PIE Lexicon Project
System PIE (Pyysalo 2013)
Foma (Hulden 2009)
FIN-CLARIN

Proto-Indo-European Lexicon

The generative etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages

The Proto-Indo-European Phoneme Inventory

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© 2014-2015 University of Helsinki

"Durch zweier Zeugen Mund wird alle Wahrheit kund" — August Fick
(PRINCIPLE of POSTULATION)



Department of Modern Languages
Department of World Cultures
Indo-European Studies
Contact PIE Lexicon Project

PIE



√kihɑr- (sb.) ‘Hermelin, Wiesel’ (a.) ‘grau’
(IEW. 573-4)
√kiehɑrm-
Lith. šerm·n
(m.) ‘Hermelin, Wiesel’
(LiEtWb. 965)
(Li. šermuõ [sgN])
1. PIE *ki̯ehɑrmṓ·n
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ki̯ehrmṓ·n
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ki̯ehrmṓ·n
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RSatem1 → *ćehrmṓ·n
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ćehrmṓ·n
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ćermṓ·n
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ćermṓ·n
*ć → š
From Satem *ć to Lithuanian
RSatem2Lith1 → *šermṓ·n
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. šermṓ·n
*ṓ → úo
Change of ṓ into úo
RChangeO2uo2 → Lith. šermúo·n
Latv. ser̂muli-
(m.) ‘Hermelin, foetorius erminea’
(LiEtWb. 965)
(Latv. sęr̂mulis [sgN])
1. PIE *ki̯éhɑrmuli-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ki̯éhrmuli-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ki̯éhrmuli-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RSatem1 → *ćéhrmuli-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ćéhrmuli-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ćérmuli-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ćérmuli-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to Latvian
RSatem2Latv1 → Latv. sérmuli-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
√kiohɑrm-
OHG. harm-
(st.m.) Wiesel, Hermelin, Haselmaus’
(Gl 11./12. Jh.)
1. PIE *ki̯ohɑrmo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ki̯ohrmo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ki̯ohrmo
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *ḱohrmo
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ḱohrmo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ḱormo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ḱormo
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *kormo
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. kormo
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *xormo
6. xormo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *xarma
(XX:XX)
7. xarma
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *xarm
8. xarm
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → OHG. harm
Lith. šarm·n
(m.) ‘wilde Katze, Hermelin, Wiese, mustela erminea’
(LiEtWb. 965)
1. PIE *ki̯ohɑrmṓ·n
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ki̯ohrmṓ·n
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ki̯ohrmṓ·n
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RSatem1 → *ćohrmṓ·n
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ćohrmṓ·n
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ćormṓ·n
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ćormṓ·n
*o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ćarmṓ·n
5. ćarmṓ·n
*ć → š
From Satem *ć to Lithuanian
RSatem2Lith1 → *šarmṓ·n
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. šarmṓ·n
*ṓ → úo
Change of ṓ into úo
RChangeO2uo2 → Lith. šarmúo·n
Lith. šarmuon-
(m.) ‘Wiesel’
(LiEtWb. 965)
1. PIE *ki̯ohɑrmōnihɑ́
PIE *iḫɑ́ → iḫí
Distant assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
RAssimilation1d → *ki̯ohɑrmōnihí
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. ki̯ohɑrmōnihí
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ki̯ohrmōnihí
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ki̯ohrmōnihí
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RSatem1 → *ćohrmōnihí
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. ćohrmōnihí
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ćormōnií
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ćormōnií
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
RContractiI → *ćormōnī́
6. ćormōnī́
*o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ćarmōnī́
7. ćarmōnī́
*ć → š
From Satem *ć to Lithuanian
RSatem2Lith1 → *šarmōnī́
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
8. šarmōnī́
*ō → uo
Change of ō into uo
RChangeO2uo1 → *šarmuonī́
9. šarmuonī́
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
R24 → Lith. šarmuoný
Latv. sar̂muli-
(.) ‘Hermelin, Wiesel, Kaninchen’
(LiEtWb. 965)
(Latv. sar̂mulis)
1. PIE *ki̯óhɑrmuli
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ki̯óhrmuli
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ki̯óhrmuli
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RSatem1 → *ćóhrmuli
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ćóhrmuli
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ćórmuli
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ćórmuli
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *ćármuli
5. ćármuli
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to Latvian
RSatem2Latv1 → Latv. sármuli
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
OHG. harmo-
(wk.m.*n-) ‘Wiesel, Hermelin, Haselmaus’
(Gloss)
1. PIE *ki̯ohɑrmu
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ki̯ohrmu
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ki̯ohrmu
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *ḱohrmu
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ḱohrmu
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ḱormu
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ḱormu
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *kormu
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. kormu
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *xormu
6. xormu
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *xarmu
(XX:XX)
7. xarmu
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *harmu
8. harmu
*-u → -o
Change of root-final -u into -o
RChangeFinalu2o → OHG. harmo
OSax. harmo-
(wk.m.*n-) ‘Hermelin’
(ASächsWb. 31)
1. PIE *ki̯ohɑrmu
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ki̯ohrmu
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ki̯ohrmu
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *ḱohrmu
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ḱohrmu
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ḱormu
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ḱormu
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *kormu
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. kormu
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *xormu
6. xormu
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *xarmu
(XX:XX)
7. xarmu
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *harmu
8. harmu
*-u → -o
Change of root-final -u into -o
RChangeFinalu2o → OSax. harmo
√kihaerm-
Illyr. carmō·n
(PN.) ‘Wiesel, cf. RätRom. carmún’
(IEW 573-4)
(Ven-Illyr. carmō [sgN], Steiermark)
1. PIE *kihɑermō·n
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *kihɑarmō·n
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. kihɑarmō·n
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kiharmō·n
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kiharmō·n
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *ḱharmō·n
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. ḱharmō·n
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *kharmō·n
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. kharmō·n
*kh → x
Affricativization of *kh
AffricateKH → Illyr. xarmō·n


PIE √kilmi- √kiolmi- √kielmi- ‘Holz’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√ki̯olmi-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. kalmi-
(GIŠc.) ‘Holzscheit’
(HHand. 70)
(Hitt. kal-mi-in)
1. PIE *ki̯olmi-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *ḱolmi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. ḱolmi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ḱalmi-
(XX:XX)
3. ḱalmi-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → Hitt. kalmi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
OPers. ϑarmi-
(sb.) ‘timber’
(OldP. 188)
(OPers. ϑarmiš [sgN])
1. PIE *ki̯olmi-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
RChangelr1 → *ki̯ormi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
2. ki̯ormi-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RSatem1 → *ćormi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ćormi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ćarmi-
4. ćarmi-
*ć → ϑ
From Satem *ć to OPers.
RSatem2OPers1 → OPers. ϑarmi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
√ki̯olmisno-
Hitt. kalmišana-
(c.) ‘Holzscheit’
(HHand. 70)
(Hitt. kal-mi-ša-na-aš, kal-mi-ša-ni-, kal-mi-ša-ni-it)
1. PIE *ki̯olmisono-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *ḱolmisono-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. ḱolmisono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ḱalmisana-
(XX:XX)
3. ḱalmisana-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *kalmisana-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. kalmisana-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. kalmišana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. kalmišna-
(c.) ‘Holzscheit’
(HHand. 70)
(Hitt. kal-mi-iš-na-an, kal-mi-iš-ni-it)
1. PIE *ki̯olmisno-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *ḱolmisno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. ḱolmisno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ḱalmisna-
(XX:XX)
3. ḱalmisna-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *kalmisna-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. kalmisna-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. kalmišna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√ki̯olmisni-
Hitt. kalmišani-
(c.) ‘Holzscheit’
(HIL. 500)
(Hitt. [kal-mi-i]š-ša-ni-uš [plA])
1. PIE *ki̯olmisoni-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *ḱolmisoni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. ḱolmisoni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ḱalmisani-
(XX:XX)
3. ḱalmisani-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *kalmisani-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. kalmisani-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. kalmišani-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. kalmišeni-
(c.) ‘Holzscheit’
(HIL. 500)
(Hitt. kal-mi-še-ni-iš [sgN])
1. PIE *ki̯olmiseni-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *ḱolmiseni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. ḱolmiseni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ḱalmiseni-
(XX:XX)
3. ḱalmiseni-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *kalmiseni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. kalmiseni-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. kalmišeni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. kalmišni-
(c.) ‘Holzscheit’
(HIL. 500)
(Hitt. kal-mi-iš-ni-uš [plA])
1. PIE *ki̯olmisni-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *ḱolmisni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. ḱolmisni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ḱalmisni-
(XX:XX)
3. ḱalmisni-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *kalmisni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. kalmisni-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. kalmišni-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √klm- √kolm- √kelm- ‘Sonnenstrahl, Glanz, Strahl’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√kolmo-
Hitt. kalma·šu-
(c.) ‘goldener Schmuckgegenstand’
(HHand. 70)
1. PIE *kolmo·su-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kalma·su-
(XX:XX)
2. kalma·su-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. kalma·šu-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. kalma·zitaa-
(URU.) ‘Mann (LÚ) von K.’
(OGH. 166)
(Hitt. kal-ma-zi-da-[a] [Stf.])
1. PIE *kolmo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. kalma·Σ-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. kalmana-
(.) ‘feuerholz’
(HEG I:467)
1. PIE *kolmono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. kalmana-
(XX:XX)
√kolmoro-
(HEG X:XX)
(HIL. 500-, Puhvel HED 4: 26f., Kimball (1999:380)
Hitt. kalmara-
(c.) ‘Sonnenstrahl, Strahl’ (not ‘Berg, Gebirge’)
(HHand. 70)
(Hitt. kal-ma-ra-az, kal-ma-ru-uš)
1. PIE *kolmoro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. kalmara-
(XX:XX)
Hitt. kalmara-
(n.) ‘Sonnenscheibe (aus Edelmetall)
(HHand. 70)
(Hitt. kal-ma-ra, gal-ma-ra [plNA])
1. PIE *kolmoro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Hitt. kalmara-
(XX:XX)
AV. kalmalí-
(m./f.?) ‘bunter, funkelnder Glanz’
(KEWA I:184)
1. PIE *koLmoLí-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RChangelr4 → *kolmolí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
2. kolmolí-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → AV. kalmalí-
RV. kalmalīkín-
(a.) ‘bunt funkelnd’
(WbRV. 318)
(WH I:287)
1. PIE *koLmoLihɑ́ku̯ɑhín-
PIE *iḫɑ́ → iḫí
Distant assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
RAssimilation1d → *koLmoLihíku̯ɑhín-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. koLmoLihíku̯ɑhín-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *koLmoLihíku̯hín-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. koLmoLihíku̯hín-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RChangelr4 → *kolmolihíku̯hín-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
4. kolmolihíku̯hín-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kalmalihíku̯hín-
5. kalmalihíku̯hín-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kalmaliíku̯ín-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kalmaliíku̯ín-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *kalmaliíkín-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
7. kalmaliíkín-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
RContractiI → RV. kalmalī́kín-


PIE √kis- √kios-, √kies- ‘liegen, wohnen, weilen’ (sb.) ‘Platz, Gegend’ (postp.) ‘(an)statt’
(IEW –)
(Pyysalo)
√kios-
(Pyysalo)
LAv. a·sah-
(n.) ‘Gegend, Landstrich, Platz’
(AIWb. 209)
1. PIE *o·ki̯os-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RSatem1 → *o·ćos-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. o·ćos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *a·ćas-
3. a·ćas-
*s → h
Change *s into h
RChanges2h → *a·ćah-
4. a·ćah-
*ć → s
From Satem *ć to Avestan
RSatem2Av1 → LAv. a·sah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
Hitt. kašaš
(postp.G.) ‘statt (?), anstatt (?)’
(HHand. 75)
(HEG I:533)
1. PIE *ki̯osos-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *ḱosos-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. ḱosos-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ḱasas-
(XX:XX)
3. ḱasas-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *kasas-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. kasas-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. kašaš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. kašaša-
(URU.) ‘› Tapika’
(OGHErg. 69)
(Hitt. ga-ša-ša, ka-a-ša-ša
1. PIE *ki̯ososo-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *ḱososo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. ḱososo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ḱasasa-
(XX:XX)
3. ḱasasa-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *kasasa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. kasasa-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. kašaša-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
√kieski̯o-
Gr. κέσκο-
(vbM.it.) ‘liegen’
(GEW1:809-10)
(Hom. κέσκετο, παρεκέσκετο)
1. PIE *ki̯éski̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → k
Centum neutralization of *ki/i̯
RCentum1 → *ḱésḱo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. ḱésḱo-
PIE *ḱ → k
Neutralization of Centum *ḱ
RCentumNeut1 → *késko-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. késko-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. κέσκο-
√kisi-
gAv. šay-
(pr.) ‘sich [L] aufhalten, wohnen, weilen’
(AIWb. 1706)
(gAv. šaēitī [3sg])
1. PIE *kisei̯-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RRukiI → *kišei̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
2. kišei̯-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RSatem1 → *ćšei̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ćšei̯-
*ćš → š
Simplification of ćš into š
R25b → *šei̯-
4. šei̯-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *šai̯-
5. šai̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R41a → gAv. šay-
LAv. ši-
(pr.) ‘wohnen’
(AIWb. 1706)
(LAv. šyeiti [3pl])
1. PIE *kisi-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RRukiI → *kiši-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
2. kiši-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RSatem1 → *ćši-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ćši-
*ćš → š
Simplification of ćš into š
R25b → LAv. ši-
gAv. šya-
(pr.) ‘es halten mit [I]’
(AIWb. 1706)
(gAv. šyeintī [3pl])
1. PIE *kisi̯o-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RRukiI → *kiši̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
2. kiši̯o-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RSatem1 → *ćši̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. ćši̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ćši̯a-
4. ćši̯a-
*ćš → š
Simplification of ćš into š
R25b → *ši̯a-
5. ši̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R41a → gAv. šya-


√kiu- √ekiu- √okiu- (sb.) ‘Pferd, Vogel’
(IEW. 301-2)
√ōki̯u-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. āšu-
(sb.) ‘Pferde’
(CHLu. 1.1.8)
(EQUUS.ANIMAL-sù)
1. PIE *ōki̯u-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RSatem1 → *ōću-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. ōću-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *āću-
(XX:XX)
3. āću-
*ć → z
From Satem *ć to CLu.
RSatem2CLu1 → HLu. āzu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.9)
RV. āśu·héman-
(a.) ‘die Rosse antreibend’
(WbRV. 188)
1. PIE *ōki̯u·Σ-
PIE *ki/i̯ → ć
1st palatalization of *ki/i̯
RSatem1 → *ōću·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
2. ōću·Σ-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *āću·Σ-
3. āću·Σ-
*ć → ś
From Satem *ć to OIA
RSatem2OIA1 → RV. āśu·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)


√kɑht- √gɑɦd- (adv.) ‘nieder’ (sb.) ‘Ton, Erde, Land’
(IEW XX)
√kɑht-
(Pyysalo: Lyd. + OCS.)
Gr. κατ·αιγίς
(adv.) ‘plötzlich herabfahrende Sturmwind’
(XX:XX)
(Gr. κατ·αιγίς)
1. PIE *keɑht·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *kaɑht·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑht·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kaht·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kaht·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kat·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kat·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. κατ·Σ-
Gr. κατ·ήνοκ-
(pf.) ‘XX’
(IEW. 317)
(Gr. κατήνοκα)
1. PIE *keɑht·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *kaɑht·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑht·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kaht·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kaht·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kat·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kat·Σ-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. κατ·Σ-
Lyd. kat·u-
(pret.) ‘write down’
(LydWb. 147)
(Lyd. katul [3pret.])
1. PIE *keɑht·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *kaɑht·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑht·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kaht·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kaht·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → Lyd. kat·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
OCS. kot·yga-
(f.) ‘Unter-kleid, Tunica’
(Sadnik √373)
1. PIE *keɑht·Σ-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *kaɑht·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑht·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kaht·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kaht·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kat·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kat·Σ-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → OCS. kot·Σ-
√gɑɦedi-
(MA 169)
Arm. getin-
(sb.) ‘Boden’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *gɑɦedi·nēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *gɑɦedi·nāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦedi·nāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦedi·nāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦedi·nāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gɦedi·nā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. gɦedi·nā-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
RDevoiced → *gɦeti·nā-
5. gɦeti·nā-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → *geti·nā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. geti·nā-
*ā → a
Loss of quantity of *ā
RChangeA2a1 → Arm. geti·na-
Arm. getna·bir
(a.) ‘den Boden ausgrabend’
(XX:XX)
1. PIE *gɑɦedì·nēɑh·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *gɑɦedì·nāɑh·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦedì·nāɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦedì·nāh·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦedì·nāh·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gɦedì·nā·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. gɦedì·nā·Σ-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
RDevoiced → *gɦetì·nā·Σ-
5. gɦetì·nā·Σ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → *getì·nā·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. getì·nā·Σ-
*ā → a
Loss of quantity of *ā
RChangeA2a1 → *getì·na·Σ-
7. getì·na·Σ-
*i → Ø
Loss of unaccented *i
R22b → Arm. get·na·Σ-
√gɑɦedi·uu̯odɑɦno-
Hitt. gaz·uadna-
(URU.) ‘= Kizuwatna’
(OGHErg. 81)
(Hitt. GAZ-zu-ua-a[t-n]a)
1. PIE *gɑɦodi·uu̯odɑɦno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦodi·uu̯odɦno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦodi·uu̯odɦno-
PIE *di → zi
Assibilation of *d before *i
RDentAssib3b → *gɦozi·uu̯odɦno-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. gɦozi·uu̯odɦno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *gɦazi·uu̯adɦna-
(XX:XX)
4. gɦazi·uu̯adɦna-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. gazi·uadna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. gez·uadana-
(KUR URU.) ‘Kizuwatnean Land’
(OGH. 211-5)
(Hitt. ki-iz-zu-ua-ta-naKI)
1. PIE *gɑɦedi·uu̯odɑɦono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦedi·uu̯odɦono-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦedi·uu̯odɦono-
PIE *di → zi
Assibilation of *d before *i
RDentAssib3b → *gɦezi·uu̯odɦono-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. gɦezi·uu̯odɦono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *gɦezi·uu̯adɦana-
(XX:XX)
4. gɦezi·uu̯adɦana-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. gezi·uadana-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Hitt. gez·uadna-
(URU.) ‘Kizuwatna- = Hur. gumani ‘Erde, Feld’
(OGH. 211-5)
(Hitt. ki-iz-zu-ua-at-na-an)
1. PIE *gɑɦedi·uu̯odɑɦno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦedi·uu̯odɦno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦedi·uu̯odɦno-
PIE *di → zi
Assibilation of *d before *i
RDentAssib3b → *gɦezi·uu̯odɦno-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
3. gɦezi·uu̯odɦno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *gɦezi·uu̯adɦna-
(XX:XX)
4. gɦezi·uu̯adɦna-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. gezi·uadna-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)


PIE √kɑhu-, √gɑɦu- ‘schlagen, hauen, töten, kämpfen, stechen, treiben, jagen, schmieden, verfertigen, usw.’
(IEW. 535+491-3)
√kɑhu-
(IEW. 535 *kǝu-)
(WP. 1:330f.)
Lith. káu-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, hauen, umbringen, vernichten’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. káuti [inf.])
1. PIE *kḗɑhu-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *kā́ɑhu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kā́hu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kā́hu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kā́u-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kā́u-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
ROsthoffa2 → Lith. káu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
Lith. káu-
(vb.refl.) ‘sich schlagen, kämpfen, ausgelassen sein, tollen’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. káutis [inf.])
1. PIE *kḗɑhu-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *kā́ɑhu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kā́hu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kā́hu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kā́u-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kā́u-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
ROsthoffa2 → Lith. káu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
Latv. kaû-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, hauen, stechen, schlachten, treten’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Latv. kaût, kavu [pret], kâvu [pret])
1. PIE *kḗɑhu-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *kā́ɑhu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kā́hu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kā́hu-
*ā́hu → āhû
Latvian tone rule for *ā́hu
RAcc2 → *kāhû-
4. kāhû-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāû-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāû-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → Latv. kaû-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
Lith. nu·káu-
(vb.) ‘erschlagen : kill’
(Senn 2:227)
(Lith. nu·káuti [inf.])
1. PIE *Π·kḗɑhu-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *Π·kā́ɑhu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·kā́ɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·kā́hu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·kā́hu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·kā́u-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·kā́u-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
ROsthoffa2 → Lith. Π·káu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
Latv. nùo·kaû-
(vb.) ‘erschlagen, töten’
(IEW. 535)
(Latv. nùokaût [inf.])
1. PIE *Π·kḗɑhu-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *Π·kā́ɑhu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·kā́ɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·kā́hu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·kā́hu-
*ā́hu → āhû
Latvian tone rule for *ā́hu
RAcc2 → *Π·kāhû-
4. Π·kāhû-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·kāû-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·kāû-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → Latv. Π·kaû-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
Pol. ku-
(pr.) ‘schmieden’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Pol. kuć [inf.], kuję [1sg])
1. PIE *kēɑhu-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāu-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → *kau-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
5. kau-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *kou-
6. kou-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *kū-
7. kū-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → Pol. ku-
TochB. kau-
(vb.) ‘= Skt. vadhāya- : töten’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kautsi-ś [inf.])
1. PIE *kēɑhu-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāu-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
ROrthOIA10 → TochB. kau-
TochA. kāw-
(vb.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 85)
(TochA. kāw-e(ñc) [3pl])
1. PIE *kēɑhu̯-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhu̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhu̯-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāu̯-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
ROrthW2w → TochA. kāw-
TochA. ko-
(vb.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 85)
(if in TochA. pko [ipv.], HuIdg. 253-)
1. PIE *kēɑhu-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāu-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
ROsthoffTochAu → *kau-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
5. kau-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RMonophthau2O1 → *kō-
6. kō-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthO2o1 → TochA. ko-
√kɑhuo-
OCS. kovo-
(pr.) ‘schmieden, verfertigen’
(Sadnik √374)
(OCS. kovǫ [1sg], PIE *e for presens)
1. PIE *keɑhu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *kaɑhu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kahu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kahu̯a-
4. kahu̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kau̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kau̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *kou̯o-
6. kou̯o-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → OCS. kovo-
TochB. kawa-
(pret.A.) ‘kill’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kawam [1pl], *e for preterite)
1. PIE *keɑhu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *kaɑhu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kahu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kahu̯a-
(XX:XX)
4. kahu̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kau̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kau̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
R19 → TochB. kawa-
OSax. hawa-
(pr.) ‘hew, cut, strike, smite’
(ASaxD. 534)
(OSax. hawan [inf.], *e for presens)
1. PIE *keɑhu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *kaɑhu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kahu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kau̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kau̯o-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *xau̯o-
5. xau̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *xau̯a-
(XX:XX)
6. xau̯a-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *hau̯a-
7. hau̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
ROrthogrW2w → OSax. hawa-
√kɑhuɑh-
Lith. kovà-
(f.) ‘Kampf, Schlacht’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kovà [sgN])
1. PIE *kēɑhu̯ḗɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhu̯ḗɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhu̯ḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *kāɑhu̯ā́ɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. kāɑhu̯ā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhu̯ā́h
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kāhu̯ā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāu̯ā́
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāu̯ā́
*ā → ō
Change of ā into ō
RChangeA2O1 → *kōu̯ā́
6. kōu̯ā́
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
RChangeA202 → *kōu̯ṓ
7. kōu̯ṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
RFinalo2a2 → *kōu̯à
8. kōu̯à
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → *kōvà
9. kōvà
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27a → Lith. kovà
Lith. kovó-
(vb.) ‘kämpfen, ringen’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kovóti [inf.])
1. PIE *kēɑhu̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhu̯ḗɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhu̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *kāɑhu̯ā́ɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. kāɑhu̯ā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhu̯ā́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kāhu̯ā́h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāu̯ā́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāu̯ā́-
*ā → ō
Change of ā into ō
RChangeA2O1 → *kōu̯ā́-
6. kōu̯ā́-
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
RChangeA202 → *kōu̯ṓ-
7. kōu̯ṓ-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → *kōvṓ-
8. kōvṓ-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27a → *kovṓ-
9. kovṓ-
ṓ → ó
Orthographic change of ṓ into ó
R27b → Lith. kovó-
Latv. kava-
(f.) ‘Stich, Schlag, Art, Schicht’
(WH 2:301)
Latv. kava [sgN]
1. PIE *koɑhu̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *koɑhu̯āɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. koɑhu̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohu̯āh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kohu̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kou̯ā
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kou̯ā
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kau̯ā
5. kau̯ā
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → *kavā
6. kavā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R28 → Latv. kava
Serb. kòva-
(vb.) ‘schmieden, prägen’
(IEW. 535)
(Serb. kòvati [inf.], *e for presens)
1. PIE *kéɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
RColouring1d → *káɑhu̯ēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. káɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *káɑhu̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. káɑhu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *káhu̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. káhu̯āh-
áḫ → àḫ
Serbo-Croatian gravis rule
RAcc1 → *kàhu̯āh-
5. kàhu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kàu̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kàu̯ā-
*à → ò
Change of *à into ò
RChangea2o3 → *kòu̯ā-
7. kòu̯ā-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → *kòvā-
8. kòvā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → Serb. kòva-
OCS. kova-
(vb.) ‘schmieden, verfertigen’
(Sadnik √374)
(OCS. kovati [1sg])
1. PIE *keɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kaɑhu̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. kaɑhu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kahu̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kahu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kau̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kau̯ā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *kou̯ā-
6. kou̯ā-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → *kovā-
7. kovā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → OCS. kova-
Russ. kova-
(vb.) ‘schmieden’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Russ. kovat’, kuju [1sg])
1. PIE *keɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kaɑhu̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. kaɑhu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kahu̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kahu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kau̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kau̯ā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *kou̯ā-
6. kou̯ā-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → *kovā-
7. kovā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → Russ. kova-
Pol. kowa-
(vb.) ‘schmieden’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Pol. kować [inf.], kowam [1sg])
1. PIE *keɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kaɑhu̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. kaɑhu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kahu̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kahu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kau̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kau̯ā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *kou̯ā-
6. kou̯ā-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → *kovā-
7. kovā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → *kova-
8. kova-
*v → w
Orthographic change of of *v into w
ROrthogrV2W → Pol. kowa-
OCS. po·kova-
(vb.) ‘beschlagen’
(Sadnik √374)
(OCS. pokovati [inf.])
1. PIE *Π·keɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *Π·kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. Π·kaɑhu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·kaɑhu̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. Π·kaɑhu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·kahu̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. Π·kahu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·kau̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·kau̯ā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *Π·kou̯ā-
6. Π·kou̯ā-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → *Π·kovā-
7. Π·kovā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → OCS. Π·kova-
√kɑhuēhɑ-
Lith. kóvė-
(pret.) ‘schlagen, hauen, umbringen, vernichten’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kóviau, kóvė)
1. PIE *kḗɑhu̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *kā́ɑhu̯ēhɑ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhu̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kā́hu̯ēh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kā́hu̯ēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kā́u̯ē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kā́u̯ē-
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
RChangeA202 → *kṓu̯ē-
5. kṓu̯ē-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → *kṓvē-
6. kṓvē-
ṓ → ó
Orthographic change of ṓ into ó
R27b → *kóvē-
7. kóvē-
* ē -> ė
Orthographic change of *ē into ė
R28a → Lith. kóvė-
Serb. kòvē-
(vb.) ‘schmieden, prägen’
(IEW. 535)
(Serb. kòvēm [1sg])
1. PIE *kéɑhu̯ēhɑ-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
RColouring1d → *káɑhu̯ēhɑ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. káɑhu̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *káhu̯ēh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. káhu̯ēh-
áḫ → àḫ
Serbo-Croatian gravis rule
RAcc1 → *kàhu̯ēh-
4. kàhu̯ēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kàu̯ē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kàu̯ē-
*à → ò
Change of *à into ò
RChangea2o3 → *kòu̯ē-
6. kòu̯ē-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → Serb. kòvē-
√kɑhuhɑl-
(Pyysalo)
OCS. na·kovalo-
(n.) ‘Amboss’
(Sadnik √374)
(OCS. nakovalo)
1. PIE *Π·koɑhu̯ōhɑlos
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·kohu̯ōhlos
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·kohu̯ōhlos
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·kahu̯ōhlas
3. Π·kahu̯ōhlas
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *Π·kahu̯āhlas
4. Π·kahu̯āhlas
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·kau̯ālas
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·kau̯ālas
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *Π·kou̯ālos
6. Π·kou̯ālos
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root final)
RLossFinalS → *Π·kou̯ālo
7. Π·kou̯ālo
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → *Π·kovālo
8. Π·kovālo
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → OCS. Π·kovalo
OCS. na·kovalĭno-
(n.) ‘Amboss’
(Sadnik √374)
(OCS. nakovalĭno)
1. PIE *Π·koɑhu̯ōhɑlinos
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·kohu̯ōhlinos
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·kohu̯ōhlinos
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·kahu̯ōhlinas
3. Π·kahu̯ōhlinas
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *Π·kahu̯āhlinas
4. Π·kahu̯āhlinas
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·kau̯ālinas
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·kau̯ālinas
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *Π·kou̯ālinos
6. Π·kou̯ālinos
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root final)
RLossFinalS → *Π·kou̯ālino
7. Π·kou̯ālino
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → *Π·kovālino
8. Π·kovālino
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → *Π·kovalino
9. Π·kovalino
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
ROrthogri2i → OCS. Π·kovalĭno
RV. kū́ṭa-
(n.) ‘Hammer, Schlegel’
(KEWA I:250)
(RV. kū́ṭa-)
1. PIE *kɑ́huhɑlto-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *kúhuhɑlto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. kúhuhɑlto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kúhuhlto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kúhuhlto-
PIE *l → r
Change of *l into r
RChangelr1 → *kúhuhrto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
4. kúhuhrto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kúhuhrta-
5. kúhuhrta-
PIE *hRt → ṭ
Fortunatov’s Law for *hRt
RFortII2 → *kúhuṭa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.2)
6. kúhuṭa-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kúuṭa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. kúuṭa-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractUu → RV. kū́ṭa-
√kɑhuɦɑd-
Lat. cūd-
(pf.) ‘schlagen, klopfen, stampfen, prägen’
(WH 1:300)
(Lat. cūdī [1sg])
1. PIE *koɑhuɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohuɦd-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohuɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *kohud-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kohud-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *koud-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. koud-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *kūd-
5. kūd-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → Lat. cūd-
TochA. kot-
(pret.A.) ‘spalten : dissecare, diffindere’
(Poucha. 86)
(TochA. kot)
1. PIE *koɑhuɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohuɦd-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohuɦd-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kahuɦd-
(XX:XX)
3. kahuɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *kahud-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kahud-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kaud-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kaud-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
RDevoiced → *kaut-
6. kaut-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RMonophthau2O1 → *kōt-
7. kōt-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthO2o1 → TochA. kot-
Lat. in·cūd-
(f.) ‘Amboß’
(WH 1:300)
(Lat. incūs [sgN], incūdis [sgG])
1. PIE *Π·koɑhuɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·kohuɦd-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·kohuɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·kohud-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. Π·kohud-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·koud-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·koud-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *Π·kūd-
5. Π·kūd-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → Lat. Π·cūd-
Lat. sub·cūd-
(f.) ‘Verklammerung, Haue’
(WH 1:300)
(Lat. subcūs [sgN], subcūdis [sgG])
1. PIE *Π·koɑhuɦɑd-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·kohuɦd-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·kohuɦd-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·kohud-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. Π·kohud-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·koud-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·koud-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *Π·kūd-
5. Π·kūd-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → Lat. Π·cūd-
TochB. kauta-
(vb.) ‘crush, chop, split’
(DTochB. 210)
(TochB. kautaṃ, kautatsiśco [inf.])
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdeɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *kēɑhuɦɑdaɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kēɑhuɦɑdaɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhuɦɑdaɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. kāɑhuɦɑdaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhuɦdah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kāhuɦdah-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *kāhudah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāhudah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāuda-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kāuda-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
RDevoiced → *kāuta-
7. kāuta-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
ROrthOIA10 → TochB. kauta-
TochB. kauta·no-
(impf.A.) ‘chop up, obj. bones’
(DTochB. 210)
(TochB. kautanoñ-c [3pl-2sgencl])
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdo·nou-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhuɦɑdo·nou-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑdo·nou-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhuɦdo·nou-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦdo·nou-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kāhuɦda·nau-
(XX:XX)
4. kāhuɦda·nau-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *kāhuda·nau-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāhuda·nau-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāuda·nau-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kāuda·nau-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
RDevoiced → *kāuta·nau-
7. kāuta·nau-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RChangeAU2O1 → *kāuta·nō-
8. kāuta·nō-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
ROrthOIA10 → *kauta·nō-
9. kauta·nō-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthOIA6 → TochB. kauta·no-
TochB. kauta·lñe-
(a.) ‘Skt. bhedana- = breaking’
(DTochB. 210)
(TochB. kautalñe-)
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdo·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhuɦɑdo·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑdo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhuɦdo·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦdo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kāhuɦda·Σ-
(XX:XX)
4. kāhuɦda·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *kāhuda·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāhuda·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāuda·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kāuda·Σ-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
RDevoiced → *kāuta·Σ-
7. kāuta·Σ-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
ROrthOIA10 → TochB. kauta·Σ-
TochB. a·kauta·cce-
(a.) ‘unsplittable’
(DTochB. 3)
(TochB. akautacce [sgA], thunderbolt)
1. PIE *Π·kēɑhuɦɑdo·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·kāɑhuɦɑdo·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·kāɑhuɦɑdo·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·kāhuɦdo·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·kāhuɦdo·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·kāhuɦda·Σ-
(XX:XX)
4. Π·kāhuɦda·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·kāhuda·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·kāhuda·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·kāuda·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·kāuda·Σ-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
RDevoiced → *Π·kāuta·Σ-
7. Π·kāuta·Σ-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
ROrthOIA10 → TochB. Π·kauta·Σ-
Lat. cūdo-
(pr3.) ‘schlagen, klopfen, stampfen, prägen’
(WH 1:300)
(Lat. cūdō [1sg], cūdĕre [inf.])
1. PIE *koɑhuɦɑdo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohuɦdo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohuɦdo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *kohudo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kohudo-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *koudo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. koudo-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *kūdo-
5. kūdo-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → Lat. cūdo-
MidIr. cuad-
(vb.) ‘schlachten, kämpfen’
(WH 1:301)
(but see Fick II4:88 apud WH)
1. PIE *koɑhuɦɑdo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohuɦdo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohuɦdo
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *kohudo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kohudo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *koudo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. koudo
*ou → ō
Monophthongization of ou
RMonophthou2O → *kōdo
5. kōdo
*ō → ua
Brechung of *ō into ua
RBrechungO2ua → *kuado
6. kuado
*o- → Ø
Loss of root-final *o
RLossFinalo → *kuad
7. kuad
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → MidIr. cuad
TochB. kautā-
(pret.) ‘break’
(DTochB. 210)
(TochB. kautā-)
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhuɦɑdāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑdāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhuɦdāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦdāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *kāhudāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāhudāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāudā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāudā-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
RDevoiced → *kāutā-
6. kāutā-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
ROrthOIA10 → TochB. kautā-
TochB. kautā·tstsai-
(a.f.) ‘breakable, having a crack’
(DTochB. 210)
(TochB. kautātstsai-)
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdēɑh·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhuɦɑdāɑh·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑdāɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhuɦdāh·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦdāh·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *kāhudāh·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāhudāh·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāudā·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāudā·Σ-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
RDevoiced → *kāutā·Σ-
6. kāutā·Σ-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
ROrthOIA10 → TochB. kautā·Σ-
OCS. iz·kyda-
(vb.) ‘herauswerfen, abwerfen’
(Sadnik √434)
(OCS. izkyda-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑ́huɦɑdēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·kɑ́huɦɑdāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·kɑ́huɦɑdāɑh-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *Π·kúhuɦɑdāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
3. Π·kúhuɦɑdāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·kúhuɦdāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. Π·kúhuɦdāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·kúhudāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·kúhudāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·kúudā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·kúudā-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractUu → *Π·kū́dā-
7. Π·kū́dā-
*ū́
ū → y
RChangeU2Y → *Π·kydā-
Change of ū́ into y
8. Π·kydā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → OCS. Π·kyda-
OCS. sŭ·kyda-
(vb.refl.) ‘leer werden’
(Sadnik √434)
(OCS. sŭkyda-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑ́huɦɑdēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·kɑ́huɦɑdāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·kɑ́huɦɑdāɑh-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *Π·kúhuɦɑdāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
3. Π·kúhuɦɑdāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·kúhuɦdāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. Π·kúhuɦdāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·kúhudāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·kúhudāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·kúudā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·kúudā-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractUu → *Π·kū́dā-
7. Π·kū́dā-
*ū́
ū → y
RChangeU2Y → *Π·kydā-
Change of ū́ into y
8. Π·kydā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → OCS. Π·kyda-
Lat. caud·ec-
(m.) ‘Baumstamm, Klotz, gespaltenes Holz…’
(WH 1:136)
(Lat. caudex, caudicis)
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑd·Σ
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhuɦɑd·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑd·Σ
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhuɦd·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦd·Σ
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *kāhud·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāhud·Σ
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāud·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāud·Σ
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → *kaud·Σ
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. kaud·Σ
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → Lat. caud·Σ
Lat. cōd·ec-
(m.) ‘idem, … Züchtigungsblock, Notizbuch’
(WH 1:136)
(Lat. cōdex [sgN])
1. PIE *kōɑhuɦɑd·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kōhuɦd·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kōhuɦd·Σ-
*ōhu → ōh
Loss of labial in *ōhu
RMonophthongOH1u → *kōhɦd·Σ-
3. kōhɦd·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *kōhd·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kōhd·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kōd·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kōd·Σ-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → Lat. cōd·Σ-
Lat. caud·icā-
(f.) ‘aus einem Baumstamm gemachter Kahn’
(WH 1:136)
(Lat. caudica [sgN])
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑd·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhuɦɑd·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑd·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhuɦd·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦd·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *kāhud·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāhud·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāud·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāud·Σ-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → *kaud·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. kaud·Σ-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → Lat. caud·Σ-
Lat. cōd·icillo-
(n.) ‘kleiner Stamm, Scheitholz’
(WH 1:136)
Lat. cōdicillum [sgNA])
1. PIE *kōɑhuɦɑd·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kōhuɦd·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kōhuɦd·Σ-
*ōhu → ōh
Loss of labial in *ōhu
RMonophthongOH1u → *kōhɦd·Σ-
3. kōhɦd·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *kōhd·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kōhd·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kōd·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kōd·Σ-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → Lat. cōd·Σ-
Latv. pa·kûdî-
(vb.) ‘antreiben’
(Sadnik √434)
(Latv. pakûdî-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑ́huɦɑdɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *Π·kɑ́huɦɑdíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. Π·kɑ́huɦɑdíhi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *Π·kúhuɦɑdíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
3. Π·kúhuɦɑdíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·kúhuɦdíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. Π·kúhuɦdíhi-
*íhi → ihî
Latvian tone rule for *íhi
RAcc4 → *Π·kúhuɦdihî-
5. Π·kúhuɦdihî-
*úhu → uhû
Latvian tone rule for *úhu
RAcc5 → *Π·kuhûɦdihî-
6. Π·kuhûɦdihî-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·kuhûdihî-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. Π·kuhûdihî-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·kuûdiî-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
8. Π·kuûdiî-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·kûdiî-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
9. Π·kûdiî-
*iî → î
Contraction of i and î
R16g → Latv. Π·kûdî-
TochA. kotlune-
(vb.sb.) ‘dissecare, diffindere : spalten’
(Poucha. 86)
(TochA. kotlune)
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdlunoi̯o
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhuɦɑdlunoi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑdlunoi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhuɦdlunoi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦdlunoi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kāhuɦdlunai̯a
(XX:XX)
4. kāhuɦdlunai̯a
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *kāhudlunai̯a
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāhudlunai̯a
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāudlunai̯a
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kāudlunai̯a
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
RDevoiced → *kāutlunai̯a
7. kāutlunai̯a
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
ROsthoffTochAu → *kautlunai̯a
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
8. kautlunai̯a
*a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *kautlunai̯
9. kautlunai̯
*a y → ē
Change of ay into ē in root-final
RCyangeay2E → *kautlunē
10. kautlunē
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RMonophthau2O1 → *kōtlunē
11. kōtlunē
ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
ROrthE2e1 → *kōtlune
12. kōtlune
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthO2o1 → TochA. kotlune
TochA. kotna-
(pret.A.) ‘dissecare, diffindere : spalten’
(Poucha. 86)
(TochA. kotnaṣ, kotnatsi [inf.])
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdno-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhuɦɑdno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑdno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhuɦdno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦdno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kāhuɦdna-
(XX:XX)
4. kāhuɦdna-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *kāhudna-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāhudna-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāudna-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kāudna-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
RDevoiced → *kāutna-
7. kāutna-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
ROsthoffTochAu → *kautna-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
8. kautna-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RMonophthau2O1 → *kōtna-
9. kōtna-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthO2o1 → TochA. kotna-
TochA. kotne-
(pret.A.) ‘spalten : dissecare, diffindere’
(Poucha. 86)
(TochA. kotnecä [3pl])
1. PIE *kēɑhuɦɑdnoi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhuɦɑdnoi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuɦɑdnoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhuɦdnoi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhuɦdnoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kāhuɦdnai-
(XX:XX)
4. kāhuɦdnai-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *kāhudnai-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāhudnai-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāudnai-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kāudnai-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
RDevoiced → *kāutnai-
7. kāutnai-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
ROsthoffTochAu → *kautnai-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
8. kautnai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
RMonophthai2E1 → *kautnē-
9. kautnē-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RMonophthau2O1 → *kōtnē-
10. kōtnē-
ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
ROrthE2e1 → *kōtne-
11. kōtne-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthO2o1 → TochA. kotne-
Lat. cūsso-
(pf.) ‘schlagen, klopfen, stampfen, prägen’
(WH 1:300)
(Lat. cūssum [sgNA])
1. PIE *koɑhuɦɑdso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohuɦdso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohuɦdso-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *kohudso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kohudso-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *koudso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. koudso-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *kūdso-
5. kūdso-
*ds → ss
Assimilation of *ds
RChangeDS2SS → *kūsso-
6. kūsso-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → Lat. cūsso-
TochA. kākotur-
(absol.) ‘spalten : dissecare, diffindere’
(Poucha. 86)
(TochA. kākoturäṣ [sgAbl])
1. PIE *kēɑhkēɑhuɦɑdur-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhkāɑhuɦɑdur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhkāɑhuɦɑdur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhkāhuɦdur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhkāhuɦdur-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *kāhkāhudur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāhkāhudur-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kākāudur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kākāudur-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
RDevoiced → *kākāutur-
6. kākāutur-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
ROsthoffTochAu → *kākautur-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
7. kākautur-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RMonophthau2O1 → *kākōtur-
8. kākōtur-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthO2o1 → TochA. kākotur-
√kɑhui-
Lith. káuja-
(pr.) ‘schlagen, hauen, umbringen, vernichten’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. káuju [1sg], *ē for presens)
1. PIE *kḗɑhui̯o-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *kā́ɑhui̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhui̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kā́hui̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kā́hui̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kā́ui̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kā́ui̯o-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
ROsthoffa2 → *káui̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
5. káui̯o-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *káui̯a-
6. káui̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j *
R26 → Lith. káuja-
Latv. kaûja-
(pr.) ‘schlagen, hauen, stechen, schlachten, treten’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Latv. kaûju [1sg])
1. PIE *kḗɑhui̯o-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *kā́ɑhui̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhui̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kā́hui̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kā́hui̯o-
*ā́hu → āhû
Latvian tone rule for *ā́hu
RAcc2 → *kāhûi̯o-
4. kāhûi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāûi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāûi̯o-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → *kaûi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. kaûi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kaûi̯a-
7. kaûi̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
R30 → Latv. kaûja-
OCS. kujo-
(vb.) ‘schmieden, prägen’
(Sadnik √374)
(OCS. kujǫ [1sg])
1. PIE *kēɑhui̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhui̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhui̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhui̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhui̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kāhui̯a-
4. kāhui̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāui̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāui̯a-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → *kaui̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. kaui̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *koui̯o-
7. koui̯o-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *kūi̯o-
8. kūi̯o-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
ROrthogrY2j → *kūjo-
9. kūjo-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → OCS. kujo-
Goth. hawi-
(n.) ‘χόρτος : Heu’
(GoEtD. 181)
(Goth. hawi, IEW.: “zu hauendes”, *o for noun)
1. PIE *koɑhui̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohui̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohui̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *koui̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. koui̯o
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *xoui̯o
4. xoui̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *xaui̯a
(XX:XX)
5. xaui̯a
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *xaui̯
6. xaui̯
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *haui̯
7. haui̯
*ui̯ → u̯i
Change of root-final uj into wi
RChangeFinaluy2wi → *hau̯i
8. hau̯i
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
ROrthogrW2w → Goth. hawi
OHG. hewi-
(n.) ‘Heu’
(ANEtWb. 226)
(OHG. hewi)
1. PIE *koɑhui̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohui̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohui̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *koui̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. koui̯o
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *xoui̯o
4. xoui̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *xaui̯a
(XX:XX)
5. xaui̯a
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *xaui̯
6. xaui̯
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *haui̯
7. haui̯
*ui̯ → u̯i
Change of root-final uj into wi
RChangeFinaluy2wi → *hau̯i
8. hau̯i
*awi → ewi
Umlaut of *au̯i into eu̯i
RUmlautAWI → *heu̯i
9. heu̯i
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
ROrthogrW2w → OHG. hewi
OSax. hōi-
(n.) ‘Heu : grass’
(ASächsWb. 35)
(OSax. hōi)
1. PIE *koɑhui̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohui̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohui̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *koui̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. koui̯o
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *xoui̯o
4. xoui̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *xaui̯a
(XX:XX)
5. xaui̯a
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *xaui̯
6. xaui̯
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *haui̯
7. haui̯
*au → ō
Monophthongization of *au into ō
RChangeAU2O → *hōi̯
8. hōi̯
*-i̯ → -i
Change of root-final i̯ into i
RChangeFinaly2i → OSax. hōi
Far. hoy-
(n.) ‘Heu : grass’
(ANEtWb. 226)
(Far. hoy)
1. PIE *koɑhui̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohui̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohui̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *koui̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. koui̯o
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *xoui̯o
4. xoui̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *xaui̯a
(XX:XX)
5. xaui̯a
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *haui̯a
6. haui̯a
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *haui̯
7. haui̯
*aui̯ → ey
Umlaut for aui̯
RUmlautauJ2oy → Far. hoy
OIcl. hey-
(n.) ‘Heu : grass’
(ANEtWb. 226)
(OIcl. Hey, Vries: ‘das abgehauene’ ?)
1. PIE *koɑhui̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohui̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohui̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *koui̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. koui̯o
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *xoui̯o
4. xoui̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *xaui̯a
(XX:XX)
5. xaui̯a
-a → Ø
Loss of -a in root-final position
RLossFinala1 → *xaui̯
6. xaui̯
*i̯ → i
Change of root-final i̯ into i
RChangeFinaly2i → *xaui
7. xaui
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → OIcl. haui
√kɑhuiēhɑ-
Serb. kȕjē-
(vb.) ‘schmieden, prägen’
(IEW. 535)
(Serb. kȕjēm [1sg])
1. PIE *kḗɑhui̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *kā́ɑhui̯ēhɑ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhui̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kā́hui̯ēh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kā́hui̯ēh-
ā́hu → āhȕ
Serbo-Croatian double gravis rule
RAcc2 → *kāhȕi̯ēh-
4. kāhȕi̯ēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāȕi̯ē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāȕi̯ē-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
ROrthogrY2j → *kāȕjē-
6. kāȕjē-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → Serb. kaȕjē-
Pol. kuje-
(pr.) ‘schmieden’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Pol. kuję [1sg])
1. PIE *kēɑhui̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhui̯ēhɑ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhui̯ēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhui̯ēh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhui̯ēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāui̯ē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāui̯ē-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → *kaui̯ē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
5. kaui̯ē-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *koui̯ē-
6. koui̯ē-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *kūi̯ē-
7. kūi̯ē-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
ROrthogrY2j → *kūjē-
8. kūjē-
*ē → e
Orthographic change of *ē into e
ROrthogrE2e0 → *kūje-
9. kūje-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → Pol. kuje-
√kɑhuiɑh-
Lith. kū́ja-
(f.) ‘Stelze : pale, stake’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kū́ja [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hui̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kɑ́hui̯āɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kɑ́hui̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *kúhui̯āɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
3. kúhui̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kúhui̯āh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kúhui̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kúui̯ā
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kúui̯ā
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractUu → *kū́i̯ā
6. kū́i̯ā
*ā → ō
Change of ā into ō
RChangeA2O1 → *kū́i̯ō
7. kū́i̯ō
*-ō → -a
Change of ō into a in root-final
RFinalO2a1 → *kū́i̯a
8. kū́i̯a
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j *
R26 → Lith. kū́ja
Latv. kũja-
(f.) ‘Stab, Stock, Keule’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Latv. kũja [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hui̯ēɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kɑ́hui̯āɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kɑ́hui̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *kúhui̯āɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
3. kúhui̯āɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kúhui̯āh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kúhui̯āh
*úhu → uhû
Latvian tone rule for *úhu
RAcc5 → *kuhûi̯āh
5. kuhûi̯āh
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kuûi̯ā
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kuûi̯ā
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *kûi̯ā
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
7. kûi̯ā
*-ā → -a
Change of ā into a in root-final position
R28 → *kûi̯a
8. kûi̯a
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
R30 → Latv. kûja
√kɑhuii-
Lith. kū́ji-
(.) ‘schwerer Schmiedehammer’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kū́jis [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hui̯i-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *kúhui̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. kúhui̯i-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kúui̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kúui̯i-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractUu → *kū́i̯i-
4. kū́i̯i-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j *
R26 → Lith. kū́ji-
RussCS. kyjĭ-
(.) ‘Hammer, Knüttel’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(RussCS. kyjĭ)
1. PIE *kɑ́hui̯i-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *kúhui̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. kúhui̯i-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kúui̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kúui̯i-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractUu → *kū́i̯i-
4. kū́i̯i-
*ū́
ū → y
RChangeU2Y → *kyi̯i-
Change of ū́ into y
5. kyi̯i-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
ROrthogrY2j → *kyji-
6. kyji-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
ROrthogri2i → RussCS. kyjĭ-
√kɑhuku-
OGaul. cōp-
(sb.) ‘Silbermünze der transpadanischen Boier’
(ACSS 1:1114)
(OGaul. cop.)
1. PIE *koɑhuku-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohuku-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohuku-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kouku-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kouku-
* ku/u̯ → p
Bilabialization of *ku/u̯ into p
RBilabializationKW → *koup-
4. koup-
*ou → ō
Monophthongization of ou
RMonophthou2O → *kōp-
5. kōp-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → OGaul. cōp-
OIr. cuach-
(sb.) ‘combat, attaque’
(LEIA C-134)
(OIr. cuach, coach, *o for noun)
1. PIE *koɑhuku̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohuku̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohuku̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kouku̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kouku̯o
* ku/u̯ → q
Emergence of labiovelar q
RLabiovelarizationQ → *kouqo
4. kouqo
*ou → ō
Monophthongization of ou
RMonophthou2O → *kōqo
5. kōqo
*q → k
Delabialization of labiovelar *q
RDelabialQ → *kōko
6. kōko
*ō → ua
Brechung of *ō into ua
RBrechungO2ua → *kuako
7. kuako
VkV → VkhV
Lenition of voiceless stop *k
RLenitionK → *kuakho
8. kuakho
*-o → Ø
Loss of root-final *o
RLossFinalo → *kuakh
9. kuakh
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → OIr. cuach
OInd. kóka-
(m.) ‘Wolf : wolf’
(KEWA I:268)
OInd. kókas [sgN])
1. PIE *kóɑhuku̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kóhuku̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kóhuku̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kóhuku̯a-
3. kóhuku̯a-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *káhuku̯a-
4. káhuku̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *káuku̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. káuku̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *káuka-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. káuka-
aú → ṓ
Monophthongization of *aú
RChangeAU2O2 → *kṓka-
7. kṓka-
ṓ → ó
Orthographic change of ṓ into ó
ROrthOIA7 → OInd. kóka-
RV. kóka·yātu-
(m.) ‘Kobold in Gestalt eines Wolfes’
(WbRV. 352)
(KEWA I:268, nicht ‘Kukuk’, vs. Grassmann)
1. PIE *kóɑhuku̯o·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kóhuku̯o·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kóhuku̯o·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kóhuku̯a·Σ-
3. kóhuku̯a·Σ-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *káhuku̯a·Σ-
4. káhuku̯a·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *káuku̯a·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. káuku̯a·Σ-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *káuka·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. káuka·Σ-
aú → ṓ
Monophthongization of *aú
RChangeAU2O2 → *kṓka·Σ-
7. kṓka·Σ-
ṓ → ó
Orthographic change of ṓ into ó
ROrthOIA7 → RV. kóka·Σ-
√kɑhugɑɦii-
OSax. hōgi-
(n.) ‘Heu : grass’
(ASächsWb. 35)
(OSax. hōgi)
1. PIE *koɑhugɑɦi̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohugɦi̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohugɦi̯i-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Centum neutralization of *gɦi/i̯
RCentum5 → *kohuǵɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. kohuǵɦi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kouǵɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kouǵɦi-
PIE *ǵ → g
Neutralization of Centum *ǵ
RCentumNeut2 → *kougɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. kougɦi-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *xougɦi-
6. xougɦi-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → *xougi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
7. xougi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *xaugi-
(XX:XX)
8. xaugi-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *haugi-
9. haugi-
*au → ō
Monophthongization of *au into ō
RChangeAU2O → OSax. hōgi-
OEng. hīeg-
(.) ‘grass’
(ANEtWb. 226)
(OEng. hīeg-, ASaxD. –)
1. PIE *koɑhugɑɦi̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohugɦi̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohugɦi̯i-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Centum neutralization of *gɦi/i̯
RCentum5 → *kohuǵɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. kohuǵɦi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kouǵɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kouǵɦi-
PIE *ǵ → g
Neutralization of Centum *ǵ
RCentumNeut2 → *kougɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. kougɦi-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *xougɦi-
6. xougɦi-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → *xougi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
7. xougi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *xaugi-
(XX:XX)
8. xaugi-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *haugi-
9. haugi-
*au → eā
Change of *au into eā
RChangeau2eA → *heāgi-
10. heāgi-
*eā—i → īe–Ø
Umlaut for eā—i
RUmlauteAgi → OEng. hīeg-
Far. hoyggj-
(n.) ‘Heu : grass’
(ANEtWb. 226)
(Far. hoyggj [sgNA])
1. PIE *koɑhugɑɦi̯igɑɦii̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohugɦi̯igɦii̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohugɦi̯igɦii̯o
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Centum neutralization of *gɦi/i̯
RCentum5 → *kohuǵɦiǵɦi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. kohuǵɦiǵɦi̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kouǵɦiǵɦi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kouǵɦiǵɦi̯o
PIE *ǵ → g
Neutralization of Centum *ǵ
RCentumNeut2 → *kougɦigɦi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. kougɦigɦi̯o
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *xougɦigɦi̯o
6. xougɦigɦi̯o
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → *xougigi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
7. xougigi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *xaugigi̯a
(XX:XX)
8. xaugigi̯a
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *haugigi̯a
9. haugigi̯a
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *haugigi̯
10. haugigi̯
*au—i → oy—Ø
Umlaut for au—i
RUmlautauGi2oy → *hoyggi̯
11. hoyggi̯
*i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
R26 → Far. hoyggj
√kɑhugɑɦilo-
Russ. kuzló-
(n.) ‘Schmiedearbeit, Schmiedeesse’
(REW 1:682)
(Russ. kuzló [sgNA])
1. PIE *koɑhugɑɦilós
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohugɦilós
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohugɦilós
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RSatem5 → *kohuj́ɦlós
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. kohuj́ɦlós
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kahuj́ɦlós
4. kahuj́ɦlós
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *kahuj́ɦlás
5. kahuj́ɦlás
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kauj́ɦlás
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kauj́ɦlás
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to Slavic
RSatem2Slav3 → *kauzɦlás
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
7. kauzɦlás
*zɦ → z
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspzh → *kauzlás
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
8. kauzlás
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *kouzlás
9. kouzlás
*á → ó
Change of *á into ó
RChangea2o2 → *kouzlós
10. kouzlós
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in root final os-
RLossFinalOS → *kouzló
11. kouzló
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *kūzló
12. kūzló
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → Russ. kuzló
√kɑhugɑɦini-
ORuss. kuznĭ-
(f.) ‘Schmiederarbeit, Beschlag’
(REW 1:682)
(LiEtWb. 232)
1. PIE *koɑhugɑɦini-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohugɦini-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohugɦini-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RSatem5 → *kohuj́ɦni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. kohuj́ɦni-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kahuj́ɦni-
4. kahuj́ɦni-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kauj́ɦni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kauj́ɦni-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to Slavic
RSatem2Slav3 → *kauzɦni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. kauzɦni-
*zɦ → z
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspzh → *kauzni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
7. kauzni-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *kouzni-
8. kouzni-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *kūzni-
9. kūzni-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
ROrthogri2i → *kūznĭ-
10. kūznĭ-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → ORuss. kuznĭ-
RussCS. kuznĭcĭ-
(m.) ‘Schmied’
(REW 1:682)
(RussCS. kuznĭcĭ)
1. PIE *koɑhugɑɦiniku̯ɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohugɦiniku̯hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohugɦiniku̯hi-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RSatem5 → *kohuj́ɦniku̯hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. kohuj́ɦniku̯hi-
*ku̯hi → chi 2nd palatalization of *ku̯hi
R2nPalatKWHI → *kohuj́ɦnichi-
4. kohuj́ɦnichi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kahuj́ɦnichi-
5. kahuj́ɦnichi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kauj́ɦnici-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kauj́ɦnici-
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to Slavic
RSatem2Slav3 → *kauzɦnici-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
7. kauzɦnici-
*zɦ → z
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspzh → *kauznici-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
8. kauznici-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *kouznici-
9. kouznici-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *kūznici-
10. kūznici-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
ROrthogri2i → *kūznĭcĭ-
11. kūznĭcĭ-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → RussCS. kuznĭcĭ-
Russ. kuznéc-
(m.) ‘Schmied’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Russ. kuznéc [sgN])
1. PIE *koɑhugɑɦiníku̯ɑhi
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohugɦiníku̯hi
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohugɦiníku̯hi
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → j́ɦ
1st palatalization of *gɦi/i̯
RSatem5 → *kohuj́ɦníku̯hi
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. kohuj́ɦníku̯hi
*ku̯hi → chi 2nd palatalization of *ku̯hi
R2nPalatKWHI → *kohuj́ɦníchi
4. kohuj́ɦníchi
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kahuj́ɦníchi
5. kahuj́ɦníchi
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kauj́ɦníci
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kauj́ɦníci
*j́ → z
From Satem *j́ to Slavic
RSatem2Slav3 → *kauzɦníci
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
7. kauzɦníci
*zɦ → z
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspzh → *kauzníci
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
8. kauzníci
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *kouzníci
9. kouzníci
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *kūzníci
10. kūzníci
*i- → Ø
Loss of root-final -i
RLossFinali → *kūzníc
11. kūzníc
*í → é
Change of *i into e
RChangeI2E → *kūznéc
12. kūznéc
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → Russ. kuznéc
√kɑhugɑɦui-
Lith. kū́gi-
(.) ‘schwerer Schmiedehammer’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kū́gis [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hugɑɦu̯i-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *kúhugɑɦu̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. kúhugɑɦu̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kúhugɦu̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kúhugɦu̯i-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kúugɦu̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kúugɦu̯i-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *kúugɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. kúugɦi-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractUu → *kū́gɦi-
6. kū́gɦi-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → Lith. kū́gi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
OPr. cugi-
(m.) ‘hamer = Hammer’
(APrS. 364)
(OPr. cugis [sgN], Voc. 518)
1. PIE *kɑ́hugɑɦu̯i-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *kúhugɑɦu̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. kúhugɑɦu̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kúhugɦu̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kúhugɦu̯i-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kúugɦu̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kúugɦu̯i-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *kúugɦi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. kúugɦi-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractUu → *kū́gɦi-
6. kū́gɦi-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
RDeaspgh → *kū́gi-
7. kū́gi-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrk2c → *cū́gi-
8. cū́gi-
PIE *ū́ → u
Orthographic change of *ū́ into u
R22e → OPr. cugi-
√kɑhul-
Lith. kúl-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, dreschen, verprügeln’
(LiEtWb. 211-2)
(Lith. kùlti [inf.])
1. PIE *kɑ́hul-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *kúhul-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. kúhul-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kúul-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kúul-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractUu → *kū́l-
4. kū́l-
*ū́RC → úRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ū́RC
ROsthoffu2 → Lith. kúl-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
Latv. kul̃-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, dreschen, prügeln’
(LiEtWb. 211-2)
(Latv. kul̃t [inf.])
1. PIE *kɑ́hul-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *kúhul-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. kúhul-
*úhu → uhû
Latvian tone rule for *úhu
RAcc5 → *kuhûl-
3. kuhûl-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kuûl-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kuûl-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → Latv. kûl-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
Latv. kūl-
(m.) ‘zu dreschendes Gertreide’
(LiEtWb. 211)
(Latv. kūls [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hulo
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *kúhulo
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. kúhulo
*úhu → uhû
Latvian tone rule for *úhu
RAcc5 → *kuhûlo
3. kuhûlo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kuûlo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kuûlo
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *kûlo
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. kûlo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kûla
6. kûla
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final a
RLossFinala → Latv. kûl
Lith. kū̃lė-
(f.) ‘Dreschen, Drusch’
(LiEtWb. 211)
(Lith. kū̃lė [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hulē-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *kúhulē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. kúhulē-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kúulē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kúulē-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractUu → *kū́lē-
4. kū́lē-
* ē -> ė
Orthographic change of *ē into ė
R28a → Lith. kū́lė-
Lith. kūlė̃-
(f.) ‘Dreschen, Drusch, Schlägel, Keule, Streitkolben’
(LiEtWb. 211)
(Lith. kūlė̃ [sgN])
1. PIE *kɑ́hulḗ-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *kúhulḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. kúhulḗ-
ḗ → ė̃
Change of ḗ into ė̃
RAcc8 → *kúhulė̃-
3. kúhulė̃-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kúulė̃-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kúulė̃-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractUu → Lith. kū́lė̃-
TochA. kolune-
(vb.sb.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 85)
(TochA. kolune)
1. PIE *kēɑhulunoi̯o
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhulunoi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhulunoi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhulunoi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhulunoi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kāhulunai̯a
(XX:XX)
4. kāhulunai̯a
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāulunai̯a
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāulunai̯a
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
ROsthoffTochAu → *kaulunai̯a
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
6. kaulunai̯a
*a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *kaulunai̯
7. kaulunai̯
*a y → ē
Change of ay into ē in root-final
RCyangeay2E → *kaulunē
8. kaulunē
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RMonophthau2O1 → *kōlunē
9. kōlunē
ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
ROrthE2e1 → *kōlune
10. kōlune
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthO2o1 → TochA. kolune
√kɑhun-
Lith. káuna-
(pr.) ‘schlagen, hauen, umbringen, vernichten’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. káunu [1sg])
1. PIE *kḗɑhuno-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *kā́ɑhuno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhuno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kā́huno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kā́huno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kā́uno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kā́uno-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
ROsthoffa2 → *káuno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
5. káuno-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Lith. káuna-
Lith. nu·káuna-
(pr.) ‘to kill, strike’
(Senn II:227)
(Lith. nu·káuna [3sg])
1. PIE *Π·kḗɑhuno-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *Π·kā́ɑhuno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·kā́ɑhuno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·kā́huno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·kā́huno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·kā́uno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·kā́uno-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
ROsthoffa2 → *Π·káuno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
5. Π·káuno-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Lith. Π·káuna-
Latv. kaûna-
(pr.) ‘schlagen, hauen, stechen, schlachten, treten’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Latv. kaûnu [1sg])
1. PIE *kḗɑhuno-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *kā́ɑhuno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhuno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kā́huno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kā́huno-
*ā́hu → āhû
Latvian tone rule for *ā́hu
RAcc2 → *kāhûno-
4. kāhûno-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāûno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāûno-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → *kaûno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. kaûno-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → Latv. kaûna-
Lith. kaũni-
(.) ‘Handgemenge; Merkinē [Lith. ũ!]’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kaũnis [sgN])
1. PIE *kēɑhúni-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhúni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhúni-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhúni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhúni-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis Li. ù
RAcc3 → *kāhùni-
4. kāhùni-
ā h ù → ā h ũ
Circumflex intonation for *āhù
RAcc7 → *kāhũni-
5. kāhũni-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāũni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kāũni-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → Lith. kaũni-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
Lith. kaunià-
(f.) ‘Handgemenge; Valkininkai’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kaunià [sgN])
1. PIE *kēɑhuni̯ḗɑh
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhuni̯ḗɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuni̯ḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *kāɑhuni̯ā́ɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. kāɑhuni̯ā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhuni̯ā́h
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kāhuni̯ā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāuni̯ā́
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāuni̯ā́
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → *kauni̯ā́
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. kauni̯ā́
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
RChangeA202 → *kauni̯ṓ
7. kauni̯ṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
RFinalo2a2 → *kauni̯à
8. kauni̯à
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
R25 → Lith. kaunià
Lith. kaunù-
(a.) ‘kampflustig, kämpferisch’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. kaunùs [sgN]; or *o-grade ?)
1. PIE *kēɑhunú-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhunú-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhunú-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhunú-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhunú-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis Li. ù
RAcc3 → *kāhunù-
4. kāhunù-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāunù-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāunù-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → Lith. kaunù-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
√kɑhur-
TochA. kākor-
(absol.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 85)
(TochA. kākoräṣ [absol])
1. PIE *kēɑhkēɑhur-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhkāɑhur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhkāɑhur-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhkāhur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhkāhur-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kākāur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kākāur-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
ROsthoffTochAu → *kākaur-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
5. kākaur-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RMonophthau2O1 → *kākōr-
6. kākōr-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthO2o1 → TochA. kākor-
√kɑhus-
TochB. kaus-
(pret.A.) ‘kill’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kausa [3sg])
1. PIE *kēɑhus-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhus-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhus-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhus-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhus-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāus-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāus-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
ROrthOIA10 → TochB. kaus-
TochA. kos-
(vb.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 85)
(TochA. kossi [inf.])
1. PIE *kēɑhus-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhus-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhus-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhus-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhus-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāus-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāus-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
ROsthoffTochAu → *kaus-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
5. kaus-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RMonophthau2O1 → *kōs-
6. kōs-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthO2o1 → TochA. kos-
TochA. kosa-
(pr.A.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 85)
(TochA. kosam)
1. PIE *kēɑhuso-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhuso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhuso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhuso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhuso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kāhusa-
(XX:XX)
4. kāhusa-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāusa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāusa-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
ROsthoffTochAu → *kausa-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
6. kausa-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RMonophthau2O1 → *kōsa-
7. kōsa-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthO2o1 → TochA. kosa-
TochB. kause-
(prA.) ‘kill, strike down, destroy’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kauseṃ [3pl])
1. PIE *kēɑhusoi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhusoi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhusoi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kāhusai-
(XX:XX)
4. kāhusai-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāusai-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāusai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
RChangeAI2E1 → *kāusē-
6. kāusē-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
ROrthOIA10 → *kausē-
7. kausē-
ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
ROrthOIA4 → TochB. kause-
TochB. kausemana-
(pr.pt.M.) ‘= Skt. bhidyamāna-’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kausem[ane] [m.sgN])
1. PIE *kēɑhusoimono-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhusoimono-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusoimono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhusoimono-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusoimono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kāhusaimana-
(XX:XX)
4. kāhusaimana-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāusaimana-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāusaimana-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
RChangeAI2E1 → *kāusēmana-
6. kāusēmana-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
ROrthOIA10 → *kausēmana-
7. kausēmana-
ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
ROrthOIA4 → TochB. kausemana-
TochA. kosmān-
(pr.pt.M.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 85)
(TochA. kosmāṃ [sgN])
1. PIE *kēɑhusmōno
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhusmōno
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusmōno
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhusmōno
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusmōno
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kāhusmōna
(XX:XX)
4. kāhusmōna
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *kāhusmāna
(XX:XX)
5. kāhusmāna
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāusmāna
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kāusmāna
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
ROsthoffTochAu → *kausmāna
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
7. kausmāna
*a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *kausmān
8. kausmān
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RMonophthau2O1 → *kōsmān
9. kōsmān
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthO2o1 → TochA. kosmān
√kɑhusο-
OInd. kṣá-
(ao.) ‘töten’
(Grundr2 1:405)
(Lex. ákṣata [3sg])
1. PIE *kɑhusó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusó-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khušó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khušó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *khušá-
4. khušá-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *khšá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khšá-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → OInd. khṣá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
RV. tuvi·kṣá-
(a.) ‘viele vernichtend’
(WbRV. 543)
(RV. tuvikṣá-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·khusó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·khusó-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *Π·khušó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. Π·khušó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *Π·khušá-
4. Π·khušá-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·khšá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·khšá-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → RV. Π·khṣá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
√kɑhusi-
TochB. kauṣ-
(pr.M.) ‘kill, strike down, destroy’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kauṣträ [3sg])
1. PIE *kēɑhusi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhusi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhusi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāusi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāusi-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
R18b → *kāuṣ-
5. kāuṣ-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
ROrthOIA10 → TochB. kauṣ-
TochB. kauṣ-
(pr.A.) ‘kill, strike down, destroy’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kauṣäm [3sg+encl.])
1. PIE *kēɑhusi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhusi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhusi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāusi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāusi-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
R18b → *kāuṣ-
5. kāuṣ-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
ROrthOIA10 → TochB. kauṣ-
TochA. koṣā-
(vb.) ‘occidere, necare’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. koṣā [3sgIpv.A])
1. PIE *kēɑhusi̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhusi̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusi̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhusi̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusi̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāusi̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāusi̯ā-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
R18a → *kāuṣā-
5. kāuṣā-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
ROsthoffTochAu → *kauṣā-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
6. kauṣā-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RMonophthau2O1 → *kōṣā-
7. kōṣā-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthO2o1 → TochA. koṣā-
TochB. kauṣenta-
(sb.) ‘murderer’
(DTcohB. 212)
(TochB. kauṣenta-)
1. PIE *kēɑhusi̯ointeɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *kēɑhusi̯ointaɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kēɑhusi̯ointaɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhusi̯ointaɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. kāɑhusi̯ointaɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhusi̯ointah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kāhusi̯ointah-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kāhusi̯aintah-
(XX:XX)
5. kāhusi̯aintah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāusi̯ainta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. kāusi̯ainta-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
R18a → *kāuṣainta-
7. kāuṣainta-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
RChangeAI2E1 → *kāuṣēnta-
8. kāuṣēnta-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
ROrthOIA10 → *kauṣēnta-
9. kauṣēnta-
ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
ROrthOIA4 → TochB. kauṣenta-
TochB. kauṣeñca-
(pr.pt.) ‘= mr̥tyuhantā’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kauṣeñca-)
1. PIE *kēɑhusi̯ointi̯eɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *kēɑhusi̯ointi̯aɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kēɑhusi̯ointi̯aɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhusi̯ointi̯aɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. kāɑhusi̯ointi̯aɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhusi̯ointi̯ah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kāhusi̯ointi̯ah-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kāhusi̯ainti̯ah-
(XX:XX)
5. kāhusi̯ainti̯ah-
PIE *ti̯ → c
Assibilation of *t before *i̯
RDentAssib1a → *kāhusi̯aincah-
(Pyysalo 2013: XX)
6. kāhusi̯aincah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāusi̯ainca-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. kāusi̯ainca-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
R18a → *kāuṣainca-
8. kāuṣainca-
*nc → ñc
Palatalization of *n before c
RPalatNC → *kāuṣaiñca-
9. kāuṣaiñca-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
RChangeAI2E1 → *kāuṣēñca-
10. kāuṣēñca-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
ROrthOIA10 → *kauṣēñca-
11. kauṣēñca-
ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
ROrthOIA4 → TochB. kauṣeñca-
TochB. kauṣalle-
(ger.) ‘kill, strike down, destroy’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kauṣalle)
1. PIE *kēɑhusi̯olnoi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhusi̯olnoi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusi̯olnoi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhusi̯olnoi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusi̯olnoi-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kāhusi̯alnai-
(XX:XX)
4. kāhusi̯alnai-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāusi̯alnai-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāusi̯alnai-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
R18a → *kāuṣalnai-
6. kāuṣalnai-
PIE *ln → ll
Assimilation of PIE *ln into ll
RAssimLN → *kāuṣallai-
7. kāuṣallai-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
RChangeAI2E1 → *kāuṣallē-
8. kāuṣallē-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
ROrthOIA10 → *kauṣallē-
9. kauṣallē-
ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
ROrthOIA4 → TochB. kauṣalle-
TochA. koṣänt-
(sb.m.) ‘carnifex : hangman, executer’
(Poucha 85 & 88)
(TochA. koṣänt)
1. PIE *kēɑhusi̯ont-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhusi̯ont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusi̯ont-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhusi̯ont-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusi̯ont-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kāhusi̯ant-
(XX:XX)
4. kāhusi̯ant-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāusi̯ant-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāusi̯ant-
*si̯ → ṣ
Palatalization of *si̯
R18a → *kāuṣant-
6. kāuṣant-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
ROsthoffTochAu → *kauṣant-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
7. kauṣant-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RMonophthau2O1 → *kōṣant-
8. kōṣant-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthO2o1 → TochA. koṣant-
TochA. koṣlye-
(vb.a.) ‘to be killed’
(Poucha 85)
(TochA. koṣlyes)
1. PIE *kēɑhusili̯oi̯o
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhusili̯oi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusili̯oi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhusili̯oi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusili̯oi̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kāhusili̯ai̯a
(XX:XX)
4. kāhusili̯ai̯a
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāusili̯ai̯a
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāusili̯ai̯a
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
R18b → *kāuṣli̯ai̯a
6. kāuṣli̯ai̯a
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
ROsthoffTochAu → *kauṣli̯ai̯a
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
7. kauṣli̯ai̯a
*a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *kauṣli̯ai̯
8. kauṣli̯ai̯
*a y → ē
Change of ay into ē in root-final
RCyangeay2E → *kauṣli̯ē
9. kauṣli̯ē
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RMonophthau2O1 → *kōṣli̯ē
10. kōṣli̯ē
ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
ROrthE2e1 → *kōṣli̯e
11. kōṣli̯e
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthO2o1 → *koṣli̯e
12. koṣli̯e
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthY2y → TochA. koṣlye
√kɑhusi-
OInd. kṣi-
(pr.√) ‘vernichten’
(GEW 2:1015)
(in OInd. kṣidhi [2sg])
1. PIE *kɑhusi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusi-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khuši-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khuši-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *khši-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. khši-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → OInd. khṣi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
gAv. xšay-
(pr.√) ‘verderben’
(AIWb. 550)
(gAv. xšayō [inf.] ‘um zu verderben’)
1. PIE *kɑhusei̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusei̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusei̯-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khušei̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khušei̯-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *khšei̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. khšei̯-
*Ths/š → Ts/š
Loss of *h between stop and s/š
R24a → *kšei̯-
5. kšei̯-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *kšai̯-
6. kšai̯-
PIE *kš → xš
Change of *k into x before *š
R33c → *xšai̯-
7. xšai̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
R41a → gAv. xšay-
OInd. kṣāy-
(ao.P.) ‘destroy, etc.’
(MonWil. 328)
(OInd. kṣāy-)
1. PIE *kɑhusōi̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusōi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusōi̯-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khušōi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khušōi̯-
PIE *ō → ā
Change of *ō into ā
RChangeO2A3 → *khušāi̯-
4. khušāi̯-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *khšāi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khšāi̯-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *khṣāi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
6. khṣāi̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → OInd. khṣāy-
OInd. kṣáya-
(pr.) ‘vernichten, vergehen lassen’
(KEWA 1:286)
(OInd. kṣáyati [3sg], MW 328 = RV. 4.6.14.)
1. PIE *kɑhuséi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khuséi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khuséi̯o-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khušéi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khušéi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *khušéi̯a-
4. khušéi̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *khšéi̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khšéi̯a-
PIE *é → á
Aryan change of *é into á
RAryanE2A2 → *khšái̯a-
6. khšái̯a-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *khṣái̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
7. khṣái̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → OInd. khṣáya-
OInd. kṣayá-
(m.) ‘Verlust, Zerstörung’
(KEWA 1:287)
(OInd. kṣayá-)
1. PIE *kɑhusoi̯ó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusoi̯ó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusoi̯ó-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khušoi̯ó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khušoi̯ó-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *khušai̯ó-
4. khušai̯ó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *khušai̯á-
5. khušai̯á-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *khšai̯á-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. khšai̯á-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *khṣai̯á-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
7. khṣai̯á-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → OInd. khṣayá-
√kɑhusii-
OInd. kṣayaya-
(cs.) ‘destroy, ruin, make an end, corrupt’
(MonWil. 328)
(OInd. kṣayaya-)
1. PIE *kɑhusoi̯ei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusoi̯ei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusoi̯ei̯o-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khušoi̯ei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khušoi̯ei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *khušai̯ei̯a-
4. khušai̯ei̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *khšai̯ei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khšai̯ei̯a-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *khšai̯ai̯a-
6. khšai̯ai̯a-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *khṣai̯ai̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
7. khṣai̯ai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → OInd. khṣayaya-
OInd. cikṣiy-
(pf.) ‘destroy, ruin, make an end, corrupt’
(MonWil. 328)
(OInd. cikṣiyathas)
1. PIE *kɑhu̯ikɑhusii̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khu̯ikhusii̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khu̯ikhusii̯-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khu̯ikhušii̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khu̯ikhušii̯-
PIE *khu̯ → čhu̯
2nd palatalization of *khu̯
R2ndPalatKHW → *čhu̯ikhušii̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. čhu̯ikhušii̯-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ču̯ikhušii̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ču̯ikhušii̯-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *ču̯ikhšii̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. ču̯ikhšii̯-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *čikhšii̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
7. čikhšii̯-
*č → c
From 2nd palatalization *č to OIA
R2ndPalat2OIA1 → *cikhšii̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
8. cikhšii̯-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *cikhṣii̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
9. cikhṣii̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → OInd. cikhṣiy-
RV. kṣī́ya-
(pr.) ‘hinschwinden, abnehmen, sich vermindern’
(WbRV. 367)
(RV. kṣī́yante [3pl])
1. PIE *kɑhusiíi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusiíi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusiíi̯o-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khušiíi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khušiíi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *khušiíi̯a-
4. khušiíi̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *khšiíi̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khšiíi̯a-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
RContractiI → *khšī́i̯a-
6. khšī́i̯a-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *khṣī́i̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
7. khṣī́i̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → RV. khṣī́ya-
RV. á·kṣīya·māna-
(pr.pt.M.a.) ‘unversiegbar, unvergänglich’
(WbRV. 7)
(RV. ákṣīyamāna-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusiii̯o·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·khusiii̯o·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·khusiii̯o·Σ-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *Π·khušiii̯o·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. Π·khušiii̯o·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·khušiii̯a·Σ-
4. Π·khušiii̯a·Σ-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·khšiii̯a·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·khšiii̯a·Σ-
*ii → ī
Contraction of i and i
RContractii → *Π·khšīi̯a·Σ-
6. Π·khšīi̯a·Σ-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *Π·khṣīi̯a·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
7. Π·khṣīi̯a·Σ-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → RV. Π·khṣīya·Σ-
√kɑhusin-
(Pyysalo)
RV. kṣiṇ-
(pr.) ‘vernichten’
(WbRV. 367)
(RV. kṣiṇánti [3pl])
1. PIE *kɑhusin-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusin-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khušin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khušin-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *khšin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. khšin-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *khṣin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
5. khṣin-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
RRetrofl1 → RV. khṣiṇ-
Gr. ψίνο-
(vb.) ‘Blüten/Früchte abfallen lassen, verlieren’
(GEW 2:1138)
(Gr. ψίνεσθαι [inf.], GrGr. I:326)
1. PIE *kɑhusíno-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusíno-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusíno-
*khu/u̯ → ph
Bilabialization of labiovelar *khu/u̯
RBilabializationKHW → *phsíno-
3. phsíno-
*phs → ps
Loss of *h between *p and *s
RChangephs2ps → *psíno-
4. psíno-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ψίνο-
RV. kṣiṇā-
(pr.) ‘vernichten’
(WbRV. 367)
(RV. kṣiṇāti [3sg])
1. PIE *kɑhusinēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kɑhusināɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kɑhusināɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusināh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. khusināh-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khušināh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. khušināh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *khušinā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. khušinā-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *khšinā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. khšinā-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *khṣinā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
7. khṣinā-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
RRetrofl1 → RV. khṣiṇā-
RV. prá (...) kṣiṇā-
(pr.) ‘vernichten’
(WbRV. 367)
(RV. prá (...) kṣiṇām [1sg])
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusinēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·kɑhusināɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·kɑhusināɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·khusināh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·khusināh-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *Π·khušināh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. Π·khušināh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·khušinā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·khušinā-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·khšinā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. Π·khšinā-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *Π·khṣinā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
7. Π·khṣinā-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
RRetrofl1 → RV. Π·khṣiṇā-
Gr. ψινάζο-
(pr.A.) ‘Blüten/Früchte abfallen lassen, verlieren’
(GEW 2:1138)
(Gr. ψινάζειν [inf.])
1. PIE *kɑhusinéɑɦdi̯o-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
RColouring1d → *kɑhusináɑɦdi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kɑhusináɑɦdi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusináɦdi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. khusináɦdi̯o-
*khu/u̯ → ph
Bilabialization of labiovelar *khu/u̯
RBilabializationKHW → *phsináɦdi̯o-
4. phsináɦdi̯o-
*di̯ → z
Palatalization of *di̯
RDentAssib1c → *phsináɦzo-
5. phsináɦzo-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *phsinázo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. phsinázo-
*phs → ps
Loss of *h between *p and *s
RChangephs2ps → *psinázo-
7. psinázo-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ψινάζο-
OInd. kṣiṇu-
(pr.5.) ‘vernichten, vergehen lassen’
(GEW 2:1015)
(OInd. kṣinumas [1pl])
1. PIE *kɑhusinu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusinu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusinu-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khušinu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khušinu-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *khšinu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. khšinu-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *khṣinu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
5. khṣinu-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
RRetrofl1 → OInd. khṣiṇu-
OInd. kṣiṇo-
(pr.5.) ‘vernichten, vergehen lassen’
(KEWA 1:289)
(VS. kṣinómi [3sg])
1. PIE *kɑhusineu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusineu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusineu-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khušineu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khušineu-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *khšineu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. khšineu-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *khšinau-
5. khšinau-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RChangeAU2O1 → *khšinō-
6. khšinō-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *khṣinō-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
7. khṣinō-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
RRetrofl1 → *khṣiṇō-
8. khṣiṇō-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthOIA6 → OInd. khṣiṇo-
√kɑhusibɑɦ-
LinB. qσιπεh-
(n.obl.) ‘Schlachtschwert’
(GEW 2:336)
(LinB. qi-si-pe-e [du])
1. PIE *kɑhusibɑɦes-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusibɦes-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusibɦes-
*khu/u̯ → qh
Emergence of labiovelar *qh
RLabiovelarizationqh → *qhsibɦes-
3. qhsibɦes-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
RDevoicebh → *qhsiphes-
4. qhsiphes-
*qh → q
Absence of aspirates in LinB.
RDeaspqh → *qsiphes-
5. qsiphes-
*ph → p
Absence of aspirates in LinB.
RDeaspph → *qsipes-
6. qsipes-
*s → h
Change *s into h
RChanges2h → *qsipeh-
7. qsipeh-
Change from Latin to Old Mycenean alphabet
RGr2Lat → LinB. qσιπεh-
√kɑhusis-
OInd. kṣéṣ-
(ao.) ‘vernichten, usw.’
(GEW 2:1015)
(OInd. kṣeṣṭa, kṣeṣṭhās)
1. PIE *kɑhuseís-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khuseís-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khuseís-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khušeís-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khušeís-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RRukiI → *khušeíš-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. khušeíš-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *khšeíš-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khšeíš-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *khšaíš-
6. khšaíš-
aí → ḗ
Monophthongization of *aí
RChangeAI2E2 → *khšḗš-
7. khšḗš-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *khṣḗṣ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
8. khṣḗṣ-
ḗ → é
Orthographic change of ḗ into é
ROrthOIA5 → OInd. khṣéṣ-
√kɑhusit-
(IEW. 487)
TochA. koṣt-
(pr.A.) ‘affligere, cadere : schlagen’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. koṣtam, koṣt)
1. PIE *kēɑhusit-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhusit-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusit-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhusit-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusit-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāusit-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāusit-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
R18b → *kāuṣt-
5. kāuṣt-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
ROsthoffTochAu → *kauṣt-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
6. kauṣt-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RMonophthau2O1 → *kōṣt-
7. kōṣt-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthO2o1 → TochA. koṣt-
TochA. koṣt-
(pret.A.) ‘affligere, cadere : schlagen’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. koṣt, koṣtar)
1. PIE *kēɑhusit-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhusit-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusit-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhusit-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusit-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāusit-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāusit-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
R18b → *kāuṣt-
5. kāuṣt-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
ROsthoffTochAu → *kauṣt-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
6. kauṣt-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RMonophthau2O1 → *kōṣt-
7. kōṣt-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthO2o1 → TochA. koṣt-
TochA. koṣt-
(sb.) ‘acies : Schneide’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. koṣt [sgN])
1. PIE *kēɑhusit-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhusit-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusit-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhusit-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusit-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāusit-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kāusit-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
R18b → *kāuṣt-
5. kāuṣt-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
ROsthoffTochAu → *kauṣt-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
6. kauṣt-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RMonophthau2O1 → *kōṣt-
7. kōṣt-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthO2o1 → TochA. koṣt-
TochA. koṣtl-
(vb.a.) ‘affligere, cadere : schlagen’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. koṣtlaṃ [sgL])
1. PIE *kēɑhusitlo
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhusitlo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusitlo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhusitlo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusitlo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kāhusitla
(XX:XX)
4. kāhusitla
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāusitla
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāusitla
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
R18b → *kāuṣtla
6. kāuṣtla
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
ROsthoffTochAu → *kauṣtla
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
7. kauṣtla
*a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *kauṣtl
8. kauṣtl
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RMonophthau2O1 → *kōṣtl
9. kōṣtl
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthO2o1 → TochA. koṣtl
TochA. koṣtlune-
(vb.a.) ‘affligere, cadere : schlagen’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. koṣtluneyo)
1. PIE *kēɑhusitlunoio
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhusitlunoio
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusitlunoio
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhusitlunoio
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusitlunoio
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kāhusitlunaia
(XX:XX)
4. kāhusitlunaia
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāusitlunaia
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāusitlunaia
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
R18b → *kāuṣtlunaia
6. kāuṣtlunaia
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
ROsthoffTochAu → *kauṣtlunaia
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
7. kauṣtlunaia
*a → Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *kauṣtlunai
8. kauṣtlunai
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
RMonophthai2E1 → *kauṣtlunē
9. kauṣtlunē
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RMonophthau2O1 → *kōṣtlunē
10. kōṣtlunē
ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
ROrthE2e1 → *kōṣtlune
11. kōṣtlune
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthO2o1 → TochA. koṣtlune
TochA. koṣtluneṣi-
(vb.a.poss.) ‘affligere, cadere : schlagen’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. koṣtluneṣi-)
1. PIE *kēɑhusitlunoisí-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhusitlunoisí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhusitlunoisí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhusitlunoisí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhusitlunoisí-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kāhusitlunaisí-
(XX:XX)
4. kāhusitlunaisí-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāusitlunaisí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāusitlunaisí-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
R18b → *kāuṣtlunaisí-
6. kāuṣtlunaisí-
*sí → ṣí
Palatalization of *sí
R18c → *kāuṣtlunaiṣí-
7. kāuṣtlunaiṣí-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
ROsthoffTochAu → *kauṣtlunaiṣí-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
8. kauṣtlunaiṣí-
ai → ē
Monophthongization of *ai
RMonophthai2E1 → *kauṣtlunēṣí-
9. kauṣtlunēṣí-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RMonophthau2O1 → *kōṣtlunēṣí-
10. kōṣtlunēṣí-
ē → e
Orthographic change of ē into e
ROrthE2e1 → *kōṣtluneṣí-
11. kōṣtluneṣí-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthO2o1 → *koṣtluneṣí-
12. koṣtluneṣí-
*í → i
Unmarkedness of accent
R20 → TochA. koṣtluneṣi-
TochA. kākoṣtu-
(pret.pt.) ‘affligere, cadere : schlagen’
(Poucha 88)
(TochA. kākoṣtu)
1. PIE *kēɑhkēɑhusitu-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhkāɑhusitu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhkāɑhusitu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhkāhusitu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhkāhusitu-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kākāusitu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kākāusitu-
*si → ṣ
Palatalization of *si
R18b → *kākāuṣtu-
5. kākāuṣtu-
*āuC → auC
Osthoff’s Law for āuC
ROsthoffTochAu → *kākauṣtu-
(Pyysalo 2013:2.5.8.2)
6. kākauṣtu-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RMonophthau2O1 → *kākōṣtu-
7. kākōṣtu-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthO2o1 → TochA. kākoṣtu-
√kɑhusito-
OInd. kṣitá-
(pt.) ‘vergehend, abnehmend, sich erschöpfend’
(WbRV. 367)
(KEWA 1:289)
1. PIE *kɑhusitó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusitó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusitó-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khušitó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khušitó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *khušitá-
4. khušitá-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *khšitá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khšitá-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → OInd. khṣitá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
RV. á·kṣita-
(pt.) ‘unvergänglich’
(WbRV. 6)
(OInd. śrávaḥ áksitam ‘unerwüstlicher Ruhm’)
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusito-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·khusito-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·khusito-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *Π·khušito-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. Π·khušito-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·khušita-
4. Π·khušita-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·khšita-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·khšita-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → RV. Π·khṣita-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
RV. án·upa·kṣita-
(pt.) ‘unerschöpflich’
(WbRV. 60)
(RV. ánupakṣita-)
1. PIE *Π·Π·kɑhusito-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·Π·khusito-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·Π·khusito-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *Π·Π·khušito-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. Π·Π·khušito-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·Π·khušita-
4. Π·Π·khušita-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·Π·khšita-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·Π·khšita-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → RV. Π·Π·khṣita-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
RV. á·vi·kṣita-
(pt.) ‘unvermindert’
(WbRV. 130)
(RV. ávikṣita-)
1. PIE *Π·Π·kɑhusito-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·Π·khusito-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·Π·khusito-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *Π·Π·khušito-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. Π·Π·khušito-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·Π·khušita-
4. Π·Π·khušita-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·Π·khšita-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·Π·khšita-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → RV. Π·Π·khṣita-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
RV. á·pra·kṣita-
(pt.) ‘unvergänglich, unerschöpflich’
(WbRV. 78)
(RV. áprakṣita-)
1. PIE *Π·Π·kɑhusito-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·Π·khusito-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·Π·khusito-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *Π·Π·khušito-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. Π·Π·khušito-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·Π·khušita-
4. Π·Π·khušita-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·Π·khšita-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·Π·khšita-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → RV. Π·Π·khṣita-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
√kɑhusitɑh-
RV. á·kṣitā·vasu-
(a.) ‘unvergängliches Gut besitzend’
(WbRV. 7)
(RV. ákṣitāvasu-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusitēɑh·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·kɑhusitāɑh·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·kɑhusitāɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·khusitāh·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·khusitāh·Σ-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *Π·khušitāh·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. Π·khušitāh·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·khušitā·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·khušitā·Σ-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·khšitā·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. Π·khšitā·Σ-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → RV. Π·khṣitā·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
RV. kṣitā́·yus-
(a.) ‘dessen Leben dahinschwindet’
(WbRV. 367)
(RV. kṣitā́yus-)
1. PIE *kɑhusitḗɑh·Σ-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *kɑhusitā́ɑh·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kɑhusitā́ɑh·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusitā́h·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. khusitā́h·Σ-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khušitā́h·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. khušitā́h·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *khušitā́·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. khušitā́·Σ-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *khšitā́·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. khšitā́·Σ-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → RV. khṣitā́·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
√kɑhusiti-
Gr. ψίσι-
(f.) ‘ἀπώλεια’
(GEW 2:1138)
(Hes. ψίσι-, GrGr. I:326)
1. PIE *kɑhusítsi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusítsi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusítsi-
*khu/u̯ → ph
Bilabialization of labiovelar *khu/u̯
RBilabializationKHW → *phsítsi-
3. phsítsi-
*phs → ps
Loss of *h between *p and *s
RChangephs2ps → *psítsi-
4. psítsi-
*t s → s
Loss of dental in *ts
RChangets2s → *psísi-
5. psísi-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ψίσι-
AV. kṣití-
(f.) ‘Untergang, das Dahinschwinden, Vergehen’
(WbRV. 368)
(AV. kṣití-, KEWA 1:289)
1. PIE *kɑhusití-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusití-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusití-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khušití-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khušití-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *khšití-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. khšití-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → AV. khṣití-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
RV. á·kṣiti-
(a.) ‘unvergänglich’
(WbRV. 7)
(RV. ákṣiti-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusiti-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·khusiti-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·khusiti-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *Π·khušiti-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. Π·khušiti-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·khšiti-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·khšiti-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → RV. Π·khṣiti-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
√kɑhusen-
AV. kṣaṇiṣ-
(ao.) ‘verletzen’
(WbRV. 362)
(AV. kṣaṇiṣṭhās)
1. PIE *kɑhusenis-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusenis-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusenis-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khušenis-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khušenis-
PIE *is → iš
Ruki-rule for *is
RRukiI → *khušeniš-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
4. khušeniš-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *khšeniš-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khšeniš-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *khšaniš-
6. khšaniš-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *khṣaniṣ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
7. khṣaniṣ-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
RRetrofl1 → AV. khṣaṇiṣ-
OInd. kṣaṇó-
(pr.) ‘verletzen, verwunden : hurt, injure, wound’
(KEWA 1:284)
(OInd. kṣanómi)
1. PIE *kɑhusenéu-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusenéu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusenéu-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khušenéu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khušenéu-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *khšenéu-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. khšenéu-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *khšanéu-
5. khšanéu-
PIE *é → á
Aryan change of *é into á
RAryanE2A2 → *khšanáu-
6. khšanáu-
aú → ṓ
Monophthongization of *aú
RChangeAU2O2 → *khšanṓ-
7. khšanṓ-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *khṣanṓ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
8. khṣanṓ-
*n → ṇ
Assimilation of retroflex
RRetrofl1 → *khṣaṇṓ-
9. khṣaṇṓ-
ṓ → ó
Orthographic change of ṓ into ó
ROrthOIA7 → OInd. khṣaṇó-
√kɑhusop-
OInd. kṣapaya-
(cs.A.) ‘zerstören, vernichten’
(KEWA 1:286)
(OInd. kṣapaya-)
1. PIE *kɑhusopei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusopei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusopei̯o-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khušopei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khušopei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *khušapei̯a-
4. khušapei̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *khšapei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khšapei̯a-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *khšapai̯a-
6. khšapai̯a-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → *khṣapai̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
7. khṣapai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → OInd. khṣapaya-
√kɑhuser-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. kṣára-
(pr.A.) ‘verschwinden’
(KEWA 1:287)
(OInd. kṣára-)
1. PIE *kɑhuséro-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khuséro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khuséro-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khušéro-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khušéro-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *khušéra-
4. khušéra-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *khšéra-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khšéra-
PIE *é → á
Aryan change of *é into á
RAryanE2A2 → *khšára-
6. khšára-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → OInd. khṣára-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
Gr. ψείρο-
(pr.) ‘vernichten, usw.’
(LSJ. 2019)
(Hes. ψείρει · φθείρει, GEW –)
1. PIE *kɑhuséri̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khuséri̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khuséri̯o-
*khu/u̯ → ph
Bilabialization of labiovelar *khu/u̯
RBilabializationKHW → *phséri̯o-
3. phséri̯o-
*phs → ps
Loss of *h between *p and *s
RChangephs2ps → *pséri̯o-
4. pséri̯o-
*éri̯ → eír
Epenthesis of *i
REpenthEry → *pseíro-
5. pseíro-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ψείρο-
√kɑhusot-
OInd. kṣata-
(pf.pt.) ‘verletzt’
(KEWA 1:284)
(OInd. kṣata-, *o-grade for noun ?)
1. PIE *kɑhusoto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusoto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusoto-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khušoto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khušoto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *khušata-
4. khušata-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *khšata-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khšata-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → OInd. khṣata-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
RV. á·kṣata-
(pt.) ‘unverletzt’
(WbRV. 6)
(RV. ákṣata-, KEWA 1:284)
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusoto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·khusoto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·khusoto-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *Π·khušoto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. Π·khušoto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·khušata-
4. Π·khušata-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·khšata-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·khšata-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → RV. Π·khṣata-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
OPers. a·xšata-
(pret.pt.) ‘unverletzt, unverstört’
(AIWb. 51)
(OPers. axšata-)
1. PIE *Π·kɑhusoto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·khusoto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·khusoto-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *Π·khušoto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. Π·khušoto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·khušata-
4. Π·khušata-
*KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·khšata-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·khšata-
*Ths/š → Ts/š
Loss of *h between stop and s/š
RLossofHinChS → *Π·kšata-
6. Π·kšata-
PIE *kš → xš
Change of *k into x before *š
R27 → OPers. Π·xšata-
OInd. kṣati-
(f.) ‘Vernichtung, Beschädigung’
(KEWA 1:284)
(OInd. kṣati-)
1. PIE *kɑhusoti-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khusoti-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khusoti-
PIE *us → uš
Ruki-rule for *us
RRukiU → *khušoti-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
3. khušoti-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *khušati-
4. khušati-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *khšati-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. khšati-
PIE *š → ṣ
Retroflexation of Ruki *š
RRuki2OIA → OInd. khṣati-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.9.2.2)
√kɑhustɑhi-
Lith. káusty-
(vb.) ‘beschlagen, mit Eisen beschlagen’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(Lith. káustyti [inf.])
1. PIE *kḗɑhustɑ́hi-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *kā́ɑhustɑ́hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kā́ɑhustɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *kā́ɑhustíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. kā́ɑhustíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kā́hustíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. kā́hustíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kā́ustíi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kā́ustíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *kā́ustī́-
6. kā́ustī́-
*ā́RC → áRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ā́RC
ROsthoffa2 → *káustī́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
7. káustī́-
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
R24 → Lith. káustý-
√kɑhuu-
TochB. kakawu-
(pt.) ‘having killed’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kakawu)
1. PIE *keɑhkoɑhu̯u-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *kaɑhkoɑhu̯u-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhkoɑhu̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kahkohu̯u-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahkohu̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kahkahu̯u-
(XX:XX)
4. kahkahu̯u-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kakau̯u-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kakau̯u-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
R19 → TochB. kakawu-
OLatv. er·kavu-
(pt.) ‘erschlagen habend’
(LiEtWb. 232)
(in OLatv. erkawusz [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·koɑhu̯u-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·kohu̯u-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·kohu̯u-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·kou̯u-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. Π·kou̯u-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·kau̯u-
4. Π·kau̯u-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → OLatv. Π·kavu-
√kɑhuuo-
OEng. ge·heāw-
(n.) ‘striking together, gnashing, grinding’
(ASaxD. 524)
(OEng. geheāw, *o-grade for noun)
1. PIE *Π·koɑhuu̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·kohuu̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·kohuu̯o
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·kouu̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. Π·kouu̯o
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *Π·xouu̯o
4. Π·xouu̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *Π·xauu̯a
(XX:XX)
5. Π·xauu̯a
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → *Π·xauu̯
6. Π·xauu̯
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *Π·hauu̯
7. Π·hauu̯
*au → eā
Change of *au into eā
RChangeau2eA → *Π·heāu̯
8. Π·heāu̯
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
ROrthogrW2w → OEng. Π·heāw
√kɑhuuɑh-
OGaul. cōu-
(sb.) ‘Silbermünze usw.’
(ACSS 1:1114)
(OGaul. coov, wenn ‘gestampft’ ?)
1. PIE *koɑhuu̯ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohuu̯h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohuu̯h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kouu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kouu̯-
*ou → ō
Monophthongization of ou
RMonophthou2O → *kōu̯-
4. kōu̯-
*u̯ → u
Orthographic change of *u̯ into u
ROrthogrW2u → *kōu-
5. kōu-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → OGaul. cōu-
TochB. a·kauwsa-
(a.) ‘uncut (?)’
(DTochB. 3)
(TochB. ekṣinekaṃñana misa akauwse ///)
1. PIE *Π·kēɑhuu̯ɑhso
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·kāɑhuu̯ɑhso
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·kāɑhuu̯ɑhso
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·kāhuu̯hso
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·kāhuu̯hso
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·kāhuu̯hsa
(XX:XX)
4. Π·kāhuu̯hsa
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·kāuu̯sa
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·kāuu̯sa
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
ROrthOIA10 → *Π·kauu̯sa
6. Π·kauu̯sa
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
R19 → TochB. Π·kauwsa
TochB. kowä-
(pr.) ‘kill’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. kowän [3sg+encl.])
1. PIE *keɑhuu̯eɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *kaɑhuu̯aɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhuu̯aɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kahuu̯ah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahuu̯ah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kauu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kauu̯a-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RChangeAU2O1 → *kōu̯a-
5. kōu̯a-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthOIA6 → *kou̯a-
6. kou̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
R19 → TochB. kowa-
OSax. hauwa-
(vb.) ‘hew, cut, strike, smite’
(ASaxD. 534)
(OSax. hauwan [inf.])
1. PIE *keɑhuu̯eɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *kaɑhuu̯aɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhuu̯aɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kahuu̯ah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahuu̯ah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kauu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kauu̯a-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *xauu̯a-
5. xauu̯a-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *hauu̯a-
6. hauu̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
ROrthogrW2w → OSax. hauwa-
OEng. heāwa-
(pr.) ‘hew, cut, strike, smite with a sharp weapon’
(ASaxD. 524)
OEng. heāwan [inf.])
1. PIE *keɑhuu̯eɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *kaɑhuu̯aɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhuu̯aɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kahuu̯ah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahuu̯ah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kauu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kauu̯a-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *xauu̯a-
5. xauu̯a-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *hauu̯a-
6. hauu̯a-
*au → eā
Change of *au into eā
RChangeau2eA → *heāu̯a-
7. heāu̯a-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
ROrthogrW2w → OEng. heāwa-
√kɑhuui-
OHG. houwe-
(n.) ‘grass’
(GoEtD. 181)
(OHG. houwe)
1. PIE *koɑhuu̯i
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohuu̯i
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohuu̯i
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kouu̯i
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kouu̯i
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *xouu̯i
4. xouu̯i
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *xauu̯i
(XX:XX)
5. xauu̯i
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *hauu̯i
6. hauu̯i
*-i → -e
Change of root-final -i into -e
RChangeFinali2e → *hauu̯e
7. hauu̯e
*au → ou
Change of au into ou
RChangeAU2OU → *houu̯e
8. houu̯e
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
ROrthogrW2w → OHG. houwe
OEng. hīewe·stán-
(m.) ‘hewn stone’
(ASaxD. 534)
(OEng. hiéwestán)
1. PIE *koɑhuu̯i·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohuu̯i·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohuu̯i·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kouu̯i·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. kouu̯i·Σ-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *xouu̯i·Σ-
4. xouu̯i·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *xauu̯i·Σ-
(XX:XX)
5. xauu̯i·Σ-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *hauu̯i·Σ-
6. hauu̯i·Σ-
*au → eā
Change of *au into eā
RChangeau2eA → *heāu̯i·Σ-
7. heāu̯i·Σ-
*eā—e → īe–e
Umlaut for eā—e
RUmlauteAWi → *hīeu̯e·Σ-
8. hīeu̯e·Σ-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
ROrthogrW2w → OEng. hīewe·Σ-
√kɑhuuu-
OSax. hauwo-
(vb.) ‘hauen : to hew, beat’
(ASächsWb. 31)
(OSax. hauwon [inf.])
1. PIE *keɑhuu̯u
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *kaɑhuu̯u
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhuu̯u
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kahuu̯u
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahuu̯u
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kauu̯u
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kauu̯u
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *xauu̯u
5. xauu̯u
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *hauu̯u
6. hauu̯u
*-u → -o
Change of root-final -u into -o
RChangeFinalu2o → *hauu̯o
7. hauu̯o
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
ROrthogrW2w → OSax. hauwo
OHG. houwo-
(vb.) ‘hauen : to hew, beat’
(GoEtD. 181)
(OHG. houwon [inf.])
1. PIE *keɑhuu̯u
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *kaɑhuu̯u
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhuu̯u
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kahuu̯u
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahuu̯u
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kauu̯u
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kauu̯u
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *xauu̯u
5. xauu̯u
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *hauu̯u
6. hauu̯u
*-u → -o
Change of root-final -u into -o
RChangeFinalu2o → *hauu̯o
7. hauu̯o
*au → ou
Change of au into ou
RChangeAU2OU → *houu̯o
8. houu̯o
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
ROrthogrW2w → OHG. houwo
TochB. kakawor-
(sb.) ‘= -hatvā’
(DTochB. 209)
(TochB. kakawormeṃ)
1. PIE *keɑhkeɑhu̯our-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *kaɑhkaɑhu̯our-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhkaɑhu̯our-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kahkahu̯our-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahkahu̯our-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kahkahu̯aur-
(XX:XX)
4. kahkahu̯aur-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kakau̯aur-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kakau̯aur-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RChangeAU2O1 → *kakau̯ōr-
6. kakau̯ōr-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthOIA6 → *kakau̯or-
7. kakau̯or-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
R19 → TochB. kakawor-
√kɑhuɦɑd-
RV. khudá-
(vb.) ‘hineinstossen : thrust into’
(WbRV. 374)
(RV. khudáta kapr̥thám [sgA], KEWA 1:310)
1. PIE *kɑhúɦɑdó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khúɦdó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khúɦdó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *khúɦdá-
3. khúɦdá-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → RV. khúdá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
√kɑɦeuɦɑd-
(IEW. 955)
(unfinished)
RV. coda-
(pr.) ‘in Bewegung setzen, antreiben, fördern’
(WbRV. 456)
(RV. codata [2pl])
1. PIE *kɑheuɦɑdo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kheuɦdo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kheuɦdo-
PIE *kh → čh
2nd palatalization of *kh
R2ndPalatKH → *čheuɦdo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. čheuɦdo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *čheuɦda-
4. čheuɦda-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *čheuda-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. čheuda-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *čeuda-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. čeuda-
*č → c
From 2nd palatalization *č to OIA
R2ndPalat2OIA1 → *ceuda-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
7. ceuda-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *cauda-
8. cauda-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RChangeAU2O1 → *cōda-
9. cōda-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthOIA6 → RV. coda-
RV. códa-
(m.) ‘Werkzeug zum Antreiben, Stachel, Peitsche’
(WbRV. 458)
(RV. códa-)
1. PIE *kɑhéuɦɑdo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khéuɦdo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khéuɦdo-
PIE *kh → čh
2nd palatalization of *kh
R2ndPalatKH → *čhéuɦdo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. čhéuɦdo-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *čhéuɦda-
4. čhéuɦda-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *čhéuda-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. čhéuda-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *čéuda-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. čéuda-
*č → c
From 2nd palatalization *č to OIA
R2ndPalat2OIA1 → *céuda-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
7. céuda-
PIE *é → á
Aryan change of *é into á
RAryanE2A2 → *cáuda-
8. cáuda-
aú → ṓ
Monophthongization of *aú
RChangeAU2O2 → *cṓda-
9. cṓda-
ṓ → ó
Orthographic change of ṓ into ó
ROrthOIA7 → RV. códa-
RV. codáya-
(cs.) ‘schärfen, wetzen’
(WbRV. 457)
(RV. codáyāmi [1sg])
1. PIE *kɑheuɦɑdéi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kheuɦdéi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kheuɦdéi̯o-
PIE *kh → čh
2nd palatalization of *kh
R2ndPalatKH → *čheuɦdéi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. čheuɦdéi̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *čheuɦdéi̯a-
4. čheuɦdéi̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *čheudéi̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. čheudéi̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *čeudéi̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. čeudéi̯a-
*č → c
From 2nd palatalization *č to OIA
R2ndPalat2OIA1 → *ceudéi̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
7. ceudéi̯a-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *caudéi̯a-
8. caudéi̯a-
PIE *é → á
Aryan change of *é into á
RAryanE2A2 → *caudái̯a-
9. caudái̯a-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RChangeAU2O1 → *cōdái̯a-
10. cōdái̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → *cōdáya-
11. cōdáya-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthOIA6 → RV. codáya-
√kɑhul-
Lat. per·cul-
(pf.) ‘zu Boden schlagen, zerzschmettern’
(WH 1:225)
(Lat. perculī [1sg])
1. PIE *Π·kɑhúl-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·khúl-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·khúl-
*kh → k
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *kh
RDeaspkh → *Π·kúl-
3. Π·kúl-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → *Π·cúl-
4. Π·cúl-
*ú → u
Orthographic absence of accent
R41 → Lat. Π·cul-
Latv. kulinâ-
(vb.) ‘wiederholt schlagen, schütteln, rüttern’
(LiEtWb. 211-2)
(Latv. kulinâ-)
1. PIE *kɑhúlinḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *kɑhúlinā́ɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kɑhúlinā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khúlinā́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. khúlinā́h-
*ā́h → âh
Latvian tone rule for *ā́h
RAcc3 → *khúlinâh-
4. khúlinâh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *khúlinâ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. khúlinâ-
*kh → k
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *kh
RDeaspkh → Latv. kúlinâ-
Lat. per·culso-
(pf.) ‘zu Boden schlagen, zerschmettern’
(WH 1:225)
(Lat. culsus [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·kɑhúltso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·khúltso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·khúltso-
*kh → k
Loss of *h in tenuis aspirata *kh
RDeaspkh → *Π·kúltso-
3. Π·kúltso-
*ts → s
Loss of *t before *s
RChangeTS2S → *Π·kúlso-
4. Π·kúlso-
*k → c
Orthographic change of *k into c
ROrthogrK2C → *Π·cúlso-
5. Π·cúlso-
*ú → u
Orthographic absence of accent
R41 → Lat. Π·culso-
√kɑheuuɑh-
(Pyysalo)
TochB. śauw-
(cs.pret.) ‘let be killed’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. sauwwa [1sg])
1. PIE *kɑhēuu̯ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khēuu̯h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khēuu̯h-
PIE *ē → i̯ ā
Change of *ē into i̯ā
RChangeE2YA → *khi̯āuu̯h-
3. khi̯āuu̯h-
*khi̯ → śh
2nd palatalization for plain velars
R2ndPalatToch1b → *śhāuu̯h-
4. śhāuu̯h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *śāuu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. śāuu̯-
āu → au
Orthographic change of āu into au
ROrthOIA10 → *śauu̯-
6. śauu̯-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
R19 → TochB. śauw-
OEng. heōw-
(pret.) ‘hew, cut, strike, smite with a sharp weapon’
(ASaxD. 524)
(OEng. heōw)
1. PIE *kɑhēuu̯ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khēuu̯h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khēuu̯h-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *khēuu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. khēuu̯-
*ēRC → eRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ēRC
ROsthoffe1 → *kheuu̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
4. kheuu̯-
*k h → x
Affricativization of *kh
AffricateKH → *xeuu̯-
5. xeuu̯-
*e → i
Change of *e into i
RChangee2i → *xiuu̯-
6. xiuu̯-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *hiuu̯-
7. hiuu̯-
*iu → eō
Change of *iu into eō
RChangeiu2eO → *heōu̯-
8. heōu̯-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of *u̯ into w
ROrthogrW2w → OEng. heōw-
OIcl. hiō-
(pret.) ‘hauen’
(GoEtD. 181)
(OIcl. hiō)
1. PIE *kɑhēuu̯ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *khēuu̯h
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. khēuu̯h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *khēuu̯
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. khēuu̯
*ēRC → eRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ēRC
ROsthoffe1 → *kheuu̯
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
4. kheuu̯
*k h → x
Affricativization of *kh
AffricateKH → *xeuu̯
5. xeuu̯
*e → i
Change of *e into i
RChangee2i → *xiuu̯
6. xiuu̯
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *hiuu̯
7. hiuu̯
*eu → iō
Change of *iu into iō
RChangeiu2iO → *hiōu̯
8. hiōu̯
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → *hiōv
9. hiōv
-v → Ø
Loss of -v in root-final position
RLossFinalv → OIcl. hiō
TochB. śowsa-
(cs.pret.) ‘let be killed’
(DTochB. 208)
(TochB. śowsa-)
1. PIE *kɑheuu̯ɑhso-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kheuu̯hso-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kheuu̯hso-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *kheuu̯hsa-
(XX:XX)
3. kheuu̯hsa-
PIE *e → i̯ a
Change of *e into i̯a
RChangee2Ya → *khi̯auu̯hsa-
4. khi̯auu̯hsa-
*khi̯ → śh
2nd palatalization for plain velars
R2ndPalatToch1b → *śhauu̯hsa-
5. śhauu̯hsa-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *śauu̯sa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. śauu̯sa-
au → ō
Monophthongization of *au
RChangeAU2O1 → *śōu̯sa-
7. śōu̯sa-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
ROrthOIA6 → *śou̯sa-
8. śou̯sa-
*u̯ → w
Orthographic change of u̯ into w
R19 → TochB. śowsa-
√gɑɦub-
(Pyysalo)
(or √gaɦuɦab- ?)
OCS. pa·guba-
(f.) ‘Verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. paguba, *o-grade for noun)
1. PIE *Π·goɑɦubēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·goɑɦubāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·goɑɦubāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·goɦubāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·goɦubāh-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·gaɦubāh-
4. Π·gaɦubāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·gaubāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·gaubāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·gaubā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·gaubā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *Π·goubā-
7. Π·goubā-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *Π·gūbā-
8. Π·gūbā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → *Π·gūba-
9. Π·gūba-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → OCS. Π·guba-
OCS. gyba-
(vb.) ‘zugrunde gehen, verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gyba-)
1. PIE *gɑ́ɦubēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *gɑ́ɦubāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑ́ɦubāɑh-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *gúɦubāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
3. gúɦubāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gúɦubāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gúɦubāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *gúubāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gúubāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gúubā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gúubā-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractUu → *gū́bā-
7. gū́bā-
*ū́
ū → y
RChangeU2Y → *gybā-
Change of ū́ into y
8. gybā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → OCS. gyba-
OCS. po·gyba-
(vb.) ‘zugrunde gehen, verderben, verlieren’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. po·gyba-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑ́ɦubēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·gɑ́ɦubāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑ́ɦubāɑh-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *Π·gúɦubāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
3. Π·gúɦubāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gúɦubāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. Π·gúɦubāh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·gúubāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·gúubāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·gúubā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·gúubā-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractUu → *Π·gū́bā-
7. Π·gū́bā-
*ū́
ū → y
RChangeU2Y → *Π·gybā-
Change of ū́ into y
8. Π·gybā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → OCS. Π·gyba-
Goth. kaupatja-
(vb.) ‘κολαφίζειν : strike, puffet’
(GoEtD. 216)
(Goth. kaupatja-, *ē-grade for verb ?)
1. PIE *gēɑɦubeɑɦdi̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *gēɑɦubaɑɦdi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. gēɑɦubaɑɦdi̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *gāɑɦubaɑɦdi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. gāɑɦubaɑɦdi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gāɦubaɦdi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gāɦubaɦdi̯o-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *gāubadi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gāubadi̯o-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → *gaubadi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. gaubadi̯o-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
RDevoiceg → *kaubadi̯o-
7. kaubadi̯o-
*b → p
Loss of voice of media *b
RDevoiceb → *kaupadi̯o-
8. kaupadi̯o-
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
RDevoiced → *kaupati̯o-
9. kaupati̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *kaupati̯a-
(XX:XX)
10. kaupati̯a-
*i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
ROrthogrY2j → Goth. kaupatja-
Goth. kaupatid-
(pt.) ‘κολαφίζειν : strike, puffet’
(GoEtD. 216)
(Goth. kaupatidai [plN])
1. PIE *gēɑɦubeɑɦdidɑɦo
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *gēɑɦubaɑɦdidɑɦo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. gēɑɦubaɑɦdidɑɦo
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *gāɑɦubaɑɦdidɑɦo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. gāɑɦubaɑɦdidɑɦo
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gāɦubaɦdidɦo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gāɦubaɦdidɦo
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *gāubadidɦo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gāubadidɦo
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → *gaubadidɦo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. gaubadidɦo
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
RDevoiceg → *kaubadidɦo
7. kaubadidɦo
*b → p
Loss of voice of media *b
RDevoiceb → *kaupadidɦo
8. kaupadidɦo
*d → t
Loss of voice of media *d
RDevoiced → *kaupatidɦo
9. kaupatidɦo
*dɦ → d
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspdh → *kaupatido
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
10. kaupatido
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *kaupatida
(XX:XX)
11. kaupatida
-a → -Ø
Loss of root-final -a
RLossFinala → Goth. kaupatid
√gɑɦubɑhi-
SCr. gùbi-
(vb.) ‘verderben’
(REW 1:317)
(SCr. gùbiti [inf.]
1. PIE *gḗɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *gā́ɑɦubɑ́hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gā́ɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *gā́ɑɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. gā́ɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gā́ɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gā́ɦubíhi-
ā́hu → āhȕ
Serbo-Croatian double gravis rule
RAcc2 → *gāɦȕbíhi-
5. gāɦȕbíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *gāȕbíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gāȕbíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gāȕbíi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. gāȕbíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *gāȕbī́-
8. gāȕbī́-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → *gaȕbī́-
9. gaȕbī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
ROrthogrI2i2 → SCr. gbi-
Sloven. gubí-
(vb.) ‘verlieren’
(REW 1:317)
(Sloven. gubíti [inf.])
1. PIE *gēɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *gāɑɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. gāɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gāɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gāɦubíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *gāubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gāubíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gāubíi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gāubíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *gāubī́-
7. gāubī́-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → *gaubī́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
8. gaubī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *goubī́-
9. goubī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *gūbī́-
10. gūbī́-
*ī́ → í
Orthographic change of *ī́ into í
ROrthogrI2i2 → *gūbí-
11. gūbí-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → Sloven. gubí-
Russ. gubí-
(vb.) ‘verderben, zu grunde richten’
(REW 1:317)
(Russ. gubít’ [inf.])
1. PIE *gēɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *gāɑɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. gāɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gāɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gāɦubíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *gāubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gāubíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gāubíi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gāubíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *gāubī́-
7. gāubī́-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → *gaubī́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
8. gaubī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *goubī́-
9. goubī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *gūbī́-
10. gūbī́-
*ī́ → í
Orthographic change of *ī́ into í
ROrthogrI2i2 → *gūbí-
11. gūbí-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → Russ. gubí-
OCS. gubi-
(vb.) ‘ὀλεθρεύειν : vernichten, verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gubi-)
1. PIE *gēɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *gāɑɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. gāɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gāɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gāɦubíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *gāubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gāubíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gāubíi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gāubíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *gāubī́-
7. gāubī́-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → *gaubī́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
8. gaubī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *goubī́-
9. goubī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *gūbī́-
10. gūbī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
ROrthogrI2i2 → *gūbi-
11. gūbi-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → OCS. gubi-
OCS. po·gubi-
(vb.) ‘vernichten, verderben, verlieren’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. po·gubi-)
1. PIE *Π·gēɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *Π·gāɑɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. Π·gāɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gāɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. Π·gāɦubíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·gāubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·gāubíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·gāubíi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·gāubíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *Π·gāubī́-
7. Π·gāubī́-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → *Π·gaubī́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
8. Π·gaubī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *Π·goubī́-
9. Π·goubī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *Π·gūbī́-
10. Π·gūbī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
ROrthogrI2i2 → *Π·gūbi-
11. Π·gūbi-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → OCS. Π·gubi-
Czech. hubi-
(vb.) ‘verderben, vertilgen’
(REW 1:317)
(Czech. hubiti [inf.])
1. PIE *gēɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *gāɑɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. gāɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gāɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gāɦubíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *gāubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gāubíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gāubíi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gāubíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *gāubī́-
7. gāubī́-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → *gaubī́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
8. gaubī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *goubī́-
9. goubī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *gūbī́-
10. gūbī́-
*g → ɦ
Change of *g into ɦ
RChangeG2H → *ɦūbī́-
11. ɦūbī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
ROrthogrI2i2 → *ɦūbi-
12. ɦūbi-
*ū → ou
Change of *ū into ou
RChangeU2ou → *ɦoubi-
13. ɦoubi-
*ɦ → h
Orthographic change of *ɦ into h
ROrthogrH2h → Czech. houbi-
Pol. gubi-
(vb.) ‘verderben, verliedern’
(REW 1:317)
(Pol. gubić [inf.])
1. PIE *gēɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gāɑɦubɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *gāɑɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. gāɑɦubíhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gāɦubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gāɦubíhi-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *gāubíhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gāubíhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gāubíi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gāubíi-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *gāubī́-
7. gāubī́-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → *gaubī́-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
8. gaubī́-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *goubī́-
9. goubī́-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *gūbī́-
10. gūbī́-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
ROrthogrI2i2 → *gūbi-
11. gūbi-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → Pol. gubi-
OCS. gubiteljĭ-
(m.) ‘Vernichter, Verderber’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gubiteljĭ-)
1. PIE *goɑɦubɑ́hiteli̯i-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *goɑɦubíhiteli̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. goɑɦubíhiteli̯i-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *goɦubíhiteli̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. goɦubíhiteli̯i-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *gaɦubíhiteli̯i-
4. gaɦubíhiteli̯i-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *gaubíhiteli̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gaubíhiteli̯i-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gaubíiteli̯i-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gaubíiteli̯i-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *gaubī́teli̯i-
7. gaubī́teli̯i-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *goubī́teli̯i-
8. goubī́teli̯i-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *gūbī́teli̯i-
9. gūbī́teli̯i-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
ROrthogrY2j → *gūbī́telji-
10. gūbī́telji-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
ROrthogri2i → *gūbī́teljĭ-
11. gūbī́teljĭ-
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
ROrthogrI2i2 → *gūbiteljĭ-
12. gūbiteljĭ-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → OCS. gubiteljĭ-
OCS. gubitelĭnŭ-
(a.) ‘verderblich’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gubitelĭnŭ-)
1. PIE *goɑɦubɑ́hitelino
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *goɑɦubíhitelino
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. goɑɦubíhitelino
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *goɦubíhitelino
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. goɦubíhitelino
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *gaɦubíhitelina
4. gaɦubíhitelina
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *gaubíhitelina
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gaubíhitelina
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gaubíitelina
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gaubíitelina
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *gaubī́telina
7. gaubī́telina
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *goubī́telino
8. goubī́telino
*-o → -u
Change of -o into -u
RChangeO2U → *goubī́telinu
9. goubī́telinu
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *gūbī́telinu
10. gūbī́telinu
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
ROrthogri2i → *gūbī́telĭnu
11. gūbī́telĭnu
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
ROrthogrI2i2 → *gūbitelĭnu
12. gūbitelĭnu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
ROrthogru2u1 → *gūbitelĭnŭ
13. gūbitelĭnŭ
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → OCS. gubitelĭnŭ
OCS. gubitelĭstvo-
(n.) ‘Verderben, Vernichtung’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gubitelĭstvo-)
1. PIE *goɑɦubɑ́hitelistu̯os
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *goɑɦubíhitelistu̯os
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. goɑɦubíhitelistu̯os
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *goɦubíhitelistu̯os
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. goɦubíhitelistu̯os
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *gaɦubíhitelistu̯as
4. gaɦubíhitelistu̯as
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *gaubíhitelistu̯as
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gaubíhitelistu̯as
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gaubíitelistu̯as
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. gaubíitelistu̯as
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *gaubī́telistu̯as
7. gaubī́telistu̯as
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *goubī́telistu̯os
8. goubī́telistu̯os
*-os → -o
Loss of *s in -os (root final)
RLossFinalS → *goubī́telistu̯o
9. goubī́telistu̯o
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *gūbī́telistu̯o
10. gūbī́telistu̯o
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → *gūbī́telistvo
11. gūbī́telistvo
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
ROrthogri2i → *gūbī́telĭstvo
12. gūbī́telĭstvo
*ī́ → i
Orthographic change of *ī́ into i
ROrthogrI2i2 → *gūbitelĭstvo
13. gūbitelĭstvo
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → OCS. gubitelĭstvo
√gɑɦubin-
OCS. pa·gubĭnŭ-
(a.) ‘verderblich’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pagubĭnŭ-)
1. PIE *Π·goɑɦubino
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·goɦubino
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·goɦubino
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·gaɦubina
3. Π·gaɦubina
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·gaubina
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·gaubina
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *Π·goubino
5. Π·goubino
*-o → -u
Change of -o into -u
RChangeO2U → *Π·goubinu
6. Π·goubinu
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *Π·gūbinu
7. Π·gūbinu
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
ROrthogri2i → *Π·gūbĭnu
8. Π·gūbĭnu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
ROrthogru2u1 → *Π·gūbĭnŭ
9. Π·gūbĭnŭ
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → OCS. Π·gubĭnŭ
OCS. pa·gubĭnikŭ-
(m.) ‘Verderber’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pagubĭnikŭ-)
1. PIE *Π·goɑɦubineiku̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·goɦubineiku̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·goɦubineiku̯o
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·gaɦubineiku̯a
3. Π·gaɦubineiku̯a
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·gaubineiku̯a
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·gaubineiku̯a
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·gaubineika
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·gaubineika
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *Π·goubineiko
6. Π·goubineiko
*-o → -u
Change of -o into -u
RChangeO2U → *Π·goubineiku
7. Π·goubineiku
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *Π·gūbineiku
8. Π·gūbineiku
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
RMonophthei2i → *Π·gūbinīku
9. Π·gūbinīku
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
ROrthogri2i → *Π·gūbĭnīku
10. Π·gūbĭnīku
*ī → i
Orthographic change of *ī into i
ROrthogrI2i1 → *Π·gūbĭniku
11. Π·gūbĭniku
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
ROrthogru2u1 → *Π·gūbĭnikŭ
12. Π·gūbĭnikŭ
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → OCS. Π·gubĭnikŭ
√gɑɦubēli-
OCS. gybĕlĭ-
(f.) ‘Verderben, Vergeudung, Verlust’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gybĕlĭ-)
1. PIE *gɑ́ɦubēli-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *gúɦubēli-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. gúɦubēli-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *gúubēli-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. gúubēli-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractUu → *gū́bēli-
4. gū́bēli-
*ū́
ū → y
RChangeU2Y → *gybēli-
Change of ū́ into y
5. gybēli-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
ROrthogri2i → *gybēlĭ-
6. gybēlĭ-
*ē → ĕ
Orthographic change of *ē into ĕ
ROrthogrE2e → OCS. gybĕlĭ-
OCS. po·gybĕlĭ-
(f.) ‘Verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pogybĕlĭ-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑ́ɦubēli-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *Π·gúɦubēli-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. Π·gúɦubēli-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·gúubēli-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. Π·gúubēli-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractUu → *Π·gū́bēli-
4. Π·gū́bēli-
*ū́
ū → y
RChangeU2Y → *Π·gybēli-
Change of ū́ into y
5. Π·gybēli-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
ROrthogri2i → *Π·gybēlĭ-
6. Π·gybēlĭ-
*ē → ĕ
Orthographic change of *ē into ĕ
ROrthogrE2e → OCS. Π·gybĕlĭ-
OCS. po·gybĕlĭnŭ-
(a.) ‘verderblich, des Verderbens’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pogybĕlĭnŭ-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑ́ɦubēlino
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *Π·gúɦubēlino
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. Π·gúɦubēlino
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·gúɦubēlina
3. Π·gúɦubēlina
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·gúubēlina
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·gúubēlina
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractUu → *Π·gū́bēlina
5. Π·gū́bēlina
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *Π·gū́bēlino
6. Π·gū́bēlino
*-o → -u
Change of -o into -u
RChangeO2U → *Π·gū́bēlinu
7. Π·gū́bēlinu
*ū́
ū → y
RChangeU2Y → *Π·gybēlinu
Change of ū́ into y
8. Π·gybēlinu
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
ROrthogri2i → *Π·gybēlĭnu
9. Π·gybēlĭnu
*ē → ĕ
Orthographic change of *ē into ĕ
ROrthogrE2e → *Π·gybĕlĭnu
10. Π·gybĕlĭnu
*u → ŭ
Orthographic change of *u into ŭ
ROrthogru2u1 → OCS. Π·gybĕlĭnŭ
√gɑɦubli-
OCS. gubljo-
(vb.) ‘vernichten, verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gubljǫ [1sg], *ē-grade for verb ?)
1. PIE *gēɑɦubli̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *gāɑɦubli̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gāɑɦubli̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gāɦubli̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gāɦubli̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *gāɦubli̯a-
4. gāɦubli̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *gāubli̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gāubli̯a-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → *gaubli̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. gaubli̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *goubli̯o-
7. goubli̯o-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *gūbli̯o-
8. gūbli̯o-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
ROrthogrY2j → *gūbljo-
9. gūbljo-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → OCS. gubljo-
Russ. gubljo-
(vb.) ‘verderben, zu grunde richten’
(REW 1:317)
(Russ. gubljú [1sg])
1. PIE *gēɑɦubli̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *gāɑɦubli̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gāɑɦubli̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gāɦubli̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gāɦubli̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *gāɦubli̯a-
4. gāɦubli̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *gāubli̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gāubli̯a-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → *gaubli̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. gaubli̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *goubli̯o-
7. goubli̯o-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *gūbli̯o-
8. gūbli̯o-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into y
ROrthogrY2j → *gūbljo-
9. gūbljo-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → Russ. gubljo-
OCS. po·gubljo-
(vb.) ‘vernichten, verderben, verlieren’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pogubljǫ [1sg])
1. PIE *Π·gēɑɦubli̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·gāɑɦubli̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gāɑɦubli̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gāɦubli̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gāɦubli̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·gāɦubli̯a-
4. Π·gāɦubli̯a-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·gāubli̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·gāubli̯a-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → *Π·gaubli̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. Π·gaubli̯a-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *Π·goubli̯o-
7. Π·goubli̯o-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *Π·gūbli̯o-
8. Π·gūbli̯o-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
ROrthogrY2j → *Π·gūbljo-
9. Π·gūbljo-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → OCS. Π·gubljo-
OCS. po·gublja-
(vb.) ‘vernichten, verderben, verlieren’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pogublja-)
1. PIE *Π·gēɑɦubli̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·gāɑɦubli̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gāɑɦubli̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gāɦubli̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gāɦubli̯āh-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·gāubli̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·gāubli̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·gāubli̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·gāubli̯ā-
*āRC → aRC
Osthoff’s Law for *āRC
ROsthoffa1 → *Π·gaubli̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
6. Π·gaubli̯ā-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *Π·goubli̯ā-
7. Π·goubli̯ā-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *Π·gūbli̯ā-
8. Π·gūbli̯ā-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
ROrthogrY2j → *Π·gūbljā-
9. Π·gūbljā-
*ā → a
Orthographic change of *ā into a
ROrthogrA2a1 → *Π·gūblja-
10. Π·gūblja-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → OCS. Π·gublja-
OCS. po·gubljeni·je-
(n.) ‘Vernichtung, Verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pogubljenije)
1. PIE *Π·goɑɦub·li̯enei·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·goɦub·li̯enei·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·goɦub·li̯enei·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·gaɦub·li̯enei·Σ-
3. Π·gaɦub·li̯enei·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·gaub·li̯enei·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·gaub·li̯enei·Σ-
*a → o
Change of *a into o
RChangea2o1 → *Π·goub·li̯enei·Σ-
5. Π·goub·li̯enei·Σ-
*ou → ū
Monophthongization of *ou into ū
RMonophthou2u → *Π·gūb·li̯enei·Σ-
6. Π·gūb·li̯enei·Σ-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
RMonophthei2i → *Π·gūb·li̯enī·Σ-
7. Π·gūb·li̯enī·Σ-
* i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j
ROrthogrY2j → *Π·gūb·ljenī·Σ-
8. Π·gūb·ljenī·Σ-
*ī → i
Orthographic change of *ī into i
ROrthogrI2i1 → *Π·gūb·ljeni·Σ-
9. Π·gūb·ljeni·Σ-
*ū → u
Orthographic change of *ū into u
ROrthogrU2u → OCS. Π·gub·ljeni·Σ-
√gɑɦubn-
OCS. po·gybeni·je-
(n.) ‘Verderben, Verderblichkeit’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. pogybenije)
1. PIE *Π·gɑ́ɦubenei·Σ-
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *Π·gúɦubenei·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. Π·gúɦubenei·Σ-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·gúubenei·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. Π·gúubenei·Σ-
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractUu → *Π·gū́benei·Σ-
4. Π·gū́benei·Σ-
*ū́
ū → y
RChangeU2Y → *Π·gybenei·Σ-
Change of ū́ into y
5. Π·gybenei·Σ-
*ei → ī
Monophthongization of *ei into ī
RMonophthei2i → *Π·gybenī·Σ-
6. Π·gybenī·Σ-
*ī → i
Orthographic change of *ī into i
ROrthogrI2i1 → OCS. Π·gybeni·Σ-
OCS. gybnǫ-
(vb.) ‘zugrunde gehen, verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. gybnǫ-)
1. PIE *gɑ́ɦubnun
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *gúɦubnun
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. gúɦubnun
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *gúubnun
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. gúubnun
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractUu → *gū́bnun
4. gū́bnun
*ū́
ū → y
RChangeU2Y → *gybnun
Change of ū́ into y
5. gybnun
*-un → -ǫ
Emergence of nasal vowel ǫ
RNasalizUN2O → OCS. gybnǫ
OCS. po·gybnǫ
(vb.) ‘zugrunde gehen, verderben’
(Sadnik √274)
(OCS. po·gybnǫ)
1. PIE *Π·gɑ́ɦubnun
PIE *ɑ́ḫu → úḫu
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *u
RAssimilation2c → *Π·gúɦubnun
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.3)
2. Π·gúɦubnun
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·gúubnun
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
3. Π·gúubnun
*úu → ū́
Contraction of ú and u
RContractUu → *Π·gū́bnun
4. Π·gū́bnun
*ū́
ū → y
RChangeU2Y → *Π·gybnun
Change of ū́ into y
5. Π·gybnun
*-un → -ǫ
Emergence of nasal vowel ǫ
RNasalizUN2O → OCS. Π·gybnǫ
√gɑɦu-
(IEW. 491-3 gu̯hen-)
(WP. 1:679f., WH 1:332f.)
Hitt. gu·guš-
(vb.) ‘zerstoßen’
(HHand. 82)
(Hitt. ku-ku-uš-zi [3sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦu·gɑɦus-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu·gɦus-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu·gɦus-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → *gu·gus-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
3. gu·gus-
PIE *s → š
Orthographic change of *s into š
R15 → Hitt. gu·guš-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OIcl. hǫgg-
(m.) ‘Hieb, Stoss, Schlag’
(ANEtWb. 280)
(OIcl. hǫgg-, *o-grade for noun)
1. PIE *koɑhgɑɦugɑɦi̯o
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kohgɦugɦi̯o
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. kohgɦugɦi̯o
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Centum neutralization of *gɦi/i̯
RCentum5 → *kohgɦuǵɦo
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
3. kohgɦuǵɦo
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kogɦuǵɦo
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kogɦuǵɦo
PIE *ǵ → g
Neutralization of Centum *ǵ
RCentumNeut2 → *kogɦugɦo
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
5. kogɦugɦo
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *xogɦugɦo
6. xogɦugɦo
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → *xogugo
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
7. xogugo
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *xaguga
(XX:XX)
8. xaguga
-a → Ø
Loss of -a in root-final position
RLossFinala1 → *xagug
9. xagug
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *hagug
10. hagug
*a — u → ǫ — Ø
Umlaut for a — u
RUmlautaGu → OIcl. hǫgg
OIcl. hǫggva-
(vb.) ‘hauen’
(ANEtWb. 280)
(OIcl. hǫggva, PGerm. *hagu·gua-)
1. PIE *keɑhgɑɦugɑɦu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *kaɑhgɑɦugɑɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhgɑɦugɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kahgɦugɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahgɦugɦu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kagɦugɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kagɦugɦu̯o-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *xagɦugɦu̯o-
5. xagɦugɦu̯o-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → *xagugu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. xagugu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *xagugu̯a-
(XX:XX)
7. xagugu̯a-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *hagugu̯a-
8. hagugu̯a-
*a — u → ǫ — Ø
Umlaut for a — u
RUmlautaGu → *hǫggu̯a-
9. hǫggu̯a-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → OIcl. hǫggva-
√gɑɦuo-
(Pyysalo)
HLu. gu̯a-
(vb.) ‘≈ schlagen, stechen o.ä. ?’
(CHLu. 6.5.3)
(HLu. CORNU(-)ku-wa/i-ha)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *gɦu̯a-
(XX:XX)
3. gɦu̯a-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → HLu. gu̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
OIcl. hǫggva-
(vb.) ‘to hew, beat’
(ANEtWb. 226)
(OIcl. hǫggva, PGerm. *hagu·gwa-)
1. PIE *keɑhgɑɦugɑɦu̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *kaɑhgɑɦugɑɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. kaɑhgɑɦugɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kahgɦugɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kahgɦugɦu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kagɦugɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. kagɦugɦu̯o-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *xagɦugɦu̯o-
5. xagɦugɦu̯o-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → *xagugu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. xagugu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *xagugu̯a-
(XX:XX)
7. xagugu̯a-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *hagugu̯a-
8. hagugu̯a-
*a — u → ǫ — Ø
Umlaut for a — u
RUmlautaGu → *hǫggu̯a-
9. hǫggu̯a-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → OIcl. hǫggva-
OIcl. høggva-
(vb.) ‘hauen’
(ANEtWb. 280)
(OIcl. høggva, PGerm. *hogi-gwa-)
1. PIE *kēɑhgɑɦi̯igɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *kāɑhgɑɦi̯igɑɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. kāɑhgɑɦi̯igɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *kāhgɦi̯igɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. kāhgɦi̯igɦu̯o-
PIE *gɦi/i̯ → gɦ
Centum neutralization of *gɦi/i̯
RCentum5 → *kāhǵɦigɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
4. kāhǵɦigɦu̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *kāǵɦigɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. kāǵɦigɦu̯o-
PIE *ǵ → g
Neutralization of Centum *ǵ
RCentumNeut2 → *kāgɦigɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.4)
6. kāgɦigɦu̯o-
*k → x
Affricativization of *k
AffricateK → *xāgɦigɦu̯o-
7. xāgɦigɦu̯o-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → *xāgigu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
8. xāgigu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeo2a1 → *xāgigu̯a-
(XX:XX)
9. xāgigu̯a-
PIE *ā → ō
Change of *ā into ō
RChangeA2O1 → *xōgigu̯a-
(XX:XX)
10. xōgigu̯a-
*x → h
Glottalicization of x into h
RGlottalicX2H → *hōgigu̯a-
11. hōgigu̯a-
*ō — i → ø — Ø
Umlaut for *ō — i
RUmlautOgi → *høggu̯a-
12. høggu̯a-
*u̯ → v
Affricativization of *u̯ into v
RAffricatW2V → OIcl. høggva-
OInd. pari·gha-
(m.) ‘an iron bar for shutting a gate’
(MonWil. 593)
(OInd. parigha-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·gɦu̯a-
3. Π·gɦu̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·gɦa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·gɦa-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → OInd. Π·gha-
OInd. pāṇi·gha-
(m.) ‘striking with the hand’
(MonWil. 615)
(OInd. pāṇigha-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·gɦu̯a-
3. Π·gɦu̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·gɦa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·gɦa-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → OInd. Π·gha-
OInd. rāja·gha-
(m.) ‘slayer of kings’
(MonWil. 873)
(OInd. rājagha-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·gɦu̯a-
3. Π·gɦu̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·gɦa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·gɦa-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → OInd. Π·gha-
OInd. tāḍa·gha-
(m.) ‘Grobschmied : blacksmith’
(KEWA 1:492)
(OInd. tāḍagha-, MonWil. 441)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·gɦu̯a-
3. Π·gɦu̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·gɦa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·gɦa-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → OInd. Π·gha-
√gɑɦue-
(Pyysalo)
Hitt. gu̯e-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, erschlagen, töten’
(HEG 1:604-5)
(Hitt. ku-e-mi [1sg], ku-e-ši [2], ku-e-ue-en [1pl])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯e-
PIE Dɦ → D
Absence of voiced aspirates
RDeaspDh → Hitt. gu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013:XX)
Arm. ǰn·ǰe-
(vb.) ‘efface, wipe clean, annihilate, destroy’
(EtDiArm. 559)
(Arm. ǰnǰem [1sg], GEW 1:657)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯in·gɑɦu̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯in·gɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯in·gɦu̯e-
gɦu/u̯ → ǰɦ
Palatalization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
ChangeGHW2JH → *ǰɦin·ǰɦe-
3. ǰɦin·ǰɦe-
*ǰɦ → ǰ
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspJh → Arm. ǰin·ǰe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
RV. ha-
(pr.) ‘(er)schlagen, töten, vernichten, kämpfen’
(WbRV. 1642-3)
(RV. hathás, hatás [3du], hatám [2du], hatā́ [2pl], jahí)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯e-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R2ndPalatGHW → *ǰɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. ǰɦu̯e-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *ǰɦe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. ǰɦe-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R2ndPalat2OIA3 → *ɦe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. ɦe-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *ɦa-
6. ɦa-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → RV. ha-
RV. párā (...) ha-
(pr.) ‘umhauen, umstürzen’
(WbRV. 1642)
(RV. párā (...) hathá)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯e-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R2ndPalatGHW → *Π·ǰɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯e-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *Π·ǰɦe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦe-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R2ndPalat2OIA3 → *Π·ɦe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ɦe-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *Π·ɦa-
6. Π·ɦa-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → RV. Π·ha-
RV. sám (...) ha-
(pr.) ‘zusammendrücken’
(WbRV. 1642)
(RV. sám (...) hatas, das Euter)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯e-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R2ndPalatGHW → *Π·ǰɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯e-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *Π·ǰɦe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦe-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R2ndPalat2OIA3 → *Π·ɦe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ɦe-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *Π·ɦa-
6. Π·ɦa-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → RV. Π·ha-
gAv. ǰa-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, töten’
(AIWb. 603)
(gAv. ǰaidyāi [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯e-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R2ndPalatGHW → *ǰɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. ǰɦu̯e-
*ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *ǰɦe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. ǰɦe-
*ǰɦ → ǰ
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspǰh → *ǰe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. ǰe-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → gAv. ǰa-
LAv. ǰa-
(vb.) ‘schlagen, töten’
(AIWb. 490)
(LAv. ǰata [2pl])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯e-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R2ndPalatGHW → *ǰɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. ǰɦu̯e-
*ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *ǰɦe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. ǰɦe-
*ǰɦ → ǰ
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspǰh → *ǰe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. ǰe-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → LAv. ǰa-
OPers. ja-
(pr.) ‘strike, smite, defeat, mould’
(OldP. 185)
(OPers. jadiy [2sg], jatā [2pl.ipv.], aja [3pl])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯e-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R2ndPalatGHW → *ǰɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. ǰɦu̯e-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *ǰu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ǰu̯e-
*ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *ǰe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. ǰe-
*ǰ → j
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to OPers.
R2ndPalat2OPers3 → *je-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. je-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → OPers. ja-
LAv. paiti (...) ǰa-
(vb.) ‘schlagen gegen’
(AIWb. 492)
(LAv. paiti (...) jaiδi [2sg])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯e-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R2ndPalatGHW → *Π·ǰɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯e-
*ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *Π·ǰɦe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦe-
*ǰɦ → ǰ
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspǰh → *Π·ǰe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ǰe-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → LAv. Π·ǰa-
√gɑɦuē-
RV. vr̥tra·hā́-
(m.) ‘Vr̥tratödter’ (a.) ‘Feinde schlagend’
(WbRV. 1336)
(RV. vr̥trahā́ [N])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R2ndPalatGHW → *Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *Π·ǰɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦḗ-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R2ndPalat2OIA3 → *Π·ɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ɦḗ-
PIE *ḗ → ā́
Aryan change of *ḗ into ā́
RAryanE2A4 → *Π·ɦā́-
6. Π·ɦā́-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → RV. Π·hā́-
RV. muṣṭi·hā́
(m.) ‘Faustkämpfer, im Handgemenge kämpfend’
(WbRV. 1052)
(RV. muṣṭihā́ [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R2ndPalatGHW → *Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *Π·ǰɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦḗ-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R2ndPalat2OIA3 → *Π·ɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ɦḗ-
PIE *ḗ → ā́
Aryan change of *ḗ into ā́
RAryanE2A4 → *Π·ɦā́-
6. Π·ɦā́-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → RV. Π·hā́-
RV. go·hā́-
(a.) ‘Rinder tötend’
(WbRV. 414)
(RV. gohā́ [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R2ndPalatGHW → *Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *Π·ǰɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦḗ-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R2ndPalat2OIA3 → *Π·ɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ɦḗ-
PIE *ḗ → ā́
Aryan change of *ḗ into ā́
RAryanE2A4 → *Π·ɦā́-
6. Π·ɦā́-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → RV. Π·hā́-
RV. satrā·hā́-
(a.) ‘völlig schlagend’
(WbRV. 1455)
(RV. satrāhā́ [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R2ndPalatGHW → *Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *Π·ǰɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦḗ-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R2ndPalat2OIA3 → *Π·ɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ɦḗ-
PIE *ḗ → ā́
Aryan change of *ḗ into ā́
RAryanE2A4 → *Π·ɦā́-
6. Π·ɦā́-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → RV. Π·hā́-
RV. nr̥·hā́-
(a.) ‘Männer tödtend’
(WbRV. 754)
(RV. nr̥hā́ [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R2ndPalatGHW → *Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *Π·ǰɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦḗ-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R2ndPalat2OIA3 → *Π·ɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ɦḗ-
PIE *ḗ → ā́
Aryan change of *ḗ into ā́
RAryanE2A4 → *Π·ɦā́-
6. Π·ɦā́-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → RV. Π·hā́-
RV. ahi·hā́-
(a.) ‘Schlangen/Vrtra tötend’
(WbRV. 167)
(RV. ahihan [V], ahihā́ [N], ahihánam [A])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R2ndPalatGHW → *Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *Π·ǰɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦḗ-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R2ndPalat2OIA3 → *Π·ɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ɦḗ-
PIE *ḗ → ā́
Aryan change of *ḗ into ā́
RAryanE2A4 → *Π·ɦā́-
6. Π·ɦā́-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → RV. Π·hā́-
RV. amīva·hā́-
(a.) ‘Leiden tilgend’
(WbRV. 93)
(RV. amīvahā́ [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯ḗ-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R2ndPalatGHW → *Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯ḗ-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *Π·ǰɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦḗ-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R2ndPalat2OIA3 → *Π·ɦḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ɦḗ-
PIE *ḗ → ā́
Aryan change of *ḗ into ā́
RAryanE2A4 → *Π·ɦā́-
6. Π·ɦā́-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → RV. Π·hā́-
gAv. vǝrǝϑrǝ̄m·ǰā-
(a.) ‘siegreich, Sieger’
(AIWb. 1424)
(gAv. vǝrǝϑrǝ̄m.ǰā [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ē-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯ē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯ē-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R2ndPalatGHW → *Π·ǰɦu̯ē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯ē-
*ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *Π·ǰɦē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
4. Π·ǰɦē-
*ǰɦ → ǰ
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspǰh → *Π·ǰē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. Π·ǰē-
PIE *ē → ā
Aryan change of *ē into ā
RAryanE2A3 → gAv. Π·ǰā-
√gɑɦuɑh-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. ghā-
(f.) ‘a stroke’
(MonWil. 375)
(OInd. ghā-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *gɑɦu̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gɦu̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. gɦu̯ā-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *gɦā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. gɦā-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → OInd. ghā-
Gr. πέφα-
(pf.P.) ‘die’
(GEW 1:657)
(Gr. πέφαται [3sg], πεφάσθαι [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯égɑɦu̯eɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *gɑɦu̯égɑɦu̯aɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. gɑɦu̯égɑɦu̯aɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯égɦu̯ah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯égɦu̯ah-
*gɦu̯égɦu/u̯ → bɦébɦ
Bilabialization of reduplication
RBilabRed2 → *bɦébɦah-
4. bɦébɦah-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
RDevoicebh → *phéphah-
5. phéphah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *phépha-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. phépha-
*Th–Th → T–Th
Grassmann’s Law
RGrassIIB → *pépha-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.4)
7. pépha-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. πέφα-
Gr. ἀπο·φα-
(ao.M.) ‘die’
(GEW 1:657)
(Hes. ἀπέφατο · ἀπέθανεν)
1. PIE *hɑepo·gɑɦu̯eɑh-
PIE *ɑe → ɑa
Colouring rule for *ɑe
RColouring1a → *hɑapo·gɑɦu̯eɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.5.3)
2. hɑapo·gɑɦu̯eɑh-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *hɑapo·gɑɦu̯aɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
3. hɑapo·gɑɦu̯aɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *hapo·gɦu̯ah-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. hapo·gɦu̯ah-
*gɦu/u̯ → bɦ
Bilabialization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
RBilabializationGHW → *hapo·bɦah-
5. hapo·bɦah-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
RDevoicebh → *hapo·phah-
6. hapo·phah-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *apo·pha-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. apo·pha-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ἀπο·φα-
√gɑɦuɑhi-
OInd. jighāya
(pf.) ‘antreiben, anfeuern, schleudern, fördern’
(KEWA 3:595)
(Br. jighāya [3sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯igɑɦu̯oɑhi̯e
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯igɦu̯ohi̯e
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯igɦu̯ohi̯e
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R2ndPalatGHW → *ǰɦu̯igɦu̯ohi̯e
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. ǰɦu̯igɦu̯ohi̯e
PIE *ohCV → āhCV
Brugmann’s Law for *ohCV
RBrugmII1 → *ǰɦu̯igɦu̯āhi̯e
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.3.7)
4. ǰɦu̯igɦu̯āhi̯e
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ǰɦu̯igɦu̯āi̯e
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. ǰɦu̯igɦu̯āi̯e
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *ǰɦu̯igɦāi̯e
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. ǰɦu̯igɦāi̯e
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *ǰɦigɦāi̯e
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
7. ǰɦigɦāi̯e
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmII → *ǰigɦāi̯e
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.4)
8. ǰigɦāi̯e
*ǰ → j
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to OIA
R2ndPalat2OIA4 → *jigɦāi̯e
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
9. jigɦāi̯e
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *jigɦāi̯a
10. jigɦāi̯a
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → *jighāi̯a
11. jighāi̯a
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → OInd. jighāya
OInd. jighy-
(pf.) ‘antreiben’
(KEWA 3:595)
(OInd. jighyúr [3pl])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯igɑɦu̯ɑhi̯-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯igɦu̯hi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯igɦu̯hi̯-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R2ndPalatGHW → *ǰɦu̯igɦu̯hi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. ǰɦu̯igɦu̯hi̯-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ǰɦu̯igɦu̯i̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ǰɦu̯igɦu̯i̯-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *ǰɦu̯igɦi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. ǰɦu̯igɦi̯-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *ǰɦigɦi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. ǰɦigɦi̯-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmII → *ǰigɦi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.4)
7. ǰigɦi̯-
*ǰ → j
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to OIA
R2ndPalat2OIA4 → *jigɦi̯-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
8. jigɦi̯-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → *jighi̯-
9. jighi̯-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → OInd. jighy-
√o·gɑɦuɑhi-
(IEW. 44)
Gr. ὄφει-
(m.) ‘Schlange’
(GEW 2:453-4)
(Gr. ὄφεος [sgG])
1. PIE *ógɑɦu̯ɑhei-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ógɦu̯hei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ógɦu̯hei-
*gɦu/u̯ → bɦ
Bilabialization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
RBilabializationGHW → *óbɦhei-
3. óbɦhei-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
RDevoicebh → *óphhei-
4. óphhei-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *óphei-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. óphei-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ὄφει-
Gr. ὄφι-
(m.) ‘Schlange’
(GEW 2:453-4)
(Gr. ὄφις [sgN], ὄφιος [G])
1. PIE *ógɑɦu̯ɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ógɦu̯hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ógɦu̯hi-
*gɦu/u̯ → bɦ
Bilabialization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
RBilabializationGHW → *óbɦhi-
3. óbɦhi-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
RDevoicebh → *óphhi-
4. óphhi-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *óphi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. óphi-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. ὄφι-
LAv. aži-
(m.) ‘Schlange, Drache, Ungeheuer’
(AIWb. 266)
(LAv. ažimča)
1. PIE *ogɑɦu̯ɑhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ogɦu̯hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ogɦu̯hi-
PIE *gɦu̯hi → ži
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯hi
R17a → *oži-
3. oži-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → LAv. aži-
LAv. aži·karšta-
(a.) ‘von/vom Drachen bewirkt/veranlasst’
(AIWb. 266)
(LAv. ažikaršta-)
1. PIE *ogɑɦu̯ɑhi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ogɦu̯hi·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ogɦu̯hi·Σ-
PIE *gɦu̯hi → ži
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯hi
R17a → *oži·Σ-
3. oži·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → LAv. aži·Σ-
LAv. aži·čiϑra-
(a.) ‘vom Drachen abstammend’
(AIWb. 266)
(LAv. ažičiϑra-)
1. PIE *ogɑɦu̯ɑhi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ogɦu̯hi·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ogɦu̯hi·Σ-
PIE *gɦu̯hi → ži
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯hi
R17a → *oži·Σ-
3. oži·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → LAv. aži·Σ-
LAv. aži·čiϑra.ažičiϑrō.tǝma-
(a.sup.) ‘der am meisten vom Drachen abstammt’
(AIWb. 266)
(LAv. ažičiϑra.ažičiϑrō.tǝma-)
1. PIE *ogɑɦu̯ɑhi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ogɦu̯hi·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ogɦu̯hi·Σ-
PIE *gɦu̯hi → ži
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯hi
R17a → *oži·Σ-
3. oži·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → LAv. aži·Σ-
LAv. aži·vāka-
(m.) ‘N. einer Krankeheit/eines Gebreches’
(AIWb. 267)
(LAv. aživāka-)
1. PIE *ogɑɦu̯ɑhi·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ogɦu̯hi·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ogɦu̯hi·Σ-
PIE *gɦu̯hi → ži
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯hi
R17a → *oži·Σ-
3. oži·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → LAv. aži·Σ-
LAv. zir·ažan-
(a.) ‘striking the veins’
(AIWb. –)
(LAv. ziražan-)
1. PIE *Π·ogɑɦu̯ɑhi̯on-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·ogɦu̯hi̯on-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·ogɦu̯hi̯on-
PIE *gɦu̯hi̯ → ž
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯hi̯
R17b → *Π·ožon-
3. Π·ožon-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → LAv. Π·ažan-
LAv. až·ana-
(n.) ‘N. einer Krankeheit/eines Gebreches’
(AIWb. 266)
(LAv. ažana-)
1. PIE *ogɑɦu̯ɑhi̯ono-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ogɦu̯hi̯ono-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ogɦu̯hi̯ono-
PIE *gɦu̯hi̯ → ž
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯hi̯
R17b → *ožono-
3. ožono-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → LAv. ažana-
LAv. až·ahva-
(m.) ‘N. einer Krankeheit/eines Gebreches’
(AIWb. 266)
(LAv. ažahva-)
1. PIE *ogɑɦu̯ɑhi̯·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ogɦu̯hi̯·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ogɦu̯hi̯·Σ-
PIE *gɦu̯hi̯ → ž
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯hi̯
R17b → *ož·Σ-
3. ož·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → LAv. až·Σ-
√gɑɦuɑhin-
Lith. gín-
(vb.) ‘wehren, verteidigen’
(LiEtWb. 152-153)
(Lith. gìnti [inf.], ginù [1sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ɑ́hin-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *gɑɦu̯íhin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. gɑɦu̯íhin-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯íhin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯íhin-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gɦu̯íin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. gɦu̯íin-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *gɦíin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. gɦíin-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *gɦī́n-
6. gɦī́n-
*ī́RC → íRC
Osthoff’s Law for *ī́RC
ROsthoffi2 → *gɦín-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.5.8)
7. gɦín-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → Lith. gín-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
Lith. pa·gynà-
(f.) ‘Beendigung, Ende’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. pagynà)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ɑ́hinḗɑh
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *Π·gɑɦu̯ɑ́hinā́ɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯ɑ́hinā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *Π·gɑɦu̯íhinā́ɑh
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. Π·gɑɦu̯íhinā́ɑh
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯íhinā́h
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. Π·gɦu̯íhinā́h
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·gɦu̯íinā́
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·gɦu̯íinā́
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·gɦíinā́
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. Π·gɦíinā́
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *Π·gɦī́nā́
7. Π·gɦī́nā́
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → *Π·gī́nā́
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
8. Π·gī́nā́
*ā́ → ṓ
Change of ā́ into ṓ
RChangeA202 → *Π·gī́nṓ
9. Π·gī́nṓ
*-ṓ → -à
Change of ṓ into à in root-final
RFinalo2a2 → *Π·gī́nà
10. Π·gī́nà
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
R24 → Lith. Π·gý
Lith. pa·gynė́-
(vb.) ‘ein wenig treiben, beendigen, vollenden’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. pagynė́ti [inf.])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ɑ́hinḗhɑ-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *Π·gɑɦu̯íhinḗhɑ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯íhinḗhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯íhinḗh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯íhinḗh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·gɦu̯íinḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·gɦu̯íinḗ-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·gɦíinḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·gɦíinḗ-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *Π·gɦī́nḗ-
6. Π·gɦī́nḗ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → *Π·gī́nḗ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
7. Π·gī́nḗ-
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
R24 → *Π·gýnḗ-
8. Π·gýnḗ-
*ḗ -> ė́
Orthographic change of *ḗ -> ė́
R28c → Lith. Π·gýnė́-
Lith. gýnė-
(vb.) ‘wehren, verteidigen’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. gýniau [1sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ɑ́hinēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *gɑɦu̯íhinēhɑ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
2. gɑɦu̯íhinēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯íhinēh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯íhinēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gɦu̯íinē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. gɦu̯íinē-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *gɦíinē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. gɦíinē-
*íi → ī́
Contraction of í and i
RContractIi → *gɦī́nē-
6. gɦī́nē-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → *gī́nē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
7. gī́nē-
*ī́ → ý
Orthographic change of ī́ into ý
R24 → *gýnē-
8. gýnē-
* ē -> ė
Orthographic change of *ē into ė
R28a → Lith. gýnė-
√gɑɦuɑhinɑhi-
Latv. gaînî-
(vb.) ‘treiben, verfolgen’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Latv. gaînît [inf.], *e for verb)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯éɑhinɑ́hi-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
RColouring1d → *gɑɦu̯áɑhinɑ́hi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. gɑɦu̯áɑhinɑ́hi-
PIE *ɑ́ḫi → íḫi
Distant assimilation of *ɑ́ and *i
RAssimilation1c → *gɑɦu̯áɑhiníhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. gɑɦu̯áɑhiníhi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯áhiníhi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gɦu̯áhiníhi-
*áhi → ahî
Latvian tone rule for *áhi
RAcc1 → *gɦu̯ahîníhi-
5. gɦu̯ahîníhi-
*íhi → ihî
Latvian tone rule for *íhi
RAcc4 → *gɦu̯ahînihî-
6. gɦu̯ahînihî-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gɦu̯aîniî-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. gɦu̯aîniî-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *gɦaîniî-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
8. gɦaîniî-
*iî → î
Contraction of i and î
R16g → *gɦaînî-
9. gɦaînî-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
RDeaspgh → Latv. gaînî-
Lith. gáinio-
(vb.) ‘treiben, jagen’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. gáinio-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯éɑhini̯ēɑh-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
RColouring1d → *gɑɦu̯áɑhini̯ēɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. gɑɦu̯áɑhini̯ēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *gɑɦu̯áɑhini̯āɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. gɑɦu̯áɑhini̯āɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯áhini̯āh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gɦu̯áhini̯āh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gɦu̯áini̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gɦu̯áini̯ā-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *gɦáini̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. gɦáini̯ā-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → *gáini̯ā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
7. gáini̯ā-
*ā → ō
Change of ā into ō
RChangeA2O1 → *gáini̯ō-
8. gáini̯ō-
*i̯ → i
Orthographic change of i̯ into i
R25 → *gáiniō-
9. gáiniō-
ō → o
Orthographic change of ō into o
R27a → Lith. gáinio-
Latv. gaĩņâ-
(vb.) ‘wiederholt treiben, abwehren’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Latv. gaĩņât [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯éɑhini̯ḗɑh-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
RColouring1d → *gɑɦu̯áɑhini̯ḗɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. gɑɦu̯áɑhini̯ḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *gɑɦu̯áɑhini̯ā́ɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
3. gɑɦu̯áɑhini̯ā́ɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯áhini̯ā́h-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gɦu̯áhini̯ā́h-
*áhi → ahî
Latvian tone rule for *áhi
RAcc1 → *gɦu̯ahîni̯ā́h-
5. gɦu̯ahîni̯ā́h-
*ā́h → âh
Latvian tone rule for *ā́h
RAcc3 → *gɦu̯ahîni̯âh-
6. gɦu̯ahîni̯âh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gɦu̯aîni̯â-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. gɦu̯aîni̯â-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *gɦaîni̯â-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
8. gɦaîni̯â-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in media aspirata *gɦ
RDeaspgh → *gaîni̯â-
9. gaîni̯â-
*ni̯ → ņ
Change of ni̯ into ņ (palatalization)
RPalatny2nj → Latv. gaîņâ-
√gɑɦuɑhlto-
(Pyysalo)
AV. ā·ghāṭá-
(m.) ‘Zimbel’
(EWA 1:159)
(AV. āghāṭá-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ēɑhl̥tó-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥tó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥tó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯āhl̥tó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯āhl̥tó-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
RChangelr2 → *Π·gɦu̯āhr̥tó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
4. Π·gɦu̯āhr̥tó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *Π·gɦu̯āhr̥tá-
5. Π·gɦu̯āhr̥tá-
PIE *hRt → ṭ
Fortunatov’s Law for *hRt
RFortII2 → *Π·gɦu̯āṭá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.2)
6. Π·gɦu̯āṭá-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·gɦāṭá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
7. Π·gɦāṭá-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → AV. Π·ghāṭá-
OInd. saṃ·ghāṭa-
(m.) ‘Zimmerei, Zimmerhandwerk : carpentry’
(KEWA 2:416-7)
(OInd. saṃghāṭa-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ēɑhl̥to-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥to-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥to-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯āhl̥to-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯āhl̥to-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
RChangelr2 → *Π·gɦu̯āhr̥to-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
4. Π·gɦu̯āhr̥to-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·gɦu̯āhr̥ta-
5. Π·gɦu̯āhr̥ta-
PIE *hRt → ṭ
Fortunatov’s Law for *hRt
RFortII2 → *Π·gɦu̯āṭa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.2)
6. Π·gɦu̯āṭa-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·gɦāṭa-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
7. Π·gɦāṭa-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → OInd. Π·ghāṭa-
OInd. dārv·ā·ghāṭá-
(m.) ‘Baumhacker, Specht’
(EWA 1:160)
(OInd. dārvāghāṭá-)
1. PIE *Π·Π·gɑɦu̯ēɑhl̥tó-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥tó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥tó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·Π·gɦu̯āhl̥tó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·Π·gɦu̯āhl̥tó-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
RChangelr2 → *Π·Π·gɦu̯āhr̥tó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
4. Π·Π·gɦu̯āhr̥tó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *Π·Π·gɦu̯āhr̥tá-
5. Π·Π·gɦu̯āhr̥tá-
PIE *hRt → ṭ
Fortunatov’s Law for *hRt
RFortII2 → *Π·Π·gɦu̯āṭá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.2)
6. Π·Π·gɦu̯āṭá-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·Π·gɦāṭá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
7. Π·Π·gɦāṭá-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → OInd. Π·Π·ghāṭá-
OInd. ghāṭa·karkarī-
(f.) ‘eine Art Laute’
(EWA 1:515)
(ŚrSū. ghāṭakarkarī-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ēɑhl̥to·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥to·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥to·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯āhl̥to·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯āhl̥to·Σ-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
RChangelr2 → *gɦu̯āhr̥to·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
4. gɦu̯āhr̥to·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *gɦu̯āhr̥ta·Σ-
5. gɦu̯āhr̥ta·Σ-
PIE *hRt → ṭ
Fortunatov’s Law for *hRt
RFortII2 → *gɦu̯āṭa·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.2)
6. gɦu̯āṭa·Σ-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *gɦāṭa·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
7. gɦāṭa·Σ-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → OInd. ghāṭa·Σ-
TochA. kālta·ṅk-
(sb.) ‘nomen cuiusdam instrumenti musici’
(Poucha 61)
(TochA. kāltaṅk-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ēɑhl̥to·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥to·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥to·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯āhl̥to·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯āhl̥to·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *gɦu̯āhl̥ta·Σ-
(XX:XX)
4. gɦu̯āhl̥ta·Σ-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gɦu̯āl̥ta·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gɦu̯āl̥ta·Σ-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *gɦāl̥ta·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. gɦāl̥ta·Σ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → *gāl̥ta·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
7. gāl̥ta·Σ-
*g → k
Loss of voice of media *g
RDevoiceg → *kāl̥ta·Σ-
8. kāl̥ta·Σ-
*l̥ → l
Unmarkedness of syllabicity of l̥
RChangeL2l → TochA. kālta·Σ-
OInd. ghāṭa·rī-
(f.) ‘eine Art Laute’
(EWA 1:515)
(ŚrSū. ghāṭarī-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ēɑhl̥to·Σ-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥to·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥to·Σ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯āhl̥to·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯āhl̥to·Σ-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
RChangelr2 → *gɦu̯āhr̥to·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
4. gɦu̯āhr̥to·Σ-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *gɦu̯āhr̥ta·Σ-
5. gɦu̯āhr̥ta·Σ-
PIE *hRt → ṭ
Fortunatov’s Law for *hRt
RFortII2 → *gɦu̯āṭa·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.2)
6. gɦu̯āṭa·Σ-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *gɦāṭa·Σ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
7. gɦāṭa·Σ-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → OInd. ghāṭa·Σ-
RV. ā·ghāṭí-
(m/f.?) ‘Cymbeln’ oder ‘Klappern’
(WbRV. 172)
(RV. āghāṭí-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ēɑhl̥tí-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥tí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥tí-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯āhl̥tí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯āhl̥tí-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
RChangelr2 → *Π·gɦu̯āhr̥tí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
4. Π·gɦu̯āhr̥tí-
PIE *hRt → ṭ
Fortunatov’s Law for *hRt
RFortII2 → *Π·gɦu̯āṭí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.2)
5. Π·gɦu̯āṭí-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·gɦāṭí-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. Π·gɦāṭí-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → RV. Π·ghāṭí-
OInd. apa·ghāṭilā-
(f.) ‘Instrument’
(EWA 1:159)
(OInd. apaghāṭilā-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ēɑhl̥ti·Lēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥ti·Lāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhl̥ti·Lāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯āhl̥ti·Lāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯āhl̥ti·Lāh-
PIE *l̥ → r̥
Change of *l̥ into r̥
RChangelr2 → *Π·gɦu̯āhr̥ti·Lāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
4. Π·gɦu̯āhr̥ti·Lāh-
PIE *L → l
Preservation of *l in IIr.
RChangelr4 → *Π·gɦu̯āhr̥ti·lāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.3)
5. Π·gɦu̯āhr̥ti·lāh-
PIE *hRt → ṭ
Fortunatov’s Law for *hRt
RFortII2 → *Π·gɦu̯āṭi·lāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.3.2)
6. Π·gɦu̯āṭi·lāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·gɦu̯āṭi·lā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. Π·gɦu̯āṭi·lā-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·gɦāṭi·lā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
8. Π·gɦāṭi·lā-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → OInd. Π·ghāṭi·lā-
√gɑɦueɑht-
(Pyysalo)
Gr. ἀρηΐ·φατο-
(pt.) ‘im Kampf getötet’
(GEW 1:657)
(Gr. ἀρηΐφατος [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯eɑhto-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *Π·gɑɦu̯aɑhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯aɑhto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯ahto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯ahto-
*gɦu/u̯ → bɦ
Bilabialization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
RBilabializationGHW → *Π·bɦahto-
4. Π·bɦahto-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
RDevoicebh → *Π·phahto-
5. Π·phahto-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·phato-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·phato-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. Π·φατο-
Gr. δί·φατο-
(a.) ‘doppelt’
(WH 1:105)
(Hes. δίφατος [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯eɑhto-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *Π·gɑɦu̯aɑhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯aɑhto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯ahto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯ahto-
*gɦu/u̯ → bɦ
Bilabialization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
RBilabializationGHW → *Π·bɦahto-
4. Π·bɦahto-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
RDevoicebh → *Π·phahto-
5. Π·phahto-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·phato-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·phato-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. Π·φατο-
OInd. jīghata-
(ao.s.) ‘cause to be slain, put to death’
(MonWil. 1287)
(OInd. ajīghatat [3sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯iɑ́hgɑɦu̯eɑhto-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *gɑɦu̯iɑ́hgɑɦu̯aɑhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. gɑɦu̯iɑ́hgɑɦu̯aɑhto-
PIE *iɑ́ → ií
Assimilation of *i and *ɑ́
RAssimilation1b → *gɑɦu̯iíhgɑɦu̯aɑhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 3.2.6)
3. gɑɦu̯iíhgɑɦu̯aɑhto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯iíhgɦu̯ahto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
4. gɦu̯iíhgɦu̯ahto-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R2ndPalatGHW → *ǰɦu̯iíhgɦu̯ahto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. ǰɦu̯iíhgɦu̯ahto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ǰɦu̯iíhgɦu̯ahta-
6. ǰɦu̯iíhgɦu̯ahta-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ǰɦu̯iígɦu̯ata-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
7. ǰɦu̯iígɦu̯ata-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *ǰɦu̯iígɦata-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
8. ǰɦu̯iígɦata-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *ǰɦiígɦata-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
9. ǰɦiígɦata-
Dɦ–Dɦ → D–Dɦ
Grassman's Law
RGrassmII → *ǰiígɦata-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.4)
10. ǰiígɦata-
*ií → ī́
Contraction of i and í
RContractiI → *ǰī́gɦata-
11. ǰī́gɦata-
*ǰ → j
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to OIA
R2ndPalat2OIA4 → *jī́gɦata-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
12. jī́gɦata-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → OInd. jī́ghata-
Gr. φάσ-
(ao.s.) ‘schlagen’
(LSJ. 787)
(Gr. φάσαι [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯éɑhts-
PIE *éɑ → áɑ
Colouring rule for *éɑ
RColouring1d → *gɑɦu̯áɑhts-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. gɑɦu̯áɑhts-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯áhts-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯áhts-
*gɦu/u̯ → bɦ
Bilabialization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
RBilabializationGHW → *bɦáhts-
4. bɦáhts-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
RDevoicebh → *pháhts-
5. pháhts-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *pháts-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. pháts-
*t s → s
Loss of dental in *ts
RChangets2s → *phás-
7. phás-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. φάσ-
Gr. πέφασ-
(pf.fut.P.) ‘töten’
(LSJ. 787)
(Gr. πεφασμένος [sgN])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯égɑɦu̯eɑhts-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *gɑɦu̯égɑɦu̯aɑhts-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. gɑɦu̯égɑɦu̯aɑhts-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯égɦu̯ahts-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯égɦu̯ahts-
*gɦu̯égɦu/u̯ → bɦébɦ
Bilabialization of reduplication
RBilabRed2 → *bɦébɦahts-
4. bɦébɦahts-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
RDevoicebh → *phéphahts-
5. phéphahts-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *phéphats-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. phéphats-
*Th–Th → T–Th
Grassmann’s Law
RGrassIIB → *péphats-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.4)
7. péphats-
*t s → s
Loss of dental in *ts
RChangets2s → *péphas-
8. péphas-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. πέφασ-
Gr. δί·φασιο-
(a.) ‘doppelt’
(WH 1:105)
(Gr. δίφασιος [sgN])
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯eɑhtsii̯o-
PIE *eɑ → aɑ
Colouring rule for *eɑ
RColouring1c → *Π·gɑɦu̯aɑhtsii̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.7)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯aɑhtsii̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯ahtsii̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯ahtsii̯o-
*gɦu/u̯ → bɦ
Bilabialization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
RBilabializationGHW → *Π·bɦahtsii̯o-
4. Π·bɦahtsii̯o-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
RDevoicebh → *Π·phahtsii̯o-
5. Π·phahtsii̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·phatsii̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. Π·phatsii̯o-
*Vi̯V → VhV
Change of *i̯ into h between vowels
RLossyinVyV → *Π·phatsio-
7. Π·phatsio-
*t s → s
Loss of dental in *ts
RChangets2s → *Π·phasio-
8. Π·phasio-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Gr. Π·φασιο-
√gɑɦuēɑht-
(Pyysalo)
OInd. ghāta-
(m.) ‘Schlag, Tötung, Vernichtung’
(MonWil. 377)
(OInd. ghāta-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ēɑhto-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *gɑɦu̯āɑhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯āɑhto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯āhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯āhto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *gɦu̯āhta-
4. gɦu̯āhta-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gɦu̯āta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gɦu̯āta-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *gɦāta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. gɦāta-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → OInd. ghāta-
OInd. ghāta-
(a.) ‘tötend’
(MonWil. 377)
(OInd. ghāta-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ēɑhto-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *gɑɦu̯āɑhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯āɑhto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯āhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯āhto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *gɦu̯āhta-
4. gɦu̯āhta-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gɦu̯āta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gɦu̯āta-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *gɦāta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. gɦāta-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → OInd. ghāta-
YV. go·ghātá-
(m.) ‘Kuh-töter’
(EWA 2:800)
(YV. goghātá-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ēɑhtó-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhtó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhtó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯āhtó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯āhtó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *Π·gɦu̯āhtá-
4. Π·gɦu̯āhtá-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·gɦu̯ātá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·gɦu̯ātá-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·gɦātá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. Π·gɦātá-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → YV. Π·ghātá-
OInd. ā·ghātá-
(m.) ‘Schlag, Schäger’
(EWA 1:159)
(OInd. āghātá-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ēɑhtó-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhtó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhtó-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯āhtó-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯āhtó-
PIE *ó → á
Change of *ó into á
RChangeO2A2 → *Π·gɦu̯āhtá-
4. Π·gɦu̯āhtá-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·gɦu̯ātá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·gɦu̯ātá-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·gɦātá-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. Π·gɦātá-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → OInd. Π·ghātá-
OInd. tāḍa·ghāta-
(a.) ‘beating, hammering’
(MonWil. 441)
(OInd. tāḍaghāta-)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ēɑhto-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯āhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯āhto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·gɦu̯āhta-
4. Π·gɦu̯āhta-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·gɦu̯āta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·gɦu̯āta-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·gɦāta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. Π·gɦāta-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → OInd. Π·ghāta-
OInd. abhi·ghāta-
(pt.) ‘beschädigt’
(KEWA 3:576)
(OInd. abhi·ghāta-, AIGr. II/2:565)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ēɑhto-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. Π·gɑɦu̯āɑhto-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯āhto-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. Π·gɦu̯āhto-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *Π·gɦu̯āhta-
4. Π·gɦu̯āhta-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *Π·gɦu̯āta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. Π·gɦu̯āta-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·gɦāta-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. Π·gɦāta-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → OInd. Π·ghāta-
OInd. ghātaya-
(cs.) ‘töten lassen, töten’
(KEWA 3:576)
(Br. ghātáyati [3sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ēɑhtei̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *gɑɦu̯āɑhtei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯āɑhtei̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯āhtei̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯āhtei̯o-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *gɦu̯āhtei̯a-
4. gɦu̯āhtei̯a-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gɦu̯ātei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gɦu̯ātei̯a-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *gɦātei̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. gɦātei̯a-
PIE *e → a
Aryan change of *e into a
RAryanE2A1 → *gɦātai̯a-
7. gɦātai̯a-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → *ghātai̯a-
8. ghātai̯a-
i̯ → y
Orthographic change of i̯ into y
ROrthOIA2 → OInd. ghātaya-
Ion.-Att. πέφησο-
(pf.fut.P.) ‘töten’
(GEW 1:657)
(Gr. πεφησεται; Gr φ vs.†θ -› Ion-Att. η from PGr. *α)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯égɑɦu̯ēɑhtsi̯o-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *gɑɦu̯égɑɦu̯āɑhtsi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯égɑɦu̯āɑhtsi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯égɦu̯āhtsi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯égɦu̯āhtsi̯o-
*gɦu̯égɦu/u̯ → bɦébɦ
Bilabialization of reduplication
RBilabRed2 → *bɦébɦāhtsi̯o-
4. bɦébɦāhtsi̯o-
*bɦ → ph
Loss of voice of media aspirata *bɦ
RDevoicebh → *phéphāhtsi̯o-
5. phéphāhtsi̯o-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *phéphātsi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
6. phéphātsi̯o-
*Th–Th → T–Th
Grassmann’s Law
RGrassIIB → *péphātsi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.6.4)
7. péphātsi̯o-
*si̯ → s
Loss of *i̯ after s
RChangesy2s → *péphātso-
8. péphātso-
*t s → s
Loss of dental in *ts
RChangets2s → *péphāso-
9. péphāso-
*ā → ē
Ion-Att. change of *ā into ē
RChangeA2E1 → *péphēso-
10. péphēso-
Change from Latin to Greek alphabet
RGr2Lat → Ion.-Att. πέφησο-
AV. ghā́tuka-
(a.) ‘tötend’
(EWA 2:800)
(AV. ghā́tuka-)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ḗɑhtuko-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ
Colouring rule for *ḗɑ
RColouring2d → *gɑɦu̯ā́ɑhtuko-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯ā́ɑhtuko-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯ā́htuko-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯ā́htuko-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *gɦu̯ā́htuka-
4. gɦu̯ā́htuka-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gɦu̯ā́tuka-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
5. gɦu̯ā́tuka-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *gɦā́tuka-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
6. gɦā́tuka-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → AV. ghā́tuka-
√gɑɦui-
Lith. gùi-
(vb.) ‘treiben’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. gùiti [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦúi-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦúi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦúi-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis Li. ù
RAcc3 → *gɦùi-
3. gɦùi-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → Lith. gùi-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
√gɑɦuio-
Lith. gùja-
(pr.) ‘treiben’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. gùja [3sg], gujù [1sg])
1. PIE *gɑɦúi̯o-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦúi̯o-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦúi̯o-
ú → ù
Emergence of gravis Li. ù
RAcc3 → *gɦùi̯o-
3. gɦùi̯o-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *gɦùi̯a-
4. gɦùi̯a-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → *gùi̯a-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
5. gùi̯a-
PIE *i̯ → j
Orthographic change of *i̯ into j *
R26 → Lith. gùja-
√gɑɦuil-
Arm. o·ǰil-
(sb.) ‘Laus, Nisse, Lausei’
(ArmGr. 482)
(Arm. oǰil, oǰiloy [G])
1. PIE *ó·gɑɦu̯ílo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ó·gɦu̯ílo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ó·gɦu̯ílo-
gɦu/u̯ → ǰɦ
Palatalization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
ChangeGHW2JH → *ó·ǰɦílo-
3. ó·ǰɦílo-
*ǰɦ → ǰ
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspJh → *ó·ǰílo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. ó·ǰílo-
*í → i
Unmarkedness of accent
R23b → *ó·ǰilo-
5. ó·ǰilo-
*ó → o
Unmarkedness of accent
R23c → Arm. o·ǰilo-
Arm. or·ǰil-
(sb.) ‘Laus, Nisse, Lausei’
(ArmGr. 482)
(Arm. orǰil, orǰiloy [G])
1. PIE *ór·gɑɦu̯ílo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ór·gɦu̯ílo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. ór·gɦu̯ílo-
gɦu/u̯ → ǰɦ
Palatalization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
ChangeGHW2JH → *ór·ǰɦílo-
3. ór·ǰɦílo-
*ǰɦ → ǰ
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspJh → *ór·ǰílo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. ór·ǰílo-
*í → i
Unmarkedness of accent
R23b → *ór·ǰilo-
5. ór·ǰilo-
*ó → o
Unmarkedness of accent
R23c → Arm. or·ǰilo-
√gɑɦuin-
Lith. giñ-
(vb.) ‘jagen, treiben’
(LiEtWb. 152-153)
(Lith. giñti [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ín-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯ín-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯ín-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis Li. ì
RAcc2 → *gɦu̯ìn-
3. gɦu̯ìn-
ìn → iñ
RAcc6 → *gɦu̯iñ-
Change of ìnC into iñC
4. gɦu̯iñ-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *gɦiñ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. gɦiñ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → Lith. giñ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
Lith. nu·giñ-
(vb.) ‘vegjagen : drive away’
(Senn II:227)
(Lith. nugiñti, nùginē)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯ín-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯ín-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯ín-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis Li. ì
RAcc2 → *Π·gɦu̯ìn-
3. Π·gɦu̯ìn-
ìn → iñ
RAcc6 → *Π·gɦu̯iñ-
Change of ìnC into iñC
4. Π·gɦu̯iñ-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *Π·gɦiñ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·gɦiñ-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → Lith. Π·giñ-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
OCS. žĭn-
(vb.) ‘schneiden, ernten’
(Sadnik 214B)
(OCS. žęti [inf.])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯in-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯in-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯in-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R2ndPalatGHW → *ǰɦu̯in-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. ǰɦu̯in-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *ǰu̯in-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ǰu̯in-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *ǰin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. ǰin-
*ǰ → ž
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to Slavic
R2ndPalat2Slav1 → *žin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. žin-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
ROrthogri2i → OCS. žĭn-
OCS. po·žĭn-
(vb.) ‘ernten’
(Sadnik 214B)
1. PIE *Π·gɑɦu̯in-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *Π·gɦu̯in-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. Π·gɦu̯in-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R2ndPalatGHW → *Π·ǰɦu̯in-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. Π·ǰɦu̯in-
PIE *ɦ → Ø
Loss of segmental *ɦ
RLossofH1 → *Π·ǰu̯in-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. Π·ǰu̯in-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *Π·ǰin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. Π·ǰin-
*ǰ → ž
From 2nd palatalization *ǰ to Slavic
R2ndPalat2Slav1 → *Π·žin-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. Π·žin-
*i → ĭ
Orthographic change of *i into ĭ
ROrthogri2i → OCS. Π·žĭn-
Arm. ǰn·ǰe-
(vb.) ‘efface, wipe clean, annihilate, destroy’
(EtDiArm. 559)
(Arm. ǰnǰem [1sg], GEW 1:657)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯in·gɑɦu̯e-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯in·gɦu̯e-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯in·gɦu̯e-
gɦu/u̯ → ǰɦ
Palatalization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
ChangeGHW2JH → *ǰɦin·ǰɦe-
3. ǰɦin·ǰɦe-
*ǰɦ → ǰ
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspJh → Arm. ǰin·ǰe-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
Lith. giñkla-
(m.) ‘Waffe : weapon’
(LiEtWb. 152)
(Lith. giñklas [sgN])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯iñkulo-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯iñkulo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯iñkulo-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *gɦiñklo-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
3. gɦiñklo-
*o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *gɦiñkla-
4. gɦiñkla-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → Lith. giñkla-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
√gɑɦuine/o-
(Pyysalo)
Arm. ǰne-
(vb.) ‘schlagen : beat’
(EtDiArm. 558)
(Arm. ǰnem [1sg], GEW 1:657)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯iné-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯iné-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯iné-
gɦu/u̯ → ǰɦ
Palatalization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
ChangeGHW2JH → *ǰɦiné-
3. ǰɦiné-
*ǰɦ → ǰ
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspJh → *ǰiné-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
4. ǰiné-
*é → e
Unmarkedness of accent
R23d → Arm. ǰine-
OInd. hina-
(pr.A.) ‘verletzen, schädigen, zerstören’
(KEWA 3:595)
(Br. ahinat)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ino-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯ino-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯ino-
PIE *gɦu̯ → ǰɦu̯
2nd palatalization of *gɦu̯
R2ndPalatGHW → *ǰɦu̯ino-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
3. ǰɦu̯ino-
PIE *o → a
Change of *o into a
RChangeO2A1 → *ǰɦu̯ina-
4. ǰɦu̯ina-
PIE ČU → Č
Loss of labial after affricative
RAffricvNeut → *ǰɦina-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. ǰɦina-
*ǰɦ → ɦ
From 2nd palatalization *ǰɦ to OIA
R2ndPalat2OIA3 → *ɦina-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. ɦina-
ɦ → h
Orthographic change of ɦ into h
ROrthOIA1 → OInd. hina-
Lith. gìnė-
(vb.) ‘jagen, treiben’
(LiEtWb. 152-153)
(Lith. gìnė)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ínēhɑ-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯ínēh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
2. gɦu̯ínēh-
í → ì
Emergence of gravis Li. ì
RAcc2 → *gɦu̯ìnēh-
3. gɦu̯ìnēh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gɦu̯ìnē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. gɦu̯ìnē-
PIE *KU → K
Loss of labial after velar
RLabiovNeut → *gɦìnē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.3)
5. gɦìnē-
*gɦ → g
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspgh → *gìnē-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. gìnē-
* ē -> ė
Orthographic change of *ē into ė
R28a → Lith. gìnė-
√gɑɦuinɑh-
Arm. ǰin-
(sb.) ‘Stock : staff, stick for beating’
(EtDiArm. 558)
(Arm. ǰin)
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯ínēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *gɑɦu̯ínāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. gɑɦu̯ínāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *gɦu̯ínāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. gɦu̯ínāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *gɦu̯ínā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. gɦu̯ínā-
gɦu/u̯ → ǰɦ
Palatalization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
ChangeGHW2JH → *ǰɦínā-
5. ǰɦínā-
*ǰɦ → ǰ
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspJh → *ǰínā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. ǰínā-
*ā → a
Loss of quantity of *ā
RChangeA2a1 → *ǰína-
7. ǰína-
*í → i
Unmarkedness of accent
R23b → Arm. ǰina-
Arm. o·ǰin-
(sb.) ‘bunch of sticks’
(EtDiArm. 558)
(Arm. oǰin-)
1. PIE *ó·gɑɦu̯ínēɑh-
PIE *ēɑ → āɑ
Colouring rule for *ēɑ
RColouring2b → *ó·gɑɦu̯ínāɑh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.10)
2. ó·gɑɦu̯ínāɑh-
PIE *ɑ → Ø
Loss of *ɑ
RLossofA → *ó·gɦu̯ínāh-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.2.4)
3. ó·gɦu̯ínāh-
PIE *h → Ø
Loss of segmental *h
RLossofH2 → *ó·gɦu̯ínā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 2.1.4)
4. ó·gɦu̯ínā-
gɦu/u̯ → ǰɦ
Palatalization of labiovelar *gɦu/u̯
ChangeGHW2JH → *ó·ǰɦínā-
5. ó·ǰɦínā-
*ǰɦ → ǰ
Loss of *ɦ in mediae aspiratae
RDeaspJh → *ó·ǰínā-
(Pyysalo 2013: 4.8.1.5)
6. ó·ǰínā-
*ā → a
Loss of quantity of *ā
RChangeA2a1 → *ó·ǰína-
7. ó·ǰína-
*í → i
Unmarkedness of accent
R23b → *ó·ǰina-
8. ó·ǰina-
*ó → o
Unmarkedness of accent
R23c → Arm. o·ǰina-
Arm. ǰna-
(sb.obl.) ‘Stock : staff, stick for beating’
(EtDiArm. 558)
(Arm. ǰnawk‘ [plI])
1. PIE *gɑɦu̯inḗɑh-
PIE *ḗɑ → ā́ɑ