PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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© 2014-2015 University of Helsinki

"Durch zweier Zeugen Mund wird alle Wahrheit kund" — August Fick
(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
Contact PIE Lexicon Project

PIE



PIE √t- √to- √te- (vb.) ‘nehmen, rauben, stehlen’
(IEW. 1010)
[WP 2:610]
√to/e-
(Pyysalo 2013:88-9)
Hitt. ta-
(vb2.) ‘nehmen : Sum. ME’
(HEG 3:5-11)
(Hitt. taḫi [1sg], da-a-i [3sg], daḫun [1sg])
1. PIE *to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. ta-
(XX:XX)
HLu. ta-
(vb.) ‘nehmen : take’
(CHLu. 2.23.3)
(HLu. tà-ḫa [1sg], CAPERE)
1. PIE *to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → HLu. ta-
(XX:XX)
OInd. ta-
(m.) ‘thief : Dieb’
(MW. 431)
(Lex. taḥ [sgN])
1. PIE *to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → OInd. ta-
Lith. tè-
(ipv.) ‘take’
(LiEtWb. 1071)
(Lith. tè [ipv2sg])
1. PIE *té-
é → è
Emergence of gravis Li. è
RAcc4 → Lith. tè-
√teɑh-
Ion.-Att. τή·τη-
(f.) Hes. = ‘ἀπορία, ἔνδεια, στέρησις’
(GEW 2:895)
1. PIE *tḗɑh·tēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *tḗɑh·tāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. tḗɑh·tāɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *tā́ɑh·tāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. tā́ɑh·tāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tā́h·tāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. tā́h·tāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *tā́·tā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. tā́·tā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
RChangeA2E1 → *tā́·tē-
6. tā́·tē-
*ā́ → ḗ
Ion-Att. change of *ā́ into ḗ
RChangeA2E2 → *tḗ·tē-
7. tḗ·tē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Ion.-Att. τή·τη-
√teɑhi-
Dor. τᾱτάο-
(vbΜ.) ‘entbehren, darben, beraubt sein’
(GEW2:895)
1. PIE *tēɑhtéɑhi̯o-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
RColouring1d → *tēɑhtáɑhi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. tēɑhtáɑhi̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *tāɑhtáɑhi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. tāɑhtáɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tāhtáhi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. tāhtáhi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *tātái̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. tātái̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RLossyinVyV → *tātáo-
6. tātáo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Dor. τᾱτάο-
ORuss. tajĭ
(a.) ‘heimlich’ (sb.) ‘Geheimnis’
(REW 3:69)
1. PIE *tēɑhi̯i-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *tāɑhi̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. tāɑhi̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tāhi̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tāhi̯i-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *tāi̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. tāi̯i-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
ROrthogrY2j → *tāji-
5. tāji-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → *taji-
6. taji-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
ROrthogri2i → ORuss. tajĭ-
√toi- √tei-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. tai-
(vb1.) ‘stehlen, bestehlen’
(HEG 3:24-)
(Hitt. ta-a-iz-zi [3sg])
1. PIE *toi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. tai-
(XX:XX)
gAv. taya-
(m.) ‘Dieb(stahl)’
(AIWb. 638)
1. PIE *toi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tai̯a-
2. tai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R41a → gAv. taya-
gAv. taya-
(a.) ‘verstohlen, heimlich’
(AIWb. 638)
1. PIE *toi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tai̯a-
2. tai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R41a → gAv. taya-
Dor. τέε-
(vb.) ‘take’
(GEW II:890)
(in Gr. τῆ [2sg], τῆτε [2pl])
1. PIE *téi̯e-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RLossyinVyV → *tée-
2. tée-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Dor. τέε-
OInd. maṇṭáya-
(cs.) ‘sich wie ein Vermittler ‹maṇ-› benehmen’
(KEWA 2:557)
(For maṇ- cf. Lat. mallo- ‘Gericht’ [Lex Salica])
1. PIE *meɑhl̥ntéi̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *maɑhl̥ntéi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. maɑhl̥ntéi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *mahl̥ntéi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. mahl̥ntéi̯o-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
RChangelr2 → *mahr̥ntéi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
4. mahr̥ntéi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *mahr̥ntéi̯a-
5. mahr̥ntéi̯a-
PIE *hRn → ṇ
Fortunatov’s Law for *hRn
RFortII6 → *maṇtéi̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.2)
6. maṇtéi̯a-
PIE *é → á
Aryan change of *é into á
RAryanE2A2 → *maṇtái̯a-
7. maṇtái̯a-
*ṇt → ṇṭ
Assimilation of retroflex
RRetrofl2 → *maṇṭái̯a-
8. maṇṭái̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → OInd. maṇṭáya-
√ti-
(Pyysalo)
Lith. tèti-
(vb.) ‘take’
(LiEtWb. 1071)
(Lith. tèti-te [ipv2pl])
1. PIE *téti-
é → è
Emergence of gravis Li. è
RAcc4 → Lith. tèti-
HLu. arḫa tati·-
(vb.) ‘take away’
(CHLu. 2.9.27)
(HLu. ARHA tà-ti-i [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·toti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → HLu. Π·tati-
(XX:XX)
√ti-
LAv. aiwi·ϑy-
(a.) ‘sich befassend mit [G]’
(AIWb. 91)
(LAv. aiwiϑyō [plN])
1. PIE *Π·ti̯-
*tR → ϑR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
R33b → *Π·ϑi̯-
2. Π·ϑi̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R41a → LAv. Π·ϑy-
Hitt. taia-
(vb1.) ‘(be)stehlen’
(HEG 3:24f.)
(Hitt. da-a-i-ia-zi [3sg])
1. PIE *toii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *taii̯a-
(XX:XX)
2. taii̯a-
* aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
RAnatGlide2 → *taia-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.4.2)
3. taia-
* a i a → a i i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i̯ between *a and *a
RAnatGlide3 → Hitt. tai̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.4.2)
Hitt. taiške/a-
(vb.) ‘nehmen’
(HHand. 158)
(Hitt. ta-iš-ke/a-)
1. PIE *toiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *toisḱe/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. toisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *taisḱe/a-
(XX:XX)
3. taisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *taiske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. taiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. taiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√tos-, √tes-
(Pyysalo)
RV. abhí (…) tatas·-
(pf.) ‘berauben, ausplündern’
(WbRV. 509)
(RV. tatasre)
1. PIE *Π·tetos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·tetas-
2. Π·tetas-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → RV. Π·tatas-
RV. ví (…) tatas·-
(pf.) ‘bestürmen’
(WbRV. 509)
(RV. ví tatasre [3pl])
1. PIE *Π·tetos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·tetas-
2. Π·tetas-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → RV. Π·tatas-
Hitt. taške/a-
(vb.) ‘nehmen’
(HHand. 158)
(Hitt. da-aš-ki-e-mi, da-aš-ki-e-u-e-ni)
1. PIE *toski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *tosḱe/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. tosḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tasḱe/a-
(XX:XX)
3. tasḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *taske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. taske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. taške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
RV. táskara-
(m.) ‘Räuber, Dieb’ (: ‘a tief, robber’)
(WbRV. 533)
1. PIE *tósku̯oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tósku̯ara-
2. tósku̯ara-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *tásku̯ara-
3. tásku̯ara-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → RV. táskara-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
OInd. taskar·āya-
(vbM.) ‘to behave like a thief’
(MonWil. 441)
1. PIE *tosku̯or·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tasku̯ar·Σ-
2. tasku̯ar·Σ-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → OInd. taskar·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
OInd. tāskarya-
(n.) ‘thievishness, thieving’ (KEWA 1:491)
(MonWil. 446)
1. PIE *tōsku̯ori̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tōsku̯ari̯a-
2. tōsku̯ari̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *tāsku̯ari̯a-
3. tāsku̯ari̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *tāskari̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. tāskari̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → OInd. tāskarya-
OInd. taskarī-
(f.) ‘a passionate woman; a kind of Mimosa’
(MonWil. 446)
1. PIE *tosku̯oriɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
RAssimilation1b → *tosku̯oriíh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. tosku̯oriíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tasku̯ariíh-
3. tasku̯ariíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *tasku̯arií-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. tasku̯arií-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *taskarií-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. taskarií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
RContractiI → OInd. taskarī́-
OInd. taskaratā-
(f.) ‘thievishness, thieving’
(MonWil. 441)
1. PIE *tosku̯orotēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *tosku̯orotāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. tosku̯orotāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tosku̯orotāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tosku̯orotāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tasku̯aratāh-
4. tasku̯aratāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *tasku̯aratā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. tasku̯aratā-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → OInd. taskaratā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)


PIE √t- √to- √te- ‘ankommen, treten, gehen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√to-
CLu. ta-
(vb.) ‘ankommen’
(HHand. 158)
1. PIE *to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → CLu. ta-
(XX:XX)
HLu. ta-
(vb.) ‘walk’
(CHLu. 9.1.3)
(PES2(-)tà-ta [3pl.])
1. PIE *to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → HLu. ta-
(XX:XX)
HLu. ta-
(vb.) ‘walk’
(CHLu. 1.1.35)
(HLu. PES2.PES2(-)tà-ti
1. PIE *to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → HLu. ta-
(XX:XX)
HLu. sara´ ta·-
(vb.) ‘come up’
(CHLu. 10.14.15)
(HLu. SARA´ “PES”2(-)tà-i [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → HLu. Π·ta-
(XX:XX)
√toi-
HLu. tai-
(vb.) ‘treten (?)’
(CHLu. 10.44.5)
HLu. PES2.PES2(-)tà-ia; Kimball 1999:444)
1. PIE *toi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → HLu. tai-
(XX:XX)
√teio-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. teia-
(vb1.) ‘(hin)treten : step’
(HHand. 175)
(Hitt. ti-ia, HIL. 1016)
1. PIE *tei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. tei̯a-
(XX:XX)
OInd. taya-
(prM.) ‘to go’
(MonWil. 438)
(Dhātup. tayate [3sg])
1. PIE *tei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tei̯a-
2. tei̯a-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *tai̯a-
3. tai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → OInd. taya-
Hitt. tei̯a·u̯ar-
(n.) ‘das Eintreten’
(HHand. 176)
(HIL. 1015-6)
1. PIE *tei̯o·u̯or-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. tei̯a·u̯ar-
(XX:XX)
√teis-
Hitt. teišage/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘treten’
(Kimball 1999:444)
(Hitt. teišakezi [3sg])
1. PIE *teisogɑɦe/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *teisogɦe/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. teisogɦe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *teisagɦe/a-
(XX:XX)
3. teisagɦe/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *teisage/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. teisage/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. teišage/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. teišige/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘treten’
(Oettinger 1979:322)
(Hitt. ti-iš-ši-ki-mi ‘ich trete (?)’)
1. PIE *teisigɑɦe/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *teisigɦe/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. teisigɦe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *teisigɦe/a-
(XX:XX)
3. teisigɦe/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *teisige/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. teisige/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. teišige/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √tɑh- √dɑɦ- (vb.) ‘sehen, wünschen’ (sb.) ‘Auge’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√tɑh-
Gr. ὄθο-
(prM.) ‘take heed, regard’
(LSJ. 1200)
(Gr. ὄθομαι)
1. PIE *ótɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ótho-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ótho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ὄθο-
√tɑhēɑh-
Att. ὄθη-
(f.) ‘φροντία, ὤρα, φόβος, λόγος’
(LSJ. 1200)
1. PIE *ótɑhēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *ótɑhāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. ótɑhāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *óthāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. óthāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *óthā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. óthā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
RChangeA2E1 → *óthē-
5. óthē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Att. ὄθη-
√tɑhi-
Hitt. atei-
(.) ‘ein Körperteil; ‹Auge(n) (?)›’
(HEG 1:94)
(Hitt. ad-di-)
1. PIE *otɑhei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *othei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. othei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *athei-
(XX:XX)
3. athei-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RDeaspTh → Hitt. atei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. ὀθέο-
(prA.) ‘φροντίζω’
(LSJ. 1200)
(Gr. ὀθέω [1sg])
1. PIE *otɑhéi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *othéi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. othéi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RLossyinVyV → *othéo-
3. othéo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ὀθο-
Lith. àč-
(vb.) ‘sehen’
(LiEtWb. 1)
(Li. ač ‘siehe!’, àčte)
1. PIE *ótɑhi̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *óthi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. óthi̯-
PIE *thi̯ → č h
Assibilation of *th before *i̯
RDentAssib2a → *óčh-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. óčh-
ó → ò
Emergence of gravis Li. ò
RAcc5 → *òčh-
4. òčh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *òč-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. òč-
*ò → à
Change of *ò into à
RChangeO2A3 → Lith. àč-
OLat. praed·otio-
(pr.) ‘praeoptare’
(WH 2:212)
(PaulFest. praed·otiont [3pl])
1. PIE *Π·otɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·othi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·othi̯o-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
RDeaspth → *Π·oti̯o-
3. Π·oti̯o-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
ROrthogrY2i → OLat. Π·otio-
√tɑhm-
Dor. ὄθματ-
(n.) ‘Gl. ὄμμα; LSJ. 1200’
(GEW 2:387)
(Aiol. ὄθματα [plNA])
1. PIE *ótɑhmeɑht-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *ótɑhmaɑht-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. ótɑhmaɑht-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *óthmaht-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. óthmaht-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *óthmat-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. óthmat-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Dor. ὄθματ-


PIE √tɑh- ‘schweigen’
(IEW 1055+1056)
(Pyysalo)
√tɑh·ki-
(IEW. 1055)
[WP. I:703]
Goth. þaha-
(vb.) ‘be silent, keep secret’
(GoEtD. 353)
(Goth. þahan [inf.])
1. PIE *teɑhki̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *taɑhki̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. taɑhki̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tahki̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tahki̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *tahḱo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. tahḱo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *taḱo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. taḱo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *tako-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. tako-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *taxo-
7. taxo-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
AffricateT → *þaxo-
8. þaxo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *þaxa-
(XX:XX)
9. þaxa-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → Goth. þaha-
Lat. taceo-
(pr2.) ‘schweigen : be silent’
(WH 2:641-2)
(Lat. taceō [1sg])
1. PIE *teɑhki̯ei̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *taɑhki̯ei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. taɑhki̯ei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tahki̯ei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tahki̯ei̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *tahḱei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. tahḱei̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *taḱei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. taḱei̯o-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *takei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. takei̯o-
*ei̯e → eo
Loss *i̯ between e and o
RLossY1 → *takeo-
7. takeo-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → Lat. taceo-
Lat. tacito-
(pt.) ‘schweigsam’
(WH 2:641-2)
1. PIE *teɑhki̯ito-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *taɑhki̯ito-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. taɑhki̯ito-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tahki̯ito-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tahki̯ito-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *tahḱito-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. tahḱito-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *taḱito-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. taḱito-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *takito-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. takito-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → Lat. tacito-
√tɑh·us-
(IEW. 1056)
CLu. taḫuši̯a-
(vb.) ‘keep ‹ušia-› silent/quiet ‹taḫ-›’
(DLL 89)
(CLu. da-ḫu-ši-i̯a-aḫ-ḫa [1sg])
1. PIE *teɑhusi̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *taɑhusi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. taɑhusi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tahusi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tahusi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tahusi̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. tahusi̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → *taḫusi̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
5. taḫusi̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R18 → CLu. taḫuši̯a-
RV. tūṣṇī́-
(adv.) ‘still, schweigend’
(WbRV. 547)
(RV. tūṣṇī́m [adv.])
1. PIE *tɑ́husniɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
RAssimilation1b → *tɑ́husniíh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. tɑ́husniíh-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *túhusniíh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
3. túhusniíh-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *túhušniíh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. túhušniíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *túušnií-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. túušnií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
RContractiI → *túušnī́-
6. túušnī́-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractUu → *tū́šnī́-
7. tū́šnī́-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *tū́ṣnī́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
8. tū́ṣnī́-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
RRetrofl1 → RV. tū́ṣṇī́-
Sloven. po·túhni-
(vb.) ‘stille werden’
(APrS. 452)
(Sloven. potúhniti [inf.])
1. PIE *po·teɑhúsniɑ́h-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *po·taɑhúsniɑ́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. po·taɑhúsniɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
RAssimilation1b → *po·taɑhúsniíh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. po·taɑhúsniíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *po·tahúsniíh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. po·tahúsniíh-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *po·tahúšniíh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
5. po·tahúšniíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *pa·tahúšniíh-
6. pa·tahúšniíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *pa·taúšnií-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. pa·taúšnií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
RContractiI → *pa·taúšnī́-
8. pa·taúšnī́-
*š → x
Slavonic change of *š to x
RRuki2Slav → *pa·taúxnī́-
9. pa·taúxnī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *po·toúxnī́-
10. po·toúxnī́-
*oú → ū́
Monophthongization of *oú into ū́
RMonophthou2U → *po·tū́xnī́-
11. po·tū́xnī́-
*x → ch
Orthographic change of *x into ch
ROrthogrX2ch → *po·tū́chnī́-
12. po·tū́chnī́-
*ī́ → í
Orthographic change of *ī́ into í
ROrthogrI2i2 → *po·tū́chní-
13. po·tū́chní-
*ū́ → ú
Orthographic change of *ū́ into ú
ROrthogrU2U → Sloven. po·túchní-
OCS. po·tuchnǫ-
(vb.) ‘quiescere’
(APrS. 452)
OCS. potuchnǫti [inf.])
1. PIE *po·teɑhusnun
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *po·taɑhusnun
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. po·taɑhusnun
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *po·tahusnun
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. po·tahusnun
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *po·tahušnun
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. po·tahušnun
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *pa·tahušnun
5. pa·tahušnun
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *pa·taušnun
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. pa·taušnun
*š → x
Slavonic change of *š to x
RRuki2Slav → *pa·tauxnun
7. pa·tauxnun
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *po·touxnun
8. po·touxnun
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *po·tūxnun
9. po·tūxnun
*-un → -ǫ
Emergence of nasal vowel ǫ
RNasalizUN2O → *po·tūxnǫ
10. po·tūxnǫ
*x → ch
Orthographic change of *x into ch
ROrthogrX2ch → *po·tūchnǫ
11. po·tūchnǫ
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → OCS. po·tuchnǫ


PIE √tɑh-, √dɑɦ- ‘sprechen’
(IEW 291)
(+ Pyysalo)
√tɑh-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. ā́th-
(pf.) ‘speak’
(MonWil. XX)
(Br. ā́ttha [2sg])
1. PIE *ṓtɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ṓth-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ṓth-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
RChangeO2A4 → OInd. ā́th-
CLu. tata-
(GKLvb.) ‘verbum dicendi, HHand. 172’
(DLL. 95)
(CLu. ta-at-ta-ah-ha [1sg])
1. PIE *tɑhotɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *thotho-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. thotho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *thatha-
(XX:XX)
3. thatha-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RDeaspTh → CLu. tata-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦ-
LAv. āδ-
(pr.P.) ‘genannt werden, heißen’
(AIWb. 55)
(LAv. āiδi [3sg])
1. PIE *ō·dɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ō·dɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ō·dɦ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *ā·dɦ-
3. ā·dɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → *ā·d-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. ā·d-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
R40c → LAv. ā·δ-
LAv. pairi.āδ·-
(pf.) ‘aufsagen, hersagen’
(AIWb. 55)
(LAv. pairi.āδa [3sg])
1. PIE *Π.ō·dɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π.ō·dɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π.ō·dɦ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *Π.ā·dɦ-
3. Π.ā·dɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → *Π.ā·d-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. Π.ā·d-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
R40c → LAv. Π.ā·δ-
LAv. aδ-
(pfM.) ‘sagen’
(AIWb. 55)
(LAv. aδaeča [1sg] uiti)
1. PIE *odɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *odɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. odɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *adɦ-
3. adɦ-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → *ad-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. ad-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
R40c → LAv. aδ-
√dɑɦe/o-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. de-
(vb.) ‘(autoritativ) sprechen’
(HEG 3:291)
(Hitt. temi, tesi, tezi, tenun, tet, tedu, HHand. 173)
1. PIE *dɑɦe-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦe-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. de-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. paity·āδa-
(m.) ‘Anwort’
(AIWb. 840)
1. PIE *Π·ō·dɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·ō·dɦo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·ō·dɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·ō·dɦa-
3. Π·ō·dɦa-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *Π·ā·dɦa-
4. Π·ā·dɦa-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → *Π·ā·da-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ā·da-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
R40c → LAv. Π·ā·δa-
√dɑɦeio-
(Pyysalo)
OCS. dejo-
(vb.) ‘sagen’
(Sadnik √XX)
(OCS. dejǫ [1sg])
1. PIE *dɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦei̯a-
3. dɦei̯a-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → *dei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. dei̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *dei̯o-
5. dei̯o-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
ROrthogrY2j → OCS. dejo-
LAv. paiti·aδaya-
(pr.) ‘antworten auf [A]’
(AIWb. 55)
(LAv. paiti.aδayā)
1. PIE *Π·odɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·odɦei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·odɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·adɦei̯a-
3. Π·adɦei̯a-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → *Π·adei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. Π·adei̯a-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *Π·adai̯a-
5. Π·adai̯a-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
R40c → *Π·aδai̯a-
6. Π·aδai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R41a → LAv. Π·aδaya-
LAv. paiti (…) āδaya·-
(iter.) ‘antworten’
(AIWb. 55)
(LAv. paiti (…) āδayoi)
1. PIE *Π·ōdɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·ōdɦei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·ōdɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·ōdɦei̯a-
3. Π·ōdɦei̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *Π·ādɦei̯a-
4. Π·ādɦei̯a-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → *Π·ādei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ādei̯a-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *Π·ādai̯a-
6. Π·ādai̯a-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
R40c → *Π·āδai̯a-
7. Π·āδai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R41a → LAv. Π·āδaya-
√dɑɦomo-
Lyd. ẽ·tam-
(c.) ‘Bestimmung, Verordnung’
(LydWb. 108)
(Lyd. XX)
1. PIE *en·dɑɦomo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *en·dɦomo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. en·dɦomo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *en·dɦama
(XX:XX)
3. en·dɦama
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *en·dama
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. en·dama
*eN → ẽN
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
R15b → *ẽn·dama
5. ẽn·dama
PIE *d → t
Devoicing of PIE *d
R16 → *ẽn·tama
6. ẽn·tama
*nt → t
Loss of *n before *t
R18a → *ẽ·tama
7. ẽ·tama
*à → Ø
Loss of root-final a
R19 → Lyd. ẽ·tam
HLu. a·dama-
(pt.m.) ‘name’
(CHLu. 1.1.39)
(HLu. á-ta4-ma-za Melchert 1984:82-83)
1. PIE *o·dɑɦomo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *o·dɦomo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. o·dɦomo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *a·dɦama-
(XX:XX)
3. a·dɦama-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → HLu. a·dama-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LycA. a·dãma-
(n.) ‘name’
(XX)
(Lyc. adãma [plA])
1. PIE *o·dɑɦomo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *o·dɦomo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. o·dɦomo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *a·dɦama-
(XX:XX)
3. a·dɦama-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *a·dama-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. a·dama-
*am/n → ãm/n
Emergence of nasal vowel ã
R14a → LycA. a·dãma-
HLu. a·dama·ni-
(sb.) ‘name’
(CHLu. 6.2.19)
(HLu. á-ta5-ma-ni-)
1. PIE *o·dɑɦomo·ni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *o·dɦomo·ni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. o·dɦomo·ni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *a·dɦama·ni-
(XX:XX)
3. a·dɦama·ni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → HLu. a·dama·ni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √tɑh- √dɑɦ- (vb.) ‘geben, schenken’
(IEW. 223-226)
(+ Pyysalo √tɑh-)
√to/eɑh-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. τό-
(pr.) ‘geben’
(Grundr2 1:654)
(Gr. τότω ‘dato’)
1. PIE *tóɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tóh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tóh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *tó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. tó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. τό-
Hitt. iški·taḫ-
(vb2.) ‘ein Zeichen geben ‹Hitt. šagi- ‘Zeichen’›’
(HHand. 65)
(Hitt. iš-kit9-ta-aḫ-ḫi; or to Gr. δό- (?))
1. PIE *Π·ski̯ɑhi·toɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·ski̯hi·toh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·ski̯hi·toh-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *Π·sḱhi·toh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. Π·sḱhi·toh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·sḱhi·tah-
(XX:XX)
4. Π·sḱhi·tah-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *Π·skhi·tah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. Π·skhi·tah-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RDeaspTh → *Π·ski·tah-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. Π·ski·tah-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *Π·ški·tah-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. Π·ški·tah-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. Π·ški·taḫ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Dor. ἀφρο·δί̄·τᾱ-
(f.) ‘= Gr. ἀφροτίδη’
(KVG:249)
1. PIE *ɦɑebɑɦro·dɑ́hi·tēɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́hi·tēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́hi·tēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́hi·tāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́hi·tāɑh-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *ɦɑabɑɦro·díhi·tāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
4. ɦɑabɑɦro·díhi·tāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦabɦro·díhi·tāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
5. ɦabɦro·díhi·tāh-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
RDevoicebh → *ɦaphro·díhi·tāh-
6. ɦaphro·díhi·tāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *aphro·díhi·tāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. aphro·díhi·tāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *aphro·díi·tā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
8. aphro·díi·tā-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractíi → *aphro·dī́·tā-
9. aphro·dī́·tā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Dor. ἀφρο·δī́·τᾱ-
Ion.-Att. ἀφρο·τί̄·δη-
(f.) ‘= Gr. ἀφροδίτα’
(KVG:249)
1. PIE *ɦɑebɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dēɑɦ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dēɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dēɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dāɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *ɦɑabɑɦro·tíhi·dāɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
4. ɦɑabɑɦro·tíhi·dāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦabɦro·tíhi·dāɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
5. ɦabɦro·tíhi·dāɦ-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
RDevoicebh → *ɦaphro·tíhi·dāɦ-
6. ɦaphro·tíhi·dāɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *aphro·tíhi·dā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. aphro·tíhi·dā-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *aphro·tíi·dā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
8. aphro·tíi·dā-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractíi → *aphro·tī́·dā-
9. aphro·tī́·dā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
RChangeA2E1 → *aphro·tī́·dē-
10. aphro·tī́·dē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Ion.-Att. ἀφρο·τī́·δη-
Phryg. τοϝε/ο-
(vb.) ‘geben’
(Fryg 138)
(Phryg. τοϝο, τοϝοι, ετοϝες)
1. PIE *toɑhu̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tohu̯e/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tohu̯e/o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *tou̯e/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. tou̯e/o-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Phryg. τοϝε/ο-
√dōɑɦ-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. iški·dāḫ-
(vb2.) ‘ein Zeichen geben’
(HED E/I:426)
(Hitt. iš-ki-da-a-aḫ-ḫi [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·ski̯ɑhi·dōɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·ski̯hi·dōɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·ski̯hi·dōɦ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *Π·sḱhi·dōɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. Π·sḱhi·dōɦ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *Π·sḱhi·dāɦ-
(XX:XX)
4. Π·sḱhi·dāɦ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *Π·skhi·dāɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. Π·skhi·dāɦ-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RDeaspTh → *Π·ski·dāɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. Π·ski·dāɦ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *Π·ški·dāɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. Π·ški·dāɦ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. Π·ški·dāḫ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Gr. δώ-
(ao.) ‘geben’
(GEW 1:388-9)
(Gr. ἔδων [1sg])
1. PIE *dṓɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dṓɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dṓɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dṓ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. dṓ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. δώ-
OLith. dúo-
(vb.) ‘geben’
(LiEtWb. 111f.)
(OLith. dúomi, Lith. dúoti [inf.])
1. PIE *dṓɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dṓɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dṓɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dṓ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. dṓ-
*ṓ → úo
Change of ṓ into úo
RChangeO2uo2 → OLith. dúo-
Latv. duô-
(vb.) ‘geben’
(LiEtWb. 111f.)
(Latv. duôt [inf.])
1. PIE *dṓɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dṓɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dṓɦ-
*ṓh/ɦ → ôh/ɦ
Latv. broken tone rule for ṓh/ɦ
RAcc7 → *dôɦ-
3. dôɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dô-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. dô-
*ô → uô
Change of ô into uô
RChangeO2uo2 → Latv. duô-
RV. dā́-
(ao.) ‘geben’
(WbRV. 590)
(RV. ádāt [3sg])
1. PIE *dṓɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dṓɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dṓɦ-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
RChangeO2A4 → *dā́ɦ-
3. dā́ɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → RV. dā́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Lat. dōno-
(n.) ‘Gabe, Geschenk, das Geben’
(WH 1:371)
(Lat. dōnum [sgN])
1. PIE *dōɑɦno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dōɦno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dōɦno-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → Lat. dōno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
RV. dā́na-
(n.) ‘das Geben, die Gabe’
(WbRV. 594)
1. PIE *dṓɑɦno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dṓɦno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dṓɦno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dṓɦna-
3. dṓɦna-
PIE *ṓ → ā́
Change of *ṓ into ā́
RChangeO2A4 → *dā́ɦna-
4. dā́ɦna-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → RV. dā́na-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Gr. δώρο-
(n.) ‘Geschenk’
(GEW 1:430)
(Gr. δῶρον)
1. PIE *dṓɑɦro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dṓɦro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dṓɦro-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dṓro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. dṓro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. δώρο-
OCS. darŭ-
(m.) ‘Gabe, Geschenk, Dank’
(Sadnik √XX)
(OCS. darŭ)
1. PIE *dōɑɦro
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dōɦro
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dōɦro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dōɦra
3. dōɦra
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *dāɦra
4. dāɦra
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dāra
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. dāra
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *dāro
6. dāro
*-o → -u
Change of -o into -u
RChangeO2U → *dāru
7. dāru
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → *daru
8. daru
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
ROrthogru2u1 → OCS. darŭ
√doɑɦ-
Gr. δό-
(aoM.) ‘geben’
(GEW 1:388-9)
(Gr. ἐδόμην)
1. PIE *dóɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dóɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dóɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. dó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. δό-
RV. dā·ta
(ao.) ‘geben’
(WbRV. 590)
(RV. dāta [2pl] with Brugmann’s Law II)
1. PIE *doɑɦ·te
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *doɦ·te
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. doɦ·te
PIE *ohCV → āhCV
Brugmann’s Law for *ohCV
RBrugmII1 → *dāɦ·te
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.3.7)
3. dāɦ·te
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dā·te
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. dā·te
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → RV. dā·ta
RV. draviṇo·dá-
(a.m.) ‘Gut gebend, Reichtumgeber’
(WbRV. 645)
1. PIE *Π·dóɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·dóɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·dóɦ-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *Π·dáɦ-
3. Π·dáɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → RV. Π·dá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Lith. priẽ·da-
(m.) ‘Zugabe, Zulage’
(LiEtWb. 112)
(Lith. priẽdas [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·doɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·doɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·doɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·do-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. Π·do-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Lith. Π·da-
LAv. daδa-
(a.) ‘gebend, schenkend’
(AIWb. 678)
1. PIE *dedoɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dedoɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dedoɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dedaɦ-
3. dedaɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *deda-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. deda-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *dada-
5. dada-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
R40c → LAv. daδa-
Gr. δοί-
(ao.) ‘geben’
(GEW 1: 388-9)
(Gr. δοίην [opt1sg])
1. PIE *doɑɦí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *doɦí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. doɦí-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *doí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. doí-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. δοί-
RV. de-
(ao.) ‘geben’
(WbRV. 589)
(RV. dehí [ipv2sg])
1. PIE *doɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *doɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. doɦi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *daɦi-
3. daɦi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dai-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. dai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
RChangeAI2E1 → *dē-
5. dē-
ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
ROrthOIA4 → RV. de-
Gr. δόμεν-
(vn.bs.) ‘zu geben’
(GEW 1:388-9)
(Thess. Hom. δόμεν, Hom. δόμεναι)
1. PIE *dóɑɦmen-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dóɦmen-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dóɦmen-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dómen-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. dómen-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. δόμεν-
RV. dā́man-
(n.) ‘das Geben’
(WbRV. 595)
(RV. dā́mane [sgD], Brugmann’s Law II)
1. PIE *dóɑɦmen-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dóɦmen-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dóɦmen-
PIE *óhCV → ā́hCV
Brugmann’s Law for *óhCV
RBrugmII2 → *dā́ɦmen-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.3.7)
3. dā́ɦmen-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dā́men-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. dā́men-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → RV. dā́man-
Fal. doui-
(pr.) ‘gewähren’
(WbOU. XX)
(in Fal. douiad [conj.3sg])
1. PIE *doɑɦu̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *doɦu̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. doɦu̯i-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dou̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. dou̯i-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
ROrthogrW2u → Fal. doui-
Umbr. pur·doui-
(pr.) ‘porriciō’
(WbOU. XX)
(in Umbr. purdouitu [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·doɑɦu̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·doɦu̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·doɦu̯i-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·dou̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. Π·dou̯i-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
ROrthogrW2u → Umbr. Π·doui-
Latv. davana-
(f.) ‘Gabe’
(LiEtWb. 112)
1. PIE *doɑɦu̯onēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *doɑɦu̯onāɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. doɑɦu̯onāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *doɦu̯onāh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. doɦu̯onāh
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dou̯onāh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. dou̯onāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *dou̯onā
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. dou̯onā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dau̯anā
6. dau̯anā
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → *davanā
7. davanā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R28 → Latv. davana
Lith. davanà-
(f.) ‘Gabe’
(LiWtWb. 112)
1. PIE *doɑɦu̯onḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *doɑɦu̯onā́ɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. doɑɦu̯onā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *doɦu̯onā́h
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. doɦu̯onā́h
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dou̯onā́h
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. dou̯onā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *dou̯onā́
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. dou̯onā́
*o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dau̯anā́
6. dau̯anā́
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
RChangeA202 → *dau̯anṓ
7. dau̯anṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
RFinalo2a2 → *dau̯anà
8. dau̯anà
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → Lith. davanà
Dor. ἀπυ·δόᾱ-
(pr.) ‘XX’
(GrGr 1:745)
(in Arc. ἀπυδόας [pt.])
1. PIE *Π·dóɑɦu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·dóɑɦu̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·dóɑɦu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·dóɦu̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·dóɦu̯āh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·dóu̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·dóu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·dóu̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·dóu̯ā-
*u̯ → Ø
Change of *u̯ into Ø
RLossofw → *Π·dóā-
6. Π·dóā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Dor. Π·δόᾱ-
AV. bala·dā́vā-
(a.) ‘Kraftverleihung’
(WbRV. 902)
1. PIE *Π·dóɑɦu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·dóɑɦu̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·dóɑɦu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·dóɦu̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·dóɦu̯āh-
PIE *óhCV → ā́hCV
Brugmann’s Law for *óhCV
RBrugmII2 → *Π·dā́ɦu̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.3.7)
4. Π·dā́ɦu̯āh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·dā́u̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·dā́u̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·dā́u̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·dā́u̯ā-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
RChangeW2V → AV. Π·dā́vā-
Latv. dãvâ-
(vb.iter.) ‘anbieten, schenken’
(LiEtWb. 112)
(Latv. dãvât [inf.])
1. PIE *doɑɦu̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *doɑɦu̯ā́ɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. doɑɦu̯ā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *doɦu̯ā́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. doɦu̯ā́h-
*ā́h → âh
Latvian tone rule for *ā́h
RAcc3 → *doɦu̯âh-
4. doɦu̯âh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dou̯âh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. dou̯âh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *dou̯â-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. dou̯â-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dau̯â-
7. dau̯â-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → Latv. davâ-
RV. dāván-
(vn.bs.) ‘geben’
(WbRV. 596)
(RV. dāváne; With Brugmann’s Law II)
1. PIE *doɑhu̯én-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dohu̯én-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dohu̯én-
PIE *ohCV → āhCV
Brugmann’s Law for *ohCV
RBrugmII1 → *dāhu̯én-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.3.7)
3. dāhu̯én-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *dāu̯én-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. dāu̯én-
PIE *é → á
Aryan change of *é into á
RAryanE2A2 → *dāu̯án-
5. dāu̯án-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
RChangeW2V → RV. dāván-
ODor. δόϝεν-
(vn.bs.) ‘geben’
(GEW 1:388-9)
(Gr. δόϝεναι = Hom. Att. δοῦναι)
1. PIE *dóɑhu̯en-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dóhu̯en-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dóhu̯en-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *dóu̯en-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. dóu̯en-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → ODor. δόϝεν-
√dēɑɦ-
Lat. dā-
(ao.) ‘geben, gewähren’
(WH 2:360)
(Lat. dās [2sg])
1. PIE *dēɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *dāɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. dāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dāɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. dāɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → Lat. dā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Ion.-Att. ἀφρο·τί̄·δη-
(f.) ‘= Gr. ἀφροδίτα’
(KVG:249)
1. PIE *ɦɑebɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dēɑɦ-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dēɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dēɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dāɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. ɦɑabɑɦro·tɑ́hi·dāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *ɦɑabɑɦro·tíhi·dāɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
4. ɦɑabɑɦro·tíhi·dāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦabɦro·tíhi·dāɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
5. ɦabɦro·tíhi·dāɦ-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
RDevoicebh → *ɦaphro·tíhi·dāɦ-
6. ɦaphro·tíhi·dāɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *aphro·tíhi·dā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. aphro·tíhi·dā-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *aphro·tíi·dā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
8. aphro·tíi·dā-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractíi → *aphro·tī́·dā-
9. aphro·tī́·dā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
RChangeA2E1 → *aphro·tī́·dē-
10. aphro·tī́·dē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Ion.-Att. ἀφρο·τī́·δη-
Arm. ta-
(vb.) ‘geben’
(ArmGr. 1:XX)
(Arm. tam [1sg])
1. PIE *dḗɑɦ-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *dā́ɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. dā́ɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dā́ɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. dā́ɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dā́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. dā́-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
RDevoiced → *tā́-
5. tā́-
*ā́ → á
Loss of quantity of *ā́
RChangeA2a2 → *tá-
6. tá-
*á → a
Unmarkedness of accent
R23a → Arm. ta-
RV. bala·dā́-
(a.) ‘Kraft gebend’
(WbRV. 901)
1. PIE *beɦɑLo·dḗɑɦ-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *beɦɑLo·dā́ɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. beɦɑLo·dā́ɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *beɦLo·dā́ɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. beɦLo·dā́ɦ-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RChangelr4 → *beɦlo·dā́ɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
4. beɦlo·dā́ɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *beɦla·dā́ɦ-
5. beɦla·dā́ɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *bela·dā́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. bela·dā́-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → RV. bala·dā́-
LAv. xšaϑrō.dā·-
(a.) ‘Herrschaft schenkend’
(AIWb. 547)
(LAv. xšaϑrō.då [sgN])
1. PIE *Π.dēɑɦ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π.dāɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π.dāɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π.dāɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π.dāɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π.dā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π.dā-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
R40c → LAv. Π.δā·-
Lith. donì-
(.) ‘Zins, Steuer, Tribut’ ‹ not a loan (!) ›
(LiEtWb. 99)
(Lith. donì-)
1. PIE *dēɑɦní-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *dāɑɦní-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. dāɑɦní-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dāɦní-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. dāɦní-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis Li. ì
RAcc2 → *dāɦnì-
4. dāɦnì-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dānì-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. dānì-
*ā → ō
Change of ā into ō
RChangeA2O1 → *dōnì-
6. dōnì-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27a → Lith. donì-
OCS. danĭ-
(f.) ‘Aufgabe, Zoll, Tribut’
(Sadnik √XX)
(OCS. danĭ)
1. PIE *dēɑɦni-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *dāɑɦni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. dāɑɦni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dāɦni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. dāɦni-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dāni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. dāni-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → *dani-
5. dani-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
ROrthogri2i → OCS. danĭ-
Lith. dovanà-
(3f. dó-) ‘Gabe’
(LiEtWb.112)
(Lith. dovanà [sgN])
1. PIE *dēɑɦu̯onḗɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *dāɑɦu̯onḗɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. dāɑɦu̯onḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *dāɑɦu̯onā́ɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. dāɑɦu̯onā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dāɦu̯onā́h
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. dāɦu̯onā́h
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dāu̯onā́h
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. dāu̯onā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *dāu̯onā́
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. dāu̯onā́
*o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dāu̯anā́
7. dāu̯anā́
*ā → ō
Change of ā into ō
RChangeA2O1 → *dōu̯anā́
8. dōu̯anā́
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
RChangeA202 → *dōu̯anṓ
9. dōu̯anṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
RFinalo2a2 → *dōu̯anà
10. dōu̯anà
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → *dōvanà
11. dōvanà
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27a → Lith. dovanà
Latv. dâvana-
(f.) ‘Gabe’
(LiEtWb. 112)
1. PIE *dḗɑɦu̯onēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *dḗɑɦu̯onāɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. dḗɑɦu̯onāɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *dā́ɑɦu̯onāɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. dā́ɑɦu̯onāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dā́ɦu̯onāh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. dā́ɦu̯onāh
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dā́u̯onāh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. dā́u̯onāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *dā́u̯onā
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. dā́u̯onā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dā́u̯anā
7. dā́u̯anā
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → *dā́vanā
8. dā́vanā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R28 → Latv. dā́vana
√deɑɦ-
Lat. da-
(√pr.) ‘geben, gewähren’
(WH 1:360)
(in Lat. damus [1pl.], datum [pp.])
1. PIE *deɑɦ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *daɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. daɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *daɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. daɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → Lat. da-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Arm. ta-
(pr.)
(ArmGr. 1:XX)
1. PIE *déɑɦ-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
RColouring1d → *dáɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. dáɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dáɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. dáɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. dá-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
RDevoiced → *tá-
5. tá-
*á → a
Unmarkedness of accent
R23a → Arm. ta-
gAv. da-
(vb.) ‘geben’
(AIWb. 678)
(gAv. daidyāi [inf.])
1. PIE *deɑɦ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *daɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. daɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *daɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. daɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → gAv. da-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
OLat. danu-
(pr.) ‘geben’
(WH 1:362)
(in OLat. danunt [3pl])
1. PIE *deɑɦnu-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *daɑɦnu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. daɑɦnu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *daɦnu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. daɦnu-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → OLat. danu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Lat. dato-
(pt.) ‘gegeben’
(WH 1:361)
(in Lat. datus, datum, datī)
1. PIE *deɑɦto-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *daɑɦto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. daɑɦto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *daɦto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. daɦto-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → Lat. dato-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Fal. dato-
(pt.) ‘gegeben’
(WH 1:361)
(in Fal. datu)
1. PIE *deɑɦto-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *daɑɦto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. daɑɦto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *daɦto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. daɦto-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → Fal. dato-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Pael. dato-
(pt.) ‘gegeben’
(WH 1:361)
(in Pael. datas ‘datas’
1. PIE *deɑɦto-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *daɑɦto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. daɑɦto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *daɦto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. daɦto-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → Pael. dato-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
RV. dátra-
(n.) ‘Gabe’
(WbRV. 573)
1. PIE *déɑɦtro-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
RColouring1d → *dáɑɦtro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. dáɑɦtro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dáɦtro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. dáɦtro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dáɦtra-
4. dáɦtra-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → RV. dátra-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Lat. datrīc-
(f.) ‘Geberin’
(WH 1:361)
(Lat. datrīx)
1. PIE *deɑɦtrɑheik-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *daɑɦtrɑheik-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. daɑɦtrɑheik-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *daɦtrheik-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. daɦtrheik-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *datrheik-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. datrheik-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *datreik-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. datreik-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
RMonophthei2i → *datrīk-
6. datrīk-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → Lat. datrīc-
√dɑ́ɦ-
Dor. ἀφρο·δί̄·τᾱ-
(f.) ‘= Gr. ἀφροτίδη’
(KVG:249)
1. PIE *ɦɑebɑɦro·dɑ́ɦi·tēɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́ɦi·tēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́ɦi·tēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́ɦi·tāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. ɦɑabɑɦro·dɑ́ɦi·tāɑh-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *ɦɑabɑɦro·díɦi·tāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
4. ɦɑabɑɦro·díɦi·tāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦabɦro·díɦi·tāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
5. ɦabɦro·díɦi·tāh-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
RDevoicebh → *ɦaphro·díɦi·tāh-
6. ɦaphro·díɦi·tāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *aphro·díi·tāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. aphro·díi·tāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *aphro·díi·tā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
8. aphro·díi·tā-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractíi → *aphro·dī́·tā-
9. aphro·dī́·tā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Dor. ἀφρο·δī́·τᾱ-
RV. díya-
(n.) ‘Gabe’
(WbRV. 600)
(RV. díya-)
1. PIE *dɑ́ɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi̯ → íḫi̯
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i̯
RAssimilation1g → *díɦi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. díɦi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *díɦi̯a-
3. díɦi̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *díi̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. díi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → RV. díya-
RV. dúv-
(f.?) ‘Gabe’
(WbRV. 623)
(RV. dúvas [plN, plA])
1. PIE *dɑ́ɦu̯-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu̯ → úḫu̯
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u̯
RAssimilation2g → *dúɦu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. dúɦu̯-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dúu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. dúu̯-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
RChangeW2V → RV. dúv-
ODor. δύϝανο-
(inf.) ‘er möge geben’
(GEW 1:388-9)
(Cypr. δυϝάνοι)
1. PIE *dɑ́ɦu̯eɑhno-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *dɑ́ɦu̯aɑhno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. dɑ́ɦu̯aɑhno-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu̯ → úḫu̯
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u̯
RAssimilation2g → *dúɦu̯aɑhno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
3. dúɦu̯aɑhno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dúɦu̯ahno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. dúɦu̯ahno-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dúu̯ahno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. dúu̯ahno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *dúu̯ano-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. dúu̯ano-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → ODor. δύϝανο-
√dɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013:154-5)
RV. dh·iṣ-
(f.) ‘Opfer·lust, Lust zu geben’
(WbRV. 683)
(RV. dhiṣā́ [sgI])
1. PIE *dɑɦ·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦ·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦ·Σ-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → RV. dh·Σ-


PIE √tɑh- √dɑɦ- (vb.) ‘essen, fressen’ (sb.) ‘Getreide, Brot, Speise’ (Lat. frūmentum) (a.) ‘brauchbar, nützlich’ (Goth. brūk-)
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√tɑh-
OInd. tha-
(m.) ‘eating’
(MonWil. 464)
(Lex. thas [sgN])
1. PIE *tɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tho-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → OInd. tha-
√dɑɦ-
Hitt. ed-
(vb.) ‘essen’
(HEG 1:117-9)
(Hitt. e-te-ir [3pl])
1. PIE *edɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *edɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. edɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. ed-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ad-
(vb.) ‘essen, fressen’
(HEG 1:91)
(HHand. 28)
1. PIE *odɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *odɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. odɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *adɦ-
(XX:XX)
3. adɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. ad-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. ARHA ada·-
(vb.) ‘eat up, consume’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. ARHA á-tà-tu-u)
1. PIE *Π·odɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·odɦo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·odɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·adɦa-
(XX:XX)
3. Π·adɦa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → HLu. Π·ada-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦi-
Pal. adaa-
(vb.) ‘essen’
(DPal. 52)
(Pal. a-ta-a-an-ti [3pl])
1. PIE *odɑɦoi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *odɦoi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. odɦoi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *adɦai̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. adɦai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
RAnatGlide1 → *adɦaa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.4.2)
4. adɦaa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Pal. adaa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. az-
(vbM.) ‘essen’
(DLL. 36)
(CLu. az-tu-u-wa-ri)
1. PIE *odɑɦi̯
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *odɦi̯
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. odɦi̯
PIE *dɦi̯ → z
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
RDentAssib4a → *oz
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. oz
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → CLu. az
(XX:XX)
Hitt. eza-
(vb.) ‘manger’
(XX:XX)
(Hitt. ezateni [2pl])
1. PIE *edɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *edɦi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. edɦi̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → z
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
RDentAssib4a → *ezo-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. ezo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. eza-
(XX:XX)
HLu. ARHA aza·-
(vb.) ‘eat away, consume’
(CHLu. XX)
(HLu. ARHA á-za-tu)
1. PIE *Π·odɑɦi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·odɦi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·odɦi̯o
PIE *dɦi̯ → z
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
RDentAssib4a → *Π·ozo
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. Π·ozo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → HLu. Π·aza
(XX:XX)
gAv. a·idyu-
(a.) ‘brauchbar, nützlich, tüchtig zu [D]’
(AIWb. 65-6)
1. PIE *o·dɑɦi̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *o·dɦi̯u-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. o·dɦi̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *a·dɦi̯u-
3. a·dɦi̯u-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → *a·di̯u-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. a·di̯u-
*adi → aidi
Anaptyxis of *i
RAnaptyxADI → *a·idi̯u-
5. a·idi̯u-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R41a → gAv. a·idyu-
TochA. nä·tsw-
(vb.) ‘starve’
(Poucha XX)
1. PIE *no·dɑɦiu̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *no·dɦiu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. no·dɦiu̯-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *na·dɦiu̯-
(XX:XX)
3. na·dɦiu̯-
PIE *dɦi → zɦi
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
RDentAssib4b → *na·jɦiu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
4. na·jɦiu̯-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *na·jiu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. na·jiu̯-
*j → t s
Loss of voice of media *j
RDevoicej → *na·tsiu̯-
6. na·tsiu̯-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
ROrthW2w → TochA. na·tsiw-
TochB. mä·tsor-
(sb.) ‘hunger’
(DTochB. 459)
(TochB. mätsors)
1. PIE *mo·dɑɦi̯our-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *mo·dɦi̯our-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. mo·dɦi̯our-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ma·dɦi̯aur-
(XX:XX)
3. ma·dɦi̯aur-
PIE *dɦi̯ → jɦ
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
RDentAssib4a → *ma·jɦaur-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
4. ma·jɦaur-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *ma·jaur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ma·jaur-
*j → t s
Loss of voice of media *j
RDevoicej → *ma·tsaur-
6. ma·tsaur-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RChangeAU2O1 → *ma·tsōr-
7. ma·tsōr-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthOIA6 → TochB. ma·tsor-
√dɑɦi̯uu̯o-
Hitt. zuu̯a-
(c.) ‘Brot, Speise’
(HIL. 1202)
(Hitt. zu-u-ua-aš [plD], ḪuI 99-100)
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯uu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦi̯uu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦi̯uu̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → z
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
RDentAssib4a → *zuu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. zuu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. zuu̯a-
(XX:XX)
CLu. zuu̯a-
(c.) ‘NINDA : pain, nourriture’
(DLL. 116)
(Hitt. zu-u-ua-aš [plD], ḪuI 99-100)
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯uu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦi̯uu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦi̯uu̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → z
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
RDentAssib4a → *zuu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. zuu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → CLu. zuu̯a-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. zuu̯ai-
(vb1.) ‘Objekt: Rauch’
(HHand. 210)
(Hitt. zu-ua-a-iz-zi; zu-ua-a-it, HIL. 1202)
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯uu̯oi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦi̯uu̯oi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦi̯uu̯oi-
PIE *dɦi̯ → z
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
RDentAssib4a → *zuu̯oi-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. zuu̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. zuu̯ai-
(XX:XX)


PIE √ti- √toi- √tei- ‘erscheinen, brennen, glänzen’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√tei-
OPhryg. τεο-
(m.) ‘Gott’
(Phryg. XX)
1. PIE *tei̯o-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → OPhryg. τεο-
Pal. tei̯ad-
(c.) ‘sun-god’
(DPal. XX)
(Pal. teiaz)
1. PIE *tei̯odɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tei̯odɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tei̯odɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tei̯adɦ-
(XX:XX)
3. tei̯adɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Pal. tei̯ad-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. tei̯adei-
(c.) (eine Drogenpflanze?, ‘Teufelsdreck’ ?)
(HHand. 176)
1. PIE *tei̯odɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tei̯odɦei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tei̯odɦei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tei̯adɦei-
(XX:XX)
3. tei̯adɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. tei̯adei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OPhryg. τειᾱ-
(f.) ‘Göttin’
(Phryg. 136)
1. PIE *tei̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *tei̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. tei̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tei̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tei̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *tei̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. tei̯ā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → OPhryg. τεᾱ-
√ti-
OPhryg. τι-
(m.) ‘Gott’
(Phryg. 136)
(Phryg. tios ‘dei’ [sgG])
1. PIE *ti-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → OPhryg. τι-
√tikis-
Gr. τίξο-
(ao.) Hes. = ‘δεῖξον’
(LSJ. 1796)
(Gr. τίξον [ipv.])
1. PIE *tíkiso-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *tíḱso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. tíḱso-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *tíkso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. tíkso-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. τίξο-
√tin-
Gr. τιν·δαρίδαι
(m.pl.) ‘Zeussöhne’
(GEW 1:611)
(Gr. τινδαρίδαι)
1. PIE *tin·deɑɦríɦɑdeɑhi
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *tin·daɑɦríɦɑdaɑhi
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. tin·daɑɦríɦɑdaɑhi
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tin·daɦríɦdahi
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tin·daɦríɦdahi
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *tin·darídahi
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. tin·darídahi
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *tin·darídai
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. tin·darídai
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. τιν·δαρίδαι
Gr. τιντό-
(pt.) = ἑφθόν (Hes.) (alphabet. unrichtig !)
(GEW 2:902
1. PIE *tintó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. τιντό-
Gr. τινθό-
(m.) ‘heißer Wasserdampf’ (eines Kessels) (?)
(GEW 2:902)
1. PIE *tintɑhó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tinthó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tinthó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. τινθό-
Gr. τινθ·αλέο-
(a.) ‘kochend heiß’
(GEW 2:902)
1. PIE *tintɑh·hɑeléi̯o-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *tintɑh·hɑaléi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. tintɑh·hɑaléi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tinth·haléi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tinth·haléi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *tinth·aléi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. tinth·aléi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RLossyinVyV → *tinth·aléo-
5. tinth·aléo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. τινθ·αλέο-
√tir-
(Pyysalo)
Dor. τίρι-
(f.?) ‘summer’
(LSJ. 1796)
(Hes. τίριος · θέρους [sgG], Cret.)
1. PIE *tíri-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Dor. τίρι-
Russ. tir·júcha
(f.) ‘Fieber’
(REW 3:107)
1. PIE *teir·Σ-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
RMonophthei2i → *tīr·Σ-
2. tīr·Σ-
*ī → i
Orthographic change of *ī into i
ROrthogrI2i1 → Russ. tir·Σ-
√tis-
RV. tiṣí.a-
(m.) ‘ein Fixstern(bilde)’
(WbRV. 537)
(RV. tiṣía-)
1. PIE *tisíɑHo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tisíHo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tisíHo-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RRukiI → *tišíHo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. tišíHo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tišíHa-
4. tišíHa-
PIE *H → .
Metric hiatus from PIE *h/ɦ
RVedicHiatus → *tiší.a-
5. tiší.a-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → RV. tiṣí.a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
LAv. tiš·trya-
(m.) ‘N des als Gottheit verehrten Fixterns Sirius’
(AIWb. 651-2)
(For suffix cf. Lat. triō(n), Lat. septem·triō(n), usw.)
1. PIE *tis·tri̯o-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RRukiI → *tiš·tri̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
2. tiš·tri̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tiš·tri̯a-
3. tiš·tri̯a-
*tR → ϑR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
R33b → *tiš·ϑri̯a-
4. tiš·ϑri̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R41a → LAv. tiš·ϑrya-
OInd. taiṣa-
(I.) ‘‹cf. above & below›’
(EWA X:XX)
1. PIE *tōiso-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RRukiI → *tōišo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
2. tōišo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tōiša-
3. tōiša-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *tāiša-
4. tāiša-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *tāiṣa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
5. tāiṣa-
āi → ai
Orthographic change of āi into ai
ROrthOIA8 → OInd. taiṣa-
Kaśm. teś-
(.) ‘eight lunar asterim’
(EWA1:649 [wL.])
1. PIE *toiso-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RRukiI → *toišo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
2. toišo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *taiša-
3. taiša-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
RChangeAI2E1 → *tēša-
4. tēša-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *tēṣa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
5. tēṣa-
*ṣ → ś
Change of ṣ into ś
R33 → *tēśa-
6. tēśa-
ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
ROrthOIA4 → Kaśm. teśa-
LAv. tiš·trya-
(dm.) ‘Sirius’
(AIWb. 651-2)
1. PIE *tis·tri̯o-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RRukiI → *tiš·tri̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
2. tiš·tri̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tiš·tri̯a-
3. tiš·tri̯a-
*tR → ϑR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
R33b → *tiš·ϑri̯a-
4. tiš·ϑri̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R41a → LAv. tiš·ϑrya-
LAv. tiš·tryaeinī-
(f.) ‘Name von Sternen in der nähe des tištrya’
(AIWb. 652)
1. PIE *tis·tri̯oiniɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
RAssimilation1b → *tis·tri̯oiniíh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. tis·tri̯oiniíh-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RRukiI → *tiš·tri̯oiniíh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. tiš·tri̯oiniíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tiš·tri̯ainiíh-
4. tiš·tri̯ainiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *tiš·tri̯ainií-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. tiš·tri̯ainií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
RContractiI → *tiš·tri̯ainī́-
6. tiš·tri̯ainī́-
*ai → ae
Opening of *ai
ROpeningAI → *tiš·tri̯aenī́-
7. tiš·tri̯aenī́-
*tR → ϑR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
R33b → *tiš·ϑri̯aenī́-
8. tiš·ϑri̯aenī́-
*aeni → aeini
Anaptyxis of *i
RAnaptyxAENI → *tiš·ϑri̯aeinī́-
9. tiš·ϑri̯aeinī́-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R41a → *tiš·ϑryaeinī́-
10. tiš·ϑryaeinī́-
* ī̯́ → ī
Absence of accentuation
R41c → LAv. tiš·ϑryaeinī-
LAv. tiš·tryō.štāra-
(m.) ‘der tištrya- (genannte) Stern’
(AIWb. 652)
1. PIE *tis·tri̯o.Σ-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RRukiI → *tiš·tri̯o.Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
2. tiš·tri̯o.Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tiš·tri̯a.Σ-
3. tiš·tri̯a.Σ-
*tR → ϑR
Affricativisation of *t before resonants
R33b → *tiš·ϑri̯a.Σ-
4. tiš·ϑri̯a.Σ-
a. → ō.
Change of a into ō before morpheme border
R39 → *tiš·ϑri̯ō.Σ-
5. tiš·ϑri̯ō.Σ-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R41a → LAv. tiš·ϑryō.Σ-
√tiu-
Lyd. ciw-
(c.) ‘Gott’
(LydWb. 92)
(Lyd. ciws [sgN])
1. PIE *tiu̯-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
RDentAssib1b → *ciu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
2. ciu̯-
PIE *u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
R22 → Lyd. ciw-
Hitt. šiu-
(c.) ‘Gott’
(HEG 2:1073-87)
(Hitt. ši-i-uš [sgN])
1. PIE *tiu-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
RDentAssib1b → *ciu-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
2. ciu-
OAnat. c -> š
Orthographic change of *c into š
R14 → Hitt. šiu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Phryg. τιϝοτᾱ-
(.) ‘tiu̯ad-’
(FRG 138)
(Phryg. τιϝοτας)
1. PIE *tiu̯otēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *tiu̯otāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. tiu̯otāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tiu̯otāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tiu̯otāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *tiu̯otā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. tiu̯otā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Phryg. τιϝοτᾱ-
CLu. tiu̯ad-
(d.) ‘Sonnengott’
(OHP. 1:523)
(CLu. dti-ua-az)
1. PIE *tiu̯odɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tiu̯odɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tiu̯odɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tiu̯adɦ-
(XX:XX)
3. tiu̯adɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → CLu. tiu̯ad-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. šiu̯ad-
(c.) ‘Tag’ (UD, UDKAM)
(HHand. 153)
1. PIE *tiu̯odɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tiu̯odɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tiu̯odɦ-
PIE *ti → ci
Assibilation of *t before *i
RDentAssib1b → *ciu̯odɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. ciu̯odɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ciu̯adɦ-
(XX:XX)
4. ciu̯adɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *ciu̯ad-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ciu̯ad-
OAnat. c -> š
Orthographic change of *c into š
R14 → Hitt. šiu̯ad-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
HLu. aza·tiu̯ad-
(I) (I(LITUUS)c.) ‘loved by Tiuata’ (Phoen. ’ztwd)
(CHLu. 1.1.1.)
(HLu. I(LITUUS)á-za-ti-i-wa/i-tà-sá [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·tiu̯odɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·tiu̯odɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·tiu̯odɦ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·tiu̯adɦ-
(XX:XX)
3. Π·tiu̯adɦ-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → HLu. Π·tiu̯ad-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √tɑhs- √dɑɦs- (vb.) ‘eilen, galoppieren’ (sb.) ‘Gewässername, Fisch, usw.’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√tɑhs-
RV. vi·tástā-
(IDf.) ‘im Fünfstromland; neben asiknî-’
(WbRV. 1269)
1. PIE *Π·tóɑhstēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·tóɑhstāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·tóɑhstāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·tóhstāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·tóhstāh-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *Π·táhstāh-
4. Π·táhstāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → RV. Π·tástā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
LAv. baeša·tastura-
(a.) ‘von baešatastura- abstammend, dessen Nachkomme’
(AIWb. 914)
1. PIE *Π·toɑhsturo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·tohsturo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·tohsturo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·tahstura-
3. Π·tahstura-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → LAv. Π·tastura-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
LAv. aoiγma·tastura-
(Im.) ‘EN eines Gläubigen’
(AIWb. 357)
(LAv. aoiγmatasturahe [sgG])
1. PIE *Π·toɑhsturo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·tohsturo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·tohsturo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·tahstura-
3. Π·tahstura-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → LAv. Π·tastura-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
LAv. vi·taŋuhaitī-
(IDf.) ‘N. eines Gewässers’
(AIWb. 1438-9)
1. PIE *Π·toɑhsu̯etiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
RAssimilation1b → *Π·toɑhsu̯etiíh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. Π·toɑhsu̯etiíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·tohsu̯etiíh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·tohsu̯etiíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·tahsu̯etiíh-
4. Π·tahsu̯etiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·tasu̯etií-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·tasu̯etií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
RContractiI → *Π·tasu̯etī́-
6. Π·tasu̯etī́-
*s → h
Change of segmental *s into h)
R26 → *Π·taxu̯etī́-
7. Π·taxu̯etī́-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *Π·taxu̯atī́-
8. Π·taxu̯atī́-
*ati → aiti
Anaptyxis of *i
RAnaptyxATI → *Π·taxu̯aitī́-
9. Π·taxu̯aitī́-
*u̯ → v
Orthographic change of *u̯ into v
R41b → *Π·taxvaitī́-
10. Π·taxvaitī́-
* ī̯́ → ī
Absence of accentuation
R41c → LAv. Π·taxvaitī-
√deɑɦs-
Gr. δασκάζο-
(vb.) Hes. ‘ὑποφεύγει’
(LSJ. 370)
(Gr. δασκάζει)
1. PIE *deɑɦski̯éɑdi̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *daɑɦski̯éɑdi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. daɑɦski̯éɑdi̯o-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
RColouring1d → *daɑɦski̯áɑdi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
3. daɑɦski̯áɑdi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *daɦski̯ádi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. daɦski̯ádi̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *daɦsḱádi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. daɦsḱádi̯o-
*di̯ → z
Palatalization of *di̯
RDentAssib1c → *daɦsḱázo-
6. daɦsḱázo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dasḱázo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. dasḱázo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *daskázo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
8. daskázo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. δασκάζο-
Gr. δάσκιλλο-
(.) ‘a name of a fish’
(LSJ. 370)
(Gr. δάσκιλλος)
1. PIE *déɑɦski̯ilno-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
RColouring1d → *dáɑɦski̯ilno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. dáɑɦski̯ilno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dáɦski̯ilno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. dáɦski̯ilno-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *dáɦsḱilno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. dáɦsḱilno-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dásḱilno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. dásḱilno-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *dáskilno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. dáskilno-
*ln → ll
Assimilation of *ln into ll
RAssimLN → *dáskillo-
7. dáskillo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. δάσκιλλο-
√dɑɦes-
Hitt. dešai-
(vb.) ‘in Marsch setzen, mobil machen’
(HHand. 174)
1. PIE *dɑɦesoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦesoi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦesoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦesai-
(XX:XX)
3. dɦesai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *desai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. desai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. dešai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦesti-
Lat. con.festī·-
(adv.) ‘stracks, sofort’
(WH 1:259)
(Lat. con·festim, Walde: *“mit Eile”)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦestiɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
RAssimilation1b → *Π·dɑɦestiíh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. Π·dɑɦestiíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·dɦestiíh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·dɦestiíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·dɦestií-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·dɦestií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
RContractií → *Π·dɦestī́-
5. Π·dɦestī́-
*dɦ → f
Affricativization of dental *bɦ
RAffricatDH2f → *Π·festī́-
6. Π·festī́-
*ɦ → h
Change of *f into b
RChangeF2B → *Π·bestī́-
7. Π·bestī́-
*ī́ → ī
Orthographic absence of accent
R42 → Lat. Π·bestī-
Lat. festīnā-
(pr1.) ‘sich sputen, eilen’
(WH 1:488-9)
(Lat. festīnāre [inf.])
1. PIE *dɑɦestiɑ́nēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *dɑɦestiɑ́nāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. dɑɦestiɑ́nāɑh-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
RAssimilation1b → *dɑɦestiínāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. dɑɦestiínāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦestiínāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. dɦestiínāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *dɦestiínā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. dɦestiínā-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
RContractií → *dɦestī́nā-
6. dɦestī́nā-
*dɦ → f
Affricativization of dental *bɦ
RAffricatDH2f → *festī́nā-
7. festī́nā-
*ī́ → ī
Orthographic absence of accent
R42 → Lat. festīnā-
√dɑɦostor-
Hitt. daštara-
(dc.) ‘‹cf. below & above›’
(OHP. 1:460)
(Hitt. ta-aš-ta-ra-an [sgA])
1. PIE *dɑɦostoro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦostoro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦostoro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦastara-
(XX:XX)
3. dɦastara-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *dastara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. dastara-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. daštara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. daštari-
(vb.) ‘galoppieren (?)’
(HHand. 172)
(DLL 95)
1. PIE *dɑɦostori-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦostori-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦostori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦastari-
(XX:XX)
3. dɦastari-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *dastari-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. dastari-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R18 → CLu. daštari-
Hitt. daštari̯eša-
(URUc.) ‘Nicht weit entfernt von › Kaštama’
(OGH. 412)
(“(...) › Ka˙amiša. Neben › Taptina”; OGHErg. 164-5)
1. PIE *dɑɦostori̯eso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦostori̯eso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦostori̯eso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦastari̯esa-
(XX:XX)
3. dɦastari̯esa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *dastari̯esa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. dastari̯esa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. daštari̯eša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √tɑhu-
√tɑhum-
OInd. tomára-
(m.) ‘Wurfspieß, Spieß’
(KEWA X:XX)
1. PIE *teɑhumóro-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *taɑhumóro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. taɑhumóro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tahumóro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tahumóro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tahumóra-
4. tahumóra-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *tahumára-
5. tahumára-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *taumára-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. taumára-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RChangeAU2O1 → *tōmára-
7. tōmára-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthOIA6 → OInd. tomára-
√tɑhur-
Lat. tauro-
(m.) ‘Baumstumpf’
(WH 2:650)
1. PIE *teɑhuro-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *taɑhuro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. taɑhuro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tahuro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tahuro-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Lat. tauro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Hitt. taḫuruaili-
(mc.) ‘Seigneur de la lance ‹or LU(?)›’
(NOMS. 1205)
(Hitt. ta-ḫur-ua-i-li-iš)
1. PIE *teɑhuru̯oili-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *taɑhuru̯oili-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. taɑhuru̯oili-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tahuru̯oili-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tahuru̯oili-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tahuru̯aili-
(XX:XX)
4. tahuru̯aili-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. taḫuru̯aili-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√tɑhut-
Lat. tautano-
(n.) ‘Wurfholz, Keule’
(WH 2:652)
1. PIE *teɑhuteɑhno-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *taɑhutaɑhno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. taɑhutaɑhno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tahutahno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tahutahno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Lat. tautano-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)


PIE √tl- √tol- √tel- ‘lassen, dulden, ertragen’
(IEW. 1060)
(+ Kapanjan + Pyysalo)
√tolo-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. tala-
(vb2.) ‘beistehen, (in Ruhe) lassen’
(HHand. 161)
1. PIE *tolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. tala-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. pi·tala-
(vb.) ‘verlassen, -werfen, -nachlässigen’
(HHand. 133)
(Hitt. píd-da-la-si, píd-da-la-an-zi)
1. PIE *Π·tolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. Π·tala-
(XX:XX)
√toli-
(Kapancjan 1931)
Arm. tʼoł-
(ao.) ‘lassen, dulden, ertragen’
(Arm. XX)
(in Arm. tʼołi, (HEG 3:53-4), HIL. 943-)
1. PIE *tóli̯-
*t → tʼ
Glottalization of *t
RGlottalicizeT → *tʼóli̯-
2. tʼóli̯-
*li̯ → ł
Change of *li̯ into ł
RRPalatly2lj → *tʼół-
3. tʼół-
*ó → o
Unmarkedness of accent
R23c → Arm. tʼoł-
Hitt. talei̯a-
(vb1.) ‘beistehen, (in Ruhe) lassen’
(HHand. 161)
1. PIE *tolei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. talei̯a-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. pi·talai-
(vb1.) ‘verlassen, -werfen, -nachlässigen’
(HHand. 133)
(Hitt. píd-da-la-it)
1. PIE *Π·toloi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. Π·talai-
(XX:XX)
√toliskio-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. tališke/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘beistehen, (in Ruhe) lassen’
(HHand. 161)
1. PIE *toliski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *tolisḱe/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. tolisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *talisḱe/a-
(XX:XX)
3. talisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *taliske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. taliske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. tališke/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. pi·tališke/a-
(vb.iter) ‘verlassen, -werfen, -nachlässigen’
(HHand. 133)
(CHD P:358, pí-it-ta-li-es-ke/a-)
1. PIE *Π·toliski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *Π·tolisḱe/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. Π·tolisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·talisḱe/a-
(XX:XX)
3. Π·talisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *Π·taliske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. Π·taliske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. Π·tališke/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√toliu-
Arm. tʼołu-
(pr.) ‘lassen, dulden, ertragen’
(XX)
(Arm. tʼołum [1sg])
1. PIE *tóli̯u-
*t → tʼ
Glottalization of *t
RGlottalicizeT → *tʼóli̯u-
2. tʼóli̯u-
*li̯ → ł
Change of *li̯ into ł
RRPalatly2lj → *tʼółu-
3. tʼółu-
*ó → o
Unmarkedness of accent
R23c → Arm. tʼołu-
√tolno-
(Petersen 1937: 210)
(Apud HIL. 944)
Lat. tollo-
(vb.) ‘aufheben, erheben, entfernen’
(WH 2:688)
1. PIE *tolno-
*ln → ll
Assimilation of *ln into ll
RAssimLN → Lat. tollo-


PIE √tl- √tol- √tel- (vb.) ‘prügeln, stampfen, schlagen’
(IEW XX)
√telo-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. tala-
(m.) ‘Anschlagen der Saiten mit linken hand’
(KEWA 1:488)
1. PIE *toLo-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RChangelr4 → *tolo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
2. tolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → OInd. tala-
Lat. tēlo-
(n.) ‘speerartig lange Stange’
(WH 2:656)
(Lat. tēlum)
√tolku- √telku-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. talku-
(vb.) ‹‘schlagen (?); obj = ‘marking’’›
(DLL 89)
(CLu. ku-lu-us-ta-na-ti ta-al-ku-du [3sg])
1. PIE *tolku-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → CLu. talku-
(XX:XX)
OCS. tlĕk-
(vb.) ‘klopfen, stossen, schlagen’
(Sadnik √975)
(OCS. tlĕšti [inf.])
1. PIE *telku-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → OCS. telk-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)


PIE √tl- √tol- √tel- ‘binden’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo: Hitt. + CLu. + Gr.)
√tolup-
Hitt. talupa-
(vb1.) ‘verflechten, verzieren’
(HHand. 162)
(Hitt. ta-lu-up-pa-an-da-an, ta-lu-up-pa-an)
1. PIE *tolupo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. talupa-
(XX:XX)
Att. τολύπη-
(f.) ‘Knäuel von Wolle oder Garn’
(GEW 2:909)
1. PIE *tolúpēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *tolúpāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. tolúpāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tolúpāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tolúpāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *tolúpā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. tolúpā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
RChangeA2E1 → *tolúpē-
5. tolúpē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Att. τολύπη-
Att. τολύπη-
(f.) ‘Zwiebelknollen, Kürbissen, kugelförmigen Kuchen’
(GEW 2:909)
1. PIE *tolúpēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *tolúpāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. tolúpāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tolúpāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tolúpāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *tolúpā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. tolúpā-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
RChangeA2E1 → *tolúpē-
5. tolúpē-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Att. τολύπη-
Hitt. talupi-
(c.) ‘Fladen, Brotstück, Tonbrocken, Erdklumpen’
(HHand. 162)
1. PIE *tolupi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. talupi-
(XX:XX)
CLu. talupi-
(.) ‘Tonbrocken, Erdklumpen, HHand. 162’
(DLL. 89)
(CLu. ta-lu-up-pí-iš, ta-lu-up-pí-in)
1. PIE *tolupi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → CLu. talupi-
(XX:XX)
OHitt. talupuša-
(c.) ‘-(?)-’
(HHand. 162)
1. PIE *tolupuso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *talupusa-
(XX:XX)
2. talupusa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → OHitt. talupuša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √tm- √tom- √tem- (sb.) ‘Geburt, Gebärerin’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo ?)
√tom-
TochA. tam-
(pretM.tr.) ‘generare’ (intr.) ‘nasci’
(Poucha. 121)
1. PIE *tom-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → TochA. tam-
(XX:XX)
TochA. tamä-
(pretM.tr.) ‘generare’ (intr.) ‘nasci’
(Poucha. 121)
(TochA. tamät)
1. PIE *tomo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → TochA. tama-
(XX:XX)
HLu. tami-
(sb.) ‘parent(s) ?’
(CHLu. 2.27.13)
(HLu. 20 tá-mi 10 INFANS-ní)
1. PIE *tomi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → HLu. tami-
(XX:XX)
TochB. camel-
(nt.) ‘birth, rebirth, birthform’
(DTochB. 251)
(TochB. camel)
1. PIE *temoil-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *temail-
(XX:XX)
2. temail-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
RChangee2Ya → *ti̯amail-
3. ti̯amail-
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
RDentAssib1a → *camail-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
4. camail-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
RChangeAI2E1 → *camēl-
5. camēl-
ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
ROrthOIA4 → TochB. camel-
TochB. a·tāmo-
(sb.) ‘unfruitful (barren) ground’
(DTochB. 9)
1. PIE *Π·tōmou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·tōmau-
(XX:XX)
2. Π·tōmau-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *Π·tāmau-
(XX:XX)
3. Π·tāmau-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RChangeAU2O1 → *Π·tāmō-
4. Π·tāmō-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthOIA6 → TochB. Π·tāmo-


PIE √tep-, √top- ‘schlagen, hauen, schneiden’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo)
√tep-
Lith. tèp-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, hauen’
(LiEtWb. 1081)
1. PIE *tép-
é → è
Emergence of gravis Li. è
RAcc4 → Lith. tèp-
Bulg. tepa-
(vb.) ‘XX’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *tepēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *tepāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. tepāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tepāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tepāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *tepā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. tepā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → Bulg. tepa-
√top-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. anta tapa·-
(vb.) ‘destroy’
(CHLu. 2.13.13)
(HLu. *261(-)ta-pa-i [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·topo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → HLu. Π·tapa-
(XX:XX)
Russ. tópa-
(vb.) ‘stampfen’
(REW 3:120)
(Russ. tópat’ [inf.])
1. PIE *tópēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *tópāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. tópāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tópāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tópāh-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *tápāh-
4. tápāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *tápā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. tápā-
*á → ó
Change of *á into ó
RChangea2o2 → *tópā-
6. tópā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → Russ. tópa-
OIcl. þefja-
(vb.) ‘stampfen (von Grütze)’
(ANEtWb. 606)
1. PIE *topei̯o-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
AffricateP → *tofei̯o-
2. tofei̯o-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
AffricateT → *þofei̯o-
3. þofei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *þafei̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. þafei̯a-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
RChangee2i → *þafii̯a-
5. þafii̯a-
*a – i i̯ → e – i̯
Umlaut for *a – ii̯
RUmlautafij → *þefi̯a-
6. þefi̯a-
*i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
R26 → OIcl. þefja-
√topos-
Hitt. tapaša·dala-
(LÚc.) ‘Metzger’ (?)
(HHand. 163, 165)
1. PIE *toposo·dɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *toposo·dɦolo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. toposo·dɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tapasa·dɦala-
(XX:XX)
3. tapasa·dɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *tapasa·dala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tapasa·dala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. tapaša·dala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √tr- √tor- √ter-
(IEW –, Adams)
tor-
Khot. tāra-
(.) ‘crown of the head’
(DTochB. 281)
1. PIE *tōro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tōra-
2. tōra-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → Khot. tāra-
ModPers. tār-
(sb.) ‘crown of the head’
(DTochB. 281)
1. PIE *tōro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tōra
2. tōra
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → ModPers. tāra
√tori-
(Adams, DTochB.)
(Pyysalo: Gr. + HLu. + Goth.)
HLu. tari-
(vb.) ‘raise’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *tori-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → HLu. tari-
(XX:XX)
Gr. τερί·καρπο-
(a.) ‘Hes. = μεγαλόκαρπον’
(LSJ. 1777)
Gr. τερί·καρπο-
1. PIE *terí·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. τερ·Σ-
Goth. þarih-
(a.) ‘unshrunk : ἄγναφος’
(GoEtWb. 355)
(Go. þarihis [sgG])
1. PIE *toriko
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *torixo
2. torixo
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
AffricateT → *þorixo
3. þorixo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *þarixa
(XX:XX)
4. þarixa
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *þarix
5. þarix
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → Goth. þarih
Khot. tāri-
(.) ‘crown of the head’
(DTochB. 281)
1. PIE *tōri-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → Khot. tāri-
ModPers. tāre-
(sb.) ‘crown of the head’
(DTochB. 281)
1. PIE *tōrei̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tōrei̯a
2. tōrei̯a
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *tārei̯a
3. tārei̯a
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *tārai̯a
4. tārai̯a
*i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R29a → ModPers. tāraya


PIE √tr- √otr- √etr- (vb.) ‘essen, fressen’ (sb.) ‘Nahrung, Fresser’ (a.) ‘verzehrend, gefrässig’
(IEW XX)
√otro-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. atra·ḫiša-
(n.) ‘Nahrung’
(HHand. 29)
(DLL. 34, at-ra-ḫi-ša)
1. PIE *otro·ɦɑiso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *otro·ɦiso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. otro·ɦiso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *atra·ɦisa-
(XX:XX)
3. atra·ɦisa-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → *atra·ḫisa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
4. atra·ḫisa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R18 → CLu. atra·ḫiša-
RV. átra-
(n.) ‘Nahrungsstoff’
(WbRV. 31)
(RV. átra-)
1. PIE *ótro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ótra-
2. ótra-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → RV. átra-
RV. atrá-
(a.) ‘der Fresser’
(WbRV. 31)
(RV. atrá-)
1. PIE *otró-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *atró-
2. atró-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → RV. atrá-
√trɦɑgi-
Gr. τρώγ-
(f.) ‘Kornwurm’
(GEW 2:XX)
(Gr. τρώξ)
1. PIE *trɦɑṓgi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *trɦṓgi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. trɦṓgi-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Centum neutralization of *gi/i̯
RCentum4 → *trɦṓǵ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. trɦṓǵ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *trṓǵ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. trṓǵ-
PIE *ǵ → g
Neutralization of Centum *ǵ
RCentumNeut2 → *trṓg-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. trṓg-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. τρώγ-
Gr. τρώγο-
(pr.) ‘zernagen, knuppern, Rohes fressen’
(GEW 2:XX)
(Gr. τρώγω)
1. PIE *trɦɑṓgi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *trɦṓgi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. trɦṓgi̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Centum neutralization of *gi/i̯
RCentum4 → *trɦṓǵo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. trɦṓǵo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *trṓǵo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. trṓǵo-
PIE *ǵ → g
Neutralization of Centum *ǵ
RCentumNeut2 → *trṓgo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. trṓgo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. τρώγο-
Gr. τράγο-
(ao.) ‘zernagen, knuppern, Rohes fressen’
(GEW 2:XX)
(Gr. ἔτραγον)
1. PIE *trɦɑégi̯o-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Colouring rule for *aé
RColouring1b → *trɦɑági̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. trɦɑági̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *trɦági̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. trɦági̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Centum neutralization of *gi/i̯
RCentum4 → *trɦáǵo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. trɦáǵo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *tráǵo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. tráǵo-
PIE *ǵ → g
Neutralization of Centum *ǵ
RCentumNeut2 → *trágo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. trágo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. τράγο-
Gr. τράγο-
(.) ‘Bock’
(GEW 2:XX)
(Gr. τράγος)
1. PIE *trɦɑégi̯o-
PIE *ɑé → ɑá
Colouring rule for *aé
RColouring1b → *trɦɑági̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. trɦɑági̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *trɦági̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. trɦági̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Centum neutralization of *gi/i̯
RCentum4 → *trɦáǵo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. trɦáǵo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *tráǵo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. tráǵo-
PIE *ǵ → g
Neutralization of Centum *ǵ
RCentumNeut2 → *trágo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. trágo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. τράγο-
√etri-
(Pyysalo)
(HEG I:119)
RV. átri-
(a.) ‘verzehrend’ (m.) ‘Eigenname eines Sängers’
(WbRV. 31)
(RV. átri-)
1. PIE *étri-
PIE *é → á
Aryan change of *é into á
RAryanE2A2 → RV. átri-
Hitt. etri-
(c.) ‘Gericht, Speise, Futter, Mahlzeit, Nahrung’
(HHand. 34)
RV. atríṇ-
(a.) ‘gefrässig’
(WbRV. 31)
(RV. atrín-)
1. PIE *etrín-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *atrín-
2. atrín-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
RRetrofl1 → RV. atríṇ-
Hitt. etrianu-
(cs.) ‘ernähren, füttern machen’
(HHand. 34)
1. PIE *etrionu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. etrianu-
(XX:XX)


PIE √tr-, √tor-, √ter- ‘Strick, Muskel, Wulst, Wand, usw.’ (vb.) ‘
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo)
√toro-
(Pyysalo)
Lat. toro-
(m.) ‘Muskel, Wulst, Strick’
(WH 2:694-5)
(Lat. torus, torī)
OCS. do·chŭp·torŭ-
(m.) ‘Kopfkissen’
(Sadnik 156)
(in OCS. dochŭtorŭ)
1. PIE *Π·Π·toro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·Π·tara
2. Π·Π·tara
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *Π·Π·toro
3. Π·Π·toro
*-o → -u
Change of -o into -u
RChangeO2U → *Π·Π·toru
4. Π·Π·toru
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
ROrthogru2u1 → OCS. Π·Π·torŭ
CS. pro·torŭ-
(.) ‘Aufwand’ (: XX)
(REW 3:123)
1. PIE *pro·toro
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *pra·tara
2. pra·tara
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *pro·toro
3. pro·toro
*-o → -u
Change of -o into -u
RChangeO2U → *pro·toru
4. pro·toru
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
ROrthogru2u1 → CS. pro·torŭ
OInd. tar·ala-
(m.) ‘der Mittlere Edelstein in einem Halsschmuck’ (KEWA 1:481)
(KEWA 1:XX)
1. PIE *tor·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → OInd. tar·Σ-
Lat. tor·olo-
(m.) ‘Haarwulst’
(WH 2:XX)
(in Lat. torulus [sgN])
Gr. ἔν·τερο-
(n.) ‘piece of the guts or intestines’
(LSJ. 575)
(Gr. ἔντερα [pl.])
1. PIE *én·tero-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἔν·τερο-
√tormo-
(IEW. 1072f.)
OIcl. þarm-
(m.) ‘Darm’
(ANEtWb. 606)
(OIcl. þarmr [sgN])
1. PIE *tormo
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
AffricateT → *þormo
2. þormo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *þarma
(XX:XX)
3. þarma
-a → Ø
Loss of -a in root-final position
RLossFinala1 → OIcl. þarm
OEng. þearm-
(m.) ‘a gut, an intestine, a string for an instrument’
(ASaxD. 1042)
1. PIE *tormo
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
AffricateT → *þormo
2. þormo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *þarma
(XX:XX)
3. þarma
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → OEng. þarm
OHG. darm-
(m.) ‘fibra’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *tormo
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
AffricateT → *þormo
2. þormo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *þarma
(XX:XX)
3. þarma
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *þarm
4. þarm
*þ → d
OHG sound shift of *þ
ROHGShiftTH2D → OHG. darm
√tormi-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. tarmi-
(c.) ‘sympton of a disease’
(HIL. 975)
(Hitt. tar-mi-iš)
1. PIE *tormi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. tarmi-
(XX:XX)
Lat. torminā-
(n.) ‘Leibschmerz, bes. Ruhr’
(WH. 693)
1. PIE *torminēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *tormināɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. tormināɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tormināh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tormināh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Lat. torminā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
√toru-
Hitt. taru̯a-
(.) ‘fetter’
(Melchert 1994:61)
(Tischler 1993:237)
1. PIE *toru̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. taru̯a-
(XX:XX)
√torup-
Hitt. tarup-
(vb1A.) ‘zusammenflechten, versammeln’
(HEG T: 240)
(HHand 171, HIL. 982)
1. PIE *torup-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. tarup-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. tarup-
(vb1M.) ‘sich versammeln; fertig werden’
(HHand. XX)
1. PIE *torup-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. tarup-
(XX:XX)
√torusɑho-
Hitt. tarušḫa-
(KUŠn.) ‘lederner Teil des Geschirres’
(HHand. 171)
1. PIE *torusɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *torusho-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. torusho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tarusha-
(XX:XX)
3. tarusha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *tarušha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tarušha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. tarušḫa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)


PIE √tr- √tor- √ter- (sb.) ‘Fahrzeug, Fähre, Kutscher’ (vb.) ‘kutschieren’ (a.) ‘schnell, flink’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo)
√tor-
Gr. τορό-
(a.) [Mg.] ‘schnell, flink’
(GEW 2:XX)
(Gr. τορός [sgN))
1. PIE *toró-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. τορό-
√teros-
RV. táras-
(n.) [Mg.] ‘rasches Vordringen, Schnelligkeit’
(WbRV. 529)
1. PIE *téros-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *téras-
2. téras-
PIE *é → á
Aryan change of *é into á
RAryanE2A2 → RV. táras-
RV. táras-
(n.) [Mg.] ‘Fahrzeug, Fähre’
(WbRV. 529)
1. PIE *téros-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *téras-
2. téras-
PIE *é → á
Aryan change of *é into á
RAryanE2A2 → RV. táras-
√ters-
Lith. ter̃š-
(vb.) ‘schnell, flink gehen’
(LiEtWb. 1083)
(Lith. tešti [inf.])
1. PIE *teŕs-
eŕ → er̃
Circumflex intonation for eŕ
RAcc12 → Lith. ter̃s-
Lith. teršia-
(vb.) ‘schnell, flink gehen’
(LiEtWb. 1083)
(Lith. teršiù [1sg])
1. PIE *tersi̯o-
PIE *rs → rš
Ruki-rule for *rs
RRukiR → *terši̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
2. terši̯o-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *terši̯a-
3. terši̯a-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
R25 → Lith. teršia-
√torsi-
(HEG 9:225)
CLu. taršai-
(GKLvb.) ‘jmdn. kutschieren, fahren, HHand. 170’
(DLL. 94)
(CLu. tar-ša-i-in-du)
1. PIE *torsoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tarsai-
(XX:XX)
2. tarsai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R18 → CLu. taršai-
CLu. taršei-
(GKLvb.) ‘jmdn. kutschieren, fahren, HHand. 170’
(DLL. 94)
(CLu. tar-ši-en-ti, tar-ši-ta-(ia-ua-mu))
1. PIE *torsei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tarsei-
(XX:XX)
2. tarsei-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R18 → CLu. taršei-
CLu. taršei̯a-
(.) ‘-(?)-’
(DLL. 94)
(CLu. tar-ši-ia-[...)
1. PIE *torsei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tarsei̯a-
(XX:XX)
2. tarsei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R18 → CLu. taršei̯a-
CLu. taršei̯ai-
(vb.) (cf. above)
(DLL. 94)
(CLu. tar-ši-ia-i [ipv.] = Akd. i-te-eb)
1. PIE *torsei̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tarsei̯ai-
(XX:XX)
2. tarsei̯ai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R18 → CLu. taršei̯ai-
√torsibɑɦo-
Hitt. taršibala-
(LÚc.) ‹‘Kutscher’ (?)›
(HHand. 170)
1. PIE *torsibɑɦolo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *torsibɦolo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. torsibɦolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tarsibɦala-
(XX:XX)
3. tarsibɦala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *tarsibala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tarsibala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. taršibala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. taršibali-
(LÚc.) ‹‘Kutscher’ (?)›
(HHand. 170)
1. PIE *torsibɑɦoli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *torsibɦoli-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. torsibɦoli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tarsibɦali-
(XX:XX)
3. tarsibɦali-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *tarsibali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tarsibali-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. taršibali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√torsibɑɦi-
Kpd. taršibi-
(Ic.) ‘-(?)-’ (ct. above)
(NOMS. 1290)
(Kpd. tár-ší-pì)
1. PIE *torsibɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *torsibɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. torsibɦi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tarsibɦi-
(XX:XX)
3. tarsibɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *tarsibi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tarsibi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Kpd. taršibi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. taršibi·ala-
(c.) ‘Kutscher’ (?)
(HHand. 170)
1. PIE *torsibɑɦi̯·olo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *torsibɦi̯·olo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. torsibɦi̯·olo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tarsibɦi̯·ala-
(XX:XX)
3. tarsibɦi̯·ala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *tarsibi̯·ala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tarsibi̯·ala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. taršibi̯·ala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √tor-, √ter-, √tr- ‘beschmutzen, beflecken, beschmieren, usw.’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√toro-
Bulg. tor-
(m.) ‘Dunger, Mist’
(REW 3:123)
1. PIE *toro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tara-
2. tara-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → Bulg. toro-
√terli-
Lith. ter̃lio-
(vb.) ‘beschmutzen, beflecken, beschmieren’
(LiEtWb. 1082)
(Lith. ter̃lioti [inf.])
1. PIE *teŕli̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *teŕli̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. teŕli̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *teŕli̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. teŕli̯āh-
eŕ → er̃
Circumflex intonation for eŕ
RAcc12 → *ter̃li̯āh-
4. ter̃li̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ter̃li̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ter̃li̯ā-
*ā → ō
Change of ā into ō
RChangeA2O1 → *ter̃li̯ō-
6. ter̃li̯ō-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
R25 → *ter̃liō-
7. ter̃liō-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27a → Lith. ter̃lio-
Lith. terlió-
(vb.) ‘beschmutzen, beflecken, beschmieren’
(LiEtWb. 1082)
(Lith. terlióti [inf.])
1. PIE *terli̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *terli̯ā́ɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. terli̯ā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *terli̯ā́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. terli̯ā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *terli̯ā́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. terli̯ā́-
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
RChangeA202 → *terli̯ṓ-
5. terli̯ṓ-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
R25 → *terliṓ-
6. terliṓ-
ṓ → ó
Orthographic change of ṓ into ó
R27b → Lith. terlió-
√term-
Lith. termó-
(vb.) ‘beschmutzen, vermengen, mischen’
(LiEtWb. 1082)
(Lith. termóti [inf.])
1. PIE *termḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *termā́ɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. termā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *termā́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. termā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *termā́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. termā́-
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
RChangeA202 → *termṓ-
5. termṓ-
ṓ → ó
Orthographic change of ṓ into ó
R27b → Lith. termó-
Lith. termà-
(f.) ‘Schweinefutter, Mischmasch, Wirrwarr’
(LiEtWb. 1082)
1. PIE *termḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *termā́ɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. termā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *termā́h
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. termā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *termā́
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. termā́
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
RChangeA202 → *termṓ
5. termṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
RFinalo2a2 → Lith. termà
Lith. termén-
(vb.) ‘sudeln, beschmieren’
(LiEtWb. 1082)
(Lith. terménti [inf.])
1. PIE *terméhɑn-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *terméhn-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. terméhn-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Lith. termén-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
√tors-
(Pyysalo)
Lith. taršý-
(vb.) ‘beschmutzen, -sudeln, vermischen, -wirren’
(LiEtWb. 1063)
(Lith. taršýti [inf.])
1. PIE *torsɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *torsíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. torsíhi-
PIE *rs → rš
Ruki-rule for *rs
RRukiR → *toršíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. toršíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *toršíi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. toršíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *toršī́-
5. toršī́-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *taršī́-
6. taršī́-
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
R24 → Lith. taršý-
Latv. tarsla-
(.) ‘unsauberer Mensch’
(LiEtWb. 1082)
(Latv. tarsla [sgN])
1. PIE *torslēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *torslāɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. torslāɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *torslāh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. torslāh
PIE *rs → rš
Ruki-rule for *rs
R9RukiR → *toršlāh
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. toršlāh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *toršlā
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. toršlā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *taršlā
6. taršlā
*š → s
Change of Balt. š into Latv. s
RChangesh2s → *tarslā
7. tarslā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R28 → Latv. tarsla
Hitt. tarš·kani̯ant-
(a.) ‘schleimverschmiert’ ?
(HHand. 167)
(Hitt. taraškaniant)
1. PIE *tors·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tars·Σ-
(XX:XX)
2. tars·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. tarš·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. tarš·kant-
(a.) ‘beschmutzt, befleckt’ ?
(HHand. 167)
(Hitt. taraškant-)
1. PIE *tors·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tars·Σ-
(XX:XX)
2. tars·Σ-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. tarš·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ters-
Lith. ter̃š-
(vb.) ‘schmützen, abfärben, verschlammen’
(LiEtWb. 1083)
(Lith. ter̃šti [inf.])
1. PIE *teŕs-
eŕ → er̃
Circumflex intonation for eŕ
RAcc12 → Lith. ter̃s-
Lith. teršia-
(vb.) ‘schmützen, abfärben, verschlammen’
(LiEtWb. 1083)
(Lith. teršiù [1sg])
1. PIE *tersi̯o-
PIE *rs → rš
Ruki-rule for *rs
RRukiR → *terši̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
2. terši̯o-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *terši̯a-
3. terši̯a-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
R25 → Lith. teršia-
Lith. teršìma-
(m.) ‘Besuldeln, Schmutzen’
(LiEtWb. 1083)
1. PIE *tersímo-
PIE *rs → rš
Ruki-rule for *rs
RRukiR → *teršímo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
2. teršímo-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis Li. ì
RAcc2 → *teršìmo-
3. teršìmo-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Lith. teršìma-


PIE √trɦɑu- ‘Tarḫu(nt)-, Tonitrus, Wettergott’
(IEW 1074-5)
(Pyysalo: OIcl.)
√toro-
(Pyysalo)
(Neu 1968: 167 and Oettinger 1979a: 298-9, HIL. 961-2)
Hitt. tara-
(vb.) ‘to be able, + inf = can’
(HIL. 961)
(Hitt. tar-ra-at-ta, Oettinger 1979a: 298)
1. PIE *toro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. tara-
(XX:XX)
OIr. tor-
(m.) ‘champion, héros’
(LEIA T-111)
(OIr. tor, toraib [plD])
1. PIE *toro
*-o → Ø
Loss of root-final *o
RLossFinalo → OIr. tor
√tr̥ɦɑ́u-
(Pyysalo)
(HEG X:XX, HIL. 964-968)
Hitt. tr̥ḫu-
(vb1.) ‘mächtig sein, können’
(HHand. 167)
(Oettinger 1979a: 298)
1. PIE *tr̥ɦɑ́u-
PIE *ɑ́u → úu
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2a → *tr̥ɦúu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)´
2. tr̥ɦúu-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractúu → *tr̥ɦū́-
3. tr̥ɦū́-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → *tr̥ḫū́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
4. tr̥ḫū́-
PIE *ū́ → u
Absence of accent and quantity in OAnat.
R17 → Hitt. tr̥ḫu-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
Hitt. tr̥ḫu-
(a.) ‘Benennung des Wettergottes, der Mächtige’
(HHand. 167
1. PIE *tr̥ɦɑ́u-
PIE *ɑ́u → úu
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2a → *tr̥ɦúu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)´
2. tr̥ɦúu-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractúu → *tr̥ɦū́-
3. tr̥ɦū́-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → *tr̥ḫū́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
4. tr̥ḫū́-
PIE *ū́ → u
Absence of accent and quantity in OAnat.
R17 → Hitt. tr̥ḫu-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
HLu. tr̥ḫu-
(d.) ‘Wettergott’
(KLuN. § 82)
(HLu. (DEUS)TONITRUS-hu-sa)
1. PIE *tr̥ɦɑ́u-
PIE *ɑ́u → úu
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2a → *tr̥ɦúu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. tr̥ɦúu-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractúu → *tr̥ɦū́-
3. tr̥ɦū́-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R18 → *tr̥ḫū́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
4. tr̥ḫū́-
PIE *ū́ → u
R20 → HLu. tr̥ḫu-
Absence of accent and quantity in OAnat. (Pyysalo 2013: XX)
Lat. toni·trū-
(m.) ‘Donner’
(WH 2:532)
(Lat. tonitrūs [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·tr̥ɦɑ́u-
PIE *ɑ́u → úu
Assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2a → *Π·tr̥ɦúu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. Π·tr̥ɦúu-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·tr̥úu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. Π·tr̥úu-
PIE *r̥ → r
Desyllafibication of r̥ after loss of h/ɦ
RDesyllR → *Π·trúu-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
4. Π·trúu-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractúu → *Π·trū́-
5. Π·trū́-
*ū́ → ū
Orthographic absence of accent
R43 → Lat. Π·trū-
√troɦɑu-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. traḫu·Σ
(Ic.) ‘‹cf. below›’
(NOMS. Fr. 54)
(Hitt. taraḫu[…
1. PIE *troɦɑu·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *troɦu·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. troɦu·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *traɦu·Σ-
(XX:XX)
3. traɦu·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. traḫu·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
OIcl. þrō-
(m.) ‘name von Odin’
(ANEtWb. 623)
(OIcl. þrór [sgN])
1. PIE *troɦɑu̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *troɦu̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. troɦu̯o
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *trou̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. trou̯o
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
AffricateT → *þrou̯o
4. þrou̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *þrau̯a
(XX:XX)
5. þrau̯a
-a → Ø
Loss of -a in root-final position
RLossFinala1 → *þrau̯
6. þrau̯
*au̯ → ō
Change of *- au̯ into -ō
R19 → OIcl. þrō
√tr̥ɦɑundɑɦ-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. tr̥ḫund-
(d.) ‘Tarhunt, Wettergott, Tonitrus’
(OHP. 1:446-)
(CLu. tar-ḫu-un-za, GhR. 308-9, RDH. 89, E. Neu StBoT 18:118+n. 277, REL. 69,91,166-8,173, WbMyth. 208-214, KLuN. 142-5)
1. PIE *tr̥ɦɑundɑɦ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tr̥ɦundɦ
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tr̥ɦundɦ
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *tr̥ɦund
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. tr̥ɦund
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. tr̥ḫund
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
OIcl. þrund-
(m.) ‘Odinsname (þula)’
(ANEtWb. 624)
(OIcl. þrundr [sgN])
1. PIE *tr̥ɦɑundɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tr̥ɦundɦo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tr̥ɦundɦo
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *tr̥undɦo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. tr̥undɦo
PIE *r̥ → r
Desyllafibication of r̥ after loss of h/ɦ
RDesyllR → *trundɦo
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
4. trundɦo
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
AffricateT → *þrundɦo
5. þrundɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → *þrundo
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. þrundo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *þrunda
(XX:XX)
7. þrunda
-a → Ø
Loss of -a in root-final position
RLossFinala1 → OIcl. þrund
Hitt. tr̥ḫundaša-
(URU.)
(OGH. 405)
(Hitt. tar-ḫu-un-da-aš-ša [Stf.], CLuLex. 212)
1. PIE *tr̥ɦɑundɑɦoso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tr̥ɦundɦoso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tr̥ɦundɦoso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tr̥ɦundɦasa-
(XX:XX)
3. tr̥ɦundɦasa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *tr̥ɦundasa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tr̥ɦundasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *tr̥ɦundaša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. tr̥ɦundaša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. tr̥ḫundaša-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. tr̥ḫundeiša-
(Ic.) ‘= Ugar. trġds ?’
(NOMS. 1272)
(Hitt. tar-ḫu-un-ti-iš-ša [abs.])
1. PIE *tr̥ɦɑundɑɦeiso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tr̥ɦundɦeiso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tr̥ɦundɦeiso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tr̥ɦundɦeisa-
(XX:XX)
3. tr̥ɦundɦeisa-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *tr̥ɦundeisa-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tr̥ɦundeisa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *tr̥ɦundeiša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. tr̥ɦundeiša-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. tr̥ḫundeiša-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√toreio-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. tārei̯a-
(vb.) ‘XX’
(HEG T: 147)
(Hitt. tar-ia-an-da-an, KUB 12.63 + 36.70 obv. 9)
1. PIE *tōrei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tōrei̯a-
(XX:XX)
2. tōrei̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → Hitt. tārei̯a-
(XX:XX)
LAv. titāraya-
(cs.) ‘überwinden, bewältigen’
(AIWb. 639)
1. PIE *titōrei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *titōrei̯a-
2. titōrei̯a-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *titārei̯a-
3. titārei̯a-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *titārai̯a-
4. titārai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R41a → LAv. titāraya-
√toruɑh-
(HIL. 964-)
Hitt. taruḫ-
(vb1.) ‘mächtig sein, können’
(HHand. 167)
(Hitt. tar-ru-uḫ-zi, tar-ru-uḫ-ḫa-an-zi, tar-uḫ-ḫu-un [1sg], ta-ru-uḫ-ḫu-un])
1. PIE *toruɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *toruh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. toruh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *taruh-
(XX:XX)
3. taruh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. taruḫ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. taruḫ-
(vb1.+za) ‘besiegen, bezwingen, überwinden’
(HHand. 167)
(= GÉŠPUuḫḫ-)
1. PIE *toruɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *toruh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. toruh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *taruh-
(XX:XX)
3. taruh-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. taruḫ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
gAv. taurvaya-
(cs.) ‘überwinden, bewältigen’
(AIWb. 639)
(gAv. taurvayāmā [1pl]
1. PIE *toruɑhei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *toruhei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. toruhei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *taruhei̯a-
3. taruhei̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *taruei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. taruei̯a-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *taruai̯a-
5. taruai̯a-
*ua → u̯a
Loss of hiatus in ua
R32a → *taru̯ai̯a-
6. taru̯ai̯a-
*aru → auru
Anaptyxis of *u
RAnaptyxARU → *tauru̯ai̯a-
7. tauru̯ai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R41a → *tauru̯aya-
8. tauru̯aya-
*u̯ → v
Orthographic change of *u̯ into v
R41b → gAv. taurvaya-
Hitt. taruḫeiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘XX’
(HHand. 167)
Hitt. tar-uḫ-ḫi-eš-kir)
1. PIE *toruɑheiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *toruheiski̯e/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. toruheiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *toruheisḱe/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. toruheisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *taruheisḱe/a-
(XX:XX)
4. taruheisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *taruheiske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. taruheiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *taruheiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. taruheiške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. taruḫeiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
LAv. vǝrǝϑra·taurvan-
(a.) ‘den Angriff überwindend’
(AIWb. 1423)
(LAv. vǝrǝϑra.taurvan-)
1. PIE *Π·toruɑhon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·toruhon-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·toruhon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·taruhan-
3. Π·taruhan-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·taruan-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·taruan-
*ua → u̯a
Loss of hiatus in ua
R32a → *Π·taru̯an-
5. Π·taru̯an-
*aru → auru
Anaptyxis of *u
RAnaptyxARU → *Π·tauru̯an-
6. Π·tauru̯an-
*u̯ → v
Orthographic change of *u̯ into v
R41b → LAv. Π·taurvan-
Hitt. taruḫant-
(pt.) ‘XX’
(HHand. 167)
(Hitt. tar-uḫ-ḫan)
1. PIE *toruɑhont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *toruhont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. toruhont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *taruhant-
(XX:XX)
3. taruhant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. taruḫant-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
LAv. vīspa·taurvairī-
(a.f.) ‘Allüberwinderin’
(AIWb. 1463-4)
(LAv. vīspa.taurvairī-, BN der ǝrǝdat.fǝdrī-)
1. PIE *Π·toruɑhoriɑ́h-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
RAssimilation1b → *Π·toruɑhoriíh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. Π·toruɑhoriíh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·toruhoriíh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·toruhoriíh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·taruhariíh-
4. Π·taruhariíh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·taruarií-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·taruarií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
RContractiI → *Π·taruarī́-
6. Π·taruarī́-
*ua → u̯a
Loss of hiatus in ua
R32a → *Π·taru̯arī́-
7. Π·taru̯arī́-
*ari → airi
Anaptyxis of *i
RAnaptyxARI → *Π·taru̯airī́-
8. Π·taru̯airī́-
*aru → auru
Anaptyxis of *u
RAnaptyxARU → *Π·tauru̯airī́-
9. Π·tauru̯airī́-
*u̯ → v
Orthographic change of *u̯ into v
R41b → *Π·taurvairī́-
10. Π·taurvairī́-
* ī̯́ → ī
Absence of accentuation
R41c → LAv. Π·taurvairī-


√trgiɑɦ- ‘Vogel, Geier, Schwan’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo)
√torgiɑɦ-
(Pyysalo)
CLu. tarza-
(c.) ‘ein Vogel/Qualifikation von ‘Vogel’
(HHand. 171)
1. PIE *torgi̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → j́
1st palatalization of *gi/i̯
RSatem4 → *torj́o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. torj́o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tarj́a-
(XX:XX)
3. tarj́a-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to CLu.
RSatem2CLu4 → CLu. tarza-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.9)
Gr. τόργο-
(m.) ‘Geier : ‘vulture’
(GEW 2:911)
(Gr. τόργος)
1. PIE *tórgi̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Centum neutralization of *gi/i̯
RCentum4 → *tórǵo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. tórǵo-
PIE *ǵ → g
Neutralization of Centum *ǵ
RCentumNeut2 → *tórgo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. tórgo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. τόργο-
Gr. τόργιο-
(.) ‘ορος (…) οπου νεττευουσιν οι γυπες’
(GEW 2:912)
(Gr. τόργιος)
1. PIE *tórgi̯ii̯o-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Centum neutralization of *gi/i̯
RCentum4 → *tórǵii̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. tórǵii̯o-
PIE *ǵ → g
Neutralization of Centum *ǵ
RCentumNeut2 → *tórgii̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. tórgii̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RLossyinVyV → *tórgio-
4. tórgio-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. τόργιο-
Gr. ·τόργο-
(m.) ‘mit ὑγρόφοιτος = Schwan’
(GEW 2:911-2)
(Gr. ἐν σικελία)
1. PIE *tórgio·Σ-
PIE *gi/i̯ → g
Centum neutralization of *gi/i̯
RCentum4 → *tórǵo·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. tórǵo·Σ-
PIE *ǵ → g
Neutralization of Centum *ǵ
RCentumNeut2 → *tórgo·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. tórgo·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. τόργο·Σ-


PIE √tru- ‘tanzen, hüpfen, toben, usw.’
(IEW. 1100)
(+ Pyysalo: Hitt. & CLu.)
√tru-
[HIL. 972f. to tarku- ‘dance’, HHand. 168) – HIL 814]
Hitt. taru-
(vb.) ‘toben, tanzen’
(HHand. 170)
(HEG 9:235, taruzi)
1. PIE *toru-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. taru-
(XX:XX)
CLu. taru̯ali-
(c.N.ag.) ‘danseur (?)’
(DLL. 94)
1. PIE *toru̯oli-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → CLu. taru̯ali-
(XX:XX)
√truɑh-
Lat. truā-
(pr1.) ‘movere’
(IEW. 1100)
(Lat. truant [3pl])
1. PIE *truēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *truāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. truāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *truāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. truāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Lat. truā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Lat. amb·truā-
(pr1.) ‘tanzend im Kreis hüpfen’
(WH 1:42)
(Lat. ambtruō [1sg])
1. PIE *Π·truēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·truāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·truāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·truāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·truāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Lat. Π·truā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Lat. an·truā-
(vb1.) ‘tanzend im Kreis hüpfen’
(WH 1:42)
(Lat. antruō [1sg])
1. PIE *Π·truēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·truāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·truāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·truāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·truāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Lat. Π·truā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
√trui-
Hitt. taru̯ai-
(vb1.) ‘toben, tanzen’
(HHand. 171)
1. PIE *toru̯oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. taru̯ai-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. taru̯iške/a-
(vb.) ‘dance in leopard-style’
(HHand. 171)
1. PIE *toru̯iski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *toru̯isḱe/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. toru̯isḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *taru̯isḱe/a-
(XX:XX)
3. taru̯isḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *taru̯iske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. taru̯iske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. taru̯iške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. taru̯iškala-
(c.) ‘dancer’
(HHand. 171)
1. PIE *toru̯iski̯olo-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *toru̯isḱolo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. toru̯isḱolo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *taru̯isḱala-
(XX:XX)
3. taru̯isḱala-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *taru̯iskala-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. taru̯iskala-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. taru̯iškala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


√ts- √tos- √tes- (vb.) ‘schreien’ (sb.) ‘Stimme’
(IEW –)
√tos-
Norw. tas-
(.) ‘Geschwätz : babble’
(ANEtWb. 606)
1. PIE *toso-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
AffricateT → *þoso-
2. þoso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → Norw. þasa-
(XX:XX)
OIcl. þas·rām-
(BN.) ‹with OIcl. rāmr (a.) ‘heiser’›
(ANEtWb. 606)
1. PIE *tos·Σ-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
AffricateT → *þos·Σ-
2. þos·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → OIcl. þas·Σ-
(XX:XX)
√tosi-
Hitt. taštašei̯a-
(vb1.) ‘flüstern, konspirieren’
(HHand. 172)
1. PIE *tostosei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tastasei̯a-
(XX:XX)
2. tastasei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. taštašei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. taštašiške/a-
(vb1iter.) ‘flüstern, konspirieren’
(HHand. 172)
1. PIE *tostosiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *tostosisḱe/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. tostosisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tastasisḱe/a-
(XX:XX)
3. tastasisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *tastasiske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. tastasiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. taštašiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√toski-
Hitt. taškupai-
(vb.) ‘schreien, heulen, jammern’
(HHand. 172)
1. PIE *toski̯upoi-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *tosḱupoi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. tosḱupoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tasḱupai-
(XX:XX)
3. tasḱupai-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *taskupai-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. taskupai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. taškupai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. taškupimi-
(N.act.c.) ‘Geschrei’
(HHand. 172)
1. PIE *toski̯upimi-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *tosḱupimi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. tosḱupimi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tasḱupimi-
(XX:XX)
3. tasḱupimi-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *taskupimi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. taskupimi-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. taškupimi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. taškupiške/a-
(vb.iter.) ‘schreien, heulen, jammern’
(HHand. 172)
1. PIE *toski̯upiskie/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *tosḱupisḱe/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. tosḱupisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tasḱupisḱe/a-
(XX:XX)
3. tasḱupisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *taskupiske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. taskupiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. taškupiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √tu- (sb.) ‘Ohr’ (gAv. gǝ̄uša- ‘id.’, AIWb 486) (a.) ‘geräuschvoll, lärmend’ (AV. ghoṣín- ‘id.’ EWA 1:518)
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo)
√tu-
OInd. tu·ṣṭāv-
(pf.) ‘loben, preisen’
(MonWil. XX)
(OInd. tuṣṭāva)
1. PIE *tustōu̯-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *tuštōu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
2. tuštōu̯-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *tuštāu̯-
3. tuštāu̯-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
RChangeW2V → *tuštāv-
4. tuštāv-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *tuṣtāv-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
5. tuṣtāv-
*ṣt → ṣṭ
Assimilation of retroflex
RRetrofl3 → OInd. tuṣṭāv-
RV. tu·ṣṭuv-
(pf.) ‘loben, preisen’
(WbRV. 1591)
(RV. tuṣṭuvús [3pl])
1. PIE *tustuu̯-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *tuštuu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
2. tuštuu̯-
PIE *u̯ → v
Affricativization of PIE *u̯ into v
RChangeW2V → *tuštuv-
3. tuštuv-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *tuṣtuv-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. tuṣtuv-
*ṣt → ṣṭ
Assimilation of retroflex
RRetrofl3 → RV. tuṣṭuv-
√tumon-
CLu. tuman-
(n.) ‘Ohr’
(DLL. 99)
(CLu. tu-um-ma-an-, tum-ma-a-an)
1. PIE *tumon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → CLu. tuman-
(XX:XX)
Kpd. tumana-
(Ic.)
(NOMS. 1371)
(Kpd. du-ma-na)
1. PIE *tumono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Kpd. tumana-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. tumana
(URU.)
(OGH. 437)
(Hitt. tu-ma-na)
1. PIE *tumono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. tumana-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. tumana-
() ((KUR) URU.) –
(OGH. 437)
(Hitt. tu-u-ma-an-na, tu-u-um-ma-an-na-an)
1. PIE *tumono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. tumana-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. tumana·li-
(LÚc.) (Funktionär in Gerichtsprotokoll)
(HHand. 180)
1. PIE *tumono·li-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. tumana·li-
(XX:XX)
CLu. tumana·li-
(N.) ‘-(?)-’
(HHand. 180)
1. PIE *tumono·li-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → CLu. tumana·li-
(XX:XX)
√tumont-
CLu. tumant-
(n.) ‘Ohr’
(HHand. 180)
1. PIE *tumont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → CLu. tumant-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. tumanta
() ((KUR) URU.) ‘In Zusammenhang mit › Partuwata’
(OGH. 438)
(Hitt. du-um-ma-an-da, tu-u-um-ma-an-da
1. PIE *tumonto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. tumanta-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. tumanta-
(URU.)
(OGH. 438)
(Hitt. tum-ma-an-ta)
1. PIE *tumonto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. tumanta-
(XX:XX)
√tumontoi-
CLu. tumantai-
(vb.) ‘hören’
(HHand. 180)
(CLu. tu-u-um-ma-a-ta-i-im-mi-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *tumontoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → CLu. tumantai-
(XX:XX)
CLu. tumantaimi-
(pt.) ‘berühmt’
(HHand. 180)
1. PIE *tumontoimi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → CLu. tumantaimi-
(XX:XX)
√tumonteio-
CLu. tumantei̯a-
(c.) ‘Gehör, Gehorsam’
(HHand. 180)
1. PIE *tumontei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → CLu. tumantei̯a-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. tumantei̯a-
(c.) ‘Gehör, Gehorsam’
(HHand. 180)
1. PIE *tumontei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. tumantei̯a-
(XX:XX)
CLu. tumantei̯ala-
(.) ‘Gehörgang’ (?)
(HHand. 180)
1. PIE *tumontei̯olo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → CLu. tumantei̯ala-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. tumantei̯at-
(É.) (ein Gebäude(-teil)), ‘Audienzraum’ ?
(HHand. 180)
1. PIE *tumontei̯ot-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. tumantei̯at-
(XX:XX)
√tumul-
OInd. tumula-
(a.) ‘geräuschvoll, lärmend’
(MonW. 450)
(Beitr. 484)
1. PIE *tumuLo-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RChangelr4 → *tumulo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
2. tumulo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → OInd. tumula-
Lat. tumulto-
(a.) ‘Kriegslärm, Lärm, Getöse, Unruhe, Aufstand’
(WH 2:716)


√tuɑh- (vb.) ‘schlagen, schneiden, enden, abgrenzen’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo: Hitt.)
√tuɑh-
Lith. tvó-
(vb.) ‘tüchtig prügeln’
(LiEtWb. XX)
1. PIE *tu̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *tu̯ā́ɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. tu̯ā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tu̯ā́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tu̯ā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *tu̯ā́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. tu̯ā́-
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
RChangeA202 → *tu̯ṓ-
5. tu̯ṓ-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → *tvṓ-
6. tvṓ-
ṓ → ó
Orthographic change of ṓ into ó
R27b → Lith. tvó-
Lith. tvója-
(vb.) ‘tüchtig prügeln’
(LiEtWb. XX)
1. PIE *tu̯ḗɑhi̯o-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *tu̯ā́ɑhi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. tu̯ā́ɑhi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tu̯ā́hi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tu̯ā́hi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *tu̯ā́i̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. tu̯ā́i̯o-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tu̯ā́i̯a-
5. tu̯ā́i̯a-
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
RChangeA202 → *tu̯ṓi̯a-
6. tu̯ṓi̯a-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → *tvṓi̯a-
7. tvṓi̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j *
R26 → *tvṓja-
8. tvṓja-
ṓ → ó
Orthographic change of ṓ into ó
R27b → Lith. tvója-
√tuɑhis-
Lith. tvýskin-
(vb.) ‘gewaltig anklopfen’
(XX:XX)
(Lith. tvýskinti, tvýskinu)
1. PIE *tu̯ɑ́hisku̯in-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *tu̯íhisku̯in-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. tu̯íhisku̯in-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *tu̯íisku̯in-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. tu̯íisku̯in-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *tu̯íiskin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. tu̯íiskin-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *tu̯ī́skin-
5. tu̯ī́skin-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → *tvī́skin-
6. tvī́skin-
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
R24 → Lith. tvýskin-
√tuɑɦid-
OIcl. þveit-
(.) ‘Querhieb, Einschnitt’
(ANEtWb. XX)
(OIcl. þveitr [sgN])
1. PIE *tu̯oɑɦido
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tu̯oɦido
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tu̯oɦido
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *tu̯oido
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. tu̯oido
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
AffricateT → *þu̯oido
4. þu̯oido
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
RDevoiced → *þu̯oito
5. þu̯oito
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *þu̯aita
(XX:XX)
6. þu̯aita
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
RChangeai2ei → *þu̯eita
7. þu̯eita
-a → Ø
Loss of -a in root-final position
RLossFinala1 → *þu̯eit
8. þu̯eit
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → OIcl. þveit
OIcl. þveita-
(vb.) ‘hauen, stoßen’
(ANEtWb. XX)
1. PIE *tu̯oɑɦido-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tu̯oɦido-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tu̯oɦido-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *tu̯oido-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. tu̯oido-
*t → þ
Affricativization of *t
AffricateT → *þu̯oido-
4. þu̯oido-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
RDevoiced → *þu̯oito-
5. þu̯oito-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *þu̯aita-
(XX:XX)
6. þu̯aita-
*ai → ei
Change of *ai into ei
RChangeai2ei → *þu̯eita-
7. þu̯eita-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → OIcl. þveita-
√tuɑhs-
Lith. tvoskin-
(vb.) ‘stark schlagen’
(LiEtWb. XX)
(Lith. tvoskinti, tvoskinu
1. PIE *tu̯ēɑhskuin-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *tu̯āɑhskuin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. tu̯āɑhskuin-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tu̯āhskuin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tu̯āhskuin-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *tu̯āskuin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. tu̯āskuin-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *tu̯āskin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. tu̯āskin-
*ā → ō
Change of ā into ō
RChangeA2O1 → *tu̯ōskin-
6. tu̯ōskin-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → *tvōskin-
7. tvōskin-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27a → Lith. tvoskin-
Hitt. tuḫš-
(vbM.) ‘abschneiden; trennen, beendigen’
(HHand. 179)
1. PIE *tuɑhs-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tuhs-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tuhs-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *tuhš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. tuhš-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. tuḫš-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. tuḫšant-
(pt.) ‘abschneiden, trennen, beendigen’
(HIL. 1027-29)
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *tuɑhsont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tuhsont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tuhsont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tuhsant-
(XX:XX)
3. tuhsant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *tuhšant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tuhšant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. tuḫšant-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√tuɑɦd-
RV. tutód-
(pf.) ‘anstacheln’ oder ‘peitschen’
(WbRV. 540)
(RV. tutóda)
1. PIE *tutóuɑɦd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tutóuɦd-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tutóuɦd-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *tutáuɦd-
3. tutáuɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *tutáud-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. tutáud-
aú → ṓ
Monophthongization of *aú
RChangeAU2O2 → *tutṓd-
5. tutṓd-
ṓ → ó
Orthographic change of ṓ into ó
ROrthOIA7 → RV. tutód-
Lat. tutud-
(pf.) ‘stoßen, schlagen, hämmern’
(WH 2:XX)
(Lat. tutudī)
1. PIE *tutuɑɦd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tutuɦd-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tutuɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → Lat. tutud-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
RV. tudá-
(pr.) ‘anstacheln’ oder ‘peitschen’
(WbRV. 540)
(RV. tudát)
1. PIE *tuɑɦdó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tuɦdó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tuɦdó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *tuɦdá-
3. tuɦdá-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → RV. tudá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Umbr. tuder-
(n.) ‘Grenze’
(WbOU. 771-2)
(Umbr. tuder [sgA], tuderor [plN])
1. PIE *tuɑɦder-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tuɦder-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tuɦder-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → Umbr. tuder-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Umbr. tuderā-
(vb.) ‘begrenzen, abgrenzen’
(WbOU. 773)
(Umbr. tuderato est)
1. PIE *tuɑɦderēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *tuɑɦderāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. tuɑɦderāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tuɦderāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. tuɦderāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *tuderāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. tuderāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Umbr. tuderā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
√tuɑhus-
Hitt. tuḫuš-
(vbA.) ‘abschneiden; trennen, beendigen’
(HHand. 179)
(in Hitt. tuḫušant- [pt.])
1. PIE *tuɑhus-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tuhus-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tuhus-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *tuhuš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. tuhuš-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. tuḫuš-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)


PIE √tɑhu- ‘glänzen, leuchten, brennen’
(IEW XX)
(+ LIV2 AC + Pyysalo: CLu.)
√tɑhōu-
Sogd. ϑāw-
(vb.) ‘brennen’
(LIV2 AC:13)
(See LIV2 AC for additional Iranian forms)
1. PIE *tɑhōu̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *thōu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. thōu̯-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *thāu̯-
3. thāu̯-
*u̯ → v
Orthographic change of *u̯ into v
R29b → *thāv-
4. thāv-
th → ϑ
Orthographic change of *th into ϑ
R29f → Sogd. ϑāv-
√tɑhōuɑh-
OPers. ϑavā-
(vb.) ‘ausbrennen, abbrennen’
(A2 Sa 2,4)
(OPers. aϑavā- [3sg], AC LIV2:3)
1. PIE *tɑheu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *tɑheu̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. tɑheu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *theu̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. theu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *theu̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. theu̯ā-
*t h → ϑ
Affricativization of *th
AffricateTH → *ϑeu̯ā-
5. ϑeu̯ā-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *ϑau̯ā-
6. ϑau̯ā-
*u̯ → v
Orthographic change of *u̯ into v
R29b → OPers. ϑavā-
Chwar. ϑ´wȳ-
(vb.) ‘brennen’
(LIV2 AC:13)
1. PIE *tɑhōu̯ɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *tɑhōu̯íhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. tɑhōu̯íhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *thōu̯íhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. thōu̯íhi-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *thāu̯íhi-
4. thāu̯íhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *thāu̯íi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. thāu̯íi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *thāu̯ī́-
6. thāu̯ī́-
*u̯ → v
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
R29b → *thāwī́-
7. thāwī́-
ā → ´
Orthographic change of *ā into ´
R29d → *th´wī́-
8. th´wī́-
ī́ → ī
Absence of accentuation
R29e → *th´wī-
9. th´wī-
ī → ȳ
Orthographic change of *ī into ȳ
R29f → *th´wȳ-
10. th´wȳ-
th → ϑ
Orthographic change of *th into ϑ
R29g → Chwar. ϑ´wȳ-
√tɑhōuɑhs-
(Pyysalo)
Khot. ϑūs-
(vb.) brennen’
(LIV2 AC:13)
1. PIE *tɑhuɑ́hski-
PIE *uɑ́ → uú
Assimilation of *u and *ɑ́
RAssimilation2b → *tɑhuúhski-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. tɑhuúhski-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *thuúhski-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. thuúhski-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RSatem1 → *thuúhsć-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. thuúhsć-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *thuúsć-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. thuúsć-
*uú → ū́
Contraction of u and ú
RContractuU → *thū́sć-
6. thū́sć-
*s → h
Change of segmental *s into h
RChangeS2H → *thū́hć-
7. thū́hć-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to Parthian
RSatem2Iran1 → *thū́hs-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
8. thū́hs-
*ū́ → ū
Absence of accentuation
R29c → *thūhs-
9. thūhs-
th → ϑ
Orthographic change of *th into ϑ
R29d → Khot. ϑūhs-
TochA. tāwsu-
(pret.pt.) ‘kindle, ignite, light’ (DTochB. 298)
(Poucha 136)
(HIL. 1026f.)
1. PIE *tɑhōu̯ɑhsu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *thōu̯hsu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. thōu̯hsu-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *thāu̯hsu-
(XX:XX)
3. thāu̯hsu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *thāu̯su-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. thāu̯su-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenues aspiratae
RDeaspth → *tāu̯su-
5. tāu̯su-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
ROrthW2w → TochA. tāwsu-
√tɑhuɑh-
CLu. tuḫ·ara-
(.) ‘Bez. einer brennbaren Substanz, HHand. 158’
(DLL 88)
(CLu. tuḫ-ḫa-ra-an-zi [plN], tuḫ-ḫa-ra-an-za [A], HHand. 179)
1. PIE *tɑhuɑh·oro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *thuh·oro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. thuh·oro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *thuh·ara-
(XX:XX)
3. thuh·ara-
PIE Th → T
Absence of voiceless aspirates
RDeaspTh → *tuh·ara-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. tuh·ara-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R17 → CLu. tuḫ·ara-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
√tɑhuɑhs-
TochB. twāsa-
(vb.) ‘kindle, light, ignite : anzünden ]
(DTochB. 298)
(TochB. twāsasi [inf.], VW. 519, MA. 87)
1. PIE *tɑhu̯ɑhōso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *thu̯hōso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. thu̯hōso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *thu̯hōsa-
(XX:XX)
3. thu̯hōsa-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *thu̯hāsa-
(XX:XX)
4. thu̯hāsa-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *thu̯āsa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. thu̯āsa-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenues aspiratae
RDeaspth → *tu̯āsa-
6. tu̯āsa-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
R19 → TochB. twāsa-
TochA. twās-
(vbA.) ‘kindle, ignite, light’ (DTochB. 298)
(Poucha 136)
(TochA. twāsiṣ)
1. PIE *tɑhu̯ɑhōs-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *thu̯hōs-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. thu̯hōs-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *thu̯hās-
(XX:XX)
3. thu̯hās-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *thu̯ās-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. thu̯ās-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenues aspiratae
RDeaspth → *tu̯ās-
5. tu̯ās-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
ROrthW2w → TochA. twās-
TochA. twāslune-
(sb.vb.) ‘kindle, ignite, light’ (DTochB. 298)
(Poucha 136)
1. PIE *tɑhu̯ɑhōslunoi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *thu̯hōslunoi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. thu̯hōslunoi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *thu̯hōslunai̯a
(XX:XX)
3. thu̯hōslunai̯a
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *thu̯hāslunai̯a
(XX:XX)
4. thu̯hāslunai̯a
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *thu̯āslunai̯a
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. thu̯āslunai̯a
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenues aspiratae
RDeaspth → *tu̯āslunai̯a
6. tu̯āslunai̯a
*a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *tu̯āslunai̯
7. tu̯āslunai̯
*a y → ē
Change of ay into ē in root-final
RCyangeay2E → *tu̯āslunē
8. tu̯āslunē
ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
ROrthE2e1 → *tu̯āslune
9. tu̯āslune
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
ROrthW2w → TochA. twāslune
TochA. tuse-
(pr.) ‘kindle, ignite, light’ (DTochB. 298)
(Poucha 125)
(TochA. tuseñcäṃ)
1. PIE *tɑhuɑhsoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *thuhsoi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. thuhsoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *thuhsai-
(XX:XX)
3. thuhsai-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *thusai-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. thusai-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenues aspiratae
RDeaspth → *tusai-
5. tusai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
RMonophthai2E1 → *tusē-
6. tusē-
ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
ROrthE2e1 → TochA. tuse-
TochA. tātwsu-
(pret.pt.) ‘kindle, ignite, light’ (DTochB. 298)
(Poucha 136)
(TochA. tātwsuṣ)
1. PIE *tɑhōtɑhu̯ɑhsu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *thōthu̯hsu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. thōthu̯hsu-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *thāthu̯hsu-
(XX:XX)
3. thāthu̯hsu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *thāthu̯su-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. thāthu̯su-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenues aspiratae
RDeaspth → *tātu̯su-
5. tātu̯su-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
ROrthW2w → TochA. tātwsu-
TochB. twasas-
(prM.) ‘kindle, ignite, light’
(DTochB. 298)
(TochB. twasastär [3sg])
1. PIE *tɑhu̯ɑhosos-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *thu̯hosos-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. thu̯hosos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *thu̯hasas-
(XX:XX)
3. thu̯hasas-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *thu̯asas-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. thu̯asas-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenues aspiratae
RDeaspth → *tu̯asas-
5. tu̯asas-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
R19 → TochB. twasas-
Lith. tvaskė́-
(vb.) ‘glänzen, leuchten flimmern, glitzern’
(LiEtWb. 1151)
1. PIE *tɑhu̯ɑhoskḗhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *thu̯hoskḗh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. thu̯hoskḗh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *thu̯oskḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. thu̯oskḗ-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *thu̯askḗ-
4. thu̯askḗ-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *th
RDeaspth → *tu̯askḗ-
5. tu̯askḗ-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → *tvaskḗ-
6. tvaskḗ-
*ḗ -> ė́
Orthographic change of *ḗ -> ė́
R28c → Lith. tvaskė́-
TochB. twāsäsk-
(prA.) ‘kindle’
(DTochB. 298)
TochB. twāsäṣṣim, opt1sg)
1. PIE *tɑhu̯ɑhōsoski-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *thu̯hōsoski-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. thu̯hōsoski-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *thu̯hōsosḱ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. thu̯hōsosḱ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *thu̯hōsasḱ-
(XX:XX)
4. thu̯hōsasḱ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *thu̯hāsasḱ-
(XX:XX)
5. thu̯hāsasḱ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *thu̯āsasḱ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. thu̯āsasḱ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *thu̯āsask-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
7. thu̯āsask-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenues aspiratae
RDeaspth → *tu̯āsask-
8. tu̯āsask-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
R19 → TochB. twāsask-
TochB. twāsk-
(prA.) ‘kindle, ignite, light’
(DTochB. 298)
(TochB. twāṣṣäm [3sg])
1. PIE *tɑhu̯ɑhōski-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *thu̯hōski-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. thu̯hōski-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *thu̯hōsḱ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. thu̯hōsḱ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *thu̯hāsḱ-
(XX:XX)
4. thu̯hāsḱ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *thu̯āsḱ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. thu̯āsḱ-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *thu̯āsk-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. thu̯āsk-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenues aspiratae
RDeaspth → *tu̯āsk-
7. tu̯āsk-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
R19 → TochB. twāsk-
TochA. tuṣ-
(prA.) ‘kindle, ignite, light’ (DTochB. 298)
(Poucha 125)
1. PIE *tɑhuɑhsi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *thuhsi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. thuhsi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *thusi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. thusi-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenues aspiratae
RDeaspth → *tusi-
4. tusi-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
R18b → TochA. tuṣ-
TochB. tuṣi
(PN.) ‘in monastic records; ‹‘enlightened’ (?)›’
(DTochB. 302)
1. PIE *tɑhuɑhsí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *thuhsí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. thuhsí-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *thusí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. thusí-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenues aspiratae
RDeaspth → *tusí-
4. tusí-
*sí → ṣí
Palatalization of *sí
R18c → *tuṣí-
5. tuṣí-
*í → i
Unmarkedness of accent
R20 → TochB. tuṣi-
√tɑhuɑhu-
TochB. two-
(pret.pt.) ‘kindled’
(DTochB. 298)
1. PIE *tɑhu̯ɑhou-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *thu̯hou-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. thu̯hou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *thu̯hau-
(XX:XX)
3. thu̯hau-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *thu̯au-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. thu̯au-
*th → t
Loss of *h in tenues aspiratae
RDeaspth → *tu̯au-
5. tu̯au-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RChangeAU2O1 → *tu̯ō-
6. tu̯ō-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthOIA6 → *tu̯o-
7. tu̯o-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
R19 → TochB. two-


PIE √tubɑɦ- ‘schlagen, töten, usw.’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo)
√tubɑɦ-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. tobha-
(vb.) ‘to hurt, kill’
(MonWil. XX)
(OInd. tobhate [3sg])
1. PIE *teubɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *teubɦo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. teubɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *teubɦa-
3. teubɦa-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *taubɦa-
4. taubɦa-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RChangeAU2O1 → *tōbɦa-
5. tōbɦa-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → *tōbha-
6. tōbha-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthOIA6 → OInd. tobha-
LycB. tubei-
(.) ‘schlagen’
(LuPG 54)
(Lyc. tubeiti [3sg])
1. PIE *tubɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tubɦei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tubɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → LycB. tubei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. tubai-
(vb.) ‘schlagen’
(DLL. XX)
(CLu. dupainti [3pl])
1. PIE *tubɑɦoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tubɦoi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tubɦoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tubɦai-
(XX:XX)
3. tubɦai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → CLu. tubai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. tubai·mi-
(pp.) ‘schlagen’
(DLL. XX)
(CLu. du-ú-pa-im-mi-i-iš, VLFḪ 210
1. PIE *tubɑɦoi·mi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tubɦoi·mi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tubɦoi·mi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tubɦai·mi-
(XX:XX)
3. tubɦai·mi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → CLu. tubai·mi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. tubi-
(.) ‘schlagen’
(DLL 99)
(CLu. dupiti [3sg], Melchert 1994:277)
1. PIE *tubɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tubɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tubɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → CLu. tubi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LycB. tubi-
(.) ‘XX’
(XX:XX)
(Lyc. tubidi [3sg])
1. PIE *tubɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tubɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tubɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → LycB. tubi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OInd. tubhya-
(vb.) ‘to hurt, kill’
(MonWil. XX)
(OInd. tubyati [3sg])
1. PIE *tubɑɦi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tubɦi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tubɦi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tubɦi̯a-
3. tubɦi̯a-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → *tubhi̯a-
4. tubhi̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → OInd. tubhya-
OInd. tubhna-
(pf.pt.) ‘XX’
(MonWil. XX)
1. PIE *tubɑɦno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *tubɦno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. tubɦno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *tubɦna-
3. tubɦna-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → OInd. tubhna-


PIE √dɑɦi- ‘binden’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√dɑɦe/oi-
(Pyysalo)
TochB. tai-
(sb.) ‘human body hair, pubic hair’
(DTochB. 308)
(TochB. taine)
1. PIE *dɑɦōi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦōi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦōi-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *dɦāi-
(XX:XX)
3. dɦāi-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → *dāi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. dāi-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
RDevoiced → *tāi-
5. tāi-
āi → ai
Orthographic change of āi into ai
ROrthOIA8 → TochB. tai-
Hitt. dei̯a-
(vb.) ‘binden’
(HEG III:362-4)
(Hitt. ti-ia [ipv2sg], HHand. 175, Kimball 1999:404)
1. PIE *dɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦei̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. dɦei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. dei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dei̯ala-
(a.) ‘qualifiziert Leinen’
(HEG 3:364)
(HHand. 176; Mistakenly Pyysalo 2013:279 (not to BSL √til- ‘Boden’)
1. PIE *dɑɦei̯olo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦei̯olo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦei̯olo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦei̯ala-
(XX:XX)
3. dɦei̯ala-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. dei̯ala-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dei̯alai-
(vb.) ‘bedecken, überziehen’
(HEG 3:364)
(HHand. 176)
1. PIE *dɑɦei̯oloi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦei̯oloi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦei̯oloi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦei̯alai-
(XX:XX)
3. dɦei̯alai-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. dei̯alai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dei̯aman-
(n.) ‘Schnur, Strick, Leine’
(HHand. 176)
(Hitt. ti-ia-am-ma-an-ta [sgI], HIL. 1017)
1. PIE *dɑɦei̯omon-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦei̯omon-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦei̯omon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦei̯aman-
(XX:XX)
3. dɦei̯aman-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. dei̯aman-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dei̯amar-
(n.) ‘Schnur, Strick, Leine’
(HHand. 176)
(Hitt. ti-ia-mar [sgNA], Rieken 1999:368)
1. PIE *dɑɦei̯omor-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦei̯omor-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦei̯omor-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦei̯amar-
(XX:XX)
3. dɦei̯amar-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. dei̯amar-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦi-
(Pyysalo)
RV. ā·dhí-
(m.) ‘Pfand’
(WbRV. 178)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·dɦí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦí-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → RV. Π·dhí-
RV. pari·dhí-
(m.) ‘Umschließung, Schütz, Gewebe’
(WbRV. 786)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·dɦí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦí-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → RV. Π·dhí-
RV. api·dhí-
(m.) ‘Bedeckung’
(WbRV. 76)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·dɦí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦí-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → RV. Π·dhí-
Hitt. a·zalai̯a-
(.) ‘ein Gewebe, Schleier oder Netz’
(HEG I:100)
1. PIE *o·dɑɦi̯oloii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *o·dɦi̯oloii̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. o·dɦi̯oloii̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → z
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
RDentAssib4a → *o·zoloii̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. o·zoloii̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *a·zalaii̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. a·zalaii̯a-
* aii̯a → aia
Loss of *i̯ between *ai and *a
RAnatGlide2 → *a·zalaia-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.4.2)
5. a·zalaia-
* a i a → a i i̯ a
Desyllabification of *i̯ between *a and *a
RAnatGlide3 → Hitt. a·zalai̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.4.2)


PIE √dɑɦi- ‘Land, Erde’
(IEW 414)
(Pyysalo)
√dɑɦei-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. ḫaba·dei-
(c.) ‘bewässertes Land, Ackerland’
(HHand. 40)
(Hitt. ḫa-pa-a-ti-in [sgA, HEG T: 21-3, HIL. 931f)
1. PIE *ɦɑebɑɦo·dɑɦei-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *ɦɑabɑɦo·dɑɦei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. ɦɑabɑɦo·dɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ɦabɦo·dɦei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ɦabɦo·dɦei-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ɦabɦa·dɦei-
(XX:XX)
4. ɦabɦa·dɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *ɦaba·dei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. ɦaba·dei-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. ḫaba·dei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. uba·dei-
(.) ‘landgrant’
(HIL. 1066)
(With CLu. uba- (vb.) ‘furnish, grant)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·dɦei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦei-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. Π·dei-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦoio-
Alb. dhe-
(m.f.n.) ‘earth, land’
(AlbEtD. 80)
‹Note the difficult dh- as in Alb. √dh- ‘geben’ !›
1. PIE *dɑɦoi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦoi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦoi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦai̯a
(XX:XX)
3. dɦai̯a
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RRDeaspdh → *dai̯a
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. dai̯a
*a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *dai̯
5. dai̯
*ai/i̯ → e
Monophthongization of *ai/i̯ into e
R24 → Alb. de
(XX:XX)
√dɑɦeio-
(Pyysalo 2013:423)
Hitt. ḫada·dei̯a-
(.) ‘dry land’
(HIL. 388f.)
(Hitt. ha-ta-ti-ia-)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·dɦei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·dɦei̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. Π·dɦei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. Π·dei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. ḫadan·dei̯a-
(.) ‘trockenes Land’
(HEG 1:219)
(HIL. 388-9, Puhvel HED 3: 263)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·dɦei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·dɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·dɦei̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. Π·dɦei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. Π·dei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
CLu. dei̯ami-
(c.) ‘earth’
(DLL 97)
(CLu. ti-ia-am-mi-iš [sgN]; not to Hitt. degan (HEG 3:292-300).
1. PIE *dɑɦei̯omi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦei̯omi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦei̯omi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦei̯ami-
(XX:XX)
3. dɦei̯ami-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → CLu. dei̯ami-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √dɑɦi- (vb.) ‘glänzen, leuchten, brennen, kochen’ (sb.) ‘Stern, Sonne, Licht, Glanz, Strahl’
(IEW XX)
(Pisani Alb + Pyysalo: Hitt. + Gr.
√dɑɦii-
(Pyysalo)
OHitt. zei-
(prM.) ‘gar werden, kochen’
(HHand. 207)
(OHitt. zi-e-ia [3sg], zé-e-a-ri, zi-ia-ri)
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯ei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦi̯ei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦi̯ei-
PIE *dɦi̯ → z
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
RDentAssib4a → OHitt. zei-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
Gr. σείρ-
(gl.) ὁ ἥλιος καὶ σείριος’
(GEW 2:688)
(Gr. σείρ, σειρός)
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯eír-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦi̯eír-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦi̯eír-
*dɦi̯ → zɦ
Palatalization of *dɦi̯
RDentAssib1d → *zɦeír-
3. zɦeír-
*zɦ → ch
Loss of voice of media aspirata *zɦ
RDevoicezh → *cheír-
4. cheír-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ceír-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ceír-
*c → s
Change of *c into s
RChangec2s → *seír-
6. seír-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. σείρ-
Gr. σείριο-
(m.) ‘Hundstern, Sirius’
(GEW 2:688)
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯eírii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦi̯eírii̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦi̯eírii̯o-
*dɦi̯ → zɦ
Palatalization of *dɦi̯
RDentAssib1d → *zɦeírii̯o-
3. zɦeírii̯o-
*zɦ → ch
Loss of voice of media aspirata *zɦ
RDevoicezh → *cheírii̯o-
4. cheírii̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ceírii̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ceírii̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RLossyinVyV → *ceírio-
6. ceírio-
*c → s
Change of *c into s
RChangec2s → *seírio-
7. seírio-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. σείριο-
Gr. σείριο-
(a.) ‘glühend, brennend, ausdörrend’
(GEW 2:688)
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯eírii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦi̯eírii̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦi̯eírii̯o-
*dɦi̯ → zɦ
Palatalization of *dɦi̯
RDentAssib1d → *zɦeírii̯o-
3. zɦeírii̯o-
*zɦ → ch
Loss of voice of media aspirata *zɦ
RDevoicezh → *cheírii̯o-
4. cheírii̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ceírii̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ceírii̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RLossyinVyV → *ceírio-
6. ceírio-
*c → s
Change of *c into s
RChangec2s → *seírio-
7. seírio-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. σείριο-
√dɑɦil-
(Pisani apud Frisk 3:177)
Alb. djell-
(.) ‘Sonne’
(GEW 3:177)
1. PIE *dɑɦeilno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦeilno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦeilno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦeilna-
(XX:XX)
3. dɦeilna-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RRDeaspdh → *deilna-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. deilna-
*e → ja
Brechung of *e into ja
RBrechungE2JA → Alb. djailna-
Gr. σέλασ-
(n.) ‘Licht, Glanz, Strahl’
(GEW 3:177)
(Gr σέλας)
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯éleɑhs-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *dɑɦi̯élaɑhs-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. dɑɦi̯élaɑhs-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦi̯élahs-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. dɦi̯élahs-
*dɦi̯ → zɦ
Palatalization of *dɦi̯
RDentAssib1d → *zɦélahs-
4. zɦélahs-
*zɦ → ch
Loss of voice of media aspirata *zɦ
RDevoicezh → *chélahs-
5. chélahs-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *célas-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. célas-
*s → h
Change *s into h
RChanges2h → *célah-
7. célah-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
RLossofh → *céla-
8. céla-
*c → s
Change of *c into s
RChangec2s → *séla-
9. séla-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. σέλα-
Gr. σελάο-
(pr.) ‘leuchten, glänzen’
(GEW 2:689)
Gr. σελάω
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯eléɑhso-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
RColouring1d → *dɑɦi̯eláɑhso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. dɑɦi̯eláɑhso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦi̯eláhso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. dɦi̯eláhso-
*dɦi̯ → zɦ
Palatalization of *dɦi̯
RDentAssib1d → *zɦeláhso-
4. zɦeláhso-
*zɦ → ch
Loss of voice of media aspirata *zɦ
RDevoicezh → *cheláhso-
5. cheláhso-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *celáso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. celáso-
*s → h
Change *s into h
RChanges2h → *celáho-
7. celáho-
*h → Ø
Loss of segmental h
RLossofh → *celáo-
8. celáo-
*c → s
Change of *c into s
RChangec2s → *seláo-
9. seláo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. σελάο-
√dɑɦin-
(Pyysalo)
OIcl. dini-
(m.) ‘Feuer’
(ANEtWb. 77)
1. PIE *dɑɦinio-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦinio-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦinio-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → *dinio-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. dinio-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → OIcl. dinia-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. zenu-
(vb.) ‘kochen’
(HHand. 205)
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯enu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦi̯enu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦi̯enu-
PIE *dɦi̯ → z
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
RDentAssib4a → Hitt. zenu-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
Hitt. zanu-
(cs.tr.) ‘kochen’
(HHand. 205)
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯onu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦi̯onu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦi̯onu-
PIE *dɦi̯ → z
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
RDentAssib4a → *zonu-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. zonu-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. zanu-
(XX:XX)


PIE √dɑɦi- (vb.) ‘sehen, beschauen, bedachten, versorgen’ (sb.) ‘Traum(gesicht), (Bei)schlaf’
(IEW 243)
(+ Pyysalo)
√dɑɦei-
(Pyysalo)
LAv. ā.diδay·-
(pfA.) ‘hinsehen auf–, betrachten’
(AIWb. 724)
(LAv. ādiδaya [3sg])
1. PIE *Π.dɑɦidɑɦoi̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π.dɦidɦoi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π.dɦidɦoi̯-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π.dɦidɦai̯-
3. Π.dɦidɦai̯-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → *Π.didai̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. Π.didai̯-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
R40c → *Π.δiδai̯-
5. Π.δiδai̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R41a → LAv. Π.δiδay·-
HLu. dei̯a-
(vb.) ‘‹verbum videnti (?)›’
(CHLu. 2.32.fr3)
(HLu. (OCULUS)ti-i+a-ta)
1. PIE *dɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦei̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. dɦei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → HLu. dei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
LAv. diδaya-
(pr.) ‘sehen, hinsehen auf –, beschauen’
(AIWb. 724)
(Av. diδayatąm [plG])
1. PIE *dɑɦidɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦidɦei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦidɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦidɦei̯a-
3. dɦidɦei̯a-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → *didei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. didei̯a-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *didai̯a-
5. didai̯a-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
R40c → *diδai̯a-
6. diδai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R41a → LAv. diδaya-
LAv. paiti.daya·-
(m.) ‘der Aufsicht führt, Beuaufsichtiger’
(AIWb. 830)
(LAv. paiti.daya-)
1. PIE *Π.dɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π.dɦei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π.dɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π.dɦei̯a-
3. Π.dɦei̯a-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → *Π.dei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. Π.dei̯a-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *Π.dai̯a-
5. Π.dai̯a-
d → δ
Change of *d into δ
R40c → *Π.δai̯a-
6. Π.δai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R41a → LAv. Π.δaya·-
OCS. na·dĕja-
(vb.) ‘hoffen, sich verlassen auf, Zuversicht haben’
(Sadnik √146)
1. PIE *Π·dɑɦēi̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·dɑɦēi̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·dɑɦēi̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·dɦēi̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·dɦēi̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·dɦēi̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·dɦēi̯ā-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → *Π·dēi̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·dēi̯ā-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
ROrthogrY2j → *Π·dējā-
6. Π·dējā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → *Π·dēja-
7. Π·dēja-
*ē → ĕ
Orthographic change of *ē into ĕ
ROrthogrE2e → OCS. Π·dĕja-
Hitt. dei̯ant-
(pt.) ‘versorgt’
(HHand. 176)
(HEG T:XX)
1. PIE *dɑɦei̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦei̯ont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦei̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦei̯ant-
(XX:XX)
3. dɦei̯ant-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. dei̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦeisɑh-
Hitt. deišḫa-
(c.) ‘Traum, Schlaf’ (Ú), ‘Beischlaf’
(HHand. 174)
(HIL. 1009)
1. PIE *dɑɦeisɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦeisho-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦeisho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦeisha-
(XX:XX)
3. dɦeisha-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *deisha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. deisha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *deišha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. deišha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. deišḫa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. deišḫa-
(vb.) ‘vorsichtig sein, sich fernhalten von’
(HHand. 177)
(Hitt. te-es-ha-, ti-es-ha-)
1. PIE *dɑɦeisɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦeisho-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦeisho-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦeisha-
(XX:XX)
3. dɦeisha-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *deisha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. deisha-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *deišha-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. deišha-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. deišḫa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Norw. dīsa-
(vb.) ‘gaze fixedly’
(GoEtD. 116)
1. PIE *dɑɦeisɑho-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦeisho-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦeisho-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *dɦeiso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. dɦeiso-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → *deiso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. deiso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *deisa-
(XX:XX)
5. deisa-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
RMonophthei2i → Norw. dīsa-
Hitt. deišḫali-
(a.) ‘schläfrig’
(HHand. 174)
1. PIE *dɑɦeisɑholi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦeisholi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦeisholi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦeishali-
(XX:XX)
3. dɦeishali-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *deishali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. deishali-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *deišhali-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. deišhali-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. deišḫali-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. deišḫant-
(pt.) ‘bedacht auf; auf etwas achtgebend’
(HHand. 177)
1. PIE *dɑɦeisɑhont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦeishont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦeishont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦeishant-
(XX:XX)
3. dɦeishant-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *deishant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. deishant-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *deišhant-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. deišhant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. deišḫant-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Goth. filu·deisei·n-
(f.) = πανουργία : cunning’
(GoEtD. 116)
(Goth. filudeisein [sgD])
1. PIE *pilu·dɑɦeisɑhei·n-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *pilu·dɦeishei·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. pilu·dɦeishei·n-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *pilu·dɦeisei·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. pilu·dɦeisei·n-
*p → f
Affricativization of *p
AffricateP → *filu·dɦeisei·n-
4. filu·dɦeisei·n-
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → *filu·deisei·n-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. filu·deisei·n-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
RMonophthei2i → *filu·dīsī·n-
6. filu·dīsī·n-
*ī → ei
Orthographic change of *ī into ei
ROrthogrI2ei → Goth. filu·deisei·n-
√dɑɦiosɑh-
Hitt. zašḫai-
(c.) ‘Traum, Traumgesicht’
(HHand. 206)
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯osɑhoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦi̯oshoi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦi̯oshoi-
PIE *dɦi̯ → z
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
RDentAssib4a → *zoshoi-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. zoshoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *zashai-
(XX:XX)
4. zashai-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *zašhai-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. zašhai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. zašḫai-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. zašḫim-
(c.) ‘Traum, Traumgesicht’
(HHand. 206)
(Hitt. za-aš-hi-mu-uš)
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯osɑhim-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦi̯oshim-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦi̯oshim-
PIE *dɦi̯ → z
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
RDentAssib4a → *zoshim-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. zoshim-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *zashim-
(XX:XX)
4. zashim-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *zašhim-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. zašhim-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. zašḫim-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)


PIE √dɑɦi- ‘über, jenseits’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo)
√dɑɦei
(HIL. 1186 [oE])
Hitt. e·dei
(adv.) ‘jenseits, hinüber, weg’
(HHand. 33)
1. PIE *e·dɑɦei
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *e·dɦei
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. e·dɦei
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. e·dei
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. e·dei·z
(adv.) ‘von jenseits, vom drüben’
(HHand. 33)
(Ḫi. ediz, etez)
1. PIE *e·dɑɦei·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *e·dɦei·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. e·dɦei·Σ
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. e·dei·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dɑɦi
RV. á·dhi
(prep.) ‘über, auf’
(Grundr. II2 2:798f.)
1. PIE *é·dɑɦi
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *é·dɦi
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. é·dɦi
PIE *é → á
Aryan change of *é into á
RAryanE2A2 → *á·dɦi
3. á·dɦi
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → RV. á·dhi
AV. ádhi·pati-
(m.) ‘Oberherr’
(WbRV. 46)
1. PIE *édɑɦi·poti-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *édɦi·poti-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. édɦi·poti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *édɦi·pati-
3. édɦi·pati-
PIE *é → á
Aryan change of *é into á
RAryanE2A2 → *ádɦi·pati-
4. ádɦi·pati-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → AV. ádhi·pati-
RV. adhi·rājá-
(m.) ‘Ober-herr’
(WbRV. 47)
1. PIE *edɑɦi·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *edɦi·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. edɦi·Σ
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *adɦi·Σ
3. adɦi·Σ
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → RV. adhi·Σ
RV. ā́·dhi·patya-
(n.) ‘Ober-herrlichkeit’
(WbRV 178)
1. PIE *ḗ·dɑɦi·poti̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ḗ·dɦi·poti̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ḗ·dɦi·poti̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ḗ·dɦi·pati̯a-
3. ḗ·dɦi·pati̯a-
PIE *ḗ → ā́
Aryan change of *ḗ into ā́
RAryanE2A4 → *ā́·dɦi·pati̯a-
4. ā́·dɦi·pati̯a-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → *ā́·dhi·pati̯a-
5. ā́·dhi·pati̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → RV. ā́·dhi·patya-
dɑɦi̯
Hitt. z·ai-
(vb2.) ‘über·schreiten’
(HHand. 204)
(Hitt. ·ai- ‘gehen’ to Hitt. ei-/i- ‘gehen’)
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯·oi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦi̯·oi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦi̯·oi-
PIE *dɦi̯ → z
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
RDentAssib4a → *z·oi-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. z·oi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. z·ai-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. z·aa-
(vb.) ‘über·schreiten’
(HHand. 204)
(Hitt. za-a-ši)
1. PIE *dɑɦi̯·oi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦi̯·oi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦi̯·oi̯o-
PIE *dɦi̯ → z
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
RDentAssib4a → *z·oi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. z·oi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *z·ai̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. z·ai̯a-
* ai̯a → aa
Loss of *i̯ between *a and *a
RAnatGlide1 → Hitt. z·aa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.4.2)


PIE √dɑɦig- (vb.) ‘berühren, beflecken’
(IEW 244-5)
√dɑɦig- √dɑɦeig-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. θιγό-
(ao.) ‘mit der Hand berühren, antasten, s. befassen’
(GEW 1:674-5)
(Gr. θιγεῖν [inf.])
1. PIE *dɑɦigó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦigó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦigó-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
RDevoicedh → *thigó-
3. thigó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. θιγό-
Gr. θίγματ-
(n.) ‘Befleckung, Berührung’
(GEW 1:675)
(Gr. θίγμα [sgN])
1. PIE *dɑɦígmeɑht-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *dɑɦígmaɑht-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. dɑɦígmaɑht-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦígmaht-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. dɦígmaht-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
RDevoicedh → *thígmaht-
4. thígmaht-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *thígmat-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. thígmat-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. θίγματ-
Hitt. deigri-
(sb.) ‘Befleckung’
(HEG T:302)
(Hitt. te-ek-ri-ua na-aḫ-mi [1sg], HHand. 174)
1. PIE *dɑɦeigri-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦeigri-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦeigri-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. deigri-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √dɑɦin- (vb.) ‘beendigen, fertig sein/werden’ (sb.) ‘Herbst, Ende’
(XX 1993:XX)
√dɑɦin-
Hitt. zina-
(vb2.) ‘beendigen, erledigen, fertig werden’
(XX:XX)
(Hitt. zinaḫi, zinai, zienaḫun)
1. PIE *dɑɦino-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦino-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦino-
PIE *dɦi → zi
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
RDentAssib4b → *zino-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. zino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. zina-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. zina-
(vbM.) ‘zu Ende gehen, fertig sein’
(XX:XX)
(Hitt. zinatari)
1. PIE *dɑɦino-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦino-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦino-
PIE *dɦi → zi
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
RDentAssib4b → *zino-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. zino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. zina-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. zina-
(c.) ‘Herbst : autumn’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *dɑɦino-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦino-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦino-
PIE *dɦi → zi
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
RDentAssib4b → *zino-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. zino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. zina-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. zina·nt-
(c.) ‘Herbst’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *dɑɦino·nt-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦino·nt-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦino·nt-
PIE *dɦi → zi
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
RDentAssib4b → *zino·nt-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. zino·nt-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. zina·nt-
(XX:XX)
√dɑɦini-
Lat. fīni-
(.) ‘end, limit, boundary, purpose’
(XX:XX)
(Lat. fīnis)
1. PIE *dɑɦeini-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦeini-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦeini-
*dɦ → f
Affricativization of dental *bɦ
RAffricatDH2f → *feini-
3. feini-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
RMonophthei2i → Lat. fīni-
√dɑɦinuk
Hitt. zinuk
(adv.) ‘vollends, schließlich’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *dɑɦinuk
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦinuk
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦinuk
PIE *dɦi → zi
Assibilation of *dɦ before *i/i̯
RDentAssib4b → Hitt. zinuk
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)


PIE √dɑɦm- ‘bändigen, zähmen’
(IEW XX)
√dɑɦm-
Gr. ἱππό·δαμο-
(m.) ‘Rossebändigend’
(GEW 1:346)
(Hom. ἱππόδαμος)
1. PIE *Π·deɑɦmo-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *Π·daɑɦmo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. Π·daɑɦmo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·daɦmo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·daɦmo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·damo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·damo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. Π·δαμο-
OIr. daimi-
(pr.) ‘zähmen’
(DIL 175)
(OIr. daimid [3sg])
1. PIE *deɑɦme-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *daɑɦme-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. daɑɦme-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *daɦme-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. daɦme-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → OIr. dame-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Lat. domā-
(pr1.) ‘zähmen, bändigen’
(WH 1:367)
(Lat. domāre [inf.])
1. PIE *doɑɦmēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *doɑɦmāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. doɑɦmāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *doɦmāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. doɦmāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *domāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. domāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Lat. domā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
RV. dāmā́-
(f.) ‘Seil’
(WbRV. 595)
(Brugmann’s Law II)
1. PIE *doɑɦmḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *doɑɦmā́ɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. doɑɦmā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *doɦmā́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. doɦmā́h-
PIE *ohCV → āhCV
Brugmann’s Law for *ohCV
RBrugmII1 → *dāɦmā́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.3.7)
4. dāɦmā́h-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dāmā́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. dāmā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → RV. dāmā́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
√dɑɦmnɑh
Dor. δάμνᾱ-
(vb.) ‘bezähmen, bändigen, bewältigen’
(GEW 1:346)
(Aiol. δάμνα-)
1. PIE *déɑɦmnēɑh-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
RColouring1d → *dáɑɦmnēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. dáɑɦmnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *dáɑɦmnāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. dáɑɦmnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dáɦmnāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. dáɦmnāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dámnāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. dámnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *dámnā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. dámnā-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Dor. δάμνᾱ-
OIr. domna-
(vb.) ‘festbinden, bändigen’
(DIL 180)
(OIr. domnaid)
1. PIE *doɑɦmnēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *doɑɦmnāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. doɑɦmnāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *doɦmnāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. doɦmnāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *domnāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. domnāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *domnā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. domnā-
*ā → a
Loss of quantity of *ā
RShortA2a → OIr. domna-
√dɑɦmi-
(Pyysalo 2013:330-1)
(HIL. 951f., Oettinger 1979:145, 146 fn. 29)
Hitt. dāmi-
(vb.) anheften, -kleben, verkleben’ (?)
(Melchert 1994:167)
(Hitt. tamenta [3pl]; False: Oettinger 1979a: 94)
1. PIE *dɑɦōmi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦōmi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦōmi-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *dɦāmi-
(XX:XX)
3. dɦāmi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. dāmi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. dāming-
(vb1.) ‘anheften, -kleben, verkleben’ (?)
(HEG 3:77-8)
1. PIE *dɑɦōming-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦōming-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦōming-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *dɦāming-
(XX:XX)
3. dɦāming-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. dāming-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. θώμινγ-
(f.) ‘Strick, Schnur, Band, Bogensehne’
(GEW 1:700)
Gr. θῶμινγ-
1. PIE *dɑɦṓming-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦṓming-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦṓming-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
RDevoicedh → *thṓming-
3. thṓming-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. θώμινγ-


PIE √dɑɦb- ‘schlagen’
(IEW XX)
(Pyysalo: LinB + Hitt.)
√dēɑɦb-
(Pyysalo)
Lith. dób-
(vb.) ‘stechen, entkräften, überwältigen, zu Tode quälen’
(LiEtWb. 99)
(Li. dóbti [inf.])
1. PIE *dḗɑɦb-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *dā́ɑɦb-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. dā́ɑɦb-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dā́ɦb-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. dā́ɦb-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dā́b-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. dā́b-
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
RChangeA202 → *dṓb-
5. dṓb-
ṓ → ó
Orthographic change of ṓ into ó
R27b → Lith. dób-
Latv. dāb-
(vb.) ‘schlagen’
(LiEtWb. 99)
(Latv. dābt [inf.])
1. PIE *dēɑɦb-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *dāɑɦb-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. dāɑɦb-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dāɦb-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. dāɦb-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → Latv. dāb-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
Lith. dóbia-
(vb.) ‘stechen, entkräften, überwältigen, zu Tode quälen’
(LiEtWb. 99)
(Li. dóbiu)
1. PIE *dḗɑɦbi̯o-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *dā́ɑɦbi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. dā́ɑɦbi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dā́ɦbi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. dā́ɦbi̯o-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dā́bi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. dā́bi̯o-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dā́bi̯a-
5. dā́bi̯a-
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
RChangeA202 → *dṓbi̯a-
6. dṓbi̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j *
R26 → *dṓbja-
7. dṓbja-
ṓ → ó
Orthographic change of ṓ into ó
R27b → Lith. dóbja-
Latv. dābia-
(vb.) ‘schlagen’
(LiEtWb. 99)
(Latv. dābiu)
1. PIE *dēɑɦbi̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *dāɑɦbi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. dāɑɦbi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dāɦbi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. dāɦbi̯o-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dābi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. dābi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dābi̯a-
5. dābi̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
R30 → Latv. dābja-
Hitt. dāḫb·šitai-
(n.) ‘Schlachtblock’
(HHand. 158)
(Hitt. taḫapšitai-)
1. PIE *dēɑɦb·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *dāɑɦb·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. dāɑɦb·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dāɦb·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. dāɦb·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. dāḫb·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. dāḫb·zitai-
(n.) ‘Schlachtblock’
(HHand. 158)
(Hitt. taḫapzitai-)
1. PIE *dēɑɦb·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *dāɑɦb·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. dāɑɦb·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dāɦb·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. dāɦb·Σ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. dāḫb·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
LinB. δαβυρινθο-
(m.) ‘labyrinth i.e. double axe (?)’
(XX:XX)
((LinB. da-pu2-ri-to)
1. PIE *dēɑɦburindɑɦo-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *dāɑɦburindɑɦo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. dāɑɦburindɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dāɦburindɦo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. dāɦburindɦo-
*dɦ → th
Loss of voice of media aspirata *dɦ
RDevoicedh → *dāɦburintho-
4. dāɦburintho-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dāburintho-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. dāburintho-
*ā → a
Absence of quantity in LinB. script
RAbsenceA → *daburintho-
6. daburintho-
Change from Latin to Old Mycenean alphabet
RGr2Lat → LinB. δαβυρινθο-
Lith. pa·dobusi-
(pt.) ‘übergewältig, besiegend’
(LiEtWb. 99)
1. PIE *po·dēɑɦbusi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *po·dāɑɦbusi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. po·dāɑɦbusi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *po·dāɦbusi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. po·dāɦbusi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *po·dābusi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. po·dābusi-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *pa·dābusi-
5. pa·dābusi-
*ā → ō
Change of ā into ō
RChangeA2O1 → *pa·dōbusi-
6. pa·dōbusi-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27a → Lith. pa·dobusi-


PIE √dɑɦs- ‘geben, zuteilen, verleihen, opfern’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo; To PIE *dɑɦ- ‘geben’)
√dɑɦōs-
RV. dhās-
(s.ao.) ‘hinschaffen, zuteilen, verleihen, geben’
(WbRV. 673)
(RV. dhāsathas [2du])
1. PIE *dɑɦōs-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦōs-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦōs-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *dɦās-
3. dɦās-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → RV. dhās-
Pal. daš·ura-
(.) ‘Opfertisch; Melchert 1994:191’
(DPal. 73)
(Pal. ta-šu-ú-ra [sgL])
1. PIE *dɑɦos·uro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦos·uro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦos·uro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦas·ura-
(XX:XX)
3. dɦas·ura-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *das·ura-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. das·ura-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Pal. daš·ura-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Lyd. taśẽν-
(.) ‘votive object’
(Melchert 1994:331)
(Lyd. taśẽν, Melchert (1994:362 = HLu. ta-sa-za)
1. PIE *dɑɦoseni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦoseni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦoseni-
PIE * s → ś
Orthographic change of *s into ś
R10 → *dɦośeni-
3. dɦośeni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦaśeni-
(XX:XX)
4. dɦaśeni-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *daśeni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. daśeni-
*eN → ẽN
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
R15b → *daśẽni-
6. daśẽni-
PIE *d → t
Devoicing of PIE *d
R16 → Lyd. taśẽni-
LycA. ϑϑẽ
(.) ‘votive object’
(Melchert 1994:2XX)
1. PIE *dɑɦòsen-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦòsen-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦòsen-
PIE *ò → à
Change of *ò into à
RChangeO2A5 → *dɦàsen-
3. dɦàsen-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *dàsen-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. dàsen-
*en → ẽn
Emergence of nasal vowel ẽ
R14b → *dàsẽn-
5. dàsẽn-
PIE *d → t
Devoicing of PIE *d
R15a → *tàsẽn-
6. tàsẽn-
PIE *s → h
Change of fricative *s into h
R17 → *tàhẽn-
7. tàhẽn-
*à → Ø
Loss of unaccented a
R18 → *thẽn-
8. thẽn-
*t h → ϑ
Monophonemization of th into ϑ
R19 → *ϑẽn-
9. ϑẽn-
*ϑ- → ϑϑ-
Initial gemination of ϑ
R20 → LycA. ϑϑẽn-


PIE √dɑɦu- (pref.) ‘zu’
(IEW 181)
(+ Pyysalo Hitt.)
√dɑɦu-
(Pyysalo)
Goth. du
(prep.adv.) ‘εἰς, πρός, παρά, ἐπί’ (: ‘to(wards)’)
(GoEtD. 96)
1. PIE *dɑɦu
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦu
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦu
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → Goth. du
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
OIr. du
(prepD.) ‘to’ (leniting)
(DIL. 221)
1. PIE *dɑɦu
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦu
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦu
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → OIr. du
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
OGaul. du·ci
(pref.) ‘to·this’
(XX)
(in Gaul. duci)
1. PIE *dɑɦu·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦu·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦu·Σ
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → OGaul. du·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
Hitt. du·ḫušei̯a-
(vb.) ‘untätig zusehen, abwarten, gewähren lassen’
(HHand. 159)
(XX: ‘ruhig zusehen’)
1. PIE *dɑɦu·hɑusei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dɦu·husei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dɦu·husei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dɦu·husei̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. dɦu·husei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *du·husei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
4. du·husei̯a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *du·hušei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
5. du·hušei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. du·ḫušei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)


√diɑɦ- (vb.) ‘schlagen, kämpfen, zerstören’
(IEW 247 [Gr.])
(Pyysalo: Gr. + Hitt. + OInd.)
√deiɑɦe/o-
RV. dáya-
(pr.) ‘zerstören’
(KEWA 2:46)
(RV. dáyate [3sg])
1. PIE *déi̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *déi̯ɦo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. déi̯ɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *déi̯ɦa-
3. déi̯ɦa-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *déi̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. déi̯a-
PIE *é → á
Aryan change of *é into á
RAryanE2A2 → *dái̯a-
5. dái̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → RV. dáya-
LAv. daya-
(vb.?) ‘‹cf. RV. dáya- above (?)›’
(AIWb. 687)
(LAv. dayača [2sg] pouru.mahrkǝm)
1. PIE *dei̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dei̯ɦo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dei̯ɦo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *dei̯ɦa-
3. dei̯ɦa-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. dei̯a-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *dai̯a-
5. dai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R41a → LAv. daya-
√dieɑɦ-
(HIL 1180)
Hitt. zaḫ-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, s. prügeln, auspeitschen’
(HHand. 204)
Kimball 1999:397)
1. PIE *di̯eɑɦ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *di̯aɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. di̯aɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *di̯aɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. di̯aɦ-
PIE *di̯ → z
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
RDentAssib3a → *zaɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
4. zaɦ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. zaḫ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. šer (...) zaḫ-
(vb1.) ‘fight for’
(XX:XX)
(Hitt. še-er za-aḫ-ḫ[i]-ir [3pl])
1. PIE *Π·di̯eɑɦ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *Π·di̯aɑɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. Π·di̯aɑɦ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·di̯aɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·di̯aɦ-
PIE *di̯ → z
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
RDentAssib3a → *Π·zaɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
4. Π·zaɦ-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. Π·zaḫ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√dieɑɦ-
Hitt. zaḫi-
(c.) ‘Kampf’
(HHand. 204)
1. PIE *di̯eɑɦi-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *di̯aɑɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. di̯aɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *di̯aɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. di̯aɦi-
PIE *di̯ → z
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
RDentAssib3a → *zaɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
4. zaɦi-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. zaḫi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. zaḫia-
(MP.) ‘sich gegenseitig bekämpfen’
(HHand. 204)
1. PIE *di̯eɑɦei̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *di̯aɑɦei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. di̯aɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *di̯aɦei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. di̯aɦei̯o-
PIE *di̯ → z
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
RDentAssib3a → *zaɦei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
4. zaɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *zaɦei̯a-
(XX:XX)
5. zaɦei̯a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. zaḫei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√dieɑɦn-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. zaḫant-
(pt.) ‘schlagend’
(HHand. 204)
1. PIE *di̯eɑɦont-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *di̯aɑɦont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. di̯aɑɦont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *di̯aɦont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. di̯aɦont-
PIE *di̯ → z
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
RDentAssib3a → *zaɦont-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
4. zaɦont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *zaɦant-
(XX:XX)
5. zaɦant-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. zaḫant-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Gr. ζάνκλο-
(n.) ‘Sichel’
(GEW 1:606)
(Gr. ζάνκλον [sgNA])
1. PIE *di̯éɑɦnklo-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
RColouring1d → *di̯áɑɦnklo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. di̯áɑɦnklo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *di̯áɦnklo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. di̯áɦnklo-
*di̯ → z
Palatalization of *di̯
RDentAssib1c → *záɦnklo-
4. záɦnklo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *zánklo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. zánklo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ζάνκλο-
HLu. anta zaḫnua·-
(cs.) ‘make attack’
(CHLu. 2.6.37)
(HLu. a-tá za-ha-nu-ua/i-ta)
1. PIE *Π·di̯eɑɦnuo-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *Π·di̯aɑɦnuo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. Π·di̯aɑɦnuo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·di̯aɦnuo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·di̯aɦnuo-
PIE *di̯ → z
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
RDentAssib3a → *Π·zaɦnuo-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
4. Π·zaɦnuo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·zaɦnua-
(XX:XX)
5. Π·zaɦnua-
PIE *h/ɦ → CLu. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into CLu. ḫ
R18 → HLu. Π·zaḫnua-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3.)
√dieɑɦr-
(Pyysalo)
(Kimball 1999:410)
Gr. ζάρο-
(m.) ‘a bird of pray’
(LSJ. 753)
1. PIE *di̯éɑɦro
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
RColouring1d → *di̯áɑɦro
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. di̯áɑɦro
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *di̯áɦro
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. di̯áɦro
*di̯ → z
Palatalization of *di̯
RDentAssib1c → *záɦro
4. záɦro
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *záro
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. záro
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ζάρο
Hitt. zaḫrai-
(GIŠc.) ‘e. Gegenstand am Stadttor, Stößel?’
(HHand. 204)
1. PIE *di̯eɑɦroi-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *di̯aɑɦroi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. di̯aɑɦroi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *di̯aɦroi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. di̯aɦroi-
PIE *di̯ → z
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
RDentAssib3a → *zaɦroi-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
4. zaɦroi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *zaɦrai-
(XX:XX)
5. zaɦrai-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. zaḫrai-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
Hitt. zaḫariške/a-
(iter.) ‘zerquetschen, zermalmen’
(HHand. 204)
1. PIE *di̯eɑɦoriske/o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *di̯aɑɦoriske/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. di̯aɑɦoriske/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *di̯aɦoriske/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. di̯aɦoriske/o-
PIE *di̯ → z
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
RDentAssib3a → *zaɦoriske/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
4. zaɦoriske/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *zaɦariske/a-
(XX:XX)
5. zaɦariske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → *zaɦariške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
6. zaɦariške/a-
PIE *h/ɦ → Hitt. ḫ
Orthographic change of *h/ɦ into ḫ
R16 → Hitt. zaḫariške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.3)
√diɑɦ
OInd. dī-
(f.) ‘Vernichtung’
(KEWA 2:45
1. PIE *diɑ́ɦ-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
RAssimilation1b → *diíɦ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. diíɦ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *dií-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. dií-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
RContractiI → OInd. dī́-
Gr. δέζο-
(vbM.) Hes. ‘ἐπολεμεῖτο’
(LSJ. 477)
(Gr. ἐδεζετο [3sg])
1. PIE *dédi̯ɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *dédi̯ɦo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. dédi̯ɦo-
*di̯ → z
Palatalization of *di̯
RDentAssib1c → *dézɦo-
3. dézɦo-
*zɦ → ch
Loss of voice of media aspirata *zɦ
RDevoicezh → *décho-
4. décho-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *déco-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. déco-
*c → s
Change of *c into s
RChangec2s → *déso-
6. déso-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. δέσο-


PIE √dibɑɦ-, √diobɑɦ-, √diebɑɦ- ‘Tropf, Dunkel, Westen’ (vb.) ‘regen, tropfen’
(IEW. 649 [diff.])
(Pyysalo)
√diobɑɦo-
(WP 1:524)
Gr. ζόφο-
(m.) ‘Dunkel, Finsternis, Westen’
(GEW 1:614)
(Gr. ζόφος, WH1:289)
1. PIE *di̯óbɑɦo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *di̯óbɦo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. di̯óbɦo-
*di̯ → z
Palatalization of *di̯
RDentAssib1c → *zóbɦo-
3. zóbɦo-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
RDevoicebh → *zópho-
4. zópho-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ζόφο-
√diobɑɦi-
(Pyysalo)
(Thus against Sturtevant’s Law (cf. Hitt. badd- etc.))
Hitt. zabi-
(.) ‘Undichtigkeit (eines Daches, das den Regen durchläßt)
(HHand. 206)
(HIL. 1192-3, za-ap-pi-ia-az)
1. PIE *di̯obɑɦi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *di̯obɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. di̯obɦi-
PIE *di̯ → z
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
RDentAssib3a → *zobɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. zobɦi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *zabɦi-
(XX:XX)
4. zabɦi-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. zabi-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. zabei̯a-
(vbM.) ‘tropfen, lecken, undicht sein’
(HHand. 206)
(Hitt. za-ap-pi-ia-zi)
1. PIE *di̯obɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *di̯obɦei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. di̯obɦei̯o-
PIE *di̯ → z
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
RDentAssib3a → *zobɦei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. zobɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *zabɦei̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. zabɦei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. zabei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. zabei̯a-
(a.) ‘Beivort von BE = Quelle’
(HHand. 206)
1. PIE *di̯obɑɦei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *di̯obɦei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. di̯obɦei̯o-
PIE *di̯ → z
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
RDentAssib3a → *zobɦei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. zobɦei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *zabɦei̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. zabɦei̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. zabei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Gr. ζοφεό-
(a.) ‘dunkel, finster’
(GEW 2:614)
(Gr. ζοφεός)
1. PIE *di̯obɑɦei̯ó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *di̯obɦei̯ó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. di̯obɦei̯ó-
*di̯ → z
Palatalization of *di̯
RDentAssib1c → *zobɦei̯ó-
3. zobɦei̯ó-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
RDevoicebh → *zophei̯ó-
4. zophei̯ó-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RLossyinVyV → *zopheó-
5. zopheó-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ζοφεό-
Gr. ζόφιο-
(.) ‘XX’
(GEW 2:614)
1. PIE *di̯óbɑɦii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *di̯óbɦii̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. di̯óbɦii̯o-
*di̯ → z
Palatalization of *di̯
RDentAssib1c → *zóbɦii̯o-
3. zóbɦii̯o-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
RDevoicebh → *zóphii̯o-
4. zóphii̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RLossyinVyV → *zóphio-
5. zóphio-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ζόφιο-
Hitt. zabiške/a-
(iter.) ‘tröpfeln’
(HHand. 206)
(Hitt. za-ap-pi-is-ki-zi)
1. PIE *di̯obɑɦiski̯e/o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *di̯obɦiski̯e/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. di̯obɦiski̯e/o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *di̯obɦisḱe/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. di̯obɦisḱe/o-
PIE *di̯ → z
Assibilation of *d before *i̯
RDentAssib3a → *zobɦisḱe/o-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
4. zobɦisḱe/o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *zabɦisḱe/a-
(XX:XX)
5. zabɦisḱe/a-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *zabɦiske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. zabɦiske/a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *zabiske/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
7. zabiske/a-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. zabiške/a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√dibɑɦoi-
Gr. ζόφοο-
(pr.) ‘dunkel werden’
(GEW 1:614)
(Gr. ζόφοομαι [1sg])
1. PIE *di̯óbɑɦoi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *di̯óbɦoi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. di̯óbɦoi̯o-
*di̯ → z
Palatalization of *di̯
RDentAssib1c → *zóbɦoi̯o-
3. zóbɦoi̯o-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
RDevoicebh → *zóphoi̯o-
4. zóphoi̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RLossyinVyV → *zóphoo-
5. zóphoo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ζ