἄπ.αλο-
(pr.) Hes. = ‘ἀμελοῦντες’
(LSJ. 176)
(Hes. ἀπ·αλέντες [plN])
1. PIE *hɑép.hɑelo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑép.hɑalo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑép.hɑalo-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Colouring rule for *aé
RColouring1b → *hɑáp.hɑalo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
3. hɑáp.hɑalo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *háp.halo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. háp.halo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *áp.alo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. áp.alo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἄπ.αλο-
Gr. ἀλε·βεβάο-
(vb.) ‘ἐρευνᾶν’
(LSJ. 61)
(Hes. ἀλεβεβᾶν · ἐρευνᾶν)
1. PIE *hɑele·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑale·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑale·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hale·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hale·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ale·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ale·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἀλε·Σ-
√hɑeleio-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ḫalei̯a-
(c.) ‘Wache, Nachtwache’
(EHS 176)
1. PIE *hɑelei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *halei̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. halei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫalei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Gr. ἄλεο-
(vb.) ‘to guard’
(LSJ. 61)
(Gr. ἄλεε · φύλασσε)
1. PIE *hɑélei̯o-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Colouring rule for *aé
RColouring1b → *hɑálei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑálei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hálei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hálei̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *álei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. álei̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RLossyinVyV → *áleo-
5. áleo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἄλεο-
Gr. ἀπ.άλεο-
(inf.) ‘Hes. = ἀμελεῖν’
(LSJ. 176)
(Gr. ἀπ·αλεῖν)
1. PIE *hɑep.hɑélei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑap.hɑélei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑap.hɑélei̯o-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Colouring rule for *aé
RColouring1b → *hɑap.hɑálei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
3. hɑap.hɑálei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hap.hálei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. hap.hálei̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ap.álei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ap.álei̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RLossyinVyV → *ap.áleo-
6. ap.áleo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἀπ.άλεο-
Hitt. ḫalei̯a·dala-
(N.ag.c.) ‘Hüter, Wachter’
(HHand. 36)
1. PIE *hɑelei̯o·dɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalei̯o·dɑɦolo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalei̯o·dɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halei̯o·dɦolo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halei̯o·dɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *halei̯a·dɦala-
(XX:XX)
4. halei̯a·dɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *halei̯a·dala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. halei̯a·dala-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫalei̯a·dala-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)


PIE √hɑl- (sb.) ‘Höhlung’ (a.) ‘tief’ (vb.) ‘niederknien, -fallen, sich prosternieren’
(IEW. 88)
(Pyysalo 2013:156-7)
√hɑl-
OInd. āra-
(m.) ‘Höhlung’
(EWA 3:23)
(KEWA 1:77)
1. PIE *hɑēlo-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Colouring rule for *ɑē
RColouring2a → *hɑālo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. hɑālo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hālo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hālo-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
RChangelr1 → *hāro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
4. hāro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hāra-
5. hāra-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → OInd. āra-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Lith. olà-
(f.) ‘Höhle, Grube; ‹not ‹- MidLG. hol ‘Höhle, Grube’.’
(LiEtWb. 516)
1. PIE *hɑēlḗɑh
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Colouring rule for *ɑē
RColouring2a → *hɑālḗɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. hɑālḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *hɑālā́ɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. hɑālā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hālā́h
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. hālā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ālā́
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ālā́
*ā → ō
Change of ā into ō
RChangeA2O1 → *ōlā́
6. ōlā́
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
RChangeA202 → *ōlṓ
7. ōlṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
RFinalo2a2 → *ōlà
8. ōlà
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27a → Lith. olà
√hɑli-
Gr. ἄλι-
(c.) ‘shallow vessel, saucer’
(LSJ. 66)
(Gr. ἄλιρ [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑéli-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Colouring rule for *aé
RColouring1b → *hɑáli-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑáli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *háli-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. háli-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *áli-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. áli-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἄλι-
Gr. ἀλί·βατο-
(a.) ‘high, steep, deep, abysmal’
(LSJ. 768)
(Gr. ἀλίβατος)
1. PIE *hɑelí·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalí·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalí·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halí·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halí·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *alí·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. alí·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἀλί·Σ-
Hitt. ḫalei̯a-
(vb.) ‘niederknien, sich prosternieren, niederfallen’
(HEG I:130-1)
1. PIE *hɑelei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *halei̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. halei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫalei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑlu-
(Oettinger 1979:484-5)
Hitt. haleia- + Hitt. halu-
Hitt. ḫalu-
(a.) ‘tief’ (sb.) ‘Höhlung’
(HEG 1:135-6)
1. PIE *hɑelu-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halu-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫalu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Lat. aluo-
(f.) ‘Höhlung, Wölbung’
(WH 1:35)
(Lat. aluus [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑelu̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *alu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. alu̯o-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
ROrthogrW2u → Lat. aluo-
OInd. ·arvīṣa-
(.) ‘a hole from which vapours arise’
(Burrow 1976:33)
1. PIE *hɑelu̯·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalu̯·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu̯·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halu̯·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halu̯·Σ-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
RChangelr1 → *haru̯·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
4. haru̯·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *aru̯·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. aru̯·Σ-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
RChangeW2V → OInd. arv·Σ-


PIE √hɑl- √ɦɑl- (a.) ‘gläzend, weiß, heiß, rein’ (sb.) ‘Tag, Jahr, Zeit’
(IEW. 24 [diff.])
(Pyysalo)
√hɑli-
(Pyysalo 2013:128)
(HEG I:129-30)
HLu. ḫali-
(sb.) ‘day’
(CHLu. 1.1.6)
(HLu. (“DIES‹”›)ha-lí-za)
1. PIE *hɑelei-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halei-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R18 → HLu. ḫalei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
CLu. ḫalei-
(sb.) ‘Tag’
(DLL. 38)
(CLu. ḫal-li-ia [sgD])
1. PIE *hɑelei-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halei-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. ḫalei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
HLu. ḫali-
(.) ‘= Ḫattušili’
(CHLu. 6.2.17c)
(HLu. HÁLI-i-sa)
1. PIE *hɑeli-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑali-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑali-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hali-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hali-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R18 → HLu. ḫali-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
Hitt. ḫali·[…
(URU.) “In der Gegend von › Tuwanuwa ?”
(OGH. 69)
(Hitt. ḫal-li[)
1. PIE *hɑeli·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑali·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑali·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hali·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hali·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫali·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Lat. ōli-
(adv.bs.) ‘einmal, einst, zuweilen’
(WH 2:206-7)
(Lat. ōlim [adv.])
1. PIE *hɑōli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hōli-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hōli-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Lat. ōli-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
OInd. par·āri
(adv.) ‘in the year before last’
(MonWil. 589)
1. PIE *Π·hɑōli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·hōli-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·hōli-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
RChangelr1 → *Π·hōri-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
3. Π·hōri-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *Π·hāri-
4. Π·hāri-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → OInd. Π·āri-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
OInd. par·āri·tna-
(a.) ‘belonging to the year before last’
(IEW. 24 [diff.])
1. PIE *Π·hɑōli·tno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·hōli·tno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·hōli·tno-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
RChangelr1 → *Π·hōri·tno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
3. Π·hōri·tno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·hōri·tna-
4. Π·hōri·tna-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *Π·hāri·tna-
5. Π·hāri·tna-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → OInd. Π·āri·tna-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
√hɑleio-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. ḫalei̯a-
(sb.) ‘day’
(CHLu. 1.1.32)
(HLu. (“DIES”)ha-li-ia-za)
1. PIE *hɑelei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *halei̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. halei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R18 → HLu. ḫalei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
Gr. τινθ·αλέο-
(a.) ‘kochend heiß’
(GEW 2:902)
1. PIE *tintɑh·hɑeléi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *tintɑh·hɑaléi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. tintɑh·hɑaléi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tinth·haléi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tinth·haléi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *tinth·aléi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. tinth·aléi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RLossyinVyV → *tinth·aléo-
5. tinth·aléo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. τινθ·αλέο-
Hitt. ḫalei̯at-
(.) ‘Tag’
(HHand. 36)
1. PIE *hɑelei̯ot-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalei̯ot-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalei̯ot-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halei̯ot-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halei̯ot-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *halei̯at-
(XX:XX)
4. halei̯at-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫalei̯at-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
CLu. ḫalei̯ata-
(SISKUR.SISKUR.) ‘purification-offering (?)’
(DLL. 39)
(CLu. ḫal-li-ia-at-ta-an-za [plA])
1. PIE *hɑelei̯oto-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalei̯oto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalei̯oto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halei̯oto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halei̯oto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *halei̯ata-
(XX:XX)
4. halei̯ata-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. ḫalei̯ata-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
√hɑlis-
CLu. ḫališa-
(sb.) ‘pureté’
(DLL. 38)
(HLu. ḫa-li-iš-ša, ḫa-li-eš-ša)
1. PIE *hɑeliso-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaliso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaliso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haliso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. haliso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *halisa-
(XX:XX)
4. halisa-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → *ḫalisa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
5. ḫalisa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R18 → CLu. ḫališa-
HLu. ḫališi-
(.) ‘= Ḫattušili-’
(CHLu. 6.3.1)
(HLu. HÁ+LI-si-sá)
1. PIE *hɑelisi-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalisi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalisi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halisi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halisi-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R18 → *ḫalisi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
4. ḫalisi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R19 → HLu. ḫališi-


PIE √hɑl- √ɦɑl- (a.) ‘vollständig, ganz, unversehrt’
(IEW XX)
√hɑlo-
Goth. ala·mod-
(PNm.) ‘Alamod, a deacon’
(GoEtD. 25)
1. PIE *hɑolo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *holo·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. holo·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *olo·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. olo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → Goth. ala·Σ-
(XX:XX)
Goth. ala·funs-
(PNm.) ‘Sp. alfonso = willig’
(GoEtD. 131)
1. PIE *hɑolo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *holo·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. holo·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *olo·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. olo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → Goth. ala·Σ-
(XX:XX)
Goth. ala·mann-
(m.) ‘all people, humanity’
(GoEtD. 25)
1. PIE *hɑolo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *holo·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. holo·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *olo·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. olo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → Goth. ala·Σ-
(XX:XX)
√hɑli-
TochB. alya-
(a.) ‘entire, uncastrated (rams)’
(DTochB. 53)
(TochB. alyi yrim)
1. PIE *hɑoli̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *holi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. holi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hali̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. hali̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ali̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ali̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → TochB. alya-
Arm. ołǰ-
(a.) ‘whole, sound’
(ArmGr. XX)
1. PIE *hɑoligɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *holigɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. holigɦu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *oligɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. oligɦu̯o-
gɦu/u̯ → ǰɦ
Palatalization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
ChangeGHW2JH → *oliǰɦo-
4. oliǰɦo-
*ǰɦ → ǰ
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspJh → Arm. oliǰo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
Arm. aṙ·ołǰ-
(a.) ‘gesund, vollständig, unversehrt’
(ArmGr. 1:416)
1. PIE *Π·hɑoligɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·holigɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·holigɦu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·oligɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. Π·oligɦu̯o-
gɦu/u̯ → ǰɦ
Palatalization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
ChangeGHW2JH → *Π·oliǰɦo-
4. Π·oliǰɦo-
*ǰɦ → ǰ
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspJh → Arm. Π·oliǰo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
Arm. amb·ołǰ-
(a.) ‘vollständig, ganz, unversehrt’
(ArmGr. 1:416)
1. PIE *Π·hɑoligɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·holigɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·holigɦu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·oligɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. Π·oligɦu̯o-
gɦu/u̯ → ǰɦ
Palatalization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
ChangeGHW2JH → *Π·oliǰɦo-
4. Π·oliǰɦo-
*ǰɦ → ǰ
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspJh → Arm. Π·oliǰo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
Lith. aliái
(adv.) ‘völlig’
(LiEtWb. XX)
1. PIE *hɑolióɑhi
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *holióhi
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. holióhi
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *oliói
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. oliói
*o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *aliói
4. aliói
*ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → Lith. aliái
√hɑln-
Osc. allo-
(a.f.) ‘ganz, gesamt’
(WbOU. 81)
(Osc. allo [f.sgN])
1. PIE *hɑelno-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *alno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. alno-
*ln → ll
Assimilation of *ln into ll
RAssimLN → Osc. allo-
Lat. all·ert-
(a.) ‘sollers, gelehrt, gebilded, geschickt’
(WH X:XX)
1. PIE *hɑeln·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaln·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaln·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haln·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. haln·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *aln·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. aln·Σ-
*ln → ll
Assimilation of *ln into ll
RAssimLN → Lat. all·Σ-
Goth. all-
(a.) ‘all, ganz, jeder’
(Goth. alls [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑelno
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalno
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalno
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halno
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halno
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *alno
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. alno
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *alna
(XX:XX)
5. alna
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → Goth. aln
OIcl. all-
(a.) ‘XX’
(ANEtWb. XX)
1. PIE *hɑelno
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalno
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalno
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halno
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halno
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *alno
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. alno
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *alna
(XX:XX)
5. alna
-a → Ø
Loss of -a in root-final position
RLossFinala1 → *aln
6. aln
*ln → ll
Assimilation of *ln into ll
RAssimLN → OIcl. all


PIE √hɑl- (sb.) ‘Wasser, Gewässer’
(IEW XX)
√hɑli-
Russ. olĭga-
(f.) ‘morastiger Sumpf : morass’
(REW X:XX)
1. PIE *hɑeligēɑɦ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaligēɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaligēɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *hɑaligāɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. hɑaligāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haligāɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. haligāɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *haligā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. haligā-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *aligā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. aligā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *oligā-
7. oligā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → *oliga-
8. oliga-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
ROrthogri2i → Russ. olĭga-
√hɑlin-
OInd. aliñ·jara-
(.) ‘Wassertopf’
(EWA III:16)
(KEWA I:55f.)
1. PIE *hɑeLin·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaLin·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaLin·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haLin·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. haLin·Σ-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RChangelr4 → *halin·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
4. halin·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → OInd. alin·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Gr. ἀλίνο-
(pr.) ‘XX’
(XX:XX)
(Gr. ἀλίνω)
1. PIE *hɑelíno-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalíno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalíno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halíno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halíno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *alíno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. alíno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἀλίνο-
√hɑlibɑɦ-
Gr. ἀλείφο-
(pr.) ‘XX’ (XX:XX)
(Gr. ἀλείφω)
1. PIE *hɑeleíbɑɦo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaleíbɑɦo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaleíbɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haleíbɦo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. haleíbɦo-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
RDevoicebh → *haleípho-
4. haleípho-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *aleípho-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. aleípho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἀλείφο-
Arm. ałb·iur-
(sb.) ‘Quelle’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *hɑelibɑɦ·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalibɑɦ·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalibɑɦ·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halibɦ·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halibɦ·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *alibɦ·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. alibɦ·Σ-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspbh → Arm. alib·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
Arm. ·ałbewr
(.) ‘spring, fountain, Persson Wz. 126’
(Hü. V.13)
(Arm. ałbewr; ałber [sgG])
1. PIE *hɑelibɑɦ·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalibɑɦ·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalibɑɦ·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halibɦ·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halibɦ·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *alibɦ·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. alibɦ·Σ-
*bɦ → b
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspbh → Arm. alib·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
√hɑliu-
Hitt. ḫaliu̯a·ni-
(.) ‘Rhyton, Trinkhorn’
(HHand. 36)
1. PIE *hɑeliu̯o·ni-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaliu̯o·ni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaliu̯o·ni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haliu̯o·ni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. haliu̯o·ni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *haliu̯a·ni-
(XX:XX)
4. haliu̯a·ni-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaliu̯a·ni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑlu-
Hitt. ḫalua·na-
(.) ‘Rhyton, Trinkhorn’
(HHand. 37)
1. PIE *hɑelu̯o·no-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalu̯o·no-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu̯o·no-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halu̯o·no-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halu̯o·no-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *halu̯a·na-
(XX:XX)
4. halu̯a·na-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫalu̯a·na-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫalua·na-
(PÚc.) ‘S. > Aldanni.’
(OGH. 527)
(Hitt. ḫal-ua-an-na-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑelu̯o·no-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalu̯o·no-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu̯o·no-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halu̯o·no-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halu̯o·no-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *halu̯a·na-
(XX:XX)
4. halu̯a·na-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫalu̯a·na-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫalua·na-
(ḪUR.SAG.) ‘Göttlicher Berg, verehrt in > Urišta.
(OGH. 74-5)
(Hitt. ḫal-ua-an-na-(an))
1. PIE *hɑelu̯o·no-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalu̯o·no-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu̯o·no-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halu̯o·no-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halu̯o·no-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *halu̯a·na-
(XX:XX)
4. halu̯a·na-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫalu̯a·na-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫalua·ni-
(c.) ‘Gefäss für Flüssigkeiten’
(HEG1:132, 138-9)
1. PIE *hɑelu̯o·ni-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalu̯o·ni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu̯o·ni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halu̯o·ni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halu̯o·ni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *halu̯a·ni-
(XX:XX)
4. halu̯a·ni-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫalu̯a·ni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫalua·dala-
(DUG.) ‘ein Gefäß’
(XX:XX)
(Hitt. DUGḫaluatala-)
1. PIE *hɑelu̯o·dɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑalu̯o·dɑɦolo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑalu̯o·dɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *halu̯o·dɦolo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. halu̯o·dɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *halu̯a·dɦala-
(XX:XX)
4. halu̯a·dɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *halu̯a·dala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. halu̯a·dala-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫalu̯a·dala-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
OIcl. ǫldr-
(n.) ‘Trinkgelage’
(ANEtWb. XX)
1. PIE *hɑeludɑɦro
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaludɑɦro
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaludɑɦro
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haludɦro
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. haludɦro
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *aludɦro
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. aludɦro
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → *aludro
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. aludro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *aludra
(XX:XX)
6. aludra
-a → Ø
Loss of -a in root-final position
RLossFinala1 → *aludr
7. aludr
*a — u → ǫ — Ø
Umlaut for a — u
RUmlautalu → OIcl. ǫldr
Lith. aluntà-
(f.) ‘Flußname’
(LiEtWb. 8)
1. PIE *hɑeluntḗɑh
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaluntḗɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaluntḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *hɑaluntā́ɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. hɑaluntā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haluntā́h
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. haluntā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *aluntā́
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. aluntā́
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
RChangeA202 → *aluntṓ
6. aluntṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
RFinalo2a2 → Lith. aluntà


PIE √hɑl- (vb.) ‘zerstören, zertreten’
√hɑl-
Gr. ὄλωλ-
(pf.intr.) ‘verderben’
(GEW X:XX)
(Gr. ὄλωλα)
1. PIE *hɑólehɑol-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hólehol-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hólehol-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *óleol-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. óleol-
*eo → ō
Contraction of eo into ō
RContracteo2O → *ólōl-
4. ólōl-
*ōRC → oRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ōRC
ROsthoffo1 → *ólol-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
5. ólol-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ὄλολ-
√hɑlo-
(HW2 H: 18)
(Puhvel HED 3: 13, Oettinger 1979a: 81, Melchert 1994a: 82)
Hitt. ḫala·nei̯a-
(vbA.) ‘zertreten, zerstören’ (HHand. 35)
(EHS 561)
1. PIE *hɑolo·nei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *holo·nei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. holo·nei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hala·nei̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. hala·nei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫala·nei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫala·nei̯a-
(vbM.) ‘zertreten, zerstören ‹obj. ‘field’›’
(HHand. 35)
(Hitt. nu A.ŠÀ-aš-ti-iš ḫal-la-ni-ia-at-ta-ri)
1. PIE *hɑolo·nei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *holo·nei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. holo·nei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hala·nei̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. hala·nei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫala·nei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. arḫa ḫala·neiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘zerstören’
(HIL. 318)
1. PIE *Π·hɑolo·neiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·holo·neiski̯e/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·holo·neiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *Π·holo·neisḱe/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. Π·holo·neisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·hala·neisḱe/a-
(XX:XX)
4. Π·hala·neisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *Π·hala·neiske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. Π·hala·neiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *Π·hala·neiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. Π·hala·neiške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. Π·ḫala·neiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑli-
(Adams: Toch. + Lat.)
Lat. ab·oleo-
(pr.) ‘destroy, do away’
(WH 2:XX)
(Lat. ab·oleō)
1. PIE *Π·hɑolei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·holei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·holei̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·olei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. Π·olei̯o-
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
RLossY1 → Lat. Π·oleo-
TochB. elyeñcai-
(a.) ‘doing ill (to someone)(?)’
(DTochB. 969)
1. PIE *hɑoli̯enti̯ōi
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *holi̯enti̯ōi
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. holi̯enti̯ōi
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hali̯enti̯ōi
(XX:XX)
3. hali̯enti̯ōi
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *hali̯enti̯āi
(XX:XX)
4. hali̯enti̯āi
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
RChangee2Ya → *hali̯i̯anti̯āi
5. hali̯i̯anti̯āi
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
RDentAssib1a → *hali̯i̯ancāi
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
6. hali̯i̯ancāi
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ali̯i̯ancāi
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. ali̯i̯ancāi
*nc → ñc
Palatalization of *n before c
RPalatNC → *ali̯i̯añcāi
8. ali̯i̯añcāi
āi → ai
Orthographic change of āi into ai
ROrthOIA8 → *ali̯i̯añcai
9. ali̯i̯añcai
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → TochB. alyyañcai
√hɑlin-
CLu. ḫalina-
(vb.?) ‘krank sein (?), HHand. 36’
(DLL. 39)
1. PIE *hɑolino-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *holino-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. holino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *halina-
(XX:XX)
3. halina-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. ḫalina-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
Gr. ἐν·αλίνο-
(pr.) ‘engrave, inscribe’
(XX:XX)
(Gr. ἐναλίνω)
1. PIE *en·hɑelíno-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *en·hɑalíno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. en·hɑalíno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *en·halíno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. en·halíno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *en·alíno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. en·alíno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἐν·αλίνο-
√hɑlis-
CLu. ḫališ-
(n.) ‘Krankheit (?)’
(HHand. 36)
1. PIE *hɑolis-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *holis-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. holis-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *halis-
(XX:XX)
3. halis-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → *ḫalis-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
4. ḫalis-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R18 → CLu. ḫališ-
Gr. ἀλοιάο-
(pr.) ‘thresh, bruise, crush, destroy’
(GEW 1:82)
(Gr. ἀλοιάω)
1. PIE *hɑeloiseɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaloiseɑhi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaloiseɑhi̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *hɑaloisaɑhi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
3. hɑaloisaɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haloisahi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. haloisahi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *aloisai̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. aloisai̯o-
*s → h
Change *s into h
RChanges2h → *aloihai̯o-
6. aloihai̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RLossyinVyV → *aloihao-
7. aloihao-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
RLossofh → *aloiao-
8. aloiao-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἀλοιαο-
Gr. ἀπ.άλοιάο-
(pr.) ‘thresh out, bruise, crush, destroy’
(LSJ. 176)
(Gr. ἀπάλοιάω)
1. PIE *hɑep.hɑeloiseɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑap.hɑaloiseɑhi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑap.hɑaloiseɑhi̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *hɑap.hɑaloisaɑhi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
3. hɑap.hɑaloisaɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hap.haloisahi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. hap.haloisahi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ap.aloisai̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ap.aloisai̯o-
*s → h
Change *s into h
RChanges2h → *ap.aloihai̯o-
6. ap.aloihai̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RLossyinVyV → *ap.aloihao-
7. ap.aloihao-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
RLossofh → *ap.aloiao-
8. ap.aloiao-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἀπ.αλοιαο-
Dor. ἰν·αλαλισ-
(pf.) ‘XX’
(LSJ. 553)
(Cypr. ἰν·αλαλισμένα)
1. PIE *in·hɑelhɑeliss-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *in·hɑalhɑaliss-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. in·hɑalhɑaliss-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *in·halhaliss-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. in·halhaliss-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *in·alaliss-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. in·alaliss-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Dor. ἰν·αλαλισσ-


PIE √hɑlu- ‘harm, injure, quarrel, enemity’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√hɑlu-
Gr. ἄλυ-
(c.) ‘βλάβη’
(Hirt 1900:117)
(Gr. ἄλυς · βλάβη)
1. PIE *hɑélu-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Colouring rule for *aé
RColouring1b → *hɑálu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑálu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hálu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hálu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *álu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. álu-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἄλυ-
√hɑluoi-
Hitt. ḫalu̯ai-
(c.) ‘Streit, Zank, Feindschaft’
(HEG 1:137-8)
(Weitenberg 1984:435)
1. PIE *hɑolu̯oi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *holu̯oi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. holu̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *halu̯ai-
(XX:XX)
3. halu̯ai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫalu̯ai-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫalu̯ai-
(vb.) ‘streiten’
(HHand. 37)
1. PIE *hɑolu̯oi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *holu̯oi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. holu̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *halu̯ai-
(XX:XX)
3. halu̯ai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫalu̯ai-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑluki-
Att. ὀλυττεύ-
(m.) ‘Odysseus’
(HiIdgGr. 208)
(Gr. ὀλυττευς · ὀδυσσεύς)
1. PIE *hɑolukii̯eú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *holukii̯eú-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. holukii̯eú-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *holuḱi̯eú-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. holuḱi̯eú-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *oluḱi̯eú-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. oluḱi̯eú-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *oluki̯eú-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. oluki̯eú-
*ki̯ → tt
Assibilation of *ki̯ into tt
RChangeky2ss → *olutteú-
6. olutteú-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Att. ὀλυττεύ-


PIE √hɑn-, √ɦɑn- ‘entscheiden, richten, urteilen’
(IEW 615-6+1084-5)
(+ Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√hɑn-
(HEG I:146-8)
(HIL. 330-33, HW2 H: 135f., Puhvel HED 3: 82-3)
Hitt. ḫan-
(vb2.) ‘entscheiden, richten, urteilen’
(HHand. 38)
(Hitt. ḫa-an-na-an-zi, ḫa-an-na-ri, Kimball (1999:414)
1. PIE *hɑen-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑan-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑan-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *han-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. han-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫan-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
RV. somá.an-
(m.) ‘Somabringer, Somabereiter’
(WbRV. 1580)
(RV. somáanam suáraṇam kr̥ṇuhí [2sg])
1. PIE *sohɑumóHɑen-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *sohɑumóHɑan-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. sohɑumóHɑan-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *sohumóHan-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. sohumóHan-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *sahumóHan-
4. sahumóHan-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *sahumáHan-
5. sahumáHan-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RVedicHiatus → *sahumá.an-
6. sahumá.an-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *saumá.an-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. saumá.an-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RChangeAU2O1 → *sōmá.an-
8. sōmá.an-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthOIA6 → RV. somá.an-
√hɑno-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ḫana-
(vb2.) ‘entscheiden, richten, urteilen’
(HHand. 38)
(Hitt. ḫa-an-na-ḫi, ḫa-an-na-i, Oettinger 1979:361fn213)
1. PIE *hɑeno-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑano-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑano-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hano-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hano-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hana-
(XX:XX)
4. hana-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫana-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Gr. κοίρ·ανο-
(m.) ‘commander, ruler’
(GEW 1:894)
(Hom. κοίρανε λαων [Il.7.234])
1. PIE *Π·hɑeno-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *Π·hɑano-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. Π·hɑano-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·hano-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·hano-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·ano-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·ano-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. Π·ανο-
Goth. þiud·an-
(m.) ‘king : König’
(GoEtD. 361)
(Goth. þiudans [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·hɑeno
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *Π·hɑano
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. Π·hɑano
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·hano
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·hano
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·ano
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·ano
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *Π·ana
(XX:XX)
5. Π·ana
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → Goth. Π·an
OIcl. þjōd·an-
(m.) ‘Fürst, König’
(ANEtWb. 613)
(OIcl. þjōðann [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·hɑeno
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *Π·hɑano
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. Π·hɑano
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·hano
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·hano
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·ano
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·ano
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *Π·ana
(XX:XX)
5. Π·ana
-a → Ø
Loss of -a in root-final position
RLossFinala1 → OIcl. Π·an
OIcl. herj·an-
(.) ‘BN. Odins, Führer des Heeres’
(ANEtWb. 223)
(Oicl. herjann [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·hɑeno
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *Π·hɑano
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. Π·hɑano
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·hano
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·hano
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·ano
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·ano
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *Π·ana
(XX:XX)
5. Π·ana
-a → Ø
Loss of -a in root-final position
RLossFinala1 → OIcl. Π·an
OEng. þeōd·en-
(m.) ‘the chief of a þeōd, a prince, king’
(ASaxD. 1048)
(OEng. þeōden)
1. PIE *Π·hɑeno
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *Π·hɑano
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. Π·hɑano
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·hano
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·hano
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·ano
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·ano
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *Π·ana
(XX:XX)
5. Π·ana
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *Π·an
6. Π·an
*an → en
Rising of a into e before n-
RRisingan2en → OEng. Π·en
OBret. cori·ono·tota-
(m.) ‘chef du peuple en armes’
(DLG 126)
(OBret. corionotota)
1. PIE *Π·hɑono·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·hono·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·hono·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → OBret. Π·ono·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
√hɑnɑh-
Mess. anā-
(f.) ‘πότνια’
(Krahe IF 46:183f.)
(Mess. ana)
1. PIE *hɑenēɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *hɑanāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. hɑanāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. hanāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Mess. anā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Illyr. anā-
(f.) ‘πότνια’
(W. Schulze KZ 43:276)
(Illyr. ana)
1. PIE *hɑenēɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *hɑanāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. hɑanāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. hanāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Illyr. anā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
IllyrG. ἄνᾱ-
(PN.f.) ‘πότνια’
(W. Schulze KZ 43:276)
1. PIE *hɑénēɑh-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Colouring rule for *aé
RColouring1b → *hɑánēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑánēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *hɑánāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. hɑánāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hánāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. hánāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ánā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ánā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → IllyrG. ἄνᾱ-
Illyr. teut·anā-
(f.) ‘regina’
(DLG. 126)
1. PIE *tɑheutɑh·hɑenēɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *tɑheutɑh·hɑanēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. tɑheutɑh·hɑanēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *tɑheutɑh·hɑanāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. tɑheutɑh·hɑanāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *theuth·hanāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. theuth·hanāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *theuth·anā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. theuth·anā-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
RDeaspth → Illyr. teut·anā-
Goth. þiud·ano-
(vb.) ‘be king, rule’
(GoEtD. 361)
(Goth. þiudanon)
1. PIE *Π·hɑenēɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *Π·hɑanēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. Π·hɑanēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·hɑanāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. Π·hɑanāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·hanāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. Π·hanāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·anā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·anā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
RChangeA2O1 → *Π·anō-
(XX:XX)
6. Π·anō-
*ō → o
Orthographic change of *ō into o
ROrthogrO2o → Goth. Π·ano-
√hɑni-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. ḫanaa-
(?) [vb.] ‘entscheiden, richten ’
(DLL. 39)
(CLu. ḫa-an-na-a [2sgIpv.])
1. PIE *hɑenoi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanoi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanoi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanoi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanoi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hanai̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. hanai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
RAnatGlide1 → *hanaa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.4.2)
5. hanaa-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. ḫanaa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
Hitt. ḫani-
(vb.) ‘entscheiden, richten’
(HIL. 330)
(Hitt. ḫa-an-ni [2sg])
1. PIE *hɑeni-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑani-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑani-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hani-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hani-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫani-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫaniš-
(vbA.) ‘entscheiden, richten’
(HIL. 330)
(Hitt. ḫa-an-ni-iš-[ta], ḫan-ni-eš-tén)
1. PIE *hɑenis-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanis-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanis-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanis-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanis-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *haniš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. haniš-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaniš-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫaniške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘entscheiden, richten’
(HHand. 38)
(Hitt. ḫa-an-ni-iš-ke/a-, ḫa-an-ne-iš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *hɑeniski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaniski̯e/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaniski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *haniski̯e/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. haniski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *hanisḱe/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. hanisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hanisḱe/a-
(XX:XX)
5. hanisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *haniske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. haniske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *haniške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. haniške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaniške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫanišar-
(n.N.act.) ‘Recht(ssache), Gericht’ (DI-eš-šar)
(HHand. 38)
(Hitt. ḫa-an-ne-eš-šar)
1. PIE *hɑenisor-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanisor-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanisor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanisor-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanisor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hanisar-
(XX:XX)
4. hanisar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hanišar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. hanišar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫanišar-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫanišn-
(n.N.act.) ‘Recht(ssache), Gericht’ (DI-eš-šar)
(HHand. 38)
(Hitt. ḫa-an-ni-eš-na)
1. PIE *hɑenisn-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanisn-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanisn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanisn-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanisn-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hanišn-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hanišn-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫanišn-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫanišnan-
(n.) ‘jurisdiction’
(HIL. 331)
(Hitt. ḫa-an-ni-eš-na-an-ni)
1. PIE *hɑenisnon-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanisnon-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanisnon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanisnon-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanisnon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hanisnan-
(XX:XX)
4. hanisnan-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hanišnan-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. hanišnan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫanišnan-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫanišnant-
(c.) ‘Urteil’
(HHand. 38)
(Hitt. ḫa-an-ni-iš-na-an-za)
1. PIE *hɑenisnont-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanisnont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanisnont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanisnont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanisnont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hanisnant-
(XX:XX)
4. hanisnant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hanišnant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. hanišnant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫanišnant-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫanišnatar-
(n.) ‘Rechtswesen’
(HHand. 38)
1. PIE *hɑenisnotor-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanisnotor-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanisnotor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanisnotor-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanisnotor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hanisnatar-
(XX:XX)
4. hanisnatar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hanišnatar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. hanišnatar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫanišnatar-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√ɦɑnidɑɦoluo-
Hitt. ḫanidalu̯a-
(c.) ‘Gerichtsgegner’
(HHand. 38)
1. PIE *hɑenidɑɦolu̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanidɑɦolu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanidɑɦolu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanidɦolu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanidɦolu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hanidɦalu̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. hanidɦalu̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *hanidalu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. hanidalu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫanidalu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫanidalu̯ana-
(c.) ‘Gerichtsgegner’
(HHand. 38)
(Hitt. ḫa-an-ni-tal-ua-na-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑenidɑɦolu̯ono-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanidɑɦolu̯ono-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanidɑɦolu̯ono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanidɦolu̯ono-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanidɦolu̯ono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hanidɦalu̯ana-
(XX:XX)
4. hanidɦalu̯ana-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *hanidalu̯ana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. hanidalu̯ana-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫanidalu̯ana-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫanidalu̯aiš-
(vb2.) ‘Prozeßgegner werden’
(HHand. 38)
(Hitt. ḫa-an-ni-tal-ua-eš-šer [3pl])
1. PIE *hɑenidɑɦolu̯ois-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanidɑɦolu̯ois-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanidɑɦolu̯ois-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanidɦolu̯ois-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanidɦolu̯ois-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hanidɦalu̯ais-
(XX:XX)
4. hanidɦalu̯ais-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *hanidalu̯ais-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. hanidalu̯ais-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hanidalu̯aiš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. hanidalu̯aiš-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫanidalu̯aiš-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑnon-
Hitt. ḫanan-
(vb.) ‘entscheiden, richten’
(HIL. 330)
(Hitt. ḫa-an-na-nu-un [1sg])
1. PIE *hɑenon-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanon-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanon-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hanan-
(XX:XX)
4. hanan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫanan-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫanant-
(pt.n.) ‘XX’
(HHand. 38)
(Hitt. ḫa-an-na-an)
1. PIE *hɑenont-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hanant-
(XX:XX)
4. hanant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫanant-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑnos-
Hitt. ḫanaške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘entscheiden, richten’
(HHand. 38)
(Hitt. ḫa-an-na-aš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *hɑenoski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanoski̯e/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanoski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanoski̯e/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanoski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *hanosḱe/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. hanosḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hanasḱe/a-
(XX:XX)
5. hanasḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *hanaske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. hanaske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hanaške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. hanaške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫanaške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫanašar-
(n.N.act.) ‘Recht(ssache), Gericht’
(HHand. 38)
1. PIE *hɑenosor-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanosor-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanosor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanosor-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanosor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hanasar-
(XX:XX)
4. hanasar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hanašar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. hanašar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫanašar-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√ɦɑndɑɦ-
(HW2 Ḫ: 163f.)
(Oettinger 1979:30, 367, HED 3: 96f., HIL. 338-340)
Lyd. ãnτẽ
(vb.) ‘verordnen, bestimmen’
(LydWb. 73)
1. PIE *ɦɑendɑɦi̯en
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *ɦɑandɑɦi̯en
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑandɑɦi̯en
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦandɦi̯en
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦandɦi̯en
PIE *dɦi̯ → z
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
RDentAssib4a → *ɦanτen
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
4. ɦanτen
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *anτen
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. anτen
*aN → ãN
Emergence of nasal vowel ã
R15a → *ãnτen
6. ãnτen
*eN → ẽN
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
R15b → Lyd. ãnτẽn
Hitt. ḫandai-
(vb1.) ‘richtig machen, (an)ordnen, fügen’
(HEG I:153-154)
1. PIE *ɦɑendɑɦoi-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *ɦɑandɑɦoi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑandɑɦoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦandɦoi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦandɦoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦandɦai-
(XX:XX)
4. ɦandɦai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *ɦandai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ɦandai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫandai-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫandei-
(vb1.) ‘richtig machen, ordnen, fügen’
(HEG I:153-154)
1. PIE *ɦɑendɑɦei-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *ɦɑandɑɦei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑandɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦandɦei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦandɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *ɦandei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ɦandei-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫandei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫandanda-
(vb.) ‘walten, gnädig sein’
(HEG I:155)
1. PIE *ɦɑendɑɦondɑɦo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *ɦɑandɑɦondɑɦo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑandɑɦondɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦandɦondɦo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦandɦondɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦandɦandɦa-
(XX:XX)
4. ɦandɦandɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *ɦandanda-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ɦandanda-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫandanda-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫandadar-
(n.) ‘göttliche Gerechtigkeit’
(HEG I:155
1. PIE *ɦɑendɑɦodɑɦor-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *ɦɑandɑɦodɑɦor-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑandɑɦodɑɦor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦandɦodɦor-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦandɦodɦor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦandɦadɦar-
(XX:XX)
4. ɦandɦadɦar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *ɦandadar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ɦandadar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫandadar-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫandau̯a-
(vn.bs.) ‘zu anordnen, usw.’
(HIL. 339)
(Hitt. ḫa-an-da-u-ar)
1. PIE *ɦɑendɑɦou̯or-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *ɦɑandɑɦou̯or-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑandɑɦou̯or-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦandɦou̯or-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦandɦou̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦandɦau̯ar-
(XX:XX)
4. ɦandɦau̯ar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *ɦandau̯ar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ɦandau̯ar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫandau̯ar-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫandau̯a-
(URU.) “Im Lande Tarḫuntaša.”
(OGHErg. 26)
1. PIE *ɦɑendɑɦou̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *ɦɑandɑɦou̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑandɑɦou̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦandɦou̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦandɦou̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦandɦau̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. ɦandɦau̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *ɦandau̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ɦandau̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫandau̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
CLu. ḫandau̯adi-
(c.) ‘Anführer, Kommandant, DLL. 40’
(HHand. 39)
1. PIE *ɦɑendɑɦou̯odɑɦi-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *ɦɑandɑɦou̯odɑɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑandɑɦou̯odɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦandɦou̯odɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦandɦou̯odɦi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦandɦau̯adɦi-
(XX:XX)
4. ɦandɦau̯adɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *ɦandau̯adi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ɦandau̯adi-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. ḫandau̯adi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
√hɑnu-
Hitt. ḫanu̯a-
(inf.bs.) ‘zu anordnen, usw.’
(HHand. 38)
(Hitt. ḫa-nu-ua-an [sup], [ḫ]a-an-nu-ua-an-zi [2.inf.])
1. PIE *hɑenu̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hanu̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. hanu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫanu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)


PIE √hɑn-, √ɦɑn- (a.) ‘böse, OIcl. ill- ‘id.’’ (vb.) ‘schelten, tadeln, OIcl. illa- ‘id.’ (sb.) ‘Bösheit, Kränkung, usw.’
(IEW. 799)
(Pyysalo 2013:157)
√hɑn-
CLu. ḫan·ḫanei̯a-
(GKLvb.) ‘tadeln, HHand. 38, HIL. 332’
(DLL. 39)
(CLu. ḫa-an-ḫa-ni-ia-i, Melchert 1993b:51, KLuN. 387)
1. PIE *hɑen·hɑenei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑan·hɑanei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑan·hɑanei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *han·hanei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. han·hanei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *han·hanei̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. han·hanei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. ḫan·ḫanei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
HLu. ḫan·ḫaniu̯a-
(sb.) ‘wickedness’
(CHLu. 3.6.20)
(HLu. (“MALUS2”)ha-ha-ní-wa/i-z[a-‘])
1. PIE *hɑen·hɑeniu̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑan·hɑaniu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑan·hɑaniu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *han·haniu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. han·haniu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *han·haniu̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. han·haniu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R18 → HLu. ḫan·ḫaniu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
√hɑno-
Gr. ὄνο-
(pr.) ‘schelten, tadeln, schimpfen’
(GEW 2:397)
(Gr. ὄνομαι [1sg])
1. PIE *hɑóno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hóno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hóno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *óno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. óno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ὄνο-
MidIr. on-
(n.) ‘blot, stain, disgrace, discrace, dishonor, etc.’
(DIL 490)
(OIr. on [pl])
1. PIE *hɑono
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hono
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hono
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ono
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. ono
*o- → Ø
Loss of root-final *o
RLossFinalo → MidIr. on
√hɑnɑh-
Gr. ὄνα-
(pr.) ‘ἀτιμάζω, μέμφομαι : treat scornfully, blame’
(GEW 2:397)
(Hes. ὄναται [3sg])
1. PIE *hɑóneɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *hɑónaɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. hɑónaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hónah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hónah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *óna-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. óna-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ὄνα-
MidIr. ana-
(vb.) ‘blemish’
(DIL. 41)
(MidIr. anaid [3sg])
1. PIE *hɑeneɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaneɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaneɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *hɑanaɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
3. hɑanaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. hanah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → MidIr. ana-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
CLu. ḫanḫaman-
(GKLn.) ‘-(?)-, HHand. 38)
(DLL. 39)
(CLu. ḫa-an-ḫa-ma-an [sgNA])
1. PIE *hɑenɑhomon-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanɑhomon-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanɑhomon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanhomon-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanhomon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hanhaman-
(XX:XX)
4. hanhaman-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. ḫanḫaman-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
OCymr. anamou-
(sb.) ‘mendae’
(IEW. 799)
1. PIE *hɑeneɑhmou̯o
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaneɑhmou̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaneɑhmou̯o
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *hɑanaɑhmou̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
3. hɑanaɑhmou̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanahmou̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. hanahmou̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *anamou̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. anamou̯o
*o- → Ø
Loss of root-final *o
RLossFinalo → OCymr. anamou̯
MidBret. anaff
(sb.) ‘Makel, Fehler’
(IEW. 779)
1. PIE *hɑeneɑhmou̯o
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaneɑhmou̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaneɑhmou̯o
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *hɑanaɑhmou̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
3. hɑanaɑhmou̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanahmou̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. hanahmou̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *anamou̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. anamou̯o
*o- → Ø
Loss of root-final *o
RLossFinalo → *anamou̯
6. anamou̯
*m → ff
Change of *m into ff
RChangem2ff → MidBret. anaffou̯
√hɑnio-
CLu. ḫan·ḫanei̯a-
(GKLvb.) ‘tadeln, HHand. 38, HIL. 332’
(DLL. 39)
(CLu. ḫa-an-ḫa-ni-ia-i, Melchert 1993b:51, KLuN. 387)
1. PIE *hɑen·hɑenei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑan·hɑanei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑan·hɑanei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *han·hanei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. han·hanei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *han·hanei̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. han·hanei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. ḫan·ḫanei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
CLu. ḫanei̯a-
(a.) ‘malum’
(HHand. 38)
(CLu. ḫaniati [sgI?], HIL. 332)
1. PIE *hɑenei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hanei̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. hanei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. ḫanei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
HLu. ḫanei̯ata-
(a.) ‘evil, bad’
(CHLu. 1.1.12)
(HLu. (“MALUS2”)ha-ní-ia-ta)
1. PIE *hɑenei̯oto-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanei̯oto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanei̯oto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanei̯oto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanei̯oto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hanei̯ata-
(XX:XX)
4. hanei̯ata-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R18 → HLu. ḫanei̯ata-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
HLu. ḫanei̯ataštar-
(n.) ‘evil, vel sim.’
(HIL. 332)
(HLu. (“MALUS2”)ha-ní-ia-ta-sa-tara/i-ti [sgI])
1. PIE *hɑenei̯otostor-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanei̯otostor-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanei̯otostor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanei̯otostor-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanei̯otostor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hanei̯atastar-
(XX:XX)
4. hanei̯atastar-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R18 → *ḫanei̯atastar-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
5. ḫanei̯atastar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R19 → HLu. ḫanei̯ataštar-
√hɑniu-
HLu. ḫan·ḫaniu̯a-
(.) ‘wickedness’
(CHLu. 3.6.20)
(HLu. (“MALUS2”)ha-ha-ní-wa/i-z[a-‘])
1. PIE *hɑen·hɑeniu̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑan·hɑaniu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑan·hɑaniu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *han·haniu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. han·haniu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *han·haniu̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. han·haniu̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R18 → HLu. ḫan·ḫaniu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)


PIE √hɑn- √ɦɑn- (sb.) ‘Atem, Seele, Leben’
(IEW. 38-39)
√hɑn-
RV. sám (...) ān-
(pf.) ‘leben, atmen’ ‹or *hɑehɑon- (?)›
(WbRV. 50)
(RV. sám (...) āna [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·hɑēn-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Colouring rule for *ɑē
RColouring2a → *Π·hɑān-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·hɑān-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·hān-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·hān-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → RV. Π·ān-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Goth. uz·on-
(pret.) ‘aus-atmen’
(GoEtD. 385)
(Goth. uzōn [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·hɑēn
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Colouring rule for *ɑē
RColouring2a → *Π·hɑān
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·hɑān
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·hān
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·hān
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·ān
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·ān
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
RChangeA2O1 → *Π·ōn
(XX:XX)
5. Π·ōn
*ō → o
Orthographic change of *ō into o
ROrthogrO2o → Goth. Π·on
√ɦɑondɑɦ-
OIcl. ǫnd-
(f.) ‘Seele, Atem’
(ANEtWb. 687)
(OIcl. ǫnd [sgN.], andar, andi [G]
1. PIE *ɦɑondɑɦēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *ɦɑondɑɦāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. ɦɑondɑɦāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦondɦāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦondɦāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *ondɦāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ondɦāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ondɦā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ondɦā-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → *ondā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. ondā-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *andā-
(XX:XX)
7. andā-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
RChangeA2O1 → OIcl. andō-
(XX:XX)
HLu. ḫandara-
(c.) ‘life : Phoen. ḥym’
(CHLu. 1.1.49)
(HLu. ha-tà+ra/i-ti-i , ha-IUDEX+RA/I, ha-IUDEX+RA/I-na)
1. PIE *ɦɑondɑɦoro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦondɦoro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ɦondɦoro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦandɦara-
(XX:XX)
3. ɦandɦara-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *ɦandara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. ɦandara-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R18 → HLu. ḫandara-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)


PIE √hɑnt- √ɦɑnd- (sb.) ‘Kleidung, Kette’ (sb.) ‘binden, bekleiden’
(IEW 322)
(+ Pyysalo: PIE √ɦɑnd-)
√hɑnt-
OIr. ētach-
(sb.) ‘Kleidung’
(DIL 283)
1. PIE *hɑentēɑhko
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑantēɑhko
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑantēɑhko
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *hɑantāɑhko
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. hɑantāɑhko
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hantāhko
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. hantāhko
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *antāko
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. antāko
*ant/ent → ēt
Change of *ant/ent into ēt
RChangeant2Et → *ētāko
6. ētāko
VkV → VkhV
Lenition of voiceless stop *k
RLenitionK → *ētākho
7. ētākho
*ā → a
Loss of quantity of *ā
RShortA2a → *ētakho
8. ētakho
*-o → Ø
Loss of root-final *o
RLossFinalo → *ētakh
9. ētakh
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → OIr. ētach
OIr. ēti-
(vb.) ‘bekleiden’
(DIL. 287)
1. PIE *hɑenti-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanti-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanti-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanti-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanti-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *anti-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. anti-
*ant/ent → ēt
Change of *ant/ent into ēt
RChangeant2Et → OIr. ēti-
OIr. ·ētiud
(.) ‘Kleidung’
(DIL. 288)
1. PIE *hɑenti·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanti·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanti·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanti·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanti·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *anti·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. anti·Σ-
*ant/ent → ēt
Change of *ant/ent into ēt
RChangeant2Et → OIr. ēti·Σ-
Gr. ἄνταρ-
(sb.) ‘Kettenfaden : warp’
(LSJ. 150)
(Hes. ἄνταρ · δίασμα)
1. PIE *hɑénteɑhr-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Colouring rule for *aé
RColouring1b → *hɑánteɑhr-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑánteɑhr-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *hɑántaɑhr-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
3. hɑántaɑhr-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hántahr-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. hántahr-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ántar-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ántar-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἄνταρ-
Ion.-Att. ἀντήριο-
(m.) ‘Kettenfaden’
(GEW 1:113)
1. PIE *hɑentḗɑhrii̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑantḗɑhrii̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑantḗɑhrii̯o-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *hɑantā́ɑhrii̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. hɑantā́ɑhrii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hantā́hrii̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. hantā́hrii̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *antā́rii̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. antā́rii̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RLossyinVyV → *antā́rio-
6. antā́rio-
*ā́ → ḗ
Ion-Att. change of *ā́ into ḗ
RChangeA2E2 → *antḗrio-
7. antḗrio-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Ion.-Att. ἀντήριο-
√ɦɑnd-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ḫanzana-
(c.) ‘strand, thread, yarn, web’
(HEDict. H-112)
(Hitt. a-u-ua-ua-aš ḫa-an-za-na-aš = QÙ-U ET-T[Ù-TI] ‘spider’s web’, HIL. 342)
1. PIE *ɦɑendi̯ono-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *ɦɑandi̯ono-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑandi̯ono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦandi̯ono-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦandi̯ono-
PIE *di̯ → z
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
RDentAssib3a → *ɦanzono-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
4. ɦanzono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦanzana-
(XX:XX)
5. ɦanzana-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫanzana-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫandala-
(SÍG.) ‘(leinen)Verband’
(HEG I:154 [oE])
1. PIE *ɦɑendolo-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *ɦɑandolo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑandolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦandolo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦandolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦandala-
(XX:XX)
4. ɦandala-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫandala-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Gr. ἀνδρόμεο-
(n.) Hes. = ‘ἱμάτιον’ (Cret.)
(LSJ. 129)
1. PIE *ɦɑendrómei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *ɦɑandrómei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑandrómei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦandrómei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦandrómei̯o-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *andrómei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. andrómei̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RLossyinVyV → *andrómeo-
5. andrómeo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἀνδρόμεο-
Pā. andu-
(sb.) ‘Kette, Fessel, u.a.’
(EWA 3:11)
1. PIE *ɦɑendu-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *ɦɑandu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑandu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦandu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦandu-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → Pā. andu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
OInd. andū-
(f.) ‘Fußkette’
(EWA 3:11)
1. PIE *ɦɑenduɑ́h-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *ɦɑanduɑ́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑanduɑ́h-
PIE *uɑ́ → uú
Assimilation of *u and *ɑ́
RAssimilation2b → *ɦɑanduúh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
3. ɦɑanduúh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦanduúh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. ɦanduúh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *anduúh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. anduúh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *anduú-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. anduú-
*uú → ū́
Contraction of u and ú
RContractuU → OInd. andū́-
OInd. anduka-
(m.) ‘Fußkette’
(EWA 3:11)
1. PIE *ɦɑenduko-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *ɦɑanduko-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑanduko-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦanduko-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦanduko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦanduka-
4. ɦanduka-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → OInd. anduka-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)


PIE √hɑnt- (vb.) ‘graben’ (sb.) ‘Grube, Loch’
(IEW XX)
√hɑnt-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ḫanta-
(vb.) ‘graben : dig’
(Kimball 1999:319)
(Hitt. ḫa-an-da-an-da [3pl])
1. PIE *hɑento-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hanta-
(XX:XX)
4. hanta-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫanta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫantešar-
(n.) ‘Grube, Loch, Höhle’
(HEG I:155)
(Hi. ḫanteššar; not for ‘hatessar’ vs. Melchert (1994:172)
1. PIE *hɑentesor-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑantesor-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑantesor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hantesor-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hantesor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hantesar-
(XX:XX)
4. hantesar-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hantešar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. hantešar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫantešar-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫantešn-
(n.obl.) ‘Loch, Grube’
(HEG 1:222)
(EHS §62.5)
1. PIE *hɑentesn-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑantesn-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑantesn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hantesn-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hantesn-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *hantešn-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. hantešn-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫantešn-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Gr. ἄντρο-
(n.) ‘Höhle’
(GrGr. 1:532)
1. PIE *hɑéntro-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Colouring rule for *aé
RColouring1b → *hɑántro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑántro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hántro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hántro-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ántro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ántro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἄντρο-


PIE √hɑnt- (vb.) ‘wagen’
√hɑnto-
Hitt. ḫanta·lei̯a-
(vb1.) ‘wagen ‹suffix = (?!)›’
(HEG 1:154)
1. PIE *hɑento·lei̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑanto·lei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑanto·lei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanto·lei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hanto·lei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hanta·lei̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. hanta·lei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫanta·lei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑntio-
Goth. ana·nanþja-
(pr.) ‘ἀποτολμᾶν, τολμᾶν: audax esse, audere’
(GoEtD. A149)
(Goth. ana·nanþeiþ Rom 10,20 A, 2Kr 11,21 B, Feist2: 31)
1. PIE *hɑeneɑh·hɑnhɑenti̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑaneɑh·hɑnhɑanti̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑaneɑh·hɑnhɑanti̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *hɑanaɑh·hɑnhɑanti̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
3. hɑanaɑh·hɑnhɑanti̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hanah·hnhanti̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. hanah·hnhanti̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ana·nanti̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ana·nanti̯o-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
AffricateT → *ana·nanþi̯o-
6. ana·nanþi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *ana·nanþi̯a-
(XX:XX)
7. ana·nanþi̯a-
*i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
ROrthogrY2j → Goth. ana·nanþja-


PIE √hɑp-, √ɦɑb- ‘Glanz : glänzen’
(IEW –)
(+ Tischler + Pyysalo)
√hɑp-
(HEG I:165)
(HW2 Ḫ:229-30, HED H: 121-2, HIL. 348f.)
Hitt. ḫap-
(sb.) ‘‹ = campfire, fire (?), cf. Hitt. paḫur- ‘id.’›’
(KUB 31.74 ii 9)
(Hitt. ḫa-ap-pa an-da še-eš-te-en... ‹‘Sleep in (camp)fire’]›)
1. PIE *hɑep-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑap-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑap-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hap-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hap-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫap-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑpon-
Hitt. ḫapan-
(c/n?.) ‘Herdfeuer : baking kiln, fire pit, oven’
(HIL. 348)
(Hitt. ḫa-ap-pa-na-aš [KBo 25,171 v 6; cf. HW2 Ḫ:229-30])
1. PIE *hɑepon-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑapon-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hapon-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hapon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hapan-
(XX:XX)
4. hapan-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫapan-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑpen-
Hitt. ḫapen-
(c/n?.) ‘offene Flamme’
(HHand. 40)
(Hitt. ḫa-ap-pé-(e)-ni, ḫa-ap-pe-na, ḫa-ap-pé-ni-it)
1. PIE *hɑepen-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑapen-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapen-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hapen-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hapen-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫapen-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫapena-
(c.) ‘offene Flamme’
(ḪEG1:165)
(Hitt. ḫa-ap-e-na-aš [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑepeno-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑapeno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapeno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hapeno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hapeno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hapena-
(XX:XX)
4. hapena-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫapena-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑepr-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. ἀπρ·οξίδ-
(f.) ‘burning bush : dictamnus albus’
(LSJ. 230)
1. PIE *hɑepr·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑapr·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapr·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hapr·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hapr·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *apr·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. apr·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἀπρ·Σ-
Lat. aprīco-
(a.) ‘sonnseitig, besonnt, sonnig warm’
(WH 1:59)
(Lat. aprīcus [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑepreiki̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑapreiki̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapreiki̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hapreiki̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hapreiki̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *hapreiḱo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. hapreiḱo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *apreiḱo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. apreiḱo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *apreiko-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. apreiko-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
RMonophthei2i → *aprīko-
7. aprīko-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → Lat. aprīco-
Lat. aprīcā-
(pr1M.) ‘sich sonnen’
(WH 1:59)
1. PIE *hɑepreiki̯ēɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑapreiki̯ēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapreiki̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *hɑapreiki̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. hɑapreiki̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hapreiki̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. hapreiki̯āh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *hapreiḱāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. hapreiḱāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *apreiḱā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. apreiḱā-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *apreikā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
7. apreikā-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
RMonophthei2i → *aprīkā-
8. aprīkā-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → Lat. aprīcā-
Lat. aprīcātiō·n-
(f.) ‘sitting in the sun, basking’
(OxLatD. 154)
1. PIE *hɑepreiki̯ēɑhtiō·n
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑapreiki̯ēɑhtiō·n
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapreiki̯ēɑhtiō·n
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *hɑapreiki̯āɑhtiō·n
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. hɑapreiki̯āɑhtiō·n
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hapreiki̯āhtiō·n
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. hapreiki̯āhtiō·n
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *hapreiḱāhtiō·n
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. hapreiḱāhtiō·n
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *apreiḱātiō·n
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. apreiḱātiō·n
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *apreikātiō·n
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
7. apreikātiō·n
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
RMonophthei2i → *aprīkātiō·n
8. aprīkātiō·n
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → Lat. aprīcātiō·n
Lat. aprīcitāt-
(f.) ‘sunniness’
(OxLatD. 154)
1. PIE *hɑepreiki̯itēɑht-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑapreiki̯itēɑht-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapreiki̯itēɑht-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *hɑapreiki̯itāɑht-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. hɑapreiki̯itāɑht-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hapreiki̯itāht-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. hapreiki̯itāht-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *hapreiḱitāht-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. hapreiḱitāht-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *apreiḱitāt-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. apreiḱitāt-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *apreikitāt-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
7. apreikitāt-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
RMonophthei2i → *aprīkitāt-
8. aprīkitāt-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → Lat. aprīcitāt-
Lat. aprīli-
(m.) ‘April, der zweite Monat’
(WH 1:59)
(Lat. aprīlis [sgN]. ‹suffix unclear, reconstruction the simplest quess)
1. PIE *hɑepreili-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑapreili-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapreili-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hapreili-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hapreili-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *apreili-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. apreili-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
RMonophthei2i → Lat. aprīli-
√hɑpornuo-
(HEG 1:162)
Hitt. ḫaparnu̯ašḫa-
(c.) ‘Sonnenstrahl?’, Komentenscheif?’
(HHand. 40)
(Hitt. ḫaparnuašḫa-)
1. PIE *hɑepornu̯osɑho-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑapornu̯osɑho-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapornu̯osɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hapornu̯osho-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hapornu̯osho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *haparnu̯asha-
(XX:XX)
4. haparnu̯asha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *haparnu̯ašha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. haparnu̯ašha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaparnu̯ašḫa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫaparnu̯atar-
(n.) ‘Strahlenkranz, ḪEG1:162’
(EHS 282, 293)
(Hitt. ḫaparnuatar)
1. PIE *hɑepornu̯otor-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑapornu̯otor-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapornu̯otor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hapornu̯otor-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hapornu̯otor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *haparnu̯atar-
(XX:XX)
4. haparnu̯atar-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaparnu̯atar-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√hɑpt-
(HED 3: 121-2)
(+ Pyysalo)
Gr. ἀπτο·επόσ-
(a.) ‘of ἀπτο-ed words (Hēra)’
(GEW 2:127)
(Gr. ἀπτο·(ϝ)επές [sgV], if not with psilosis!)
1. PIE *hɑepto·u̯eku̯ós-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑapto·u̯eku̯ós-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapto·u̯eku̯ós-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hapto·u̯eku̯ós-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hapto·u̯eku̯ós-
*ku/u̯ → p
Bilabialization of labiovelar *ku/u̯
RBilabializationKW → *hapto·u̯epós-
4. hapto·u̯epós-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *apto·u̯epós-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. apto·u̯epós-
*s → h
Change *s into h
RChanges2h → *apto·u̯epóh-
6. apto·u̯epóh-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
RLossofw → *apto·epóh-
7. apto·epóh-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
RLossofh → *apto·epó-
8. apto·epó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἀπτο·επό-
Gr. ὀπτό-
(pt.) ‘gebraten, geröstet, gebacken’
(GEW 2:406)
(Gr. ὀπτός [sgN], HED 2:121-2)
1. PIE *hɑoptó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hoptó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hoptó-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *optó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. optó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ὀπτό-
Gr. ὀπτάο-
(pr.) ‘braten, rösten, backen’
(GEW 2:406)
(Gr. ὀπτάω [1sg])
1. PIE *hɑoptéɑhi̯o-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
RColouring1d → *hɑoptáɑhi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. hɑoptáɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hoptáhi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hoptáhi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *optái̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. optái̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RLossyinVyV → *optáo-
5. optáo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ὀπτάο-
√hɑpu-
Lith. opù-
(a.) ‘brennend’
(LiEtWb. 517)
(Lith. opùs [sgN])
1. PIE *hɑēpú-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Colouring rule for *ɑē
RColouring2a → *hɑāpú-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. hɑāpú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hāpú-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hāpú-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis Li. ù
RAcc3 → *hāpù-
4. hāpù-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *āpù-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. āpù-
*ā → ō
Change of ā into ō
RChangeA2O1 → *ōpù-
6. ōpù-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27a → Lith. opù-


PIE √hɑp- (sb.) ‘Hand, Handel’ (vb.) ‘vorhanden sein, Handel treiben’
(IEW. 52+780)
√hɑp-
(Szemerényi Glotta 33:275f.])
Hitt. ḫap-
(vb1.) ‘reichlich vorhanden sein’
(HHand. 40)
(HEG 1:157f., ḫapzi [3sg], Laroche BSL 58:71f.)
1. PIE *hɑep-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑap-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑap-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hap-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hap-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫap-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Lat. op-
(f.) ‘Macht, Vermögen, Reichtum’
(WH 2:215)
(Lat. ops, opis)
1. PIE *hɑop-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hop-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hop-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Lat. op-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
√hɑpir-
(HEG 1:157f.)
Hitt. ḫapir-
(n.) ‘business, trade, payment, price’
(HIL. 345)
1. PIE *hɑopir-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hopir-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hopir-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hapir-
(XX:XX)
3. hapir-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫapir-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. ḫapira-
(vb.) ‘verkaufen, Handel treiben’
(HIL. 345)
1. PIE *hɑopiro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hopiro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. hopiro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hapira-
(XX:XX)
3. hapira-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫapira-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
LycA. epirije-
(vb.) ‘sell’
(DLycLg. 15)
(LycA. epirijeti
1. PIE *ehɑpirii̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ehpirii̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ehpirii̯e-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *epirii̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. epirii̯e-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
R21 → LycA. epirije-
√hɑpn-
(Pyysalo 2013:157)
(WP 1:175)
RV. apna·rā́j-
(a.) ‘über Reichtum gebietend’
(WbRV. 78)
1. PIE *hɑepno·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑapno·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapno·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hapno·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hapno·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hapna·Σ-
4. hapna·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → RV. apna·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
RV. ápna·vāna-
(pt.ENm.) ‘mit den Bhr̥gu in Zusammenhang’
(WbRV. 78)
1. PIE *hɑépno·Σ-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Colouring rule for *aé
RColouring1b → *hɑápno·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑápno·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hápno·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hápno·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hápna·Σ-
4. hápna·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → RV. ápna·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
OIr. anau-
(m.pl.) ‘wealth, richness, property’
(DIL 40)
(OIr. anai, anae)
1. PIE *hɑepneɑhu̯o
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑapneɑhu̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapneɑhu̯o
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *hɑapnaɑhu̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
3. hɑapnaɑhu̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hapnahu̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. hapnahu̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *apnau̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. apnau̯o
*p → h
Change of *p into h
RChangep2h → *ahnau̯o
6. ahnau̯o
*h → Ø
Loss of h
RLossofh → *anau̯o
7. anau̯o
*-o → Ø
Loss of root-final *o
RLossFinalo → *anau̯
8. anau̯
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
ROrthogrW2u → OIr. anau
Cymr. anaw
(.) ‘richesse’
(VKG II:585)
1. PIE *hɑepneɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑapneɑhu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapneɑhu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *hɑapnaɑhu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
3. hɑapnaɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hapnahu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. hapnahu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *apnau̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. apnau̯o-
*p → h
Change of *p into h
RChangep2h → *ahnau̯o-
6. ahnau̯o-
*h → Ø
Loss of h
RLossofh → *anau̯o-
7. anau̯o-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
RChangeW2w → Cymr. anawo-
OIr. an·oīb-
(sb.) ‘great prosperity’
(DIL. 40)
1. PIE *hɑepn·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑapn·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapn·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hapn·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hapn·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *apn·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. apn·Σ-
*p → h
Change of *p into h
RChangep2h → *ahn·Σ-
5. ahn·Σ-
*h → Ø
Loss of h
RLossofh → OIr. an·Σ-
√hɑpnos-
RV. ápnas-
(n.) ‘Besitz, Habe, Reichtum’
(WbRV. 78)
(RV. ápnas-)
1. PIE *hɑépnos-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Colouring rule for *aé
RColouring1b → *hɑápnos-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑápnos-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hápnos-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hápnos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hápnas-
4. hápnas-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → RV. ápnas-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
RV. ápnas-
(n.) ‘Werk’ (a.) ‘emsig, tätig’
(WbRV. 78)
1. PIE *hɑépnos-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Colouring rule for *aé
RColouring1b → *hɑápnos-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑápnos-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hápnos-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hápnos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hápnas-
4. hápnas-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → RV. ápnas-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
RV. apnaḥ·sthá-
(m.) ‘Gutsherr’
(WbRV. 78)
1. PIE *hɑepnos·stɑhó-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑapnos·stɑhó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapnos·stɑhó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hapnos·sthó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hapnos·sthó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hapnas·sthó-
4. hapnas·sthó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *hapnas·sthá-
5. hapnas·sthá-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *apnas·sthá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. apnas·sthá-
PIE *ss → ḥs
Change of s into ḥ before s
R32e → RV. apnaḥ·sthá-
RV. ápnas·vant-
(a.) ‘einträglich, ertragreich’
(WbRV. 78)
1. PIE *hɑépnos·u̯ent-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Colouring rule for *aé
RColouring1b → *hɑápnos·u̯ent-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑápnos·u̯ent-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hápnos·u̯ent-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hápnos·u̯ent-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *hápnas·u̯ent-
4. hápnas·u̯ent-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ápnas·u̯ent-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ápnas·u̯ent-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *ápnas·u̯ant-
6. ápnas·u̯ant-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
RChangeW2V → RV. ápnas·vant-


PIE √hɑp- √ɦɑb- (sb.) ‘Wasser, Gewässer, Nass, Saft’
(IEW. 51-2 + IEW. 1-2)
√hɑep-
RV. ap-
(f.) ‘Wasser, Gewässer’
(WbRV. 70-1)
(RV. apā́ [I], apás [G], apás [A], apáām, apā́m [G], apsú [L])
1. PIE *hɑep-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑap-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑap-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hap-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hap-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → RV. ap-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
gAv. ap-
(f.) ‘Wasser’
(AIWb. 325-9)
(LAv. apǝmčit [A], apa [I], ape [D], apa [sgD], apat [Abl], gAv. apasčā [plA], apąm [G])
1. PIE *hɑep-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑap-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑap-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hap-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hap-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → gAv. ap-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Gr. ἀπ·ῑπόω
(vb.) ‘press the juice from anything’ [Gr. ī]
(LSJ. 189)
1. PIE *hɑep·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑap·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑap·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hap·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hap·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ap·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ap·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἀπ·Σ-
TochB. ap-
(f.) ‘water, river’
(DTochB. 44)
(TochB. a[päṃ] [plObl/A])
1. PIE *hɑep-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑap-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑap-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hap-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hap-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → TochB. ap-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
RV. ap·sā́-
(a.) Nass spendend, erquickend, stärkend’
(WbRV. 80)
1. PIE *hɑep·sḗɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑap·sḗɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑap·sḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *hɑap·sā́ɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. hɑap·sā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hap·sā́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. hap·sā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → RV. ap·sā́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
RV. ap·savá-
(a.) ‘Wasser spendend’
(WbRV. 80)
1. PIE *hɑep·Σ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑap·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑap·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hap·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hap·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → RV. ap·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
√hɑēp-
LAv. āp-
(f.) ‘Wasser, Gewässer’
(AIWb. 325-9)
(LAv. āfš [sgN], āpǝm [A], āpō [G], āpe [D], āpa [duNAV], āpō [plN], āpō [plA])
1. PIE *hɑēp-
PIE *ɑē → ɑā
Colouring rule for *ɑē
RColouring2a → *hɑāp-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. hɑāp-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hāp-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. hāp-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → LAv. āp-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
RV. ā́p-